DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Dufwenberg, Martin
2011-03-01
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Cognitive Aspects of Power in a Two-Level Game
Juvina, Ion; Lebiere, Christian; Martin, Jolie; Gonzalez, Cleotilde
The Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics (IPD^2) is a new game paradigm for studying human behavior in conflict situations. IPD^2 adds the concept of intragroup power to an intergroup version of the standard Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which individual human participants played the game against computer strategies of various complexities. We also developed a cognitive model of human decision making in this game. The model was run in place of the human participant under the same conditions as in the laboratory study. Results from the human study and the model simulations are presented and discussed, emphasizing the value of including intragroup power in game theoretic models of conflict.
Games, theory and applications
Thomas, L C
2011-01-01
Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.
de Bruin, B.P.
2005-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals
Karlin, Anna R
2016-01-01
This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields, such as computer science, economics, social choice, biology, and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. Game theory's influence is felt in a wide range of disciplines, and the authors deliver masterfully on the challenge of presenting both the breadth and coherence of its underlying ...
Young, Petyon
2014-01-01
The ability to understand and predict behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, has been the domain of game theory since the 1950s. Developing the theories at the heart of game theory has resulted in 8 Nobel Prizes and insights that researchers in many fields continue to develop. In Volume 4, top scholars synthesize and analyze mainstream scholarship on games and economic behavior, providing an updated account of developments in game theory since the 2002 publication of Volume 3, which only covers work through the mi
Barron, E N
2013-01-01
An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to
Shor, Mikhael
2003-01-01
States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵玉坤
2011-01-01
In this paper, around the competition among foreign media, the domestic media and the government agencies, the author use the methods of game theory to analyze the current development status and problems of the local media; facing the fierce competition, the local media must take effective measures to carry out the innovation of organizational structure, brand and management, so as to enhance the core competitiveness of China Media Group.%文章围绕媒介市场中“境外媒介-国内媒介-政府管理机构”三边参与的博弈竞局,运用博弈论的方法,分析当前本土媒介发展的现状和存在的问题；认为本土媒介在同境外媒介的竞争中,必须采取有效措施,进行组织结构创新、品牌产品创新、管理机制创新,从而提升中国传媒集团的核心竞争力.
Barron, E N
2008-01-01
A fundamental introduction to modern game theory from a mathematical viewpoint. Game theory arises in almost every fact of human and inhuman interaction since oftentimes during these communications objectives are opposed or cooperation is viewed as an option. From economics and finance to biology and computer science, researchers and practitioners are often put in complex decision-making scenarios, whether they are interacting with each other or working with evolving technology and artificial intelligence. Acknowledging the role of mathematics in making logical and advantageous decisions, Game
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarseth, Espen
2012-01-01
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarseth, Espen
2012-01-01
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
Mathematical game theory and applications
Mazalov, Vladimir
2014-01-01
An authoritative and quantitative approach to modern game theory with applications from diverse areas including economics, political science, military science, and finance. Explores areas which are not covered in current game theory texts, including a thorough examination of zero-sum game.Provides introductory material to game theory, including bargaining, parlour games, sport, networking games and dynamic games.Explores Bargaining models, discussing new result such as resource distributions, buyer-seller instructions and reputation in bargaining models.Theoretical results are presented along
Haffoudhi, Houda
2005-01-01
URL des Cahiers :http://mse.univ-paris1.fr/MSEFramCahier2005.htm; Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques 2005.54 - ISSN : 1624-0340; International environmental agreements (IEAs) are increasingly important in a globalized economy. The aim of our paper is study the effect of political pressure groups-lobbies on the size and stability of IEAs. To this purpose we use the framework of two-level games to explain how national political situation influences the decisions of governments at the...
Game theory a nontechnical introduction
Davis, Morton D
1997-01-01
""A lucid and penetrating development of game theory that will appeal to the intuition . . . a most valuable contribution."" - Douglas R. Hofstadter Fascinating, accessible introduction to enormously important intellectual system with numerous applications to social, economic, political problems. Newly revised edition offers overview of game theory, then lucid coverage of the two-person zero-sum game with equilibrium points; the general, two-person zero-sum game; utility theory; other topics. Problems at start of each chapter.
McCain, Roger A
2015-01-01
This book provides a critical, selective review of concepts from game theory and their applications in public policy, and further suggests some modifications for some of the models (chiefly in cooperative game theory) to improve their applicability to economics and public policy.
Fujiwara-Greve, Takako
2015-01-01
This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...
The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.
Shubik, Martin
2002-01-01
Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)
Foundations of game theory noncooperative games
Vorob’ev, Nicolai N
1994-01-01
The English edition differs only slightly from the Russian original. The main struc tural difference is that all the material on the theory of finite noncooperative games has been collected in Chapter 2, with renumbering of the material of the remain ing chapters. New sections have been added in this chapter: devoted to general questions of equilibrium theory in nondegenerate games, subsections 3.9-3.17, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr.; and § 4, by A.G. Chernyakov; and § 5, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr., on the computational complexity of the process of finding equilibrium points in finite games. It should also be mentioned that subsections 3.12-3.14 in Chapter 1 were written by E.B. Yanovskaya especially for the Russian edition. The author regrets that the present edition does not reflect the important game-theoretical achievements presented in the splendid monographs by E. van Damme (on the refinement of equilibrium principles for finite games), as well as those by J.e. Harsanyi and R. Selten, and by W. Giith and B. Ka...
Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction
Colman, Andrew M
1982-01-01
Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha
Game Theory with Costly Computation
Halpern, Joseph Y
2008-01-01
We develop a general game-theoretic framework for reasoning about strategic agents performing possibly costly computation. In this framework, many traditional game-theoretic results (such as the existence of a Nash equilibrium) no longer hold. Nevertheless, we can use the framework to provide psychologically appealing explanations to observed behavior in well-studied games (such as finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma and rock-paper-scissors). Furthermore, we provide natural conditions on games sufficient to guarantee that equilibria exist. As an application of this framework, we consider a notion of game-theoretic implementation of mediators in computational games. We show that a special case of this notion is equivalent to a variant of the traditional cryptographic definition of protocol security; this result shows that, when taking computation into account, the two approaches used for dealing with "deviating" players in two different communities -- Nash equilibrium in game theory and zero-knowledge "simula...
Game theory and water resources
Madani, Kaveh
2010-02-01
SummaryManaging water resources systems usually involves conflicts. Behaviors of stakeholders, who might be willing to contribute to improvements and reach a win-win situation, sometimes result in worse conditions for all parties. Game theory can identify and interpret the behaviors of parties to water resource problems and describe how interactions of different parties who give priority to their own objectives, rather than system's objective, result in a system's evolution. Outcomes predicted by game theory often differ from results suggested by optimization methods which assume all parties are willing to act towards the best system-wide outcome. This study reviews applicability of game theory to water resources management and conflict resolution through a series of non-cooperative water resource games. The paper illustrates the dynamic structure of water resource problems and the importance of considering the game's evolution path while studying such problems.
Climate change and game theory.
Wood, Peter John
2011-02-01
This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely.
Dixit, Avinash
2005-01-01
The author suggests methods for teaching game theory at an introductory level, using interactive games to be played in the classroom or in computer clusters, clips from movies to be screened and discussed, and excerpts from novels and historical books to be read and discussed.
Introduction: games and subcultural theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Benoit Carbone
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This issue of GAME Journal offers a recognition and a series of case studies on video games from the point of view of subcultural theory. Game studies have hitherto focused little on their object from this perspective, which offers a theoretical frame for the historical and ever growing complexity of the audiences involved with the medium of the video game. The study of subcultures on the other hand has a long standing and complex tradition which culminates in what has been recently defined as the “post-subcultural” theoretical scenario.
Models in cooperative game theory
Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef
2008-01-01
This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.
Game theory and plant ecology.
McNickle, Gordon G; Dybzinski, Ray
2013-04-01
The fixed and plastic traits possessed by a plant, which may be collectively thought of as its strategy, are commonly modelled as density-independent adaptations to its environment. However, plant strategies may also represent density- or frequency-dependent adaptations to the strategies used by neighbours. Game theory provides the tools to characterise such density- and frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we review the contributions of game theory to plant ecology. After briefly reviewing game theory from the perspective of plant ecology, we divide our review into three sections. First, game theoretical models of allocation to shoots and roots often predict investment in those organs beyond what would be optimal in the absence of competition. Second, game theoretical models of enemy defence suggest that an individual's investment in defence is not only a means of reducing its own tissue damage but also a means of deflecting enemies onto competitors. Finally, game theoretical models of trade with mutualistic partners suggest that the optimal trade may reflect competition for access to mutualistic partners among plants. In short, our review provides an accessible entrance to game theory that will help plant ecologists enrich their research with its worldview and existing predictions.
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
This lecture series will present the main directions of Algorithmic Game Theory, a new field that has emerged in the last two decades at the interface of Game Theory and Computer Science, because of the unprecedented growth in size, complexity, and impact of the Internet and the Web. These include the price of anarchy (what is the impact of selfishness on a system of competing entities), computational complexity (can the market find a reasonable solution), mechanisms and auctions (what incentives to give to selfish individuals).
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
This lecture series will present the main directions of Algorithmic Game Theory, a new field that has emerged in the last two decades at the interface of Game Theory and Computer Science, because of the unprecedented growth in size, complexity, and impact of the Internet and the Web. These include the price of anarchy (what is the impact of selfishness on a system of competing entities), computational complexity (can the market find a reasonable solution), mechanisms and auctions (what incentives to give to selfish individuals).
Games of Strategy: Theory and Applications
1961-01-01
34 Games of Strategy : Theory and Applications," originally published by Prentice Hall in 1961, was written by Melvin Dresher, a RAND research...paperback and digital formats. The author presents in an elementary and formal manner the mathematical theory of games of strategy and some of its...universities. The book starts in Chapter 1 with an exposition of games of strategy , with examples taken from parlor games as well as from military games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rose, Caspar
2016-01-01
This article shows how game theory can be applied to model good faith mathematically using an example of a classic legal dispute related to rei vindicato. The issue is whether an owner has a legal right to his good if a person has bought it in good faith by using updated probabilities. The article...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Thøgersen, Thomas Talund
2015-01-01
in 2010 and that the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands reached a bargaining solution in 2014 cannot be explained by simple cooperative game theory. However, actual behavior during the mackerel crisis can be explained by opportunity costs, including alternative fishing possibilities and regulations, rather...
Evolutionary Game Theory and Leadership
Guastello, Stephen J.
2009-01-01
Comments on the article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. This article offers a fresh perspective on leaders, followers, and their possible origins in nonhuman and primitive human behavior patterns. The connections between group coordination, leadership, and game theory have some…
Game theory a very short introduction
Binmore, Ken
2007-01-01
Games are played everywhere: from economics and online auctions to social interactions, and game theory is about how to play such games in a rational way, and how to maximize their outcomes. This VSI reveals, without mathematical equations, the insights the theory can bring to everything from how to play poker optimally to the sex ratio among bees. - ;Games are everywhere: Drivers manoeuvring in heavy traffic are playing a driving game. Bargain hunters bidding on eBay are playing an auctioning game. A firm negotiating next year's wage is playing a bargaining game. The opposing candidates in an
Arfi, Badredine
2007-02-01
Most game-theoretic studies of strategic interaction assume independent individual strategies as the basic unit of analysis. This paper explores the effects of non-independence on strategic interaction. Two types of non-independence effects are considered. First, the paper considers subjective non-independence at the level of the individual actor by looking at how choice ambivalence shapes the decision-making process. Specifically, how do alternative individual choices superpose with one another to “constructively/destructively” shape each other's role within an actor's decision-making process? This process is termed as quantum superposition of alternative choices. Second, the paper considers how inter-subjective non-independence across actors engenders collective strategies among two or more interacting actors. This is termed as quantum entanglement of strategies. Taking into account both types of non-independence effect makes possible the emergence of a new collective equilibrium, without assuming signaling, prior “contract” agreement or third-party moderation, or even “cheap talk”. I apply these ideas to analyze the equilibrium possibilities of a situation wherein N actors play a quantum social game of cooperation. I consider different configurations of large- N quantum entanglement using the approach of density operator. I specifically consider the following configurations: star-shaped, nearest-neighbors, and full entanglement.
Applied Game Theory and Strategic Behavior
Geckil, Ilhan K
2009-01-01
Presenting topics from a practical point of view, "Applied Game Theory and Strategic Behavior" illustrates how game theory can be used to solve real problems in public policy and the business world. This book demonstrates the benefits of using strategic thinking that incorporates aspects of uncertainty about the behavior of other parties. It offers a rigorous definition of game theory with detailed descriptions of different forms of games, the context of game theory, and the basic assumptions of the theory. This book includes the application areas of business, management, government,
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game
Johnson, Will
2011-01-01
We begin by reviewing and proving the basic facts of combinatorial game theory. We then consider scoring games (also known as Milnor games or positional games), focusing on the "fixed-length" games for which all sequences of play terminate after the same number of moves. The theory of fixed-length scoring games is shown to have properties similar to the theory of loopy combinatorial games, with operations similar to onsides and offsides. We give a complete description of the structure of fixed-length scoring games in terms of the class of short partizan games. We also consider fixed-length scoring games taking values in the two-element boolean algebra, and classify these games up to indistinguishability. We then apply these results to analyze some positions in the knotting-unknotting game of Pechenik, Townsend, Henrich, MacNaughton, and Silversmith.
Weak-Coupling Theory for Low-Frequency Periodically Driven Two-Level Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ai-Xi; HUANG Ke-Lin; WANG Zhi-Ping
2008-01-01
We generalize the Wu-Yang strong-coupling theory to solve analytically periodically driven two-level systems in the weak-coupling and low-frequency regimes for single- and multi-period periodic driving of continuous-wave-type and pulse-type including ultrashort pulses of a few cycles. We also derive a general formula of the AC Stark shift suitable for such diverse situations.
Reducible and nonsensical uses of game theory
de Bruin, B.P.
The mathematical tools of game theory are frequently used in the social sciences and economic consultancy. But how do they explain social phenomena and support prescriptive judgments? And is the use of game theory really necessary? I analyze the logical form of explanatory and prescriptive game
Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning
Whitton, Nicola
2011-01-01
One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…
Theory of games and statistical decisions
Blackwell, David A
1979-01-01
Evaluating statistical procedures through decision and game theory, as first proposed by Neyman and Pearson and extended by Wald, is the goal of this problem-oriented text in mathematical statistics. First-year graduate students in statistics and other students with a background in statistical theory and advanced calculus will find a rigorous, thorough presentation of statistical decision theory treated as a special case of game theory.The work of Borel, von Neumann, and Morgenstern in game theory, of prime importance to decision theory, is covered in its relevant aspects: reduction of games
Explaining games the epistemic programme in game theory
de Bruin, Boudewijn
2010-01-01
The first monograph on the philosophy of game theory, this is a bold attempt to combine insights from epistemic logic and the philosophy of science to assess the applicability of game theory in such fields as economics, philosophy and strategic consultancy.
Economics and Mathematical Theory of Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajda Fosner
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of games is a branch of applied mathematics that is usedin economics, management, and other social sciences. Moreover, it isused also in military science, political science, international relations,computer science, evolutionary biology, and ecology. It is a field ofmathematics in which games are studied. The aim of this article is topresent matrix games and the game theory. After the introduction, wewill explain the methodology and give some examples. We will showapplications of the game theory in economics. We will discuss aboutadvantages and potential disadvantages that may occur in the describedtechniques. At the end, we will represent the results of our research and its interpretation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-hung Chiou
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to investigate the conditions under which ASEAN states are more likely to pursue regional economic integration, namely, a series of ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements/ protocols. Adopting Putnam’s two-level-games model, this article examines the influences of domestic politics, political elites’ preferences, economic performance, and external impacts. Through the construction of a set of hypotheses, this article investigates five AFTA agreements/ protocols and the conditions of ASEAN states during the 1992–2003 period. The findings indicate that political leaders’ preferences have played a pivotal role in the development of the AFTA. Economic performance and domestic support in individual states has also affected the AFTA. The close link between AFTA agreements and external impacts reveals that the AFTA’s inherent nature is defensive.
Game theory for wireless communications and networking
Zhang, Yan
2011-01-01
Used to explain complicated economic behavior for decades, game theory is quickly becoming a tool of choice for those serious about optimizing next generation wireless systems. Illustrating how game theory can effectively address a wide range of issues that until now remained unresolved, Game Theory for Wireless Communications and Networking provides a systematic introduction to the application of this powerful and dynamic tool. This comprehensive technical guide explains game theory basics, architectures, protocols, security, models, open research issues, and cutting-edge advances and applica
Game Theory之中译%Game Theory and Its Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢桂梅
2012-01-01
文章从博弈论的发展出发，探讨博弈论在中国的翻译过程，比较了各种翻译版本，以此指导自己的实践。%Based on the development of the game theory, the paper mainly discusses and compares the different Chinese versions of the game theory with a view to providing guidance for translating practice.
Information Geometry and Evolutionary Game Theory
Harper, Marc
2009-01-01
The Shahshahani geometry of evolutionary game theory is realized as the information geometry of the simplex, deriving from the Fisher information metric of the manifold of categorical probability distributions. Some essential concepts in evolutionary game theory are realized information-theoretically. Results are extended to the Lotka-Volterra equation and to multiple population systems.
Guiasu, Silviu
1979-01-01
Coalition and Connection in Games: Problems of Modern Game Theory using Methods Belonging to Systems Theory and Information Theory focuses on coalition formation and on connections occurring in games, noting the use of mathematical models in the evaluation of processes involved in games. The book first takes a look at the process of strategy in playing games in which the conditional choices of players are noted. The sequence of decisions during the playing of games and observance of the rules are emphasized. The text also ponders on the mathematical tool of game theory in which the differences
Russian contributions to game theory and equilibrium theory
Driessen, Theo S H; Van der Laan, G; Vasilev, V V
2006-01-01
The research of Soviet scientists within the field of game theory, starting around 1965 under the supervision of N. N. Vorob'ev, one of the leading experts in the field, has resulted in many high-level publications. The purpose of this book is to report about the highly qualified research by Russian game theorists during the two decades 1968 - 1988 to the international readership. The book contains a collection of contributions in game theory and the related field of equilibrium theory which never had been published in English before. A short historical survey about the development of game theory in the USSR before 1990 is given in the introduction.
Computational Aspects of Cooperative Game Theory
Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Wooldridge, Michael
2011-01-01
Cooperative game theory is a branch of (micro-)economics that studies the behavior of self-interested agents in strategic settings where binding agreements among agents are possible. Our aim in this book is to present a survey of work on the computational aspects of cooperative game theory. We begin by formally defining transferable utility games in characteristic function form, and introducing key solution concepts such as the core and the Shapley value. We then discuss two major issues that arise when considering such games from a computational perspective: identifying compact representation
THE THEORY OF GAMES IN STRATEGY
Sílvio Cesar Ávila
2006-01-01
The theory of games, as a basic model for studying the human behavior in economy, is shown as a choice for the strategies; it tries to prescribe an excellent strategy. The aim of this paper is to show clearly some concepts of this theory as a tool to the deliberated strategy of the organizations. The strategy, seen as a process and deliberated is the basis of this study, which shows the theory of games approaches, starting with the concepts of the classical games theory, the dilemma of prison...
Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games
Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc
2011-11-01
Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.
Rapoport, Anatol
1999-01-01
Clear, accessible treatment of mathematical models for resolving conflicts in politics, economics, war, business, and social relationships. Topics include strategy, game tree and game matrix, and much more. Minimal math background required. 1970 edition.
Mathematical Methods of Game and Economic Theory
Aubin, J-P
1982-01-01
This book presents a unified treatment of optimization theory, game theory and a general equilibrium theory in economics in the framework of nonlinear functional analysis. It not only provides powerful and versatile tools for solving specific problems in economics and the social sciences but also serves as a unifying theme in the mathematical theory of these subjects as well as in pure mathematics itself.
Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory
Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E.; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R.
2016-01-01
We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers’ interactions. PMID:27855176
Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.
Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R
2016-01-01
We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.
Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning
2012-01-01
Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset...
Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.
Lee-Chua, Queena N.
2000-01-01
Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…
Application of Game Theory to Neuronal Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfons Schuster
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is a theoretical investigation into the potential application of game theoretic concepts to neural networks (natural and artificial. The paper relies on basic models but the findings are more general in nature and therefore should apply to more complex environments. A major outcome of the paper is a learning algorithm based on game theory for a paired neuron system.
A computer scientist looks at game theory
Halpern, Joseph Y.
2002-01-01
I consider issues in distributed computation that should be of relevance to game theory. In particular, I focus on (a) representing knowledge and uncertainty, (b) dealing with failures, and (c) specification of mechanisms.
Environmental Issue Area and Game Theory.
Kuismin, Heikki O.
1998-01-01
Explores questions regarding cooperation versus competition, long- or short-term planning, and issues of economics and policy formation through a discussion of game theory. Contains 25 references. (Author/PVD)
A Game Theory Approach of Deposit Insurance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Hong-xun; QIU Wan-hua; MING Ming
2002-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic game theory approach for deposit insurance. We formulate a deposit insurance problem as an incomplete information game theory model, which deduces the expression of Capital Charge Ratio for national central bank. The main contribution of the paper however is that we then extrapolate the declared value of the bank in best its policy. Finally a numerical example is used to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.
Gaming mindsets: implicit theories in serious game learning.
Lee, Yu-Hao; Heeter, Carrie; Magerko, Brian; Medler, Ben
2012-04-01
Individuals' beliefs about the malleability of their abilities may predict their response and outcome in learning from serious games. Individuals with growth mindsets believe their abilities can develop with practice and effort, whereas individuals with fixed mindsets believe their abilities are static and cannot improve. This study uses survey and gameplay server data to examine the implicit theory of intelligence in the context of serious game learning. The findings show that growth mindset players performed better than fixed mindset players, their mistakes did not affect their attention to the game, and they read more learning feedback than fixed mindset players. In addition, growth mindset players were more likely to actively seek difficult challenges, which is often essential to self-directed learning. General mindset measurements and domain-specific measurements were also compared. These findings suggest that players' psychological attributes should be considered when designing and applying serious games.
Dynamic games theory and applications
Haurie, Alain
2005-01-01
Dynamic games continue to attract strong interest from researchers interested in modeling competitive and conflict situations to study the behavior of players (decision-makers) and to predict the outcome of such situations in many areas including engineering, economics, management science, military, biology, and political science. This collection of articles by established researchers is an excellent reference covering a wide range of emerging and revisited problems in both cooperative and non-cooperative games.
Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.
Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja
2014-12-01
In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.
European Conference on Game Theory & Networking Games and Management
Mazalov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
This contributed volume contains fourteen papers based on selected presentations from the European Conference on Game Theory SING11-GTM 2015, held at Saint Petersburg State University in July 2015, and the Networking Games and Management workshop, held at the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Petrozvavodsk, Russia, also in July 2015. These papers cover a wide range of topics in game theory, including recent advances in areas with high potential for future work, as well as new developments on classical results. Some of these include A new approach to journal ranking using methods from social choice theory; A differential game of a duopoly in which two firms are competing for market share in an industry with network externalities; The impact of information propagation in the model of tax audits; A voting model in which the results of previous votes can affect the process of coalition formation in a decision-making body; The Selten-Szidarovsky technique for the analysis of Nash equil...
Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class
Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…
Game Theory Meets Network Security and Privacy
Manshaei, Mohammadhossein; Zhu, Quanyan; Alpcan, Tansu; Basar, Tamer; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre
2012-01-01
This survey provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the research contributions that analyze and solve security and privacy problems in computer networks by game-theoretic approaches. A selected set of works are presented to highlight the application of game theory in order to address different forms of security and privacy problems in computer networks and mobile applications. The presented works are classified into six main categories based on their topics: security of the physic...
Using Game Theory to Increase Students' Motivation to Learn Mathematics
2005-01-01
This paper reports an attempt to teach game theory in order to increase students' motivation to learn mathematics. A course in game theory was created in order to introduce students to new mathematical content presented in a different way.
Evolutionary game theory and criticality
Mahmoodi, Korosh; Grigolini, Paolo
2017-01-01
We study a regular two-dimensional network of individuals playing the Prisonner’s Dilemma game with their neighbors, assigning to each individual the adoption of two different criteria to make a choice between cooperation and defection. For a fraction q {{K}\\text{c}} . Intermediate values of ɛ annihilated criticality-induced cognition and, as consequence, may favor defection choice even in the case when a wise payoff consideration is expected to yield the emergence of cooperation.
Reputation, Game Theory and Entrepreneurial Sustainability
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Juan Pineiro-Chousa
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract: This manuscript provides a novel approach to reputational management as a driver of entrepreneurial sustainability, using game theory to integrate three dimensions of reputation. First, if the entrepreneur perceives reputation as a risk source, the analysis is framed as a prisoner’s dilemma schema that is solved by protecting against reputational threats from entrepreneurial sustainability. Second, if the entrepreneur perceives reputation as a competitive advantage, the analysis is framed as an innovator’s dilemma that is solved by getting reputational opportunities from entrepreneurial sustainability. Third, if reputation is perceived as a strategic asset, the analysis is framed as a coordination game schema that results in the development of a reputational intelligence skill that has the potential to become crucial for success in entrepreneurial sustainability. Consequently, this manuscript provides an original multidisciplinary analysis of reputational management by relating well-known theoretical results from game theory to organizational realities.
Game arguments in computability theory and algorithmic information theory
Shen, Alexander
2012-01-01
We provide some examples showing how game-theoretic arguments can be used in computability theory and algorithmic information theory: unique numbering theorem (Friedberg), the gap between conditional complexity and total conditional complexity, Epstein--Levin theorem and some (yet unpublished) result of Muchnik and Vyugin
Evolutionary game theory: cells as players.
Hummert, Sabine; Bohl, Katrin; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Werner, Sarah; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan
2014-12-01
In two papers we review game theory applications in biology below the level of cognitive living beings. It can be seen that evolution and natural selection replace the rationality of the actors appropriately. Even in these micro worlds, competing situations and cooperative relationships can be found and modeled by evolutionary game theory. Also those units of the lowest levels of life show different strategies for different environmental situations or different partners. We give a wide overview of evolutionary game theory applications to microscopic units. In this first review situations on the cellular level are tackled. In particular metabolic problems are discussed, such as ATP-producing pathways, secretion of public goods and cross-feeding. Further topics are cyclic competition among more than two partners, intra- and inter-cellular signalling, the struggle between pathogens and the immune system, and the interactions of cancer cells. Moreover, we introduce the theoretical basics to encourage scientists to investigate problems in cell biology and molecular biology by evolutionary game theory.
Linking Pedagogical Theory of Computer Games to their Usability
Ang, Chee Siang; Avni, Einav; Zaphiris, Panayiotis
2008-01-01
This article reviews a range of literature of computer games and learning theories and attempts to establish a link between them by proposing a typology of games which we use as a new usability measure for the development of guidelines for game-based learning. First, we examine game literature in order to understand the key elements that…
Game theory decisions, interaction and evolution
Webb, James N
2007-01-01
This introduction to game theory is written from a mathematical perspective. Its primary purpose is to be a first course for undergraduate students of mathematics, but it also contains material which will be of interest to advanced students or researchers in biology and economics. The outstanding feature of the book is that it provides a unified account of three types of decision problem: Situations involving a single decision-maker: in which a sequence of choices is to be made in "a game against nature". This introduces the basic ideas of optimality and decision processes. Classical game theory: in which the interactions of two or more decision-makers are considered. This leads to the concept of the Nash equilibrium. Evolutionary game theory: in which the changing structure of a population of interacting decision makers is considered. This leads to the ideas of evolutionarily stable strategies and replicator dynamics. An understanding of basic calculus and probability is assumed but no prior knowledge of gam...
Quantum game theory and open access publishing
Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt
2007-08-01
The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.
Evolutionary game theory and multiple chemical sensitivity.
Newlin, D B
1999-01-01
Newlin's [Newlin D.B. Evolutionary game theory of tolerance and sensitization in substance abuse. Paper presented to the Research Society on Alcoholism, Hilton Head, SC, 1998] evolutionary game theory of addictive behavior specifies how evolutionarily stable strategies for survival and reproduction may lead to addiction. The game theory of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) assumes that: (1) the MCS patient responds to low-level toxicants as stressors or as direct threats to their survival and reproductive fitness, (2) this activates the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system, (3) this system is a survival motivation center--not a 'reward center', (4) the subject emits a counter-response that is in the same direction as the naive response to the chemicals, (5) previously neutral stimuli associated with chemicals also trigger conditioned responses that mimic those to the chemicals, (6) these counter-responses further activate the dopaminergic survival motivation system, and (7) this produces a positive feedback loop that leads to strong neural sensitization in these structures and in behavior controlled by this system, despite a small initial response. Psychologically, the MCS patient with a sensitized cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system is behaving as though his/her survival is directly threatened by these chemicals. Non-MCS subjects have counter-responses opposite in direction to those of the chemicals and show tolerance. An autoshaping/sign-tracking model of this game is discussed. This evolutionary game makes several specific, testable predictions about differences between MCS subjects, non-MCS controls, and substance abusers in laboratory experiments, and between sensitized and nonsensitized animals.
DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT USING GAME THEORY
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Marian NEDELCU
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Game theory provides a number of analytical tools designed to assist in developing a more comprehensive understanding of phenomena emerging when decision makers interact. A game describes the strategic interactions between players who act guided by their interests and with the consciousness that their actions affect each other. The basic entity in all game theory models is the player. A player may be understood as an individual, group of individuals or any kind of organization, even countries or alliances facing decisions-making challenges and opportunities. In this respect, the concept providing the dimensions and variables informing on the planning “game” elements required for an optimal defense resource allocation is that of ‘capabilities’. The model developed in this paper is focused on allocations of the available defense resources over the assumed capabilities in order to achieve the best response to national security. I consider as a game the competition between strategic decision-makers involved in defense resource management and the threats to the national security.
Network Security Transmission Based on Bimatrix Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Ying; HU Hanping; GUO Wenxuan
2006-01-01
Based on the bimatrix game theory, the network data transmission has been depicted in a game theory way: the actions of the attacker and defender (legitimate users) are depicted within a two-person, non-cooperative and bimatrix game model, this paper proves the existence of the Nash equilibrium theoretically, which is further illustrated by the experimental results.
Game theory, social choice and ethics
1979-01-01
There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater import ancf! than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or conceming our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province 0 f science. J. F. C. Gauss For a1l his prescience in matters physical and mathematieal, the great Gauss apparently did not foresee one development peculiar to OUT own time. The development I have in mind is the use of mathematical reasoning - in partieu lar the axiomatic method - to explicate alternative concepts of rationality and morality. The present bipartite collection of essays (Vol. 11, Nos. 2 and 3 of this journal) is entitled 'Game Theory, Social Choiee, and Ethics'. The eight papers represent state-of-the-art research in formal moral theory. Their intended aim is to demonstrate how the methods of game theory, decision theory, and axiomatic social choice theory can help to illuminate ethical questions central not...
Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks
Reniers, Genserik
2013-01-01
Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park. By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations. Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...
Game Theory in water resources management
Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George
2015-04-01
Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will
Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.
Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W
2011-12-01
We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes.
On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking
G.N. Engelbrecht
2012-01-01
The author reviews some of the applicable literature and shows how game theory can be used to predict the outcome of a strategy, explain why a particular outcome to a strategy has occurred, investigate strategy and prescribe certain rules for the making of a strategy. He concludes that game theory can aid decision makers at all levels in formulating quality strategies. In fact, game theory should be an integral and indispensable part of the strategist's toolbox.
Predicting Networked Strategic Behavior via Machine Learning and Game Theory
2015-01-13
Report: Predicting Networked Strategic Behavior via Machine Learning and Game Theory The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report...2211 machine learning, game theory , microeconomics, behavioral data REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR...Strategic Behavior via Machine Learning and Game Theory Report Title The funding for this project was used to develop basic models, methodology
Using Game Theory Techniques and Concepts to Develop Proprietary Models for Use in Intelligent Games
Christopher, Timothy Van
2011-01-01
This work is about analyzing games as models of systems. The goal is to understand the techniques that have been used by game designers in the past, and to compare them to the study of mathematical game theory. Through the study of a system or concept a model often emerges that can effectively educate students about making intelligent decisions…
New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Javier Esquivel
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.
A Theory of Farsightedness in Committee Games
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Alphonse Fodouop Fotso
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the committee decision making process using game theory. A committee here refers to any group of people who have to select one option from a given set of alternatives under a specified rule. Shenoy (1980 introduced two solution concepts, namely, the one-core and a version of bargaining set for committee games. Shortcomings of these solutions concepts are raised and discussed in this paper. These shortcomings are resolved by introducing two new solutions concepts: the farsighted one-core and the bargaining set revised, inspired by an idea of farsightedness initially defined by Rubinstein (1980. It is shown that the farsighted one-core is always non-empty and is better than the one-core. In a well-specified sense, the bargaining set revised is also better than the bargaining set as defined by Shenoy (1980 and it is always non-empty for simple committee games with linear preferences. Other attractive properties are also proved.
Towards a richer evolutionary game theory.
McNamara, John M
2013-11-06
Most examples of the application of evolutionary game theory to problems in biology involve highly simplified models. I contend that it is time to move on and include much more richness in models. In particular, more thought needs to be given to the importance of (i) between-individual variation; (ii) the interaction between individuals, and hence the process by which decisions are reached; (iii) the ecological and life-history context of the situation; (iv) the traits that are under selection, and (v) the underlying psychological mechanisms that lead to behaviour. I give examples where including variation between individuals fundamentally changes predicted outcomes of a game. Variation also selects for real-time responses, again resulting in changed outcomes. Variation can select for other traits, such as choosiness and social sensitivity. More generally, many problems involve coevolution of more than one trait. I identify situations where a reductionist approach, in which a game is isolated from is ecological setting, can be misleading. I also highlight the need to consider flexibility of behaviour, mental states and other issues concerned with the evolution of mechanism.
Deng, Chunqing; Shen, Feiruo; Ashhab, Sahel; Lupascu, Adrian
2016-09-01
We consider the dynamics of a two-level system (qubit) driven by strong and short resonant pulses in the framework of Floquet theory. First we derive analytical expressions for the quasienergies and Floquet states of the driven system. If the pulse amplitude varies very slowly, the system adiabatically follows the instantaneous Floquet states, which acquire dynamical phases that depend on the evolution of the quasienergies over time. The difference between the phases acquired by the two Floquet states corresponds to a qubit state rotation, generalizing the notion of Rabi oscillations to the case of large driving amplitudes. If the pulse amplitude changes very fast, the evolution is nonadiabatic, with transitions taking place between the Floquet states. We quantify and analyze the nonadiabatic transitions during the pulse by employing adiabatic perturbation theory and exact numerical simulations. We find that, for certain combinations of pulse rise and fall times and maximum driving amplitude, a destructive interference effect leads to a remarkably strong suppression of transitions between the Floquet states. This effect provides the basis of a quantum control protocol, which we name Floquet interference efficient suppression of transitions in the adiabatic basis (FIESTA), that can be used to design ultrafast high-fidelity single-qubit quantum gates.
Just Society as a Fair Game: John Rawls and Game Theory in the 1950s.
Gališanka, Andrius
2017-01-01
I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory's influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls's political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments. This was an idealized analysis unconnected to the vision of direct democracy.
An Optimization Model Based on Game Theory
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Yang Shi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Game Theory has a wide range of applications in department of economics, but in the field of computer science, especially in the optimization algorithm is seldom used. In this paper, we integrate thinking of game theory into optimization algorithm, and then propose a new optimization model which can be widely used in optimization processing. This optimization model is divided into two types, which are called “the complete consistency” and “the partial consistency”. In these two types, the partial consistency is added disturbance strategy on the basis of the complete consistency. When model’s consistency is satisfied, the Nash equilibrium of the optimization model is global optimal and when the model’s consistency is not met, the presence of perturbation strategy can improve the application of the algorithm. The basic experiments suggest that this optimization model has broad applicability and better performance, and gives a new idea for some intractable problems in the field of artificial intelligence
Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten
2014-01-01
When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...
Implementation of quantum game theory simulations using Python
Madrid S., A.
2013-05-01
This paper provides some examples about quantum games simulated in Python's programming language. The quantum games have been developed with the Sympy Python library, which permits solving quantum problems in a symbolic form. The application of these methods of quantum mechanics to game theory gives us more possibility to achieve results not possible before. To illustrate the results of these methods, in particular, there have been simulated the quantum battle of the sexes, the prisoner's dilemma and card games. These solutions are able to exceed the classic bottle neck and obtain optimal quantum strategies. In this form, python demonstrated that is possible to do more advanced and complicated quantum games algorithms.
Models in cooperative game theory crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games
Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef
2005-01-01
This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in coperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The propertie
Why Darwin would have loved evolutionary game theory.
Brown, Joel S
2016-09-14
Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is uniquely suited to solving such puzzles. While game theoretic thinking enters into Darwin's arguments and those of evolutionists through much of the twentieth century, the tools of evolutionary game theory were not available to Darwin or most evolutionists until the 1970s, and its full scope has only unfolded in the last three decades. As a consequence, game theory is applied and appreciated rather spottily. Game theory not only applies to matrix games and social games, it also applies to speciation, macroevolution and perhaps even to cancer. I assert that life and natural selection are a game, and that game theory is the appropriate logic for framing and understanding adaptations. Its scope can include behaviours within species, state-dependent strategies (such as male, female and so much more), speciation and coevolution, and expands beyond microevolution to macroevolution. Game theory clarifies aspects of ecological and evolutionary stability in ways useful to understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics, niche construction and ecosystem engineering. In short, I would like to think that Darwin would have found game theory uniquely useful for his theory of natural selection. Let us see why this is so.
USING GAME THEORY IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
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Solopchenko D. V.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of game theory in the educational process. Subject of research is the educational process. The authors have studied the game in normal form where participants are the teacher and the student of the university. Different treatment of the student and the teacher to pass the test are strategies of the players. Construction of a matrix is based on the base of sequence preference on multitude of outcomes. The solution of this task is implemented in two stages: formulation of the problem and solution. As an interim solution the authors considered the winnings of players 1 (the student and 2 (the teacher. As a final solution is considered the situation satisfying both of players: player 1 (the student and player 2 (the teacher. The results obtained in this research will help to find ways to improve the educational activity. The actuality of the research is explained with the fact that the institutions of the highest education are trying to participate actively in the development of personality of students nowadays. While effective teaching in the university, there is a paying more attention to this problem. Focusing on the forming of personality in the process of education makes the generation of an orientation mission of every student at the university one of the most important advances
Bridging the gap between Schumpeterian competition and evolutionary game theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
This paper suggests that the analysis of Schumpeterian competition within the Nelson-Winter model should be complemented with evolutionary game theory. This model and its limitations for density-dependent Schumpeterian strategies are presented in terms of the equations of evolutionary dynamics...... strategies is proved. This is an example of Schumpeterian competition within evolutionary game theory........ Formulated as evolutionary games, the set of strategies can easily be extended from innovators and imitators to routinists, complementors, and mixers. All strategies are presented in relation to a modified version of the Hawk-Dove Game. In this setting, the possibility of coexistence of several Schumpeterian...
Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz
2012-01-01
This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…
Potential game theory applications in radio resource allocation
Lã, Quang Duy; Soong, Boon-Hee
2016-01-01
This book offers a thorough examination of potential game theory and its applications in radio resource management for wireless communications systems and networking. The book addresses two major research goals: how to identify a given game as a potential game, and how to design the utility functions and the potential functions with certain special properties in order to formulate a potential game. After proposing a unifying mathematical framework for the identification of potential games, the text surveys existing applications of this technique within wireless communications and networking problems found in OFDMA 3G/4G/WiFi networks, as well as next-generation systems such as cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum access networks. Professionals interested in understanding the theoretical aspect of this specialized field will find Potential Game Theory a valuable resource, as will advanced-level engineering students. It paves the way for extensive and rigorous research exploration on a topic whose capacity for...
Canonical Coalition Game Theory for Optimal Portfolio Selection
Habip Kocak
2014-01-01
Special mathematical techniques have been developed in order to analyze conflict-competition situations. Game theory provides a formal analytical framework with a set of mathematical tools to study the complex intersections among rational players (Osborne, 2004). The purpose of developing this theory is to examine the rational ways of behaving for conflicting groups or individuals and to make sure that one of these groups is the winner. Throughout the past decades, game theory has made revolu...
Study on Game Theory of Social Law Enforcement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张国臣; 黎志成
2003-01-01
Based on the basis of the two-stage dynamic game of complete information and purely tactful perfect equilibrium theory, the non-cooperative gaming between the police department and the criminals is analyzed. Dynamic game can be proved to forecast and explain potential tactful choices of the police department and the criminals at various stages, so as to analyze the essence of the law enforcement by the theoretical models.
A Survey of Game Theory in Wireless Sensor Networks Security
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shigen Shen
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming an integral part of our lives. There are not widespread applications of WSNs without ensuring WSNs security. Due to the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of computation, communication, and energy, providing security to WSNs is challenging. In fact, the process of implementing WSNs security is adaptive and dynamic, which evolves continually. The essence of attack-defend in WSNs security can be expressed by mutual strategies of interdependence while game theory can be used for the purpose of accounting for interactions among strategies of rational decision makers. Therefore, studying WSNs security with game theory has higher scientificity and rationality. This paper presents a survey of security approaches based on game theory in WSNs. According to different applications, a taxonomy is proposed, which divides current existing typical game-theoretic approaches for WSNs security into four categories: preventing Denial of Services (DoS attacks, intrusion detection, strengthening security, and coexistence with malicious sensor nodes. The main ideas of each approach are overviewed while advantages and disadvantages of various approaches are discussed. Then, this paper overviews related work and highlights the difference from other surveys, and points out some future research areas for ensuring WSNs security based on game theory, including Base Station (BS credibility, Intrusion Detection System (IDS efficiency, WSNs mobility, WSNs Quality of Service (QoS, real-world applicability, energy consumption, sensor nodes learning, and expanding game theory applications and different games. Thus, a global view of WSNs security approaches based on game theory is provided. To our best knowledge of knowing, it is the first paper centrally focusing on game theory in WSNs security. It will make the researchers a better understanding of game-theoretic solutions to WSNs security and further research directions.
Behavioral Theory in the Design of Serious Games
Behavioral theory has provided the foundation for behavior change programs in regard to a broad variety of health related or other behaviors. Serious games also need to be guided by behavioral theory. This presentation covers the key constructs in several behavioral theories: Social Cognitive Theory...
The Strategic Games Matrix (SGM as a new tool for strategic management via game theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Celso Pascoli Bottura
2006-04-01
Full Text Available This paper develops and presents some original game theory concepts utilizations for the formulation of company’s cooperative and competitive strategies, having as basis the Strategic Games Matrix (SGM. The concepts and results from SGM are applied to analysis and formulation of entrepreneurial strategies, as a support tool to complex business structures strategic management – hierarchical or not – and for competitive and/or cooperative strategies, or a combinations of those. It is proposed a new typology for business strategic games derived from an analysis and interpretation of the SGM: Four classic strategic games types from game theory – Nash, Minimax, and Pareto, as non-hierarchical games, and Stackelberg, as a hierarchical game – are interpreted and applied to some conflict of interests situations; two new hierarchical strategic game types, applicable to limit-case situations, also derived from the SGM analysis – Dominant-Marginal, and Paternalist-Solidary – are also described and applied. A new methodology for analysis and design of competitive and cooperative strategy formulation for complex hierarchical structures strategic management, based on the SGM, is presented and applied to three level hierarchical games. The concepts of strategic scene-gaming, and of strategic dynamic positioning, are also introduced and illustrated.
Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiufen Ni
2013-03-01
Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.
Essentials of Game Theory A Concise Multidisciplinary Introduction
Leyton-Brown, Kevin
2008-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of interaction among independent, self-interested agents. The audience for game theory has grown dramatically in recent years, and now spans disciplines as diverse as political science, biology, psychology, economics, linguistics, sociology, and computer science, among others. What has been missing is a relatively short introduction to the field covering the common basis that anyone with a professional interest in game theory is likely to require. Such a text would minimize notation, ruthlessly focus on essentials, and yet not sacrifice rigor. This Synthes
Spatial interaction models facility location using game theory
D'Amato, Egidio; Pardalos, Panos
2017-01-01
Facility location theory develops the idea of locating one or more facilities by optimizing suitable criteria such as minimizing transportation cost, or capturing the largest market share. The contributions in this book focus an approach to facility location theory through game theoretical tools highlighting situations where a location decision is faced by several decision makers and leading to a game theoretical framework in non-cooperative and cooperative methods. Models and methods regarding the facility location via game theory are explored and applications are illustrated through economics, engineering, and physics. Mathematicians, engineers, economists and computer scientists working in theory, applications and computational aspects of facility location problems using game theory will find this book useful.
Teaching Public Goods Theory with a Classroom Game
Pickhardt, Michael
2005-01-01
The author extends the work of Holt and Laury (1997) on a simple noncomputerized card game for teaching the essential aspects of public goods theory. He suggests a course of several lectures and discusses the behavior of subjects in various game sessions. Among other things, the results provide experimental evidence with respect to the private…
Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games
This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...
A theory of game trees, based on solution trees
W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a
A theory of game trees, based on solution trees
W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a
Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China
Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan
2009-01-01
This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…
Mahmoudinia, D.; Esfahani, Rahim Dalali; Engwerda, Jacob; Dastjerdi, R.B.
2016-01-01
In this study, we follow several purpose. In the first section, the game theory concept and the formation of its fundamental concepts is examined. After that, we investigate that how von Neumann-Morgenstern (1944) and john Nash (1950-1953) works, caused the formation of modern game theory. Then, we
Mahmoudinia, D.; Esfahani, Rahim Dalali; Engwerda, Jacob; Dastjerdi, R.B.
2016-01-01
In this study, we follow several purpose. In the first section, the game theory concept and the formation of its fundamental concepts is examined. After that, we investigate that how von Neumann-Morgenstern (1944) and john Nash (1950-1953) works, caused the formation of modern game theory. Then, we
Game theory and shared water resource management
Najafi, H.; Bagheri, A.
2011-12-01
Based on the "New Periodic Table" (NPT) of 2×2 order games by Robinson and Goforth (2005) this study explores all possible game structures, representing a conflict over a shared water resource between two countries. Each game is analyzed to find the possible outcomes (equilibria), Pareto-optimal outcomes, as well as dominant strategies of the players. It is explained why in practice, parties may behave in a way, resulting in Pareto-inferior outcomes and how parties may change their behavior with the structural changes of the game. Further, how parties may develop cooperative solutions through negotiations and involvement of third parties. This work provides useful policy insights into shared water resource problems and identifies the likely structure of such games in the future and the evolution path of the games.
The Correlation between Game Theory and International Trade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona-Valeria TOMA
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The Correlation between Game Theory and International TradeAbstract:Game theory, in its most basic form, considers two or more players and analyses the different strategies that they can use and the effect that these strategies will have on each player. International trade allows countries to use better their resources (labor, technology or capital. Since countries have different capital or natural resources, some of them will produce a good more efficiently than others and therefore could sell it cheaper than other countries. By using game theory in international trade we could determine if the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model is correct and what would be the best specialization for each country. The aim of this paper is to test if game theory could be successfully used in a thorough analysis of international trade specialization.
The cooperative game theory of networks and hierarchies
Gilles, Robert P
2010-01-01
This book details standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. It covers the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swami Iyer
Full Text Available The Traveler's Dilemma game and the Minimum Effort Coordination game are two social dilemmas that have attracted considerable attention due to the fact that the predictions of classical game theory are at odds with the results found when the games are studied experimentally. Moreover, a direct application of deterministic evolutionary game theory, as embodied in the replicator dynamics, to these games does not explain the observed behavior. In this work, we formulate natural variants of these two games as smoothed continuous-strategy games. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these continuous-strategy games, both analytically and through agent-based simulations, and show that the behavior predicted theoretically is in accord with that observed experimentally. Thus, these variants of the Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination games provide a simple resolution of the paradoxical behavior associated with the original games.
Iyer, Swami; Reyes, Joshua; Killingback, Timothy
2014-01-01
The Traveler's Dilemma game and the Minimum Effort Coordination game are two social dilemmas that have attracted considerable attention due to the fact that the predictions of classical game theory are at odds with the results found when the games are studied experimentally. Moreover, a direct application of deterministic evolutionary game theory, as embodied in the replicator dynamics, to these games does not explain the observed behavior. In this work, we formulate natural variants of these two games as smoothed continuous-strategy games. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these continuous-strategy games, both analytically and through agent-based simulations, and show that the behavior predicted theoretically is in accord with that observed experimentally. Thus, these variants of the Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination games provide a simple resolution of the paradoxical behavior associated with the original games.
Introduction to the theory of cooperative games
Peleg, Bezalel; Peleg, Bezalel
2007-01-01
This book systematically presents the main solutions of cooperative games: the core, bargaining set, kernel, nucleolus, and the Shapley value of TU games as well as the core, the Shapley value, and the ordinal bargaining set of NTU games. The authors devote a separate chapter to each solution, wherein they study its properties in full detail. In addition, important variants are defined or even intensively analyzed.
Examining Student-Designed Games through Suits' Theory of Games
Casey, Ashley; Hastie, Peter; Jump, Steve
2016-01-01
This paper documents how a unit of student-designed games can create a more meaningful version of physical education (PE) for disengaged students, a version that enhances the educational legitimacy of the subject matter by affording it worth in and of itself rather than being justified for other, extrinsic or instrumental reasons. Furthermore, it…
Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis
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Felix Schröter
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.
Conlin, Peter L; Chandler, Josephine R; Kerr, Benjamin
2014-10-01
In this review, we demonstrate how game theory can be a useful first step in modeling and understanding interactions among bacteria that produce and resist antibiotics. We introduce the basic features of evolutionary game theory and explore model microbial systems that correspond to some classical games. Each game discussed defines a different category of social interaction with different resulting population dynamics (exclusion, coexistence, bistability, cycling). We then explore how the framework can be extended to incorporate some of the complexity of natural microbial communities. Overall, the game theoretical perspective helps to guide our expectations about the evolution of some forms of antibiotic resistance and production because it makes clear the precise nature of social interaction in this context.
Decision and game theory in management with intuitionistic fuzzy sets
Li, Deng-Feng
2014-01-01
The focus of this book is on establishing theories and methods of both decision and game analysis in management using intuitionistic fuzzy sets. It proposes a series of innovative theories, models and methods such as the representation theorem and extension principle of intuitionistic fuzzy sets, ranking methods of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, non-linear and linear programming methods for intuitionistic fuzzy multi-attribute decision making and (interval-valued) intuitionistic fuzzy matrix games. These theories and methods form the theory system of intuitionistic fuzzy decision making and games, which is not only remarkably different from those of the traditional, Bayes and/or fuzzy decision theory but can also provide an effective and efficient tool for solving complex management problems. Since there is a certain degree of inherent hesitancy in real-life management, which cannot always be described by the traditional mathematical methods and/or fuzzy set theory, this book offers an effective approach to us...
Game Literacy in Theory and Practice
Buckingham, David; Burn, Andrew
2007-01-01
If we intend to teach through educational media, we also have to teach about those media. This article explores the implications of this perspective for the use of computer games in the classroom. It seeks to explain why and how teachers might teach about computer games as a medium in their own right, just as they teach about film or television or…
N-person game theory concepts and applications
Rapoport, Anatol
2013-01-01
N-person game theory provides a logical framework for analyzing contests in which there are more than two players or sets of conflicting interests-anything from a hand of poker to the tangled web of international relations. In this sequel to his Two-Person Game Theory, Dr. Rapoport provides a fascinating and lucid introduction to the theory, geared towards readers with little mathematical background but with an appetite for rigorous analysis.Following an introduction to the necessary mathematical notation (mainly set theory), in Part I the author presents basic concepts and models, including
Moral calculations game theory, logic, and human frailty
Mérő, László
1998-01-01
Are people ever rational? Consider this: You auction off a one-dollar bill to the highest bidder, but you set the rules so that the second highest bidder also has to pay the amount of his last bid, even though he gets nothing. Would people ever enter such an auction? Not only do they, but according to Martin Shubik, the game's inventor, the average winning bid (for a dollar, remember) is $3.40. Many winners report that they bid so high only because their opponent "went completely crazy." This game lies at the intersection of three subjects of eternal fascination: human psychology, morality, and John von Neumann's game theory. Hungarian game-theorist Laszlo Mero introduces us to the basics of game theory, including such concepts as zero-sum games, Prisoner's Dilemma and the origins of altruism; shows how game theory is applicable to fields ranging from physics to politics; and explores the role of rational thinking in the context of many different kinds of thinking. This fascinating, urbane book will interest ...
Quantum Game Theory and Open Access Publishing
Hanauske, M; Dugall, B; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt; Hanauske, Matthias
2006-01-01
The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv for example is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners' dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of sc...
"Depletion": A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith
2002-01-01
Depletion is a game that reinforces central concepts of reaction rate theory through simulation. Presents the game with a set of follow-up questions suitable for either a quiz or discussion. Also describes student reaction to the game. (MM)
Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games.
Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter
2015-01-01
Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. This study's method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found to mediate motivation at all stages of the change
Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL
2012-01-01
Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.
Modeling Routinization in Games: An Information Theory Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallner, Simon; Pichlmair, Martin; Hecher, Michael
2015-01-01
-time, discrete-space Markov chains and information theory to measure the actual error between the dynamically trained models and the player interaction. Preliminary research supports the hypothesis that Markov chains can be effectively used to model routinization in games. A full study design is presented......Routinization is the result of practicing until an action stops being a goal-directed process. This paper formulates a definition of routinization in games based on prior research in the fields of activity theory and practice theory. Routinization is analyzed using the formal model of discrete...
Modeling Routinization in Games: An Information Theory Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallner, Simon; Pichlmair, Martin; Hecher, Michael
2015-01-01
Routinization is the result of practicing until an action stops being a goal-directed process. This paper formulates a definition of routinization in games based on prior research in the fields of activity theory and practice theory. Routinization is analyzed using the formal model of discrete......-time, discrete-space Markov chains and information theory to measure the actual error between the dynamically trained models and the player interaction. Preliminary research supports the hypothesis that Markov chains can be effectively used to model routinization in games. A full study design is presented...
Bridging the gap between Schumpeterian competition and evolutionary game theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
This paper suggests that the analysis of Schumpeterian competition within the Nelson-Winter model should be complemented with evolutionary game theory. This model and its limitations for density-dependent Schumpeterian strategies are presented in terms of the equations of evolutionary dynamics....... Formulated as evolutionary games, the set of strategies can easily be extended from innovators and imitators to routinists, complementors, and mixers. All strategies are presented in relation to a modified version of the Hawk-Dove Game. In this setting, the possibility of coexistence of several Schumpeterian...
Analyzing claims by game theory and claim cost
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Cong-wei; TANG Yao-gang; LIU Zhan-hong
2006-01-01
In managing an international project, claims are very important. In this paper, a complete information dynamic game model is designed; with the Nash equilibrium values, the huge influence of claim cost on claim strategy is testified and the importance of claims to both sides of a contract especially the contractor is elucidated. Claim chances are also discussed with game theory. At last, from the angle of a repeated game and by comparison with Pareto optimization and Nash equilibrium values, it is concluded that the best payoff can be obtained with a honest attitude and through cooperation between companies.
Computer Game Theories for Designing Motivating Educational Software: A Survey Study
Ang, Chee Siang; Rao, G. S. V. Radha Krishna
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate computer game theories for educational software. We propose a framework for designing engaging educational games based on contemporary game studies which includes ludology and narratology. Ludology focuses on the study of computer games as play and game activities, while narratology revolves around the…
Quantum Uncertainty and Decision-Making in Game Theory
Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Khrennikov, A.; Basieva, I.
2011-01-01
Recently a few authors pointed to a possibility to apply the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to cognitive psychology, in particular, to games of the Prisoners Dilemma (PD) type.6_18 In this paper, we discuss the problem of rationality in game theory and point out that the quantum uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of knowledge, which a player feels subjectively in his decision-making.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈端芝
2015-01-01
灰博弈论是博弈理论与灰色理论相结合的综合性理论。本文系统论述了灰博弈的研究范围、研究现状和应用研究的一般过程。最后简要介绍了灰博弈的应用研究情况和发展趋势，并指出灰博弈论可作为研究社会、经济问题的有力工具。%The grey game theory is the combination of game theory and grey theory is a comprehensive theory. This article system elaborated the grey game research scope, research status and applications of general process. Finaly a brief introduction to the application of grey game research situation and development trend, and points out that the grey game theory can be used as a powerful tool for social and economic problems.
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Gracia-Lázaro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.
Surdutovich, G. I.; Ghiner, A. V.
2000-08-01
A famous model of a two-level atom interacting with the classical electromagnetic field is used to illustrate the fundamental problem of the relationship between the dynamical and relaxation processes under the interaction of radiation with a quantum-mechanical system and, as a result, to derive nonlinear Bloch-like equations. The presented considerations are based on the analysis of the balance of the fluxes of energy between atomic and field subsystems. It is shown that the generally accepted model of the exponential relaxation deduced for an isolated excited atom and inserted customarily into optical Bloch equations (OBE) describing atom in an external field always leads to a very strange result: spontaneous emission of an atom should be accompanied by the radiation of the coherent field into the external field's mode. Making use of only the energetic considerations, we found the relaxation mechanism (in the form of additional terms in the OBE) which, on the one hand, guarantees the fulfillment of the energetic balance and, on the other hand, allows to introduce arbitrary additional collision-like relaxation mechanism without violation of this balance. Note that these additional terms introduced into OBE from the energetic considerations in a remarkable manner exactly correspond to the renormalization of the external field with the allowance of the classical radiation damping (RD) effect. The revisited OBE may be used as the starting point for considering the dynamics of an atom by making allowance for the quantum properties of an external field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
2015-01-01
This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming....... This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005). The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant...... observations), and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claus Toft-Nielsen
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This article investigates digital game play (gaming as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72, in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007 functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming. This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005. The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant observations, and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein.
Academic Training Lecture | Game Theory | 8 - 9 May
2014-01-01
Game Theory (1 & 2), by Elias Koutsoupias (Professor of Computer Science, University of Oxford, UK). Thursday 8 May and Friday 9 May from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. CERN (500-1-001 - Main Auditorium) Description: This lecture series will present the main directions of Algorithmic Game Theory, a new field that has emerged in the last two decades at the interface of Game Theory and Computer Science, because of the unprecedented growth in size, complexity, and impact of the Internet and the Web. These include the price of anarchy (what is the impact of selfishness on a system of competing entities), computational complexity (can the market find a reasonable solution), mechanisms and auctions (what incentives to give to selfish individuals). See the Indico page here.
Game theory as a conceptual framework for managing insect pests.
Brown, Joel S; Staňková, Kateřina
2017-06-01
For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one. In the former case the manager only considers ecological consequences whereas the latter anticipates the evolutionary response of the pests. Broader applications of this game theory approach include anti-biotic resistance, fisheries management and therapy resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games
Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir
2016-01-01
The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...
A Game Theory Approach for Product Specialization in International Trade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana-Veronica ALEXA
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Game theory, in its most basic form, considers two players and analyses the different strategies that they can use and the effect that these strategies will have on each player. International trade allows countries to use better their resources (labor, technology or capital. Since countries have different capital or natural resources, some of them will produce a good more efficiently than others and therefore could sell it cheaper than other countries. By using game theory in international trade we could determine if the H-O-S model is correct and what would be the best specialization for each country.
Mathematical programming and game theory for decision making
Bapat, R B; Das, A K; Parthasarathy, T
2008-01-01
This edited book presents recent developments and state-of-the-art review in various areas of mathematical programming and game theory. It is a peer-reviewed research monograph under the ISI Platinum Jubilee Series on Statistical Science and Interdisciplinary Research. This volume provides a panoramic view of theory and the applications of the methods of mathematical programming to problems in statistics, finance, games and electrical networks. It also provides an important as well as timely overview of research trends and focuses on the exciting areas like support vector machines, bilevel pro
Game Theory, Predictive Analysis, And Iran
2013-12-01
EBSCOhost (accessed October 15, 2013), 291. 5 Bueno De Mesquita, The Predictioneer’s Game, 71. 6 James Johnson, "What Rationality Assumption? Or, How...Talks. 28 "Iran: Implications of Ahmadinejad’s Parliamentary Defeat." Stratfor Analysis (May 2012): 34. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost ...accessed October 28, 2013). 29 Ramin Ahmadi, "Tensions in Tehran." World Affairs 176, no. 3 (September 2013): 35-40. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost
Group decisions in biodiversity conservation: implications from game theory.
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David M Frank
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decision analysis and game theory have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each agent pursuing individual self-interest leads to a worse outcome for all, relative to other feasible outcomes. Three case studies from biodiversity conservation contexts showing this feature are modeled to demonstrate how game-theoretical representation can inform group decision-making. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mathematical theory of games is used to model three biodiversity conservation scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria: (i a two-agent case involving wild dogs in South Africa; (ii a three-agent raptor and grouse conservation scenario from the United Kingdom; and (iii an n-agent fish and coral conservation scenario from the Philippines. In each case there is reason to believe that traditional mechanism-design solutions that appeal to material incentives may be inadequate, and the game-theoretical analysis recommends a resumption of further deliberation between agents and the initiation of trust--and confidence--building measures. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Game theory can and should be used as a normative tool in biodiversity conservation contexts: identifying scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria enables constructive action in order to achieve (closer to optimal conservation outcomes, whether by policy solutions based on mechanism design or otherwise. However, there is mounting evidence that formal mechanism-design solutions may backfire in certain cases. Such scenarios demand a return to group deliberation and the creation of reciprocal relationships of trust.
Perspective of Game Theory in Education for Sustainable Development
Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.
2012-01-01
The sustainable development of society has attracted a lot of research efforts. A strategic aspect to the society's evolution is introduced by the game theory (Fernandez, 2011, p. 1). The research question is as follows: how to organize the process of teaching and learning in education for sustainable development? The aim of the research is to…
Collaboration in classical political economy and noncooperative game theory.
McCain, Roger A
2014-06-01
This commentary suggests (1) that there are precedents for Smaldino's "collaboration" in the history of economic thought before 1900 and (2) that the distinction of collaboration from what is thought of as cooperation in game theory is less clear than Smaldino suggests.
OPTIMIZATION OF TAX REGIME USING THE INSTRUMENT OF GAME THEORY
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Igor Yu. Pelevin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of one possible mechanism of taxation optimization of agricultural enterprises where used the game theory. Use of this mechanism allows to apply the most optimal type of taxation that would benefit both a taxpayer and the government. In the article offered the definition of the tax storage and its possible applications.
The theory of voting and equilibria in noncooperative games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Birgitte
1993-01-01
We consider the problem of modeling voting situations, seeking models and equilibrium concepts which are easier to incorporate in large sequential decision games than the models and solution concepts used by the "theory of voting." It is demonstrated that one can avoid using very refined solution...
Game and Information Theory Analysis of Electronic Counter Measures in Pursuit-Evasion Games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffin, Christopher H [ORNL
2008-01-01
Two-player Pursuit-Evasion games in the literature typically either assume both players have perfect knowledge of the opponent s positions or use primitive sensing models. This unrealistically skews the problem in favor of the pursuer who need only maintain a faster velocity at all turning radii. In real life, an evader usually escapes when the pursuer no longer knows the evader s position. In our previous work, we modeled pursuit-evasion without perfect information as a two-player bi-matrix game by using a realistic sensor model and information theory to compute game theoretic payoff matrices. That game has a saddle point when the evader uses strategies that exploit sensor limitations, while the pursuer relies on strategies that ignore the sensing limitations. In this paper, we consider for the first time the effect of many types of electronic counter measures (ECM) on pursuit evasion games. The evader s decision to initiate its ECM is modeled as a function of the distance between the players. Simulations show how to find optimal strategies for ECM use when initial conditions are known. We also discuss the effectiveness of different ECM technologies in pursuit-evasion games.
Defending Against Advanced Persistent Threats Using Game-Theory
König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan
2017-01-01
Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker’s incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense. Unlike standard game and decision theory, our model is tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to APTs, such as disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty about the current system state (in terms of how deeply the attacker may have penetrated into the system’s protective shells already). Practically, game-theoretic APT models can be derived straightforwardly from topological vulnerability analysis, together with risk assessments as they are done in common risk management standards like the ISO 31000 family. Theoretically, these models come with different properties than classical game theoretic models, whose technical solution presented in this work may be of independent interest. PMID:28045922
Defending Against Advanced Persistent Threats Using Game-Theory.
Rass, Stefan; König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan
2017-01-01
Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker's incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense. Unlike standard game and decision theory, our model is tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to APTs, such as disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty about the current system state (in terms of how deeply the attacker may have penetrated into the system's protective shells already). Practically, game-theoretic APT models can be derived straightforwardly from topological vulnerability analysis, together with risk assessments as they are done in common risk management standards like the ISO 31000 family. Theoretically, these models come with different properties than classical game theoretic models, whose technical solution presented in this work may be of independent interest.
Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.
Practical example of game theory application for production route selection
Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.
2017-08-01
The opportunity which opens before manufacturers on the dynamic market, especially before those from the sector of the small and medium-sized enterprises, is associated with the use of the virtual organizations concept. The planning stage of such organizations could be based on supporting decision-making tasks using the tools and formalisms taken from the game theory. In the paper the model of the virtual manufacturing network, along with the practical example of decision-making situation as two person game and the decision strategies with an analysis of calculation results are presented.
International conference on dynamical systems and game theory
Peixoto, Mauricio Matos; Rand, David A J; Dynamics, Games and Science II
2011-01-01
"Dynamics, Games and Science I and II" are a selection of surveys and research articles written by leading researchers in mathematics and its applications to the sciences. The majority of the contributions are on dynamical systems and game theory, focusing either on some of their most fundamental and theoretical developments or on their applications to modeling in biology, economics, engineering, finances and psychology. The aim of these books is to present cutting-edge research in these areas that can encourage graduate students and researchers in mathematics to develop them further
Howard, I A
2003-01-01
There is ongoing interest in the kinetic energy functional T sub s [rho] in density functional theory. The present study lies in this area and concerns the Pauli potential V sub P [rho]. A differential equation is obtained here for V sub P (x) in one dimension for a general two-level system. Also, as a specific example, such a functional of rho(x), the ground-state Fermion density, is given for the case of N Fermions which are harmonically confined. (letter to the editor)
Game Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wan-Liang; Kwok, Ngai-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong
2012-01-01
Game theory (GT) is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field. PMID:23012533
Game theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey.
Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wan-Liang; Kwok, Ngai-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong
2012-01-01
Game theory (GT) is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field.
GAME THEORY AND THE STRATGIC BEHAVIOR OF OLIGOPOLIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slađana Radović
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of market structures is thearea of economics, where game theory has madethe greatest use. On competitive markets with manyparticipants, each participant seeks the bestsolution for himself/herself, ignoring the actions ofother participants. However, if the number ofparticipants is small and each of them has somemarket power, then each participant must take intoaccount the behavior of others. The analysis of suchmarket structures especially reflects the use ofgame theory. This paper analyzes oligopolisticmarket structure and strategic interaction betweenthe participants in this market. The paper considersa few most important models related to differentbehaviors of enterprises in oligopolisticenvironment. It also analyzes how firms inoligopoly can take strategic steps to get anadvantage or a better position relative tocompetitors. The aim of the paper is to examine thepossibility of applying game theory to analyzestrategic actions of companies in oligopolisticmarkets.
Game Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ngai-Ming Kwok
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Game theory (GT is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field.
Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.
Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin
2014-06-05
The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.
Understanding hermaphrodite species through game theory.
Kebir, Amira; Fefferman, Nina H; Ben Miled, Slimane
2015-12-01
We investigate the existence and stability of sexual strategies (sequential hermaphrodite, successive hermaphrodite or gonochore) at a proximate level. To accomplish this, we constructed and analyzed a general dynamical game model structured by size and sex. Our main objective is to study how costs of changing sex and of sexual competition should shape the sexual behavior of a hermaphrodite. We prove that, at the proximate level, size alone is insufficient to explain the tendency for a pair of prospective copulants to elect the male sexual role by virtue of the disparity in the energetic costs of eggs and sperm. In fact, we show that the stability of sequential vs. simultaneous hermaphrodite depends on sex change costs, while the stability of protandrous vs. protogynous strategies depends on competition cost.
Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation
Bouzat, S
2013-01-01
We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.
Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.
Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N
2014-03-01
We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.
Electromagnetic game modeling through Tensor Analysis of Networks and Game Theory
Maurice, Olivier; Reineix, Alain; Lalléchère, Sébastien
2014-10-01
A complex system involves events coming from natural behaviors. Whatever is the complicated face of machines, they are still far from the complexity of natural systems. Currently, economy is one of the rare science trying to find out some ways to model human behavior. These attempts involve game theory and psychology. Our purpose is to develop a formalism able to take in charge both game and hardware modeling. We first present the Tensorial Analysis of Networks, used for the material part of the system. Then, we detail the mathematical objects defined in order to describe the evolution of the system and its gaming side. To illustrate the discussion we consider the case of a drone whose electronic can be disturbed by a radar field, but this drone must fly as near as possible close to this radar.
Forthcoming Issue on Game Theory and Political Economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William D. Ferguson
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Game theory offers a rigorous set of concepts, relationships, and models that invite myriad applications to problems of political economy. Indeed, game theory can serve as a fundamental modeling technique that can bridge microfoundations of political and economic exchanges, with developmental processes and macro implications related to growth and distribution. Applications can range from localized interactions within workplaces, firms, political organizations, and community groups; to intermediate-level market, industry, community, or inter-organizational transactions; to encompassing national, regional, population, or global interactions. At any of these levels, game models can illustrate strategic responses of economic or political actors (individuals or organizations to specifiable conditions concerning any or all of the following: prevailing social context—notably informal institutions (such as social norms and formal institutions (such as mutually understood laws and regulations; available information (complete or not; accessible or strategically manipulated; agents’ motivations (material and/or social; and even levels of rationality—substantive (full cognition or bounded (limited cognition. Applicable models may operate on the basis of given institutional context and preference orientations or may explore associated developmental processes, including adaptive social learning. Of particular interest are representations of one or more of the myriad social dilemmas (or collective-action problems that inhabit political economy, associated exercises or distributions of power, and/or representations of potential resolutions to such dilemmas—perhaps with policy implications. Accordingly, this forthcoming issue of Economies seeks game-theoretic models based on classical, evolutionary, behavioral, or epistemic game theory that can be applied to one or more problems in political economy.
Cryptographic Puzzles and Game Theory against DoS and DDoS attacks in Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.
2008-01-01
. In the second part we are introducing some basic principles of game theory and we discuss how game theoretical frameworks can protect computer networks. Finally, we show techniques that combine client puzzles with game theory in order to provide DoS and DDoS resilience....
John Nash, game theory, and the schizophrenic brain.
Capps, Donald
2011-03-01
This article focuses on John Nash, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994, and subject of the Award winning 2001 film A Beautiful Mind, who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1958 at the age of 29. After presenting an account of the emergence, course, and eventual remission of his illness, the article argues for the relevance of his contribution to game theory, known as the Nash equilibrium, for which he received the Nobel Prize, to research studies of the schizophrenic brain and how it deviates from the normal brain. The case is made that the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash's theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain. The fact that Nash and his colleagues in mathematics did not make the association between his contributions to mathematics and his mental breakdown and that his later recovery exemplified the validity of this contribution are noted and discussed. Religious themes in his delusional system, including his view of himself as a secret messianic figure and the biblical Esau, are interpreted in light of these competing game theories and the dysfunctions of the schizophrenic brain. His recognition that his return to normalcy came at the price of his sense of being in relation to the cosmos is also noted.
Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory
Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.
2014-08-01
Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.
A cellular automaton model for evacuation flow using game theory
Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Fangyue
2016-11-01
Game theory serves as a good tool to explore crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. The purpose of this study is to simulate the complicated interaction behavior among the conflicting pedestrians in an evacuation flow. Two types of pedestrians, namely, defectors and cooperators, are considered, and two important factors including fear index and cost coefficient are taken into account. By combining the snowdrift game theory with a cellular automaton (CA) model, it is shown that the increase of fear index and cost coefficient will lengthen the evacuation time, which is more apparent for large values of cost coefficient. Meanwhile, it is found that the defectors to cooperators ratio could always tend to consistent states despite different values of parameters, largely owing to self-organization effects.
THE THEORY OF THE FIRM AND THE EVOLUTIONARY GAMES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sirghi Nicoleta
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The neoclassical theory of the firm deals with the pattern of perfect competition, within which the perfect information available to economic agents provides instant allocation of production factors and access to economic goods. The Austrian School (C. Menger, L. von Mises, Hayek, etc. supported the idea of minimal state intervention on the markets, bringing important conceptual developments on the theory of the firm. Hirschleifer (1982 put forward the model of social and institutional functioning, arguing that the game theory is able to predict the outcome of the collective behavior and the human characteristics necessary for building the respective institutions.The evolutionary theory provides the firm and the entrepreneur the recognition of the functions of innovation, of generating and exploiting information and of organizing and coordinating production. The evolutionary perspective of the firm assumes the existence of a body of knowledge that is acquired through and builds up the organizational memory, subsequently found in routines, all choices being made based on these routines (Nelson and Winter, 2002. The evolution of the firm is considered to be similar to natural selection, but unlike the classic market selection, the evolutionists suggest the existence of a plurality of selection media. The present research is structured as follows: a brief introduction into the theories of the firm, the second part of the paper analyzes the theories of the firm from an institutional, neo-institutional and evolutionary perspective. In the third part of the paper the evolutionary games are described and analyzed from the evolutionary perspective of the firm. The last part of the paper represents a study of the “hawk-dove” game dynamic replicator. The final conclusions of the paper show that the evolutionary theory brings valuable contributions to the foundation of explanations regarding economic phenomena, indicating new directions for advanced
The bounds of reason game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences
Gintis, Herbert
2014-01-01
Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences-from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorati
Integrating health behavior theory and design elements in serious games.
Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs F. G.; Bridgman,Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter
2015-01-01
Background: Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better ...
Using Game Theory to Study the Evolution of Cultural Norms
De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele
2016-01-01
We discuss how to use evolutionary game theory (EGT) as a framework for studying how cultural dynamics and structural properties can influence the evolution of norms and behaviors within a society. We provide a brief tutorial on how EGT works, and discuss what kinds of insights it can provide. We then describe three published studies in which we have developed EGT models that help explain how structural and external conditions in a society affect the emergence of social norms.
Games in the Arctic: applying game theory insights to Arctic challenges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott Cole
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We illustrate the benefits of game theoretic analysis for assisting decision-makers in resolving conflicts and other challenges in a rapidly evolving region. We review a series of salient Arctic issues with global implications—managing open-access fisheries, opening Arctic areas for resource extraction and ensuring effective environmental regulation for natural resource extraction—and provide insights to help reach socially preferred outcomes. We provide an overview of game theoretic analysis in layman's terms, explaining how game theory can help researchers and decision-makers to better understand conflicts, and how to identify the need for, and improve the design of, policy interventions. We believe that game theoretic tools are particularly useful in a region with a diverse set of players ranging from countries to firms to individuals. We argue that the Arctic Council should take a more active governing role in the region by, for example, dispersing information to “players” in order to alleviate conflicts regarding the management of common-pool resources such as open-access fisheries and natural resource extraction. We also identify side payments—that is, monetary or in-kind compensation from one party of a conflict to another—as a key mechanism for reaching a more biologically, culturally and economically sustainable Arctic future. By emphasizing the practical insights generated from an academic discipline, we present game theory as an influential tool in shaping the future of the Arctic—for individual researchers, for inter-disciplinary research and for policy-makers themselves.
Game Theory Meets Wireless Sensor Networks Security Requirements and Threats Mitigation: A Survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed S. Abdalzaher
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We present a study of using game theory for protecting wireless sensor networks (WSNs from selfish behavior or malicious nodes. Due to scalability, low complexity and disseminated nature of WSNs, malicious attacks can be modeled effectively using game theory. In this study, we survey the different game-theoretic defense strategies for WSNs. We present a taxonomy of the game theory approaches based on the nature of the attack, whether it is caused by an external attacker or it is the result of an internal node acting selfishly or maliciously. We also present a general trust model using game theory for decision making. We, finally, identify the significant role of evolutionary games for WSNs security against intelligent attacks; then, we list several prospect applications of game theory to enhance the data trustworthiness and node cooperation in different WSNs.
Game Theory Meets Wireless Sensor Networks Security Requirements and Threats Mitigation: A Survey.
Abdalzaher, Mohamed S; Seddik, Karim; Elsabrouty, Maha; Muta, Osamu; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Abdel-Rahman, Adel
2016-06-29
We present a study of using game theory for protecting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) from selfish behavior or malicious nodes. Due to scalability, low complexity and disseminated nature of WSNs, malicious attacks can be modeled effectively using game theory. In this study, we survey the different game-theoretic defense strategies for WSNs. We present a taxonomy of the game theory approaches based on the nature of the attack, whether it is caused by an external attacker or it is the result of an internal node acting selfishly or maliciously. We also present a general trust model using game theory for decision making. We, finally, identify the significant role of evolutionary games for WSNs security against intelligent attacks; then, we list several prospect applications of game theory to enhance the data trustworthiness and node cooperation in different WSNs.
Analysis on stability of strategic alliance: A game theory perspective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Fei-qiong; FAN Liang-cong
2006-01-01
Strategic alliance has suffered much instabilities since its first implementation. Scholars have carried out many embedded, precise and comprehensive researches from both theory and empiricism. Here we try to find certain stable solutions by employing game theory, in an attempt to construct theoretical bases for strategic alliance, which people called "one of the most important organizational innovation in the end of the 20th century" (Shi, 2001), to exploit its advantages in the process of globalization. Finally, this article puts forward some advices for its success.
Synthesis of robust nonlinear autopilots using differential game theory
Menon, P. K. A.
1991-01-01
A synthesis technique for handling unmodeled disturbances in nonlinear control law synthesis was advanced using differential game theory. Two types of modeling inaccuracies can be included in the formulation. The first is a bias-type error, while the second is the scale-factor-type error in the control variables. The disturbances were assumed to satisfy an integral inequality constraint. Additionally, it was assumed that they act in such a way as to maximize a quadratic performance index. Expressions for optimal control and worst-case disturbance were then obtained using optimal control theory.
Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
2014-12-01
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
Should the model for risk-informed regulation be game theory rather than decision theory?
Bier, Vicki M; Lin, Shi-Woei
2013-02-01
Risk analysts frequently view the regulation of risks as being largely a matter of decision theory. According to this view, risk analysis methods provide information on the likelihood and severity of various possible outcomes; this information should then be assessed using a decision-theoretic approach (such as cost/benefit analysis) to determine whether the risks are acceptable, and whether additional regulation is warranted. However, this view ignores the fact that in many industries (particularly industries that are technologically sophisticated and employ specialized risk and safety experts), risk analyses may be done by regulated firms, not by the regulator. Moreover, those firms may have more knowledge about the levels of safety at their own facilities than the regulator does. This creates a situation in which the regulated firm has both the opportunity-and often also the motive-to provide inaccurate (in particular, favorably biased) risk information to the regulator, and hence the regulator has reason to doubt the accuracy of the risk information provided by regulated parties. Researchers have argued that decision theory is capable of dealing with many such strategic interactions as well as game theory can. This is especially true in two-player, two-stage games in which the follower has a unique best strategy in response to the leader's strategy, as appears to be the case in the situation analyzed in this article. However, even in such cases, we agree with Cox that game-theoretic methods and concepts can still be useful. In particular, the tools of mechanism design, and especially the revelation principle, can simplify the analysis of such games because the revelation principle provides rigorous assurance that it is sufficient to analyze only games in which licensees truthfully report their risk levels, making the problem more manageable. Without that, it would generally be necessary to consider much more complicated forms of strategic behavior (including
Ciocci, Argante; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca
2015-11-01
Game theory is a formal way to analyze the interactions among groups of subjects who behave each other. It has historically been of great interest in the economic fields in which decisions are made in a competitive environment. Game theory has fascinating potential if applied in the medical science. Few papers have been written about the application of game theory in surgery. The majority of scenarios of game theory in surgery fall into two main groups: cooperative and no cooperative games.
Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.
Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng
2014-01-01
Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones.
Optimal threshold estimation for binary classifiers using game theory.
Sanchez, Ignacio Enrique
2016-01-01
Many bioinformatics algorithms can be understood as binary classifiers. They are usually compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve. On the other hand, choosing the best threshold for practical use is a complex task, due to uncertain and context-dependent skews in the abundance of positives in nature and in the yields/costs for correct/incorrect classification. We argue that considering a classifier as a player in a zero-sum game allows us to use the minimax principle from game theory to determine the optimal operating point. The proposed classifier threshold corresponds to the intersection between the ROC curve and the descending diagonal in ROC space and yields a minimax accuracy of 1-FPR. Our proposal can be readily implemented in practice, and reveals that the empirical condition for threshold estimation of "specificity equals sensitivity" maximizes robustness against uncertainties in the abundance of positives in nature and classification costs.
Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.
Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu
2016-09-01
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.
网络经济的博弈论分析%Analysis of the Game Theory in Network Economy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉
2001-01-01
Based on the non-asymmetrical information game theory, this paper analyzes the trust-agency mechanism in network economy, the change of the rules of the game and the strategies of the game in the network environment.
Game theory in communication networks cooperative resolution of interactive networking scenarios
Antoniou, Josephina
2012-01-01
A mathematical tool for scientists and researchers who work with computer and communication networks, Game Theory in Communication Networks: Cooperative Resolution of Interactive Networking Scenarios addresses the question of how to promote cooperative behavior in interactive situations between heterogeneous entities in communication networking scenarios. It explores network design and management from a theoretical perspective, using game theory and graph theory to analyze strategic situations and demonstrate profitable behaviors of the cooperative entities. The book promotes the use of Game T
Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika
2008-01-01
Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…
Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika
2008-01-01
Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…
“I am a rogue night elf”: Avatars, gaming and The Big Bang Theory
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Theo Plothe
2014-03-01
Full Text Available CBS’s The Big Bang Theory (TBBT frequently exhibits elements of video games and gaming culture. The author uses subculture theory to consider the representation of video games, gamers, and their avatars within popular culture. This paper investigates the representation of avatars within the characterization of gaming subculture on the TBBT. The author performed a content analysis of the program’s six seasons, examining the relationship between the show’s video game playing characters and their avatars. This investigation found that almost half of the scenes that contained video gaming activities contained some aspect of avatars. TBBT reifies gaming as a subculture through the relationship between the characters and their avatars. Examining the representation of these relationships is essential to understanding the representation of the gaming subculture in the mass media and within culture at large.
Game Theory Paradigm: A New Tool for Investigating Social Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorders
Wang, Yun; Yang, Liu-Qing; Li, Shu; Zhou, Yuan
2015-01-01
Social dysfunction is a prominent source of distress and disability in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but is commonly omitted from current clinical studies, although some researchers propose an evolutionary strategy to understand these negative outcomes. Limited knowledge about the neural basis of social dysfunction in MDD results from traditional paradigms, which lack insights into social interactions. Game theoretical modeling offers a new tool for investigating social-interaction impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. This review first introduces three widely used games from game theory and the major behavioral and neuroimaging findings obtained using these games in healthy populations. We also address the factors that modulate behaviors in games and their neural bases. We then summarize the current findings obtained by using these games in depressed patients and discuss the clinical implications of these abnormal game behaviors. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects that may further elucidate the clinical use of a game theory paradigm in MDD. PMID:26441689
Game Theory Paradigm: A New Tool for Investigating Social Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorders.
Wang, Yun; Yang, Liu-Qing; Li, Shu; Zhou, Yuan
2015-01-01
Social dysfunction is a prominent source of distress and disability in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but is commonly omitted from current clinical studies, although some researchers propose an evolutionary strategy to understand these negative outcomes. Limited knowledge about the neural basis of social dysfunction in MDD results from traditional paradigms, which lack insights into social interactions. Game theoretical modeling offers a new tool for investigating social-interaction impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. This review first introduces three widely used games from game theory and the major behavioral and neuroimaging findings obtained using these games in healthy populations. We also address the factors that modulate behaviors in games and their neural bases. We then summarize the current findings obtained by using these games in depressed patients and discuss the clinical implications of these abnormal game behaviors. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects that may further elucidate the clinical use of a game theory paradigm in MDD.
Toward a Theory of Play: A Logical Perspective on Games and Interaction
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Olivier Roy
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Logic and game theory have had a few decades of contacts by now, with the classical results of epistemic game theory as major high-lights. In this paper, we emphasize a recent new perspective toward “logical dynamics”, designing logical systems that focus on the actions that change information, preference, and other driving forces of agency. We show how this dynamic turn works out for games, drawing on some recent advances in the literature. Our key examples are the long-term dynamics of information exchange, as well as the much-discussed issue of extensive game rationality. Our paper also proposes a new broader interpretation of what is happening here. The combination of logic and game theory provides a fine-grained perspective on information and interaction dynamics, and we are witnessing the birth of something new which is not just logic, nor just game theory, but rather a Theory of Play.
Game Theory Models for Multi-Robot Patrolling of Infrastructures
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Erik Hernández
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This work is focused on the problem of performing multi‐robot patrolling for infrastructure security applications in order to protect a known environment at critical facilities. Thus, given a set of robots and a set of points of interest, the patrolling task consists of constantly visiting these points at irregular time intervals for security purposes. Current existing solutions for these types of applications are predictable and inflexible. Moreover, most of the previous work has tackled the patrolling problem with centralized and deterministic solutions and only few efforts have been made to integrate dynamic methods. Therefore, one of the main contributions of this work is the development of new dynamic and decentralized collaborative approaches in order to solve the aforementioned problem by implementing learning models from Game Theory. The model selected in this work that includes belief‐based and reinforcement models as special cases is called Experience‐Weighted Attraction. The problem has been defined using concepts of Graph Theory to represent the environment in order to work with such Game Theory techniques. Finally, the proposed methods have been evaluated experimentally by using a patrolling simulator. The results obtained have been compared with previous available approaches.
Theory of Networked Minority Games based on Strategy Pattern Dynamics
Lo, T. S.; H.Y. Chan; P.M. Hui; Johnson, N F
2004-01-01
We formulate a theory of agent-based models in which agents compete to be in a winning group. The agents may be part of a network or not, and the winning group may be a minority group or not. The novel feature of the present formalism is its focus on the dynamical pattern of strategy rankings, and its careful treatment of the strategy ties which arise during the system's temporal evolution. We apply it to the Minority Game (MG) with connected populations. Expressions for the mean success rate...
An Analysis of Voidance of Policy Under Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范建刚; 樊花
2006-01-01
Ⅰ.The causes for the voidance of the policyThe main cause of the problem,from the aspectof Game theory,lies in the fact that the governmentdidn’t think policy making and implementing is aprocess of confrontation,so it didn’t take vigorousaction to create proper conditions so as to make eachmicro-economic body join in the confrontationactively,and also,the government didn’t make anyeffort to guide the confrontation to the desired result.The following problems should be responsible for thevoidance of the poli...
Games microbes play: The game theory behind cooperative sucrose metabolism in yeast
Gore, Jeff
2010-03-01
The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. Microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot, thus leading to growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. In order for the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase. This hydrolysis reaction is performed outside of the cytoplasm in the periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. Here we demonstrate that the vast majority (˜99%) of the monosaccharides created by sucrose hydrolysis diffuse away before they can be imported into the cell, thus making invertase production and secretion a cooperative behavior [1]. A mutant cheater strain that does not produce invertase is able to take advantage of and invade a population of wildtype cooperator cells. However, over a wide range of conditions, the wildtype cooperator can also invade a population of cheater cells. Therefore, we observe coexistence between the two strains in well-mixed culture at steady state resulting from the fact that rare strategies outperform common strategies---the defining features of what game theorists call the snowdrift game. A simple model of the cooperative interaction incorporating nonlinear benefits explains the origin of this coexistence. Glucose repression of invertase expression in wildtype cells produces a strategy which is optimal for the snowdrift game---wildtype cells cooperate only when competing against cheater cells. In disagreement with recent theory [2], we find that spatial structure always aids the evolution of cooperation in our experimental snowdrift game. [4pt] [1] Gore, J., Youk, H. & van Oudenaarden, A., Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009) [0pt] [2] Hauert, C. & Doebeli, M., Nature 428, 643 -- 646 (2004)
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
Using Developmental Theory: When Not to Play Telephone Games
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Sara Nora Ross
2008-06-01
Full Text Available As a powerful way to help understand the behaviors of people and socialgroupings of all kinds, developmental stage theory attracts attention and use outside ofpurely academic environments. These uses take the form of written materials and manykinds of interventions. The level of accuracy of developmental theory informationgenerated and used outside of academe demonstrates wide variety. This variety isreflected in materials and interventions. The information used in materials andinterventions becomes increasingly distorted as it becomes further removed from originaltheoretical sources. This has major implications for the ethics and expertise issues that areinherent in applied developmental theory. A classification scheme of information-usebehaviors, many of which contribute to distortion processes, is used to code actual casesof creating and disseminating distorted developmental theory information, invoking themetaphor of telephone games. Case evidence indicates that casual, illustrative figures in a2006 book by Wilber were used by others for various serious and theoretical purposes,and resulted in major distortions of developmental theory. Wilber’s figures representproblematic issues and errors, including distortion of theory, if they are used—as theyindeed were—for any purpose more serious than his original purpose. Stemming fromthose issues and errors, a highly distorted picture of cognitive development and a pseudoversionof Commons and Richards’ Model of Hierarchical Complexity theory emerged,telephone game-like, in the cases discussed. Errors were widely propagated on theinternet. Because outside of academe, specialized expertise in developmental theory isdifficult to acquire, the sub-field of applied developmental theory requires not onlyaccurate information but also strong communication ethics to govern behaviors ofinformation providers. Such providers need to protect themselves at the same time theyprotect and inform consumers of
The stability concept of evolutionary game theory a dynamic approach
1992-01-01
These Notes grew from my research in evolutionary biology, specifically on the theory of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS theory), over the past ten years. Personally, evolutionary game theory has given me the opportunity to transfer my enthusiasm for abstract mathematics to more practical pursuits. I was fortunate to have entered this field in its infancy when many biologists recognized its potential but were not prepared to grant it general acceptance. This is no longer the case. ESS theory is now a rapidly expanding (in both applied and theoretical directions) force that no evolutionary biologist can afford to ignore. Perhaps, to continue the life-cycle metaphor, ESS theory is now in its late adolescence and displays much of the optimism and exuberance of this exciting age. There are dangers in writing a text about a theory at this stage of development. A comprehensive treatment would involve too many loose ends for the reader to appreciate the central message. On the other hand, the current central m...
Applying Game Theory in 802.11 Wireless Networks
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Tomas Cuzanauskas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 is one of the most popular wireless technologies in recent days. Due to easiness of adaption and relatively low cost the demand for IEEE 802.11 devices is increasing exponentially. IEEE works in two bands 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, these bands are known as ISM band. The unlicensed bands are managed by authority which set simple rules to follow when using unlicensed bands, the rules includes requirements as maximum power, out-of-band emissions control as well as interference mitigation. However these rules became outdated as IEEE 802.11 technology is emerging and evolving in hours the rules aren’t well suited for current capabilities of IEEE 802.11 devices. In this article we present game theory based algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless devices, we will show that by using game theory it’s possible to achieve better usage of unlicensed spectrum as well as partially decline CSMA/CA. Finally by using this approach we might relax the currently applied maximum power rules for ISM bands, which enable IEEE 802.11 to work on longer distance and have better propagation characteristics.
Regularity theory for mean-field game systems
Gomes, Diogo A; Voskanyan, Vardan
2016-01-01
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-09-14
Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
Lyapunov stability in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market
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Ricardo Azevedo Araujo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the existence and stability of equilibriums in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market is studied by using the Lyapunov method. The model displays multiple equilibriums and it is shown that the Nash equilibriums of the static game are evolutionary stable equilibrium in the game theory evolutionary set up. A complete characterization of the dynamics of an evolutionary model of the labour market is provided.
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Abolfazl Kazemi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Coordinating the supply chain is among the most important subjects that is extensively addressed in the related literature. If a supply chain is to be coordinated, it is equivalent to say that we must solve a problem related to competition and cooperation. The game theory is obviously one of the most effective methods to solve such problems, in which the players of the supply chain are assumed to engage in cooperative and non-cooperative games. The current study aims to coordinate a two-level supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. This will be achieved using cooperative advertisement along with pricing decisions such that the manufacturer offers a price discount to the retailer and the demand is affected by pricing and advertisement. Cooperative advertisement is a coordinated effort made by all the members of the supply chain to increase the customer demand, in which the retailer does the local advertisement and the manufacturer pays for a portion or all the costs of the retailer advertisement. We consider two models for manufacturer-retailer relation using the game theory: the manufacturer-Stackelberg and the retailer-Stackelberg games with asymmetric power distribution.
Using Game Theory and the Bible to Build Critical Thinking Skills
McCannon, Bryan C.
2007-01-01
The author describes a course designed to build the critical thinking skills of undergraduate economics students. The course introduces and uses game theory to study the Bible. Students gain experience using game theory to formalize events and, by drawing parallels between the Bible and common economic concepts, illustrate the pervasiveness of…
Williams, Miriam F.
2012-01-01
The author uses game theoretical models to identify technical communication breakdowns encountered during the notoriously confusing Texas Two-Step voting and caucusing process. Specifically, the author uses narrative theory and game theory to highlight areas where caucus participants needed instructions to better understand the rules of the game…
Isaacs, Rufus
1999-01-01
Definitive work draws on game theory, calculus of variations, and control theory to solve an array of problems: military, pursuit and evasion, athletic contests, many more. Detailed examples, formal calculations. 1965 edition.
An educational video game for nutrition of young people: Theory and design.
Ledoux, Tracey; Griffith, Melissa; Thompson, Debbe; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Tom
2016-08-01
Playing Escape from DIAB (DIAB) and Nanoswarm (NANO), epic video game adventures, increased fruit and vegetable consumption among a multi-ethnic sample of 10-12 year old children during pilot testing. Key elements of both games were educational mini-games embedded in the overall game that promoted knowledge acquisition regarding diet, physical activity and energy balance. 95-100% of participants demonstrated mastery of these mini-games suggesting knowledge acquisition. This article describes the process of designing and developing the educational mini-games. A secondary purpose was to explore the experience of children while playing the games. The educational games were based on Social Cognitive and Mastery Learning Theories. A multidisciplinary team of behavioral nutrition, PA, and video game experts designed, developed, and tested the mini-games. Alpha testing revealed children generally liked the mini-games and found them to be reasonably challenging. Process evaluation data from pilot testing revealed almost all participants completed nearly all educational mini-games in a reasonable amount of time suggesting feasibility of this approach. Future research should continue to explore the use of video games in educating children to achieve healthy behavior changes.
The ecology of cancer from an evolutionary game theory perspective.
Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Dingli, David
2014-08-06
The accumulation of somatic mutations, to which the cellular genome is permanently exposed, often leads to cancer. Analysis of any tumour shows that, besides the malignant cells, one finds other 'supporting' cells such as fibroblasts, immune cells of various types and even blood vessels. Together, these cells generate the microenvironment that enables the malignant cell population to grow and ultimately lead to disease. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of tumour growth and response to therapy is incomplete unless the interactions between the malignant cells and normal cells are investigated in the environment in which they take place. The complex interactions between cells in such an ecosystem result from the exchange of information in the form of cytokines- and adhesion-dependent interactions. Such processes impose costs and benefits to the participating cells that may be conveniently recast in the form of a game pay-off matrix. As a result, tumour progression and dynamics can be described in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT), which provides a convenient framework in which to capture the frequency-dependent nature of ecosystem dynamics. Here, we provide a tutorial review of the central aspects of EGT, establishing a relation with the problem of cancer. Along the way, we also digress on fitness and of ways to compute it. Subsequently, we show how EGT can be applied to the study of the various manifestations and dynamics of multiple myeloma bone disease and its preceding condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We translate the complex biochemical signals into costs and benefits of different cell types, thus defining a game pay-off matrix. Then we use the well-known properties of the EGT equations to reduce the number of core parameters that characterize disease evolution. Finally, we provide an interpretation of these core parameters in terms of what their function is in the ecosystem we are describing and generate
System of marketing deciding support based on game theory
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Gordana Dukić
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Quantitative methods and models can be applied in numerous spheres of marketing deciding. The choice of optimal strategy in product advertising is one of the problems that the marketing-management often meets. The use of models developed within the framework of game theory makes significantly easier to find out the solutions of conflict situations that appear herewith. The system of deciding support presented in this work is based on the supposition that two opposed sides take part in the game. With the aim of deciding process promotion, the starting model incorporates computer simulation of percentile changes in the market share that represent elements of payment matrix. The supposition is that the random variables that represent them follow the normal division. It is necessary to carry out the evaluation of their parameters because of relevant data. Information techniques, computer and the adequate program applications take the special position in solving and analysis of the suggested model. This kind of their application represents the basic characteristic of the deciding support system.
Game theory and neural basis of social decision making.
Lee, Daeyeol
2008-04-01
Decision making in a social group has two distinguishing features. First, humans and other animals routinely alter their behavior in response to changes in their physical and social environment. As a result, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behavior of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict and require highly adaptive decision-making strategies. Second, decision makers may have preferences regarding consequences to other individuals and therefore choose their actions to improve or reduce the well-being of others. Many neurobiological studies have exploited game theory to probe the neural basis of decision making and suggested that these features of social decision making might be reflected in the functions of brain areas involved in reward evaluation and reinforcement learning. Molecular genetic studies have also begun to identify genetic mechanisms for personal traits related to reinforcement learning and complex social decision making, further illuminating the biological basis of social behavior.
Complex adaptive systems and game theory: An unlikely union
Hadzikadic, M.; Carmichael, T.; Curtin, C.
2010-01-01
A Complex Adaptive System is a collection of autonomous, heterogeneous agents, whose behavior is defined with a limited number of rules. A Game Theory is a mathematical construct that assumes a small number of rational players who have a limited number of actions or strategies available to them. The CAS method has the potential to alleviate some of the shortcomings of GT. On the other hand, CAS researchers are always looking for a realistic way to define interactions among agents. GT offers an attractive option for defining the rules of such interactions in a way that is both potentially consistent with observed real-world behavior and subject to mathematical interpretation. This article reports on the results of an effort to build a CAS system that utilizes GT for determining the actions of individual agents. ?? 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 16,24-42, 2010.
Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.
Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling
2016-05-01
Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation.
The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory
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Changjiang Zheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalina BUTNARU
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodification and increased consumption are crossing the line between values and needs, production and creation, identity and capital accumulation, thus making people constantly expecting a payoff while engaging in social, cultural and economic transactions. In this article we argue that we can use the models of game theory to understand socio-economic phenomena such as consumption, B2C marketing and market dynamics.
A short review of game theory for neurosurgeons.
Steiger, H-J; Steiger, U R
2011-02-01
Neurosurgery and medicine in general are increasingly dominated by economic factors and considerations. Physicians themselves have partially adopted economic terminology, although they rarely have a profound knowledge of economics. Today game theory is one of the most important factors driving microeconomics, which is the competition for limited resources within a small group of individuals. The purpose of this article is to give a short introduction to game theory and its application to the healthcare system. The Prisoner's Dilemma considers strategies between two persons. In the classic version two burglars are caught. Each could confess and be released from jail if the other does not confess--who will then get a long term in prison. If both confess, both get an intermediate time in jail, and if no one confesses, both get a mild sentence. Wanting to be released from jail, they both confess and get the intermediate term in prison. This remarkable result, initially described by John von Neumann in 1928 and showing that individually rational actions can result in both persons becoming worse off, had a great impact on modern social science. Other scenarios are more complex. The Nash Equilibrium is a wider concept. If there is a set of strategies with the property that no player can benefit by changing his strategy while the other players keep their strategies unchanged, then that set of strategies and the corresponding payoffs constitute the Nash Equilibrium. Another concept particularly important in sociology is the Pareto criterion. If no one can be made better off without making somebody else worse off, then that outcome is Pareto optimal. Respecting these basic principles is a necessary precondition for successful deals and cooperative projects.
Application of game theory for a groundwater conflict in Mexico.
Raquel, Salazar; Ferenc, Szidarovszky; Emery, Coppola; Abraham, Rojano
2007-09-01
Exploitation of scarce water resources, particularly in areas of high demand, inevitably produces conflict among disparate stakeholders, each of whom may have their own set of priorities. In order to arrive at a socially acceptable compromise, the decision-makers should seek an optimal trade-off between conflicting objectives that reflect the priorities of the various stakeholders. In this study, game theory was applied to a multiobjective conflict problem for the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District, located in the state of Guanajuato in Mexico, where economic benefits from agricultural production should be balanced with associated negative environmental impacts. The short period of rainfall in this area, combined with high groundwater withdrawals from irrigation wells, has produced severe aquifer overdraft. In addition, current agricultural practices of applying high loads of fertilizers and pesticides have contaminated regions of the aquifer. The net economic benefit to this agricultural region in the short-term lies with increasing crop yields, which requires large pumping extractions for irrigation as well as high chemical loading. In the longer term, this can produce economic loss due to higher pumping costs (i.e., higher lift requirements), or even loss of the aquifer as a viable source of water. Negative environmental impacts include continued diminishment of groundwater quality, and declining groundwater levels in the basin, which can damage surface water systems that support environmental habitats. The two primary stakeholders or players, the farmers in the irrigation district and the community at large, must find an optimal balance between positive economic benefits and negative environmental impacts. In this paper, game theory was applied to find the optimal solution between the two conflicting objectives among 12 alternative groundwater extraction scenarios. Different attributes were used to quantify the benefits and costs of the two objectives, and
Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang
2017-03-01
Von Neumann and Morgenstern published the Theory of Games and Economic Behavior in 1944, describing game theory as a model in which intelligent rational decision-makers manage to find their best strategies in conflict, cooperative or other mutualistic relationships to acquire the greatest benefit [1]. This model was subsequently incorporated in ecology to simulate the ;fitness; of a species during natural selection, designated evolutionary game theory (EGT) [2]. Wang et al. proposed ;epiGame;, taking paternal and maternal genomes as ;intelligent; players that compete, cooperate or both during embryogenesis to maximize the fitness of the embryo [3]. They further extended game theory to an individual or single cell environment. During early zygote development, DNA methylation is reprogrammed such that the paternal genome is demethylated before the maternal genome. After the reset, the blastocyst is re-methylated during embryogenesis. At that time, the paternal and maternal genomes have a conflict of interest related to the expression of their own genes. The proposed epiGame models such interactive regulation between the parental genomes to reach a balance for embryo development (equation (2)).
Yokoi's Theory of Lateral Innovation: Applications for Learning Game Design
Warren, Scott J.; Jones, Greg
2008-01-01
There are several major challenges for instructional designers seeking to design learning games. These include the lack of access, the cost of rapidly advancing/expensive technology tools that make developing games uneconomical, the institutional time constraints limiting game use, and the concerns that schools lack sufficiently robust computer…
Grey game theory and its applications in economic decision-making
Fang, Zhigeng; Shi, Hongxing; Lin, Yi
2016-01-01
To make the best decisions, you need the best information. However, because most issues in game theory are grey, nearly all recent research has been carried out using a simplified method that considers grey systems as white ones. This often results in a forecasting function that is far from satisfactory when applied to many real situations. Grey Game Theory and Its Applications in Economic Decision Making introduces classic game theory into the realm of grey system theory with limited knowledge. The book resolves three theoretical issues: A game equilibrium of grey game A reasonable explanation for the equilibrium of a grey matrix of static nonmatrix game issues based on incomplete information The Centipede Game paradox, which has puzzled theory circles for a long time and greatly enriched and developed the core methods of subgame Nash perfect equilibrium analysis as a result The book establishes a grey matrix game model based on pure and mixed strategies. The author proposes the concepts of grey saddle p...
Using game theory to assess multi-company strategies in watershed management
2016-01-01
Abstract The main objective of this work was to evaluate the use of game theory as a strategic tool for watershed management decision-making. An engineering problem case study was used in which three organizations compare various scenarios when deciding where to locate a polluting plant on a watershed. Six games were modeled to provide a variety of conditions that could feasibly be implemented and were simulated using software for finding Nash Equilibria solutions. The results show that game ...
Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis
Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.
2012-01-01
Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…
Non-cooperative stochastic differential game theory of generalized Markov jump linear systems
Zhang, Cheng-ke; Zhou, Hai-ying; Bin, Ning
2017-01-01
This book systematically studies the stochastic non-cooperative differential game theory of generalized linear Markov jump systems and its application in the field of finance and insurance. The book is an in-depth research book of the continuous time and discrete time linear quadratic stochastic differential game, in order to establish a relatively complete framework of dynamic non-cooperative differential game theory. It uses the method of dynamic programming principle and Riccati equation, and derives it into all kinds of existence conditions and calculating method of the equilibrium strategies of dynamic non-cooperative differential game. Based on the game theory method, this book studies the corresponding robust control problem, especially the existence condition and design method of the optimal robust control strategy. The book discusses the theoretical results and its applications in the risk control, option pricing, and the optimal investment problem in the field of finance and insurance, enriching the...
[Describe relationship among multi-components of Siwu decoction using game theory].
Liu, Ming; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Wang, Yuguang; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Yue
2011-04-01
Game theory is an important component of complex system theory, specially used in describing bilateral or multiple cooperation and confrontation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription doctrines cover multiple connotation of game theory. Firstly multi-components of Siwu decoction were analyzed by using fuzzy set to get the membership functions. Then the revenue function was contructed and build the Siwu decoction's multi-player game model was built. Lastly the three kinds of different combinations Siwu decoction efficacy were analyzed by using the model to get the best compositions.
Advances in understanding strategic behaviour game theory, experiments and bounded rationality
Huck, Steffen
2004-01-01
The first ultimatum game, conducted by Werner Güth in the late 1970s, marks a crucial point in the history of modern economics-suddenly game theory lost its innocence and there was a chasm-between the beauty and elegance of the theory on one hand and the dour facts of behaviour on the other. Since then, the economics literature has slowly started filling this gap. Evolutionary game theory, preference evolution, learning models, models of bounded rationality with and without optimization, and, of course, more and more systematic experimental evidence-all these approaches flourished, competing w
Repeated Games With Intervention: Theory and Applications in Communications
Xiao, Yuanzhang; van der Schaar, Mihaela
2011-01-01
In communication systems where users share common resources, users' selfish behavior usually results in suboptimal resource utilization. There have been extensive works that model communication systems with selfish users as one-shot games and propose incentive schemes to achieve Pareto optimal action profiles as non-cooperative equilibria. However, in many communication systems, due to strong negative externalities among users, the sets of feasible payoffs in one-shot games are nonconvex. Thus, it is possible to expand the set of feasible payoffs by having users choose convex combinations of different payoffs. In this paper, we propose a repeated game model generalized by intervention. First, we use repeated games to convexify the set of feasible payoffs in one-shot games. Second, we combine conventional repeated games with intervention, originally proposed for one-shot games, to achieve a larger set of equilibrium payoffs and loosen requirements for users' patience to achieve it. We study the problem of maxi...
Wang, Yaqun
2017-03-01
The authors are to be congratulated for a thought-provoking article [1], which reviews the epigenetic game theory (epiGame) that utilizes differential equations to study the epigenetic control of embryo development. It is a novel application of evolutionary game theory and provides biology researchers with useful methodologies to address scientific questions related to biological coordination of competition and cooperation.
Applications of multi-criteria and game theory approaches manufacturing and logistics
Hennet, Jean-Claude; Tiwari, Manoj
2014-01-01
Aligning the latest practices, innovations and case studies with academic frameworks and theories, the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and logistics is covered in comprehensive details. Part 1 presents ‘multi-criteria applications’ and includes chapters on logistics with a focus on vehicle routing problems, a multi-objective decision making approach to select the best storage policy and an exploratory study to predict the most important factors that can lead to successful mobile supply chain management adoption for manufacturing firms. Part 2 covers ‘game theory applications’ and encompasses the process of forming a coalition within a corporate network to the problem of integrating inventory and distribution optimization together with game theory to effectively manage supply networks. Providing a forum to investigate, exchange novel ideas and disseminate knowledge covering the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and l...
Haagsma, Maria C.; King, Daniel L.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Peters, Oscar
2013-01-01
Although excessive video gaming has been linked to a range of psychological problems in young people, there have been few systematic attempts to conceptualize problem gaming using established psychological theory. The aim of this study was to examine problematic game use (PGU) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A two-wave, six-month…
Haagsma, Maria C.; King, Daniel L.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Peters, Oscar
2013-01-01
Although excessive video gaming has been linked to a range of psychological problems in young people, there have been few systematic attempts to conceptualize problem gaming using established psychological theory. The aim of this study was to examine problematic game use (PGU) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A two-wave, six-month…
Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Tao, Yi
2017-03-01
The evolutionary significance of the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes is a very interesting and challenging question. Wang et al. developed the concept of epigenetic game theory, and they try to use this concept to explain the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes [1]. They emphasize that the embryogenesis can be considered as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. More specifically, they integrate game theory to model the pattern of coordination of paternal genome and maternal genomes mediated by DNA methylation dynamics, and they called this epigenetic game theory.
Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory Approach. ... Through extensive simulations, we show that this mechanism can increase fairness and encourage resource contribution by peers to the network. ... Article Metrics.
Sie, Rory
2012-01-01
Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Sie, Rory
2012-01-01
Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Turkay, Selen; Hoffman, Daniel; Kinzer, Charles K.; Chantes, Pantiphar; Vicari, Christopher
2014-01-01
Researchers have argued that an effort should be made to raise teachers' and parents' awareness of the potentially positive educational benefits of playing video games (e.g., see Baek, 2008). One part of this effort should be to increase understanding of how video games can be situated within teachers' existing goals and knowledge…
Quantum Game Theory Based on the Schmidt Decomposition: Can Entanglement Resolve Dilemmas?
Ichikawa, T; Tsutsui, I; Cheon, Taksu; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi
2007-01-01
We present a novel formulation of quantum game theory based on the Schmidt decomposition, which has the merit that the entanglement of quantum strategies is manifestly quantified. We apply this formulation to 2-player, 2-strategy symmetric games and obtain a complete set of quantum Nash equilibria. Apart from those available with the maximal entanglement, these quantum Nash equilibria are extensions of the Nash equilibria in classical game theory. The phase structure of the equilibria is determined for all values of entanglement, and thereby the possibility of resolving the dilemmas by entanglement in the game of Chicken, the Battle of the Sexes, the Prisoners' Dilemma, and the Stag Hunt, is examined. We find that entanglement transforms these dilemmas with each other but cannot resolve them, except in the Stag Hunt game where the dilemma can be alleviated to a certain degree.
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
2006-06-01
Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.
Game Theory Model and Equilibrium Analysis of Peasant＇s Production Decision
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Xue-lian; Zhang Ya-zhuo; Meng Jun
2012-01-01
Unbalanced agricultural production decision becomes the great block that influences the effective distribution of social resources, national grain security, social stability and economic development. This paper took the game theory as an analyzed tool to describe the interactional processes among the peasants, and set up the game theory model of independent decision and joint decision by peasants. It was shown that the government＇s positive guide and the market environment macroscopically controlled by the government could effectively increased the peasants＇ income
Optimal Adaptive Control of a Class of Stochastic Systems Using Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper attempts to study a optimal adaptive con tr ol problem using game theory, and proposes an important practical result that an adaptive processes is a set of sufficient conditions under which pure strategy is essentially complete, and thus the fact that yield a very useful desirable pu re optimal control rule.Optimal Adaptive Control of a Class of Stochastic Systems Using Game Theory
Lazarou, D.
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…
Inductive game theory and the dynamics of animal conflict.
DeDeo, Simon; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C
2010-05-13
Conflict destabilizes social interactions and impedes cooperation at multiple scales of biological organization. Of fundamental interest are the causes of turbulent periods of conflict. We analyze conflict dynamics in an monkey society model system. We develop a technique, Inductive Game Theory, to extract directly from time-series data the decision-making strategies used by individuals and groups. This technique uses Monte Carlo simulation to test alternative causal models of conflict dynamics. We find individuals base their decision to fight on memory of social factors, not on short timescale ecological resource competition. Furthermore, the social assessments on which these decisions are based are triadic (self in relation to another pair of individuals), not pairwise. We show that this triadic decision making causes long conflict cascades and that there is a high population cost of the large fights associated with these cascades. These results suggest that individual agency has been over-emphasized in the social evolution of complex aggregates, and that pair-wise formalisms are inadequate. An appreciation of the empirical foundations of the collective dynamics of conflict is a crucial step towards its effective management.
Game Theory: Trust Model for Common Criteria Certifications & Evaluations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Anuar Mat Isa
2015-05-01
Full Text Available International standard and certification play major role in product distributions and marketing activities. To be well accepted in global market, all IT products and services require international evaluation and certification such as Common Criteria (CC certification. This paper discusses some of the security, trust and privacy issues in Common Criteria that would happen during evaluation and certification of IT products and services. Our main intention is to help interested stake holders in choosing a finest authorizing member of CC certification for IT products and services using our new trust model. The proposed trust models takes into account the dynamically changing international relationship among nations which produces an index value during selection of finest CC authorizing member. The trust models use game theory to identify the finest CC authorizing member. We hope to contribute to this area of research by lessening the “cost to market” of IT products and related services. It is anticipated that it would give positive impact on global business transaction by having better and wider acceptability using our models in the selection of the finest CC authorizing member, CC consumer, and vendor (manufacturer.
Using game theory to examine incentives in influenza vaccination behavior.
Chapman, Gretchen B; Li, Meng; Vietri, Jeffrey; Ibuka, Yoko; Thomas, David; Yoon, Haewon; Galvani, Alison P
2012-09-01
The social good often depends on the altruistic behavior of specific individuals. For example, epidemiological studies of influenza indicate that elderly individuals, who face the highest mortality risk, are best protected by vaccination of young individuals, who contribute most to disease transmission. To examine the conditions under which young people would get vaccinated to protect elderly people, we conducted a game-theory experiment that mirrored real-world influenza transmission, with "young" players contributing more than "elderly" players to herd immunity. Participants could spend points to get vaccinated and reduce the risk of influenza. When players were paid according to individual point totals, more elderly than young players got vaccinated, a finding consistent with the Nash equilibrium predicting self-interested behavior. When players were paid according to group point totals, however, more young than elderly players got vaccinated-a finding consistent with the utilitarian equilibrium predicting group-optimal behavior-which resulted in higher point totals than when players were paid for their individual totals. Thus, payout structure affected whether individuals got vaccinated for self-interest or group benefit.
Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods.
Adami, Christoph; Schossau, Jory; Hintze, Arend
2016-12-01
Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic settings such as finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, stochastic decisions, communication between agents, and spatial interactions, require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. While highlighting standard mathematical results, we compare those to agent-based methods that can go beyond the limitations of equations and simulate the complexity of heterogeneous populations and an ever-changing set of interactors. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread (for example in the weak selection-strong mutation limit), but that mathematics is crucial to validate the computational simulations.
Using game theory to assess multi-company strategies in watershed management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luke Ogilvie Thompson
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the use of game theory as a strategic tool for watershed management decision-making. An engineering problem case study was used in which three organizations compare various scenarios when deciding where to locate a polluting plant on a watershed. Six games were modeled to provide a variety of conditions that could feasibly be implemented and were simulated using software for finding Nash Equilibria solutions. The results show that game theory can provide key insights, such as the consideration of other players' strategies, and identify possible pitfalls that may occur when the companies seek only to maximize their individual profitability.
Topics in mathematical economics and game theory essays in honor of Robert J. Aumann
Wooders, Myrna H
1999-01-01
Since the publication of Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Morgenstern, the concept of games has played an increasing role in economics. It also plays a role of growing importance in other sciences, including biology, political science, and psychology. Many scientists have made seminal advances and continue to be leaders in the field, including Harsanyi, Shapley, Shubik, and Selten. Professor Robert Aumann, in addition to his important contributions to game theory and economics, made a number of significant contributions to mathematics. This volume provides a collection
Wei, Shouke; Yang, Hong; Abbaspour, Karim; Mousavi, Jamshid; Gnauck, Albrecht
2010-04-01
This study applied game theory based models to analyze and solve water conflicts concerning water allocation and nitrogen reduction in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China. The game simulation comprised two levels, including one main game with five players and four sub-games with each containing three sub-players. We used statistical and econometric regression methods to formulate payoff functions of the players, economic valuation methods (EVMs) to transform non-monetary value into economic one, cost-benefit Analysis (CBA) to compare the game outcomes, and scenario analysis to investigate the future uncertainties. The validity of game simulation was evaluated by comparing predictions with observations. The main results proved that cooperation would make the players collectively better off, though some player would face losses. However, players were not willing to cooperate, which would result in a prisoners' dilemma. Scenarios simulation results displayed that players in water scare area could not solve its severe water deficit problem without cooperation with other players even under an optimistic scenario, while the uncertainty of cooperation would come from the main polluters. The results suggest a need to design a mechanism to reduce the risk of losses of those players by a side payment, which provides them with economic incentives to cooperate.
The combination of system dynamics and game theory in analyzing oligopoly markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Mohammadi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a hybrid method of game theory and dynamic systems to study the behavior of firms in an oligopoly market. The aim of this study is to build a model for an oligopoly game on the basis of feedback loops and system dynamics approach and to solve the resulted problems under some special conditions where traditional game theory methods are unable to handle. The method includes a combination of qualitative methods including interviews with industry experts to prepare the model and quantitative methods of system dynamics, simulation methodologies and game theory. The results indicate that competitive behavior and the important parameters such as volume of demand, interest rates and price fluctuation will be stabilized after a transition period.
GAME THEORY: MINIMISING THE COST OF CAPITAL VS. MAXIMISING THE RETURN OF INVESTORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Brindusa Tudose
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The application of game theory to financial transactions focuses on two categories of stakeholders: users of financing (firms and providers of financing (investors. The core of game theory consists in the strategy that a partner is able to build starting from the possible decisions of the other partner (each party having opposing interests. In fact, we deal here with a cooperative game in which both opponents seek to maximise their own chances of winning. The article aims to highlight the manner in which mathematical game theory is transposed in the field of corporate finance by balancing the firm’s objectives (maximising market value by minimising the cost of raising capital and the investors’ objectives (maximising returns on investments. The intended novelty of this paper lies in developing a model for optimising a firm’s financial structure and assessing it in terms of investors’ interests.
Rough Set Theory Based Fuzzy TOPSIS on Serious Game Design Evaluation Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung-Ho Su
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a hybrid methodology for solving the serious game design evaluation in which evaluation criteria are based on meaningful learning, ARCS motivation, cognitive load, and flow theory (MACF by rough set theory (RST and experts’ selection. The purpose of this study tends to develop an evaluation model with RST based fuzzy Delphi-AHP-TOPSIS for MACF characteristics. Fuzzy Delphi method is utilized for selecting the evaluation criteria, Fuzzy AHP is used for analyzing the criteria structure and determining the evaluation weight of criteria, and Fuzzy TOPSIS is applied to determine the sequence of the evaluations. A real case is also used for evaluating the selection of MACF criteria design for four serious games, and both the practice and evaluation of the case could be explained. The results show that the playfulness (C24, skills (C22, attention (C11, and personalized (C35 are determined as the four most important criteria in the MACF selection process. And evaluation results of case study point out that Game 1 has the best score overall (Game 1 > Game 3 > Game 2 > Game 4. Finally, proposed evaluation framework tends to evaluate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the evaluation model and provide design criteria for relevant multimedia game design educators.
Action being character: a promising perspective on the solution concept of game theory.
Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang
2011-05-09
The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept, implicit equilibrium, based on this alternative assumption have potential for better explaining people's actual behaviors in social decision making situations.
Game Theory of Pollution: National Policies and Their International Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katharina Schüller
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we put forward a simple game-theoretical model of pollution control, where each country is in control of its own pollution, while the environmental effects of policies do not stop at country borders. In our noncooperative differential game, countries as players minimize the present value of their own costs defined as a linear combination of pollution costs and costs of environmentally friendly policies, where the state vector of the system consists of the pollution stock per country. A player’s time-varying decision is her investment into clean policies, while her expected costs include also pollution caused by her neighbors. We analyze three variants of this game: (1 a Nash game in which each player chooses her investment into clean policies such that her expected costs are minimal, (2 a game in which the players imitate the investments into clean policies of their neighbors without taking the neighbor’s success concerning their costs into account and (3 a game in which each player imitates her neighbors’ investments into clean policies if this behavior seems to bring a profit. In each of these scenarios, we show under which conditions the countries have incentives to act environmentally friendly. We argue that the different results of these games can be used to understand and design effective environmental policies.
Making Games? Towards a theory of domestic videogaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helen Thornham
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This article is concerned with the lived cultures or cultural practices of gaming - the where, when and with whom gaming occurs. It follows David Morley’s suggestion that we need to decentre the media from our analytical framework in order to grasp both the relations between new and ‘old’ media, as well the way we live with them. It is an argument taken literally in this article, where an alternative framework of ontological narrative is developed as the primary means through which an understanding of the relationships between gamers and technology is reached. It focuses on interviews with gaming households and is interested in the ways gamers actively narrate gaming experiences, their gaming selves, and the gaming technology. Using ontological narrative as a central signifier facilitates discussions of the relationship between technology and the social which go beyond what the technology ‘itself’ can offer. It also insists on a socio-political context for the discussion itself. Through a more ontological narrative approach, videogames are framed as agents in negotiations with the power dynamics of the house, but their agency is complicated through issues of performativity, pleasure and identity. Finally, this approach allows for a much more nuanced understanding of the way games and the meanings they hold for the gamers are enmeshed in the everyday.
On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking
African Journals Online (AJOL)
business of finding solutions to the problems that beset us. However, if it is .... Where optimal strategies do not exist for a game, and under certain particular ..... strategist's armour or toolbox containing today's scientific knowledge. Thus, the ...
SOCIAL CHOICE AND COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY: VOTING GAMES AS SOCIAL AGGREGATION FUNCTIONS
MATHIEU MARTIN; MAURICE SALLES
2013-01-01
We consider voting games as procedures to aggregate individual preferences. We survey positive results on the nonemptiness of the core of voting games and explore other solutions concepts that are basic supersets of the core such as Rubinstein's stability set and two types of uncovered sets. We consider cases where the sets of alternatives are 'ordinary' sets, finite sets and infinite sets with possibly a topological structure.
Game theory as a tool to analyse conflict in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ewa Kiryluk-Dryjska
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present game theory as a tool to analyse conflict in the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Traditional game theory, as well as its relatively new branch- theory of moves was used in the paper to present the budgeting conflict in the CAP.
Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang
2014-01-01
-cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own...... suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice....
Video Game Title Translation Functional Translation Theory Perspective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiao-rong
2016-01-01
The video game plays an important role in inter-cultural communication studies. However, few have ventured the field of E-C translation of video game titles. Within the frame of Skopostheorie, this paper focuses on the three translation strategies brought up by the functions and features of video game titles. When preserving the structure and meaning of the original title is possible, literal translation should be used. However, the fact that some translators ignore the context of the title causes rigid translation. Transliteration is recommended when the title is the name of a person or place because the meaning of the title is hard to be preserved by the other two strategies. Since there are cultural differences between China and western world, when lit-eral translation and transliteration cannot present the meaning of the title, free translation should be used. Translators should bear the content and game play of the game in mind in order to free themselves from the formal equivalence for a properly translated title. Free translation does not mean translators can do the translation as whatever they want in the name of Skopos, they should avoid arbitrary translation. The aim of this paper is to help people to understand more about the E-C translation of video game ti-tle as well as the practical translation strategies and Sino-western inter-cultural communication.
Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Yinghao; Guo, Mingyue
2017-03-01
Wang's et al. article [1] is the first to integrate game theory (especially evolutionary game theory) with epigenetic modification of zygotic genomes. They described and assessed a modeling framework based on evolutionary game theory to quantify, how sperms and oocytes interact through epigenetic processes, to determine embryo development. They also studied the internal mechanisms for normal embryo development: 1) evolutionary interactions between DNA methylation of the paternal and maternal genomes, and 2) the application of game theory to formulate and quantify how different genes compete or cooperate to regulate embryogenesis through methylation. Although it is not very comprehensive and profound regarding game theory modeling, this article bridges the gap between evolutionary game theory and the epigenetic control of embryo development by powerful ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The epiGame framework includes four aspects: 1) characterizing how epigenetic game theory works by the strategy matrix, in which the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis, are described by the cooperation and competition mechanisms, 2) quantifying the game that the direction and degree of P-M interactions over embryo development can be explained by the sign and magnitude of interaction parameters in model (2), 3) modeling epigenetic interactions within the morula, especially for two coupled nonlinear ODEs, with explicit functions in model (4), which provide a good fit to the observed data for the two sexes (adjusted R2 = 0.956), and 4) revealing multifactorial interactions in embryogenesis from the coupled ODEs in model (2) to triplet ODEs in model (6). Clearly, this article extends game theory from evolutionary game theory to epigenetic game theory.
ID201202961, DOE S-124,539, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL
2012-01-01
Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.
Use of cooperative game theory in power system fixed-cost allocation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stamtsis, G.C.; Erlich, I. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Power Systems
2004-05-01
The use of cooperative game theory in power system fixed-cost allocation is investigated. The implementation of the allocation game in a bilateral transaction electricity market as well as in a pool market is discussed and the use of two well-known solution methods, nucleolus and the Shapley value, is explored. Conclusions are drawn which show that the Shapley value is a more preferable method when it is in the core of the game. For all the cases, results are illustrated in the IEEE 14-bus system. (author)
Cryer, Patricia
1988-01-01
Develops models for participants' behaviors in games, simulations, and workshops based on Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Examples are given of how these models can be used, both for describing and understanding the behaviors of individuals, and for eliciting insights into why participants behave as they do. (11…
MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance
Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…
MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance
Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…
Cryer, Patricia
1988-01-01
Develops models for participants' behaviors in games, simulations, and workshops based on Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Examples are given of how these models can be used, both for describing and understanding the behaviors of individuals, and for eliciting insights into why participants behave as they do. (11…
Teaching Prospect Theory with the "Deal or No Deal" Game Show
Baker, Ardith; Bittner, Teresa; Makrigeorgis, Christos; Johnson, Gloria; Haefner, Joseph
2010-01-01
Recent evidence indicates that decision makers are more sensitive to potential losses than gains. Loss aversion psychology has led behavioural economists to look beyond expected utility by developing "prospect theory." We demonstrate this theory using the "Deal or No Deal" game show.
Applying developmental theory and research to the creation of educational games.
Revelle, Glenda
2013-01-01
The field of developmental psychology has produced abundant theory and research about the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development of children; however, to date there has been limited use of this wealth of knowledge by developers creating games for children. This chapter provides an overview of key theoretical observations and research-based insight regarding children's development and outlines practical implications for their application to game design.
Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirsch, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)
1998-12-31
Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.
What Is True Halving in the Payoff Matrix of Game Theory?
Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin
2016-01-01
In game theory, there are two social interpretations of rewards (payoffs) for decision-making strategies: (1) the interpretation based on the utility criterion derived from expected utility theory and (2) the interpretation based on the quantitative criterion (amount of gain) derived from validity in the empirical context. A dynamic decision theory has recently been developed in which dynamic utility is a conditional (state) variable that is a function of the current wealth of a decision maker. We applied dynamic utility to the equal division in dove-dove contests in the hawk-dove game. Our results indicate that under the utility criterion, the half-share of utility becomes proportional to a player's current wealth. Our results are consistent with studies of the sense of fairness in animals, which indicate that the quantitative criterion has greater validity than the utility criterion. We also find that traditional analyses of repeated games must be reevaluated.
Schools of the strategical thought: a contribution from the theory of the games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valdir Antonio Viorino Filho
2010-04-01
Full Text Available This article has as objective to characterize the schools of strategical thought proposal for Mintzberg under the approach of the Theory of the Games. Literature on Theory of the Games evolved significantly in recent years and can be understood as the study of strategical interactions between companies, to understand the process of decision of agents who interact between itself, from the logical understanding of the situation where they are involved. The article presents the vision in Theory of the Games and the possibility of interaction with the schools of the strategical thought in the environment business-oriented. This assay contributes for the agreement of the schools and its applicability in the strategical behavior of the organizations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pinto, Tiago; Praca, Isabel; Morais, Hugo
2013-01-01
the behavior that better fits their objectives. This model includes forecasts of competitor players’ actions, to build models of their behavior, in order to define the most probable expected scenarios. Once the scenarios are defined, game theory is applied to support the choice of the ac-tion to be performed......Electricity markets are complex environments, involving a large number of different entities, with specific charac-teristics and objectives, making their decisions and interacting in a dynamic scene. Game-theory has been widely used to sup-port decisions in competitive environments; therefore its...... application in electricity markets can prove to be a high potential tool. This paper proposes a new scenario analysis algorithm, which includes the application of game-theory, to evaluate and preview different scenarios and provide players with the ability to strategically react in order to exhibit...
Application of Game Theory Approaches in Routing Protocols for Wireless Networks
Javidi, Mohammad M.; Aliahmadipour, Laya
2011-09-01
An important and essential issue for wireless networks is routing protocol design that is a major technical challenge due to the function of the network. Game theory is a powerful mathematical tool that analyzes the strategic interactions among multiple decision makers and the results of researches show that applied game theory in routing protocol lead to improvement the network performance through reduce overhead and motivates selfish nodes to collaborate in the network. This paper presents a review and comparison for typical representatives of routing protocols designed that applied game theory approaches for various wireless networks such as ad hoc networks, mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks that all of them lead to improve the network performance.
Leadership behind the Screen : New Theory about Leadership in Online Role-Playing Games
Prax, Patrick
2008-01-01
Purpose/Aim: The aim of this paper is to study how guild leaders in World of Warcraft (WOW) and leaders of real life organizations compare in terms of tasks, every-day experiences, environment, responsibilities and motivation. This comparison is used to build a new theory describing leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). Material/Method: The paper uses the grounded theory approach to build a new theory. 12 interviews were conducted, six with WOW guild leaders...
K. Vela Velupillai
2010-01-01
The digital and information technology revolutions are based on algorithmic mathematics in many of their alternative forms. Algorithmic mathematics per se is not necessarily underpinned by the digital or the discrete only; analogue traditions of algorithmic mathematics have a noble pedigree, even in economics. Constructive mathematics of any variety, computability theory and non-standard analysis are intrinsically algorithmic at their foundations. Economic theory, game theory and mathematical...
The Use of Game Theory for Making Rational Decisions in Business Negations: A Conceptual Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kestutis Peleckis
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is a comparative analysis of the world literature on game theory and its applicability for rational decision-making in negotiations and creation of a model supporting strategic decisions in negotiations. Research Design & Methods: Systematic, comparative, logical analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature. In order to create an algorithm of negotiations statements on theory of graphs, game theory and theory of heuristic algorithm were applied. Findings: The article proposes an algorithm which combines the game theory approach with heuristic algorithms in order to reflect the specifics of negotiations better. Such an algorithm can be used to support strategic decisions in negotiations and is useful for better understanding of the strategic management of negotiating processes. Implications & Recommendations: The proposed mathematical algorithm for the strategy formulation of international business negotiations can be used in electronic business negotiations, both as a standalone tool, or as partially requiring support by the negotiator. Contribution & Value Added: The game theory methods support rational solutions in business negotiations, as they enable to analyse the interacting forces. This is particularly relevant in international business negotiations, where participants from different cultures can be faced with numerous uncertainties.
Games as Artistic Medium: Interfacing Complexity Theory in Game-Based Art Pedagogy
Patton, Ryan Matthew
2011-01-01
Having computer skills, let alone access to a personal computer, has become a necessary component of contemporary Western society and many parts of the world. Digital media literacy involves youth being able to view, participate in, and make creative works with technologies in personal and meaningful ways. Games, defined in this study as…
Games as Artistic Medium: Interfacing Complexity Theory in Game-Based Art Pedagogy
Patton, Ryan Matthew
2011-01-01
Having computer skills, let alone access to a personal computer, has become a necessary component of contemporary Western society and many parts of the world. Digital media literacy involves youth being able to view, participate in, and make creative works with technologies in personal and meaningful ways. Games, defined in this study as…
Friedman, Avner
2006-01-01
This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest
Game-theory Model based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access Protocol in Wireless Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Tian
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In order to solve game-theory model problem based on carrier sense multiple access protocol with collision avoidance in wireless network, a game-theory-based general and compatible modeling process is proposed, where the transmission probability of a node in a slot time is regarded as mixed game and network performance parameter M is taken as revenue function of game so as to build M rounds non-cooperative mixed strategy game with N gamers. After performing M rounds game, it will acquire M Nash-equilibria which is not equal to each other, and then these Nash-equilibria are taken as the input of single objective programming model with many constraints so as to obtain compromise equilibria. Finally, a minimum contention window based on compromise equilibria is designed. The throughput and successful transmission rate are analyzed through the simulation, and the simulation experiment results show our proposed modeling process has the more throughputs and the lower drop performance than the existing methods.
What eye movements can tell about theory of mind in a strategic game.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Meijering
Full Text Available This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game that required reasoning about the mental states of the opponent. Game theory literature discerns two candidate strategies that participants could use in this game: either forward reasoning or backward reasoning. Forward reasoning proceeds from the first decision point to the last, whereas backward reasoning proceeds in the opposite direction. Backward reasoning is the only optimal strategy, because the optimal outcome is known at each decision point. Nevertheless, we argue that participants prefer forward reasoning because it is similar to causal reasoning. Causal reasoning, in turn, is prevalent in human reasoning. Eye movements were measured to discern between forward and backward progressions of fixations. The observed fixation sequences corresponded best with forward reasoning. Early in games, the probability of observing a forward progression of fixations is higher than the probability of observing a backward progression. Later in games, the probabilities of forward and backward progressions are similar, which seems to imply that participants were either applying backward reasoning or jumping back to previous decision points while applying forward reasoning. Thus, the game-theoretical favorite strategy, backward reasoning, does seem to exist in human reasoning. However, participants preferred the more familiar, practiced, and prevalent strategy: forward reasoning.
Dynamical systems game theory II. A new approach to the problem of the social dilemma
Akiyama, Eizo; Kaneko, Kunihiko
2002-07-01
The “social dilemma” is a problem inherent in forming and maintaining cooperation among selfish individuals, and is of fundamental importance in the biological and social sciences. From the viewpoint of traditional game theory, the existence of the social dilemma necessarily implies degeneration into selfish behavior as the numbers of members in a community increases, unless there exists some external power. In the real world, however, cooperation is often formed and maintained merely through mutual interactions, without the influence of an external power. To answer questions concerning appearance and maintenance of cooperative behavior in societies, we study what we call the “Lumberjacks’ Dilemma (LD) game”, as an application of the dynamical systems (DS) game theory presented in [Physica D 147 (2000) 221], which can naturally deal with the dynamic aspects of games. Dynamical processes that lead to the formation and maintenance of cooperation, which is often observed in the real communities, are realized in our model. The mechanism underlying this formation and maintenance is explained from the DS game point of view, by analyzing the functional dependence of the attractor of the game dynamics on a parameter characterizing the strategy. It is demonstrated that norms for cooperation are formed as strategies that are manifested as specific attractors of game dynamics. The change in the stability of this cooperative behavior as the number of members increases is also discussed. Finally, the relevance of our study to cooperation seen in the real world is discussed.
What eye movements can tell about theory of mind in a strategic game.
Meijering, Ben; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke
2012-01-01
This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game that required reasoning about the mental states of the opponent. Game theory literature discerns two candidate strategies that participants could use in this game: either forward reasoning or backward reasoning. Forward reasoning proceeds from the first decision point to the last, whereas backward reasoning proceeds in the opposite direction. Backward reasoning is the only optimal strategy, because the optimal outcome is known at each decision point. Nevertheless, we argue that participants prefer forward reasoning because it is similar to causal reasoning. Causal reasoning, in turn, is prevalent in human reasoning. Eye movements were measured to discern between forward and backward progressions of fixations. The observed fixation sequences corresponded best with forward reasoning. Early in games, the probability of observing a forward progression of fixations is higher than the probability of observing a backward progression. Later in games, the probabilities of forward and backward progressions are similar, which seems to imply that participants were either applying backward reasoning or jumping back to previous decision points while applying forward reasoning. Thus, the game-theoretical favorite strategy, backward reasoning, does seem to exist in human reasoning. However, participants preferred the more familiar, practiced, and prevalent strategy: forward reasoning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Chitra
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Recently, wireless network technologies were designed for most of the applications. Congestion raised in the wireless network degrades the performance and reduces the throughput. Congestion-free network is quit essen- tial in the transport layer to prevent performance degradation in a wireless network. Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and applied sciences that used in wireless network, political science, biology, computer science, philosophy and economics. e great challenges of wireless network are their congestion by various factors. E ective congestion-free alternate path routing is pretty essential to increase network performance. Stackelberg game theory model is currently employed as an e ective tool to design and formulate conges- tion issues in wireless networks. is work uses a Stackelberg game to design alternate path model to avoid congestion. In this game, leaders and followers are selected to select an alternate routing path. e correlated equilibrium is used in Stackelberg game for making better decision between non-cooperation and cooperation. Congestion was continuously monitored to increase the throughput in the network. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme could extensively improve the network performance by reducing congestion with the help of Stackelberg game and thereby enhance throughput.
Distributed power control algorithm based on game theory for wireless sensor networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Energy saving is the most important issue in research and development for wireless sensor networks. A power control mechanism can reduce the power consumption of the whole network.Because the character of wireless sensor networks is restrictive energy,this paper proposes a distributed power control algorithm based on game theory for wireless sensor networks which objects of which are reducing power consumption and decreasing overhead and increasing network lifetime.The game theory and OPNET simulation shows that the power control algorithm converges to a Nash Equilibrium when decisions are updated according to a better response dynamic.
Business Strategy in Mexican Beer Industry: A Case Applying Game Theory
Vargas-Hernández, José G.; Armando Francisco Cambroni-de-Anda
2012-01-01
In this paper the two major breweries in Mexico, Grupo Modelo and Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewering Company (Cervecería Cuahtemoc-Moctezuma) are analyzed which already have long formed part of an oligopoly because these two companies account for more than 99% of beer market in this country. All this analysis is made from the perspective of game theory. The main objective is to analyze the effects of competition and advertising from one to another brewer from a standpoint of game theory. This ana...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Hootan Eskafi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain management is known as the key factor for achieving competitive advantage. Better customer service, revenue improvement and cost reduction are the results of this philosophy. Organizations can manage the performance of their firms by appropriate goal setting, identifying criteria and continuous performance measurement, which creates a good view for the business circumstances. Developing and defining appropriate indicators at different levels of chain is necessary for implementing a performance measurement system. In this study, we propose a new method to determine the measurement indicators and strategies of the company in term of balanced scorecard. The study is a combination of balanced scorecard, path analysis, evolutionary game theory and cooperative game theory for strategic planning. The study offers an appropriate program for future activities of organizations and determines the present status of the firm. The implementation of the proposed method is introduced for a food producer and the results are analyzed.
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith
2002-10-01
Depletion is a game that reinforces central concepts of reaction rate theory through simulation. Each player buys chemicals and guides them through a series of reactions, thereby earning money to buy more chemicals. The reactions occur when players roll a high enough value on two dice to overcome an activation barrier. The reactions may be accelerated by buying heat (which allows the player to roll three dice instead of two) or catalysts (which lower the activation barrier). The value of acceleration derives from the increasing price of fresh chemicals as resources are depleted and waste products accumulate. The player who nets the most money wins the game. The details of the game are presented, with a set of follow-up questions suitable for either a quiz or discussion. Student reaction to the game is also described.
Autonomous Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V Decision Making in Roundabout using Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Roundabout intersections promote a continuous flow of traffic. Roundabouts entry move traffic through an intersection more quickly, and with less congestion on approaching roads. With the introduction of smart vehicles and cooperative decision-making, roundabout management shortens the waiting time and leads to a more efficient traffic without breaking the traffic laws and earning penalties. This paper proposes a novel approach of cooperative behavior strategy in conflict situations between the autonomous vehicles in roundabout using game theory. The game theory presents a strategic decision-making technique between independent agents - players. Each individual player tends to achieve best payoff, by analyzing possible actions of other players and their influence on game outcome. The Prisoner's Dilemma game strategy is selected as approach to autonomous vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V decision making at roundabout test-bed, because the commonly known traffic laws dictate certain rules of vehicle's behavior at roundabout. It is shown that, by integrating non-zero-sum game theory in autonomous vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V decision making capabilities, the roundabout entry problem can be solved efficiently with shortened waiting times for individual autonomous vehicles.
Grid Computing based on Game Optimization Theory for Networks Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng-fei Zhang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The resource sharing mechanism is introduced into grid computing algorithm so as to solve complex computational tasks in heterogeneous network-computing problem. However, in the Grid environment, it is required for the available resource from network to reasonably schedule and coordinate, which can get a good workflow and an appropriate network performance and network response time. In order to improve the performance of resource allocation and task scheduling in grid computing method, a game model based on non-cooperation game is proposed. Setting the time and cost of user’s resource allocation can increase the performance of networks, and incentive resource of networks uses an optimization scheduling algorithm, which minimizes the time and cost of resource scheduling. Simulation experiment results show the feasibility and suitability of model. In addition, we can see from the experiment result that model-based genetic algorithm is the best resource scheduling algorithm
Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.
Timmons, Stephen
2006-01-01
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.
Dynamics of prebiotic RNA reproduction illuminated by chemical game theory.
Yeates, Jessica A M; Hilbe, Christian; Zwick, Martin; Nowak, Martin A; Lehman, Niles
2016-05-03
Many origins-of-life scenarios depict a situation in which there are common and potentially scarce resources needed by molecules that compete for survival and reproduction. The dynamics of RNA assembly in a complex mixture of sequences is a frequency-dependent process and mimics such scenarios. By synthesizing Azoarcus ribozyme genotypes that differ in their single-nucleotide interactions with other genotypes, we can create molecules that interact among each other to reproduce. Pairwise interplays between RNAs involve both cooperation and selfishness, quantifiable in a 2 × 2 payoff matrix. We show that a simple model of differential equations based on chemical kinetics accurately predicts the outcomes of these molecular competitions using simple rate inputs into these matrices. In some cases, we find that mixtures of different RNAs reproduce much better than each RNA type alone, reflecting a molecular form of reciprocal cooperation. We also demonstrate that three RNA genotypes can stably coexist in a rock-paper-scissors analog. Our experiments suggest a new type of evolutionary game dynamics, called prelife game dynamics or chemical game dynamics. These operate without template-directed replication, illustrating how small networks of RNAs could have developed and evolved in an RNA world.
Game theory approach to optimal capital cost allocation in pollution control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
This paper tries to integrate game theory, a very usefultool to resolve conflict phenomena, with optimal capital costallocation issue in total emission control. First the necessity ofallocating optimal capital costs fairly and reasonably amongpolluters in total emission control is analyzed. Then thepossibility of applying game theory to the issue of the optimalcapital cost allocation is expounded. Next the cooperative N-person game model of the optimal capital cost allocation and itssolution ways including method based on Shapley value, least coremethod, weak least core methods, proportional least core method,CGA method, MCRS method and so on are delineated. Finally throughapplication of these methods it is concluded that to apply gamethory in the optimal capital cost allocation issue is helpful toimplement the total emission control planning schemes successfully,to control pollution effectively, and to ensure sustainable development.
A Game Theory Based on Monte Carlo Analysis for Optimizing Evacuation Routing in Complex Scenes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhui Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With more complex structures and denser populations, congestion is a crucial factor in estimating evacuation clearance time. This paper presents a novel evacuation model that implements a game theory combining the greatest entropy optimization criterion with stochastic Monte Carlo methods to optimize the congestion problem and other features of emergency evacuation planning. We introduce the greatest entropy criterion for convergence to Nash equilibrium in the n-person noncooperative game. The process of managing the conflict problem is divided into two steps. In the first step, we utilize Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the risk degree of each route. In the second step, we propose an improved method based on game theory, which obtains an optimal solution to guide the evacuation of all agents from the building.
Consensus based on learning game theory with a UAV rendezvous application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Zhongjie
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Multi-agent cooperation problems are becoming more and more attractive in both civilian and military applications. In multi-agent cooperation problems, different network topologies will decide different manners of cooperation between agents. A centralized system will directly control the operation of each agent with information flow from a single centre, while in a distributed system, agents operate separately under certain communication protocols. In this paper, a systematic distributed optimization approach will be established based on a learning game algorithm. The convergence of the algorithm will be proven under the game theory framework. Two typical consensus problems will be analyzed with the proposed algorithm. The contributions of this work are threefold. First, the designed algorithm inherits the properties in learning game theory for problem simplification and proof of convergence. Second, the behaviour of learning endows the algorithm with robustness and autonomy. Third, with the proposed algorithm, the consensus problems will be analyzed from a novel perspective.
Cryptographic Puzzles and Game Theory against DoS and DDoS attacks in Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.
2008-01-01
In this chapter, we present techniques to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In the _rst part, we describe client puzzle techniques that are based on the idea of computationally exhausting a malicious user when he attempts to launch an attack. In the ......In this chapter, we present techniques to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In the _rst part, we describe client puzzle techniques that are based on the idea of computationally exhausting a malicious user when he attempts to launch an attack....... In the second part we are introducing some basic principles of game theory and we discuss how game theoretical frameworks can protect computer networks. Finally, we show techniques that combine client puzzles with game theory in order to provide DoS and DDoS resilience....
Consensus based on learning game theory with a UAV rendezvous application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lin Zhongjie; Liu Hugh hong-tao
2015-01-01
Multi-agent cooperation problems are becoming more and more attractive in both civil-ian and military applications. In multi-agent cooperation problems, different network topologies will decide different manners of cooperation between agents. A centralized system will directly control the operation of each agent with information flow from a single centre, while in a distrib-uted system, agents operate separately under certain communication protocols. In this paper, a sys-tematic distributed optimization approach will be established based on a learning game algorithm. The convergence of the algorithm will be proven under the game theory framework. Two typical consensus problems will be analyzed with the proposed algorithm. The contributions of this work are threefold. First, the designed algorithm inherits the properties in learning game theory for problem simplification and proof of convergence. Second, the behaviour of learning endows the algorithm with robustness and autonomy. Third, with the proposed algorithm, the consensus problems will be analyzed from a novel perspective.
Simulation of Climate Negotiation Strategies between China and the U.S. Based on Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu-Gang Jin
2014-01-01
Citation: Jin, Z.-G., W.-J. Cai, and C. Wang, 2014: Simulation of climate negotiation strategies between China and the U.S. based on game theory.Adv. Clim. Change Res.,5(1, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.034.
Applying Developmental Theory and Research to the Creation of Educational Games
Revelle, Glenda
2013-01-01
The field of developmental psychology has produced abundant theory and research about the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development of children; however, to date there has been limited use of this wealth of knowledge by developers creating games for children. This chapter provides an overview of key theoretical observations and…
Applying Developmental Theory and Research to the Creation of Educational Games
Revelle, Glenda
2013-01-01
The field of developmental psychology has produced abundant theory and research about the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development of children; however, to date there has been limited use of this wealth of knowledge by developers creating games for children. This chapter provides an overview of key theoretical observations and…
What Eye Movements Can Tell about Theory of Mind in a Strategic Game
Meijering, Ben; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke
2012-01-01
This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game
Evolutionary Game Theory-Based Collaborative Sensing Model in Emergency CRAHNs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sasirekha GVK
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Game theory has been a tool of choice for modeling dynamic interactions between autonomous systems. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs constituted of autonomous wireless nodes are a natural fit for game theory-based modeling. The game theory-based model is particularly suitable for “collaborative spectrum sensing” where each cognitive radio senses the spectrum and shares the results with other nodes such that the targeted sensing accuracy is achieved. Spectrum sensing in CRAHNs, especially when used in emergency scenarios such as disaster management and military applications, needs to be not only accurate and resource efficient, but also adaptive to the changing number of users as well as signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, spectrum sensing mechanism must also be proactive, fair, and tolerant to security attacks. Existing work in collaborative spectrum sensing has mostly been confined to resource efficiency in static systems using request-based reactive sensing resulting in high latencies. In this paper, evolutionary game theory (EGT is used to model the behavior of the emergency CRAHNS, providing an efficient model for collaborative spectrum sensing. The resulting implementation model is adaptive to the changes in its environment such as signal-to-noise ratio and number of users in the network. The analytical and simulation models presented validate the system design and the desired performance.
Imitation dynamics of vaccine decision-making behaviours based on the game theory.
Yang, Junyuan; Martcheva, Maia; Chen, Yuming
2016-01-01
Based on game theory, we propose an age-structured model to investigate the imitation dynamics of vaccine uptake. We first obtain the existence and local stability of equilibria. We show that Hopf bifurcation can occur. We also establish the global stability of the boundary equilibria and persistence of the disease. The theoretical results are supported by numerical simulations.
Playing doctor: application of game theory to medical decision-making.
Diamond, G A; Rozanski, A; Steuer, M
1986-01-01
Decision analysis is an explicit, quantitative and prescriptive means by which the physician can identify optimal clinical strategies under conditions of uncertainty. It is incomplete, however, since it dispenses clinical advice without regard for the fact that the patient--for whatever reason--might choose to reject that advice. Game theory provides a supplementary means to explicate optimal rational strategies in situations where the actual outcome depends on the choices of both the patient and the physician. To determine its potential clinical relevance, we used game theory to reassess a clinical problem which has been used as a textbook exemplar of decision analysis: Should patients with chronic liver failure undergo liver biopsy before being treated? Decision analysis prescribes a pure (deterministic) strategy: the physician should always perform a biopsy. In contrast, given the proper conditions, game theory mandates a mixed (probabilistic) strategy: the physician should (randomly) recommend biopsy to only some fraction of patients, and only some fraction of these should (randomly) accept this advice. Thus, whenever the patient is free to accept or reject the physician's advice, game theory provides a prescriptive decision-making model which is qualitatively and quantitatively different from decision analysis.
Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance
Burguillo, Juan C.
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…
Cooperation or Competition: Does Game Theory Have Relevance for Public Health?
Westhoff, Wayne W.; Cohen, Cynthia F.; Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott; Corvin, Jaime; McDermott, Robert J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we use game theory to understand decisions to cooperate or to compete in the delivery of public health services. Health care is a quasi-public good that is often associated with altruistic behavior, yet it operates in an increasingly competitive environment. With mounting health care regulation and changes in privatization,…
Akhundov, V. M.
2017-01-01
Results of an analysis of form changes of a toroidal body highly filled with fibers at large torsional deformations and rotational motions are presented. The body is reinforced in the meridional direction. The investigation was carried out by using the two-level carcass theory of fibrous media at large deformations, according to which the macroscopic fields of a reinforced body are determined by its internal fields. These fields are represented by the material configurations of nodal material blocks of the body, for which, on the basis of the model of a piecewise homogeneous medium, boundary-values problems of the micromechanical level of the theory are solved. The results obtained are compared with those for a homogeneous body. The congruent deformation of the homogeneous body at which its initial form and dimensions are practically restored upon superposition of torsion and rotation is determined.
Intentions and plans in decision and game theory
M. van Hees; O. Roy
2008-01-01
Given the important role that intentions play in the way we make decisions, we would expect intentions to occupy a substantial place in any theory of action. Surprisingly enough, in what is perhaps the most influential theory of action, rational choice theory, explicit reference is made to actions,
Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition
Wang, Qian; Gosik, Kirk; Xing, Sujuan; Jiang, Libo; Sun, Lidan; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Wu, Rongling
2017-03-01
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing. This framework, named epigenetic game theory or epiGame, views embryogenesis as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. By implementing a system of ordinary differential equations, epiGame quantifies the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis by the mechanisms of cooperation and competition. epiGame may gain new insight into reproductive biology and can be potentially applied to design personalized medicines for genetic disorder intervention.
Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming
1989-01-01
Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... unique flavour is the insistence on formal proofs of correctness and the methods used to establish these. This paper develops a theory of abstract interpretation for two-level denotational definitions. There are three ingredients in this. First a framework for proving the correctness of analyses...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Retief, Francois [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)
2016-02-15
Game theory provides a useful theoretical framework to examine the decision process operating in the context of environmental assessment, and to examine the rationality and legitimacy of decision-making subject to Environmental Assessment (EA). The research uses a case study of the Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainability Appraisal processes undertaken in England. To these are applied an analytical framework, based on the concept of decision windows to identify the decisions to be assessed. The conditions for legitimacy are defined, based on game theory, in relation to the timing of decision information, the behaviour type (competitive, reciprocal, equity) exhibited by the decision maker, and the level of public engagement; as, together, these control the type of rationality which can be brought to bear on the decision. Instrumental rationality is based on self-interest of individuals, whereas deliberative rationality seeks broader consensus and is more likely to underpin legitimate decisions. The results indicate that the Sustainability Appraisal process, conducted at plan level, is better than EIA, conducted at project level, but still fails to provide conditions that facilitate legitimacy. Game theory also suggests that Sustainability Appraisal is likely to deliver ‘least worst’ outcomes rather than best outcomes when the goals of the assessment process are considered; this may explain the propensity of such ‘least worst’ decisions in practise. On the basis of what can be learned from applying this game theory perspective, it is suggested that environmental assessment processes need to be redesigned and better integrated into decision making in order to guarantee the legitimacy of the decisions made. - Highlights: • Decision legitimacy is defined in terms of game theory. • Game theory is applied to EIA and SA decision windows. • Game theory suggests least worst outcomes prevail. • SA is more likely to be perceived legitimate than EIA.
Game theory of social distancing in response to an epidemic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy C Reluga
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Social distancing practices are changes in behavior that prevent disease transmission by reducing contact rates between susceptible individuals and infected individuals who may transmit the disease. Social distancing practices can reduce the severity of an epidemic, but the benefits of social distancing depend on the extent to which it is used by individuals. Individuals are sometimes reluctant to pay the costs inherent in social distancing, and this can limit its effectiveness as a control measure. This paper formulates a differential-game to identify how individuals would best use social distancing and related self-protective behaviors during an epidemic. The epidemic is described by a simple, well-mixed ordinary differential equation model. We use the differential game to study potential value of social distancing as a mitigation measure by calculating the equilibrium behaviors under a variety of cost-functions. Numerical methods are used to calculate the total costs of an epidemic under equilibrium behaviors as a function of the time to mass vaccination, following epidemic identification. The key parameters in the analysis are the basic reproduction number and the baseline efficiency of social distancing. The results show that social distancing is most beneficial to individuals for basic reproduction numbers around 2. In the absence of vaccination or other intervention measures, optimal social distancing never recovers more than 30% of the cost of infection. We also show how the window of opportunity for vaccine development lengthens as the efficiency of social distancing and detection improve.
Game theory of social distancing in response to an epidemic.
Reluga, Timothy C
2010-05-27
Social distancing practices are changes in behavior that prevent disease transmission by reducing contact rates between susceptible individuals and infected individuals who may transmit the disease. Social distancing practices can reduce the severity of an epidemic, but the benefits of social distancing depend on the extent to which it is used by individuals. Individuals are sometimes reluctant to pay the costs inherent in social distancing, and this can limit its effectiveness as a control measure. This paper formulates a differential-game to identify how individuals would best use social distancing and related self-protective behaviors during an epidemic. The epidemic is described by a simple, well-mixed ordinary differential equation model. We use the differential game to study potential value of social distancing as a mitigation measure by calculating the equilibrium behaviors under a variety of cost-functions. Numerical methods are used to calculate the total costs of an epidemic under equilibrium behaviors as a function of the time to mass vaccination, following epidemic identification. The key parameters in the analysis are the basic reproduction number and the baseline efficiency of social distancing. The results show that social distancing is most beneficial to individuals for basic reproduction numbers around 2. In the absence of vaccination or other intervention measures, optimal social distancing never recovers more than 30% of the cost of infection. We also show how the window of opportunity for vaccine development lengthens as the efficiency of social distancing and detection improve.
Orlando, Paul A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Brown, Joel S.
2012-12-01
Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer commonly fails due to evolution of drug resistance in tumor cells. Here, we view cancer treatment as a game in which the oncologists choose a therapy and tumors ‘choose’ an adaptive strategy. We propose the oncologist can gain an upper hand in the game by choosing treatment strategies that anticipate the adaptations of the tumor. In particular, we examine the potential benefit of exploiting evolutionary tradeoffs in tumor adaptations to therapy. We analyze a math model where cancer cells face tradeoffs in allocation of resistance to two drugs. The tumor ‘chooses’ its strategy by natural selection and the oncologist chooses her strategy by solving a control problem. We find that when tumor cells perform best by investing resources to maximize response to one drug the optimal therapy is a time-invariant delivery of both drugs simultaneously. However, if cancer cells perform better using a generalist strategy allowing resistance to both drugs simultaneously, then the optimal protocol is a time varying solution in which the two drug concentrations negatively covary. However, drug interactions can significantly alter these results. We conclude that knowledge of both evolutionary tradeoffs and drug interactions is crucial in planning optimal chemotherapy schedules for individual patients.
Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel S
2012-12-01
Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer commonly fails due to evolution of drug resistance in tumor cells. Here, we view cancer treatment as a game in which the oncologists choose a therapy and tumors 'choose' an adaptive strategy. We propose the oncologist can gain an upper hand in the game by choosing treatment strategies that anticipate the adaptations of the tumor. In particular, we examine the potential benefit of exploiting evolutionary tradeoffs in tumor adaptations to therapy. We analyze a math model where cancer cells face tradeoffs in allocation of resistance to two drugs. The tumor 'chooses' its strategy by natural selection and the oncologist chooses her strategy by solving a control problem. We find that when tumor cells perform best by investing resources to maximize response to one drug the optimal therapy is a time-invariant delivery of both drugs simultaneously. However, if cancer cells perform better using a generalist strategy allowing resistance to both drugs simultaneously, then the optimal protocol is a time varying solution in which the two drug concentrations negatively covary. However, drug interactions can significantly alter these results. We conclude that knowledge of both evolutionary tradeoffs and drug interactions is crucial in planning optimal chemotherapy schedules for individual patients.
A Game Theory Analysis of the OPEC's Influence on World Oil Price
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Most studies concerning OPEC's behavior were based on traditional market microstructure. However, the assumptions about oil market structure are either very rigorous or rather fuzzy. This paper demonstrates the rationality and necessity of OPEC's price band policy by using the game theory. We conclude that OPEC has the incentive to limit its price within a specific range if the game period is sufficiently long. This incentive comes either from preference for long-term interest or from future expectations. In such a way, OPEC tries its best to maximize its profit with the quotaprice dual policy and plays a price stabilizing role in the future world oil market.
Upgrading Paths of Chinese Textile and Clothing Based on Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Wei-ming; CHEN Yan; ZHENG Zhe
2006-01-01
The game theory is applied to analyze the benefits and losses of trade confliction between China and USA/EU in textile and clothing industry. Current situations of Chinese textile and clothing industry are also analyzed. The innovative upgrading paths of Chinese textile and clothing industry are suggested to realize from OEM, ODM to OBM in order to increase the competitive capacity, to add additional values,and to avoid the trade barriers of international market. The countermeasures and suggestions are also put forward to make full use of comparative and backwardness advantages of China to win the game in the world market.
Peixoto, Mauricio Matos; Rand, David A J; Dynamics, Games and Science I
2011-01-01
"Dynamics, Games and Science I and II" are a selection of surveys and research articles written by leading researchers in mathematics and its applications to the sciences. The majority of the contributions are on dynamical systems and game theory, focusing either on some of their most fundamental and theoretical developments or on their applications to modeling in biology, economics, engineering, finances and psychology. The aim of these books is to present cutting-edge research in these areas that can encourage graduate students and researchers in mathematics to develop them further
Duke, Richard D
2014-01-01
Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor. Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨仕辉; 王平
2016-01-01
通过构建供应商和制造商两级低碳供应链Stackelberg博弈模型，得到博弈均衡解和收益共享契约参数，比较分散决策、集中决策和收益共享契约下实现低碳供应链的经济效应，并通过算例分析了是否合作减排以及合作减排对供应链成员产量、碳减排量、利润的影响和收益共享契约参数对供应链成员利润的影响，为供应链上下游企业开展碳减排合作提供了理论依据和政策建议。%Through constructing a Stackelberg game model between the supplier and the manufacture, the game equilibrium solution and the revenue sharing contract parameters are obtained. Then a comparison of low-carbon economic effects among decentralized decision-making, centralized decision-making and revenue sharing contract is conducted. Through a numerical example, it is analyzed whether the supply chain can choose cooperation on carbon emission and what impacts will it have on product yield, carbon emission yield and profits of the low-carbon supply chain members, and how the revenue sharing contract parameters influence the profits of low-carbon supply chain. The theoretical basis and policy suggestions are provided for long term cooperation of emission reduction in the supply chain.
A Biometric for Neurobiology of Influence with Social Informatics Using Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Rahmes
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is constructed on the premise that human belief dependent emotions can be triggered by story-telling or narratives. With recent technological advancements to measure neurobiological measurements of the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and non-invasive brain computing interface (BCI equipment, these technologies can allow for visualization and data collection of brain activation patterns showing unconsciously controlled responses to narratives or stories. Current game theory application to belief networks has been modeled to help explain observed behavior when material payoffs of others matters to the individual. We discuss a method of how game theory, utilizing communication packet theory, can now be modeled to belief dependent emotions and intentions measured through a new biometric tool correlating neurobiological emotional states and responses.
Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory
Zhuang, Jun
2015-01-01
Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...
Strategic Investment Under Uncertainty : Merging Real Options with Game Theory
Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.; Pawlina, G.; Thijssen, J.J.J.
2003-01-01
As becomes apparent from the standard text books in industrial organization (cf.Tirole, 1988, The Theory of Industrial Organization), the analysis of the e.ects of uncertainty within this field is yet underdeveloped.This paper shows that the new theory of strategic real options can be used to fill t
Game Theory Based Trust Model for Cloud Environment.
Gokulnath, K; Uthariaraj, Rhymend
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose a method to establish trust at bootload level in cloud computing environment. This work proposes a game theoretic based approach for achieving trust at bootload level of both resources and users perception. Nash equilibrium (NE) enhances the trust evaluation of the first-time users and providers. It also restricts the service providers and the users to violate service level agreement (SLA). Significantly, the problem of cold start and whitewashing issues are addressed by the proposed method. In addition appropriate mapping of cloud user's application to cloud service provider for segregating trust level is achieved as a part of mapping. Thus, time complexity and space complexity are handled efficiently. Experiments were carried out to compare and contrast the performance of the conventional methods and the proposed method. Several metrics like execution time, accuracy, error identification, and undecidability of the resources were considered.
Game theory and extremal optimization for community detection in complex dynamic networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodica Ioana Lung
Full Text Available The detection of evolving communities in dynamic complex networks is a challenging problem that recently received attention from the research community. Dynamics clearly add another complexity dimension to the difficult task of community detection. Methods should be able to detect changes in the network structure and produce a set of community structures corresponding to different timestamps and reflecting the evolution in time of network data. We propose a novel approach based on game theory elements and extremal optimization to address dynamic communities detection. Thus, the problem is formulated as a mathematical game in which nodes take the role of players that seek to choose a community that maximizes their profit viewed as a fitness function. Numerical results obtained for both synthetic and real-world networks illustrate the competitive performance of this game theoretical approach.
Stability of Mixed-Strategy-Based Iterative Logit Quantal Response Dynamics in Game Theory
Zhuang, Qian; Wu, Jinshan
2013-01-01
Using the Logit quantal response form as the response function in each step, the original definition of static quantal response equilibrium (QRE) is extended into an iterative evolution process. QREs remain as the fixed points of the dynamic process. However, depending on whether such fixed points are the long-term solutions of the dynamic process, they can be classified into stable (SQREs) and unstable (USQREs) equilibriums. This extension resembles the extension from static Nash equilibriums (NEs) to evolutionary stable solutions in the framework of evolutionary game theory. The relation between SQREs and other solution concepts of games, including NEs and QREs, is discussed. Using experimental data from other published papers, we perform a preliminary comparison between SQREs, NEs, QREs and the observed behavioral outcomes of those experiments. For certain games, we determine that SQREs have better predictive power than QREs and NEs.
GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND GAME THEORY FOR HIGH LIFT DESIGN PROBLEMS IN AERODYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PériauxJacques; WangJiangfeng; WuYizhao
2002-01-01
A multi-objective evolutionary optimization method (combining genetic algorithms(GAs)and game theory(GT))is presented for high lift multi-airfoil systems in aerospace engineering.Due to large dimension global op-timization problems and the increasing importance of low cost distributed parallel environments,it is a natural idea to replace a globar optimization by decentralized local sub-optimizations using GT which introduces the notion of games associated to an optimization problem.The GT/GAs combined optimization method is used for recon-struction and optimization problems by high lift multi-air-foil desing.Numerical results are favorably compared with single global GAs.The method shows teh promising robustness and efficient parallel properties of coupled GAs with different game scenarios for future advanced multi-disciplinary aerospace techmologies.
Stability of mixed-strategy-based iterative logit quantal response dynamics in game theory.
Zhuang, Qian; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan
2014-01-01
Using the Logit quantal response form as the response function in each step, the original definition of static quantal response equilibrium (QRE) is extended into an iterative evolution process. QREs remain as the fixed points of the dynamic process. However, depending on whether such fixed points are the long-term solutions of the dynamic process, they can be classified into stable (SQREs) and unstable (USQREs) equilibriums. This extension resembles the extension from static Nash equilibriums (NEs) to evolutionary stable solutions in the framework of evolutionary game theory. The relation between SQREs and other solution concepts of games, including NEs and QREs, is discussed. Using experimental data from other published papers, we perform a preliminary comparison between SQREs, NEs, QREs and the observed behavioral outcomes of those experiments. For certain games, we determine that SQREs have better predictive power than QREs and NEs.
Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D
2014-08-06
Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities.
Game theory and extremal optimization for community detection in complex dynamic networks.
Lung, Rodica Ioana; Chira, Camelia; Andreica, Anca
2014-01-01
The detection of evolving communities in dynamic complex networks is a challenging problem that recently received attention from the research community. Dynamics clearly add another complexity dimension to the difficult task of community detection. Methods should be able to detect changes in the network structure and produce a set of community structures corresponding to different timestamps and reflecting the evolution in time of network data. We propose a novel approach based on game theory elements and extremal optimization to address dynamic communities detection. Thus, the problem is formulated as a mathematical game in which nodes take the role of players that seek to choose a community that maximizes their profit viewed as a fitness function. Numerical results obtained for both synthetic and real-world networks illustrate the competitive performance of this game theoretical approach.
Tziraki, Chariklia; Berenbaum, Rakel; Gross, Daniel; Abikhzer, Judith; Ben-David, Boaz M
2017-07-31
The field of serious games for people with dementia (PwD) is mostly driven by game-design principals typically applied to games created by and for younger individuals. Little has been done developing serious games to help PwD maintain cognition and to support functionality. We aimed to create a theory-based serious game for PwD, with input from a multi-disciplinary team familiar with aging, dementia, and gaming theory, as well as direct input from end users (the iterative process). Targeting enhanced self-efficacy in daily activities, the goal was to generate a game that is acceptable, accessible and engaging for PwD. The theory-driven game development was based on the following learning theories: learning in context, errorless learning, building on capacities, and acknowledging biological changes-all with the aim to boost self-efficacy. The iterative participatory process was used for game screen development with input of 34 PwD and 14 healthy community dwelling older adults, aged over 65 years. Development of game screens was informed by the bio-psychological aging related disabilities (ie, motor, visual, and perception) as well as remaining neuropsychological capacities (ie, implicit memory) of PwD. At the conclusion of the iterative development process, a prototype game with 39 screens was used for a pilot study with 24 PwD and 14 healthy community dwelling older adults. The game was played twice weekly for 10 weeks. Quantitative analysis showed that the average speed of successful screen completion was significantly longer for PwD compared with healthy older adults. Both PwD and controls showed an equivalent linear increase in the speed for task completion with practice by the third session (Pgame engaging and fun. Healthy older adults found the game too easy. Increase in self-reported self-efficacy was documented with PwD only. Our study demonstrated that PwD's speed improved with practice at the same rate as healthy older adults. This implies that when tasks
Smeyers, Paul; Fendler, Lynn
2015-01-01
Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. Language works in more complex ways, even in work that purports to be purely scientific. This article investigates the scope and limitations of language-games in educational history and theory. The study addresses concepts and pictures as examples of…
Bacteria and game theory: the rise and fall of cooperation in spatially heterogeneous environments.
Lambert, Guillaume; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert H
2014-08-06
One of the predictions of game theory is that cooperative behaviours are vulnerable to exploitation by selfish individuals, but this result seemingly contradicts the survival of cooperation observed in nature. In this review, we will introduce game theoretical concepts that lead to this conclusion and show how the spatial competition dynamics between microorganisms can be used to model the survival and maintenance of cooperation. In particular, we focus on how Escherichia coli bacteria with a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype maintain a proliferative phenotype when faced with overcrowding to gain a fitness advantage over wild-type populations. We review recent experimental approaches studying the growth dynamics of competing GASP and wild-type strains of E. coli inside interconnected microfabricated habitats and use a game theoretical approach to analyse the observed inter-species interactions. We describe how the use of evolutionary game theory and the ideal free distribution accurately models the spatial distribution of cooperative and selfish individuals in spatially heterogeneous environments. Using bacteria as a model system of cooperative and selfish behaviours may lead to a better understanding of the competition dynamics of other organisms-including tumour-host interactions during cancer development and metastasis.
A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaowei Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.
A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.
Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.
Tekwa, Edward W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Loreau, Michel
2015-09-07
Cooperation plays a crucial role in many aspects of biology. We use the spatial ecological metrics of local densities to measure and model cooperative interactions. While local densities can be found as technical details in current theories, we aim to establish them as central to an approach that describes spatial effects in the evolution of cooperation. A resulting local interaction model neatly partitions various spatial and non-spatial selection mechanisms. Furthermore, local densities are shown to be fundamental for important metrics of game theory, multilevel selection theory and inclusive fitness theory. The corresponding metrics include structure coefficients, spatial variance, contextual covariance, relatedness, and inbreeding coefficient or F-statistics. Local densities serve as the basis of an emergent spatial theory that draws from and brings unity to multiple theories of cooperation.
Coalitional Game Theory for Cooperative Interference Management in Femtocell Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Shi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Dense deployment of femtocells can cause serious intra-tier interference in femtocell networks. In this paper, a new cooperative interference management approach which allows the femtocell user equipment (FUE to merge into cooperative groups, that is, coalitions, for the uplink transmissions in a femtocell network is proposed, so as to reduce the intra-tier interference and improve the system performance. Taking into account the power cost for cooperation, we claim that all the FUEs are impossible to merge together, and we formulate the proposed cooperative problem as a coalitional game in partition form with an externality due to the interference between the formed coalitions. To get the solution, a novel distributed coalition formation algorithm that takes advantage of the characteristics of femtocell network and allows the FUEs to interact and individually decide on which coalitions to participate in is proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the proposed algorithm. Simulations are conducted to illustrate the behavior and the performance of the proposed coalition formation algorithm among FUEs. Results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the system performance with much lower complexity than some previously proposed coalition formation algorithms.
Enforcing the climate regime: Game theory and the Marrakesh Accords
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hovi, Jon
2002-07-01
The article reviews basic insights about compliance and ''hard'' enforcement that can be derived from various non-cooperative equilibrium concepts and evaluates the Marrakesh Accords in light of these insights. Five different notions of equilibrium are considered - the Nash equilibrium, the sub game perfect equilibrium, the re negotiation proof equilibrium, the coalition proof equilibrium and the perfect Bayesian equilibrium. These various types of equilibrium have number of implications for effective enforcement: 1. Consequences of non-compliance should be more than proportionate. 2. To be credible punishment needs to take place in the Pareto frontier, rather than by reversion to some suboptimal state. 3. An effective enforcement system must be able to curb collective as well as individual incentives to cheat. 4. A fully transparent enforcement regime could in fact turn out to be detrimental for compliance levels. It is concluded that constructing an effective system for ''hard'' enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol is a formidable task that has only partially been accomplished by the Marrakesh Accords. A possible explanation is that the design of a compliance system for the climate regime involved a careful balancing of the desire to minimise non-compliance against other important considerations. (Author)
Evolutionary Game Theory on Measure Spaces: Well-Posedness
Cleveland, John
2012-01-01
An attempt is made to find a comprehensive mathematical framework in which to investigate the problems of well-posedness and asymptotic analysis for fully nonlinear evolutionary game theoretic models. The model should be rich enough to include all classical nonlinearities, e.g., Beverton-Holt or Ricker type. For several such models formulated on the space of integrable functions, it is known that as the variance of the payoff kernel becomes small the solution converges in the long term to a Dirac measure centered at the fittest strategy; thus the limit of the solution is not in the state space of integrable functions. Starting with the replicator-mutator equation and a generalized logistic equation as bases, a general model is formulated as a dynamical system on the state space of finite signed measures. Well-posedness is established, and then it is shown that by choosing appropriate payoff kernels this model includes all classical density models, both selection and mutation, and discrete and continuous strat...
Game Theory, Decision Theory, and Social Choice Theory in the Context of a New Theory of Equity
1978-12-01
singular deficiency in moral theory. Additionally, both Nozick (1974) and Wolff (1977) have criticized the Rawlsian and the utilitarian theories for...neglecting the question of contribution. 3. The distinction between manna and nonmanna environments was apparently introduced by Robert Nozick (1974, Chapter...Econometrica. Nozick , Robert, 1974, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books. Rawls, John, 1971, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge: The Bellknap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Zhang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.
GTDM: A DTN Routing on Noncooperative Game Theory in a City Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenzao Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The performance of delay tolerant networks (DTNs can be influenced by movement model in different application environments. The existing routing algorithms of DTNs do not meet the current city environments due to the large differences in node densities, social characteristics, and limited energy. The key indicators of DTNs such as success delivery ratio, average delivery latency, network lifetime, and network overhead ratio can influence the performances of civil DTNs applications. Aiming to improve the key indicators of DTNs in city environments, this paper presents a fixed sink station based structure and a more proper routing algorithm named Game Theory Based Decision Making (GTDM. GTDM shows decision-making process for neighborhood selection and packet delivering strategy which is based on the noncooperative game theory method and city environment characteristics. GTDM performance is evaluated using numerical simulations under Working Day Movement (WDM model and the results suggested that GTDM outperforms other traditional DTNs routing approaches, such as Epidemic and Prophet algorithms.
Application of Cost Allocation Concepts of Game Theory Approach for Cost Sharing Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Dissatisfaction among involved parties regarding the ways of cost allocation is ordinary in the joint ventures, since each party attempts to get more interest caused by making the coalition. Various cost allocation methods such as proportional methods, some methods in cooperative game theory approach and etc have been used for the purpose of cost sharing in the joint projects. In this study the Nucleolus, Shapley value and SCRB as the cost sharing concepts in game theory approach have been used to investigate their effectiveness in fairly joint cost allocation between parties involved in constructing the joint water supply system. Then the results derived from these methods have been compared with the results of the traditional proportional to population and demand methods. The results indicated that the proportional methods may not lead to a fairly cost allocation while the Nucleolus, SCRB and the Shapley value methods can establish adequate incentive for cooperation.
An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.
Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman
2016-06-30
A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.
Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management.
Lee, Chih-Sheng
2012-05-01
This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult.
An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shelly Salim
2016-06-01
Full Text Available A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels;
2012-01-01
Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games.......Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....
Cellular image segmentation using n-agent cooperative game theory
Dimock, Ian B.; Wan, Justin W. L.
2016-03-01
Image segmentation is an important problem in computer vision and has significant applications in the segmentation of cellular images. Many different imaging techniques exist and produce a variety of image properties which pose difficulties to image segmentation routines. Bright-field images are particularly challenging because of the non-uniform shape of the cells, the low contrast between cells and background, and imaging artifacts such as halos and broken edges. Classical segmentation techniques often produce poor results on these challenging images. Previous attempts at bright-field imaging are often limited in scope to the images that they segment. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm for automatically segmenting cellular images. The algorithm incorporates two game theoretic models which allow each pixel to act as an independent agent with the goal of selecting their best labelling strategy. In the non-cooperative model, the pixels choose strategies greedily based only on local information. In the cooperative model, the pixels can form coalitions, which select labelling strategies that benefit the entire group. Combining these two models produces a method which allows the pixels to balance both local and global information when selecting their label. With the addition of k-means and active contour techniques for initialization and post-processing purposes, we achieve a robust segmentation routine. The algorithm is applied to several cell image datasets including bright-field images, fluorescent images and simulated images. Experiments show that the algorithm produces good segmentation results across the variety of datasets which differ in cell density, cell shape, contrast, and noise levels.
Integrating Theory and Practice in Education with Business Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karen Neville
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The meaningful integration of theoretical knowledge and industrial practice in Masters level programmes is now more than ever vital to ensure that graduates have the required competence in IT and that they are ready to contribute to the organisations that hired them within a short timeframe. It is also crucial in ensuring ongoing industrial support for academia because Information technology (IT is regarded as a fundamental component in the success of organisations. This has led to a growing demand for IT specialists, sometimes with hybrid skills, to design, develop, implement, and support IT infrastures in both the public and private sectors. However, in recent years there has been a shortfall of IT graduates, with essential experience entering the job market. In order to keep up with demand, educational institutions must adopt innovative programmes to increase the skill-set and knowledge base of their IT graduates.One such programme, under the auspices of University College Cork, is a Masters course in Management Information and Managerial Accounting Systems (MIMAS. The programme focuses on IT to suit the needs of industry while also combining IT with other theoretical subjects like managerial accounting and the design of management control systems. One key element of the teaching experience is a business simulation where students create software companies and bid for a large scale development project. As part of this, they experience of broad range of tasks and problems inherent in commercial software development. The business game is designed to encourage students to make use of as much of the theoretical elements taught in the degree as possible and is mediated by the teaching staff through the intermediary of a purpose-designed computer system. Our experience indicates the immense value of such practical components in an IT oriented degree programme. It also shows that the application of new technology in training and education will only
How to Love the Bomb: Trying to solve the prisoner's dilemma with evolutionary game theory
Castela, Vasco
Economists traditionally see altruistic acts as irrational. However, in the Prisoner's Dilemma, a rational player can do worse than a moral player. The rules of the game imply that one cannot defend one's best interest if one tries to. Game theory has struggled to explain how an agent could have access to the strategically best outcome without behaving irrationally, but with little success. Can a complex systems approach do better?. Peter Danielson, using Evolutionary Game Theory, has avoided some of the assumptions of Game Theory by using a complexity approach to reframe the problem, and offers a solution of sorts. According to Danielson, the foundations of altruism are mechanisms of deterrence that rely on credible threat - we are nice for fear of retaliation. He is both right and wrong. It will be argued that utilitarian, consequentialist principles must have been at work to create the conditions for altruistic acts to be performed. It is wrong to expect, however, that the same reasons are the reasons for action. In order for a model of genuine altruism to be possible, an extra cog must be inserted in the mechanism of causality in order to distance moral action from its strategic advantages. If emotions fulfill this role, we can tell a story in which it is rational to act on altruistic motivations and materially advantageous to hold such motivations. Moral sentiments can be seen as a tool designed by evolution to help optimize cooperation in a social environment. The proposed account integrates the Humean theory of motivation with Robert Frank's commitment model and Aristotle's views on moral education, keeping an adequate story of how it can be in our material interest to be moral without having to renounce to the existence of genuine acts of altruism.
Security-Based Mechanism for Proactive Routing Schema Using Game Theory Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hicham Amraoui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Game theory may offer a useful mechanism to address many problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. One of the key concepts in the research field of such networks with Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR is the security problem. Relying on applying game theory to study this problem, we consider two strategies during this suggested model: cooperate and not-cooperate. However, in such networks, it is not easy to identify different actions of players. In this paper, we have essentially been inspired from recent advances provided in game theory to propose a new model for security in MANETs. Our proposal presents a powerful tool with a large number of players where interactions are played multiple times. Moreover, each node keeps a cooperation rate (CR record of other nodes to cope with the behaviors and mitigate aggregate effect of other malicious devices. Additionally, our suggested security mechanism does not only take into consideration security requirements, but also take into account system resources and network performances. The simulation results using Network Simulator 3 are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal.
Serious games: Theory in anthropology since the 1980s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandar Bošković
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a critical overview of recent theories in anthropology, particularly following Ortner’s groundbreaking 1984 summary, as well as debates opened up by the Writing Culture symposium and the book that followed (Clifford and Marcus 1986. Beginning with Ortner’s theory of practice, the author presents basic elements of several theoretical currents that influenced anthropology’s development in the last few decades, with particular emphasis on the use of the concept of culture. Post-1980s years provided for increased visibility of other anthropologies, outside of traditional “centers” of anthropological knowledge (i.e. Anglo-American, French and German anthropologies.Some representatives of these traditions, together with certain modifications of structuralism, aided by representatives of the “deconstructionˮ movement (especially in France, additionally influenced the self-questioning in contemporary anthropology, leading gradually to what is sometimes referred to the “ontological turnˮ in contemporary anthropology, exemplified by the Brazilian anthropologist Eduardo Viveiros de Castro. Representatives of this “turn” also see themselves as successors of the theory of practice. The author points to some serious implications of this “turnˮ – including pushing anthropology into the realm of pseudo-science, and making it completely irrelevant for understanding and interpretation of the contemporary world.
Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming
1989-01-01
Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... is concerned with the (preferably automatic) analysis of programs. The main purpose of these analyses is to find information that may assist in the efficient implementation of the programs. Abstract interpretation is thus related to data flow analysis, partial evaluation and other program analysis methods. Its...... unique flavour is the insistence on formal proofs of correctness and the methods used to establish these. This paper develops a theory of abstract interpretation for two-level denotational definitions. There are three ingredients in this. First a framework for proving the correctness of analyses...
Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje
2015-09-02
Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
Review: Game theory of public goods in one-shot social dilemmas without assortment.
Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István
2012-04-21
We review the theory of public goods in biology. In the N-person prisoner's dilemma, where the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions, cooperation requires some form of assortment, for example due to kin discrimination, population viscosity or repeated interactions. In most social species ranging from bacteria to humans, however, public goods are usually a non-linear function of the contributions, which makes cooperation possible without assortment. More specifically, a polymorphic state can be stable in which cooperators and non-cooperators coexist. The existence of mixed equilibria in public goods games is a fundamental result in the study of cooperation that has been overlooked so far, because of the disproportionate attention given to the two- and N-person prisoner's dilemma. Methods and results from games with pairwise interactions or linear benefits cannot, in general, be extended to the analysis of public goods. Game theory helps explain the production of public goods in one-shot, N-person interactions without assortment, it leads to predictions that can be easily tested and allows a prescriptive approach to cooperation.
Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.
Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen
2015-06-01
The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.
Joint Machine Learning and Game Theory for Rate Control in High Efficiency Video Coding.
Gao, Wei; Kwong, Sam; Jia, Yuheng
2017-08-25
In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method. The minimum utility is adjusted by the reference coding distortion and frame-level Quantization parameter (QP) change. Lastly, intra frame QP and inter frame adaptive bit ratios are adjusted to make inter frames have more bit resources to maintain smooth quality and bit consumption in the bargaining game optimization. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MLGT based RC method can achieve much better R-D performances, quality smoothness, bit rate accuracy, buffer control results and subjective visual quality than the other state-of-the-art one-pass RC methods, and the achieved R-D performances are very close to the performance limits from the FixedQP method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Jaafarnehad
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase overall supply chain system benefits. In order to achieve the overall objectives, many contradictions may occur between the components and different levels of supply chain and the contradictions that these disorders over time, result in decreased strength and competitiveness of the supply chain. Such conflicts, like marketing costs (advertising, pricing and inventory can occur during the supply chain life cycle. A Game Theory approach with respect to property is the appropriate tool for collaboration in the supply chain. This tool is used for collaborative making in any kind of supply chain such as cooperative supply chain and non-cooperative supply chain. In the present study and assuming a lack of cooperation between different levels of a supply chain, a dynamic game with complete information has been generated. In addition identifying appropriate leaders of various levels of the supply chain is considered. Non-Cooperative dynamic game mode (Stackelberg Game, for each of the three levels of supply chain including retailers, suppliers and manufacturers are modeled. Depending on the bargaining power and its position in the market, any level of supply chain can make a leader of the following rule. In the present study, the equilibrium model to play Stackelberg game may be led by a leader or leading players and ultimately identifying and modeling the appropriate unlimited three level supply chain are determined.
Transmission expansion cost allocation based on cooperative game theory for congestion relief
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erli, Ge; Takahasi, Kazuhiro; Kurihara, Ikuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Luonan Chen [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)
2005-01-01
In conventional power systems, upstream and downstream of power were distinct. However, due to the competition, power injection and sink can appear at unexpected locations, and cost sharing for such a new power system configuration must be considered. This paper proposes a scheme for transmission expansion cost allocation among electric market participants by using Core and Nucleolus concepts of game theory, which are developed particularly for the transmission users. A solution of the n-person cooperative game is adopted to distribute the line transmission expansion cost among the players. Congestion is assumed to be the transmission constraint, and expansion of transmission line is expected to relieve transmission congestion. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the proposed method. (Author)
Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium
Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F.
2016-01-01
Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qi, Yongzhi; Liu, Yutian; Wu, Qiuwei
2017-01-01
of wind farm clusters (WFCs) in order to track scheduled wind power of the WFC during ramping events. In the proposed strategy, a non‐cooperative game is formulated and wind farms compete to provide regulation to the WFC during ramping events. A regulation revenue function is proposed to evaluate......With increasing penetration of wind power in power systems, it is important to track scheduled wind power output as much as possible during ramping events to ensure security of the system. In this paper, a non‐cooperative coordination strategy based on the game theory is proposed for the regulation...... the competition process of wind farms to provide regulation to the WFC which includes revenue of effective regulation (ER), power support regulation and punishment regulation. The multi‐time‐interval Nash equilibrium condition is derived for the regulation competition process of wind farms. By setting parameters...
GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies.
Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain
2015-01-01
Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/.
Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.
Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F
2016-01-01
Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.
Introducing a model for competitiveness of suppliers in supply chain through game theory approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hengameh Cighary Deljavan
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Cighary Deljavan and Fariba Sadeghi PDF (300 KAbstract: The purpose of the present study is to introduce a model for competitiveness of suppliers in supply chain through game theory approach in one of the automobile companies of Iran. In this study, the game is based on price and non-price factors and this company is going to estimate the real profit obtained from collaboration with each of supply chain members. This happens by considering the governing competitive condition based on game theory before entering a bit for purchase of α piece as spare part among 8 companies supplying this piece as the supply chain members. According to experts in this industry, the quality is the main non-price competitiveness factor after price. In the current research models, the model introduced by Lu and Tsao (2011 [Lu, J.C., Tsao, Y.C., & Charoensiriwath, C. (2011. Competition Under manufacturer Service and retail price. Economic Modeling, 28,1256-1264.] with two manufacturers- one distributer, being appropriate for the research data, has been considered as the basis and implemented for case study and then it has been extended to n-manufacturers-one common retailer. Following price elasticity of demand, potential size of market or maximum product demand, retailer price, production price, wholesale price, demand amount, manufacturer and retailer profit are estimated under three scenario of manufacturer Stackelberg, Retailer Sackelberg and Vertical Nash. Therefore, by comparing them, price balance points and optimum level of services are specified and the better optimum scenario can be determined. Sensitivity analysis is performed for new model and manufacturers are ranked based on manufacture profit, Retailer profit and customer satisfaction. Finally, in this research in addition to introducing-person game model, customer satisfaction, which has been presented in the previous models as a missed circle are analyzed.
Hamanaka, Shintaro
2010-01-01
Despite a commonplace view that Asian regionalism lacks institutions, Asia, in fact, is full of regional institutions and frameworks in various forms. The rise and fall of regional institutions in Asia is an extremely dynamic process. Using a game theory approach, this paper hypothesizes that the dynamic nature of Asian regionalism can be explained by a "regionalism cycle." The institutional outcome of regionalism in Asia has been cyclical because the game played by Japan and the United State...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....
Safeguard and Protection of Migrant Workers’ Interests from the Perspective of Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2010-01-01
The status quo of the violation of migrant workers’ interests is analyzed,the results are not so optimistic.The overall situation of migrant workers’ training rights is poor;migrant workers ’rights to enjoy legal holiday are seriously violated;the working conditions and health protection measures are weak;migrant workers’ rights to get legal payment are damaged to different degree;the social security mechanism for migrant workers is imperfect and there are still large gap between supply and demand.Combining with the relevant theories of Game theory,migrant workers’ interests obtained under the situation of entering right protection organizations and do not entering the organizations are analyzed,the results show that entering right protection organizations is reasonable choice.The positive functions played by the improvement of the reputation of labor union in solving the problems of right protection are proved from the perspective of the Game Theory.Through the analysis on the operational effects of the right protection organizations of migrant workers,it can be detected that the functions of organizations owned by migrant workers themselves is mediocre but the labor union plays an important role in migrant workers’ right protection.The protection of migrant workers’ interests tends to legalization,so in order to further perfect the right protection of labor union,the labor union should legalize the protection of migrant workers rights.In the end the specific measures on improving the reputation of labor union are put forward.
Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation
Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh
2016-01-01
Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.
Flexibility of theory of mind in a matrix game when the opponent's level changes.
Li, Jing; Liu, Xi-Ping; Tang, Wei-Hai
2014-01-01
This study used a matrix game to explore adolescents' and young adults' flexibility of theory of mind (ToM) and to examine whether prediction could promote a person's ToM reasoning when the opponent's level of ToM changed during the course of the game. A total of 202 participants of different ages (13, 16, 19, and 24 years) were presented with the task. Results showed that the ToM flexibility in prediction and decision making was not significantly different across the age groups. A person's flexibility of ToM was better when the opponent's level was stable than when the level changed. It was even more difficult for a person to adapt when the opponent changed from a higher-order to lower-order level. The results showed prediction to be a kind of information clue that would prompt people to think further. It is both feasible and discriminative to explore even higher levels of ToM with matrix games.
Effort dynamics in a fisheries bioeconomic model: A vessel level approach through Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorka Merino
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 is one of the most important resources for the bottom-trawl fleets in the northwestern Mediterranean, in terms of both landings and economic value. A simple bioeconomic model introducing Game Theory for the prediction of effort dynamics at vessel level is proposed. The game is performed by the twelve vessels exploiting red shrimp in Blanes. Within the game, two solutions are performed: non-cooperation and cooperation. The first is proposed as a realistic method for the prediction of individual effort strategies and the second is used to illustrate the potential profitability of the analysed fishery. The effort strategy for each vessel is the number of fishing days per year and their objective is profit maximisation, individual profits for the non-cooperative solution and total profits for the cooperative one. In the present analysis, strategic conflicts arise from the differences between vessels in technical efficiency (catchability coefficient and economic efficiency (defined here. The ten-year and 1000-iteration stochastic simulations performed for the two effort solutions show that the best strategy from both an economic and a conservationist perspective is homogeneous effort cooperation. However, the results under non-cooperation are more similar to the observed data on effort strategies and landings.
European dominant position and american monopolization: a unifying approach from basic game theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pier Luigi Parcu
2006-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we explore the meaning of some fundamental legal definitions of Europeanand American antitrust using basic concepts of game theory. Important definitions in EU law likedominant position of a firm, abuse of such a dominant position, special responsibility of thedominant firm, or in US law like monopoly or monopolization offence, acquire more precisemeaning and operational content. Moreover they look closer than usually contended.In a competition game, in which there is a truly monopolistic/dominant firm (MDF andcompetition law is respected, we state in a formal theorem that an MDF has a dominant strategy, soits choices should never be a source of ex post regret. Other players of the game, understanding andanticipating the realization of this dominant strategy, will optimize their behaviour taking it intoaccount and thus be more able to select a best solution among all possible outcomes.In this context which kind of behaviours can an MDF adopt to defend its market shares andeconomic position? Following the US Supreme Court and EU Court of Justice an MDF mustcompete using normal methods of competition, superior product or business acumen, therefore weargue that market power, whatever its origin, can be defended only through competition on themerit. This definition has practical consequences: unpredictable behaviours and actions that anormal firm would not adopt might be identified as illegal abuses of dominant position ormonopolization offences, also this idea is formalized in a theorem.
Context Sensing System Analysis for Privacy Preservation Based on Game Theory.
Wang, Shengling; Li, Luyun; Sun, Weiman; Guo, Junqi; Bie, Rongfang; Lin, Kai
2017-02-10
In a context sensing system in which a sensor-equipped mobile phone runs an unreliable context-aware application, the application can infer the user's contexts, based on which it provides personalized services. However, the application may sell the user's contexts to some malicious adversaries to earn extra profits, which will hinder its widespread use. In the real world, the actions of the user, the application and the adversary in the context sensing system affect each other, so that their payoffs are constrained mutually. To figure out under which conditions they behave well (the user releases, the application does not leak and the adversary does not retrieve the context), we take advantage of game theory to analyze the context sensing system. We use the extensive form game and the repeated game, respectively, to analyze two typical scenarios, single interaction and multiple interaction among three players, from which Nash equilibriums and cooperation conditions are obtained. Our results show that the reputation mechanism for the context-sensing system in the former scenario is crucial to privacy preservation, so is the extent to which the participants are concerned about future payoffs in the latter one.
The compleat strategyst being a primer on the theory of games of strategy
Williams, J D
1986-01-01
When J. D. Williams wrote this entertaining, witty introduction for the nonscientist, Game Theory was still a somewhat mysterious subject familiar to very few scientists beyond those researchers, like himself, working for the military. Now, over thirty years after its original publication as a Rand Corporation research study, his light-hearted though thoroughly effective primer is the recognized classic introduction to an increasingly applicable discipline. Used by amateurs, professionals, and students throughout the world in the classroom, on the job, and for personal amusement, the book has
A Power Allocation Algorithm Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Multi-cell OFDM Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Wang
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A centralized resource allocation algorithm in multi-cell OFDM systems is studied, which aims at improving the performance of wireless communication systems and enhancing user’s spectral efficiency on the edge of the cell. The proposed resource allocation algorithm can be divided into two steps. The first step is sub-carrier allocation based on matrix searching in single cell and the second one is joint power allocation based on cooperative game theory in multi-cell. By comparing with traditional resource allocation algorithms in multi-cell scenario, we find that the proposed algorithm has lower computational complexity and good fairness performance.
Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel
2015-01-01
of the classifications that were attributed by each VPP to the distributed generation units, as well as in the analysis of the previous established contracts by each player. The proposed classification model is based in fourteen parameters including technical, economical and behavioural ones. Depending of the VPP...... and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanauske, Matthias
2011-02-14
The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)
Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)
Competition, cooperation and communication are the three fundamental relationships upon which natural selection acts in the evolution of life. Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is a 'marriage' between game theory and Darwin's evolution theory; it gains additional modeling power and flexibility by adopting population dynamics theory. In EGT, natural selection acts as optimization agents and produces inherent strategies, which eliminates some essential assumptions in traditional game theory such as rationality and allows more realistic modeling of many problems. Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) games are two well-known examples of EGT, which are formulated to study cooperation and communication, respectively. Despite its huge success, EGT exposes a certain degree of weakness in dealing with time-, space- and covariate-dependent (i.e., dynamic) uncertainty, vulnerability and deception. In this paper, I propose to extend EGT in two ways to overcome the weakness. First, I introduce survival analysis modeling to describe the lifetime or fitness of game players. This extension allows more flexible and powerful modeling of the dynamic uncertainty and vulnerability (collectively equivalent to the dynamic frailty in survival analysis). Secondly, I introduce agreement algorithms, which can be the Agreement algorithms in distributed computing (e.g., Byzantine Generals Problem [6][8], Dynamic Hybrid Fault Models [12]) or any algorithms that set and enforce the rules for players to determine their consensus. The second extension is particularly useful for modeling dynamic deception (e.g., asymmetric faults in fault tolerance and deception in animal communication). From a computational perspective, the extended evolutionary game theory (EEGT) modeling, when implemented in simulation, is equivalent to an optimization methodology that is similar to evolutionary computing approaches such as Genetic algorithms with dynamic populations [15][17].
Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests.
Stuart-Fox, Devi
2006-06-22
Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld.
Chen, Bor-Yann
2007-10-22
This study provides a novel explanation to put forward, in Lotka-Volterra competition model and game theory, interspecific competition in bioaugmentation using constructed mixed consortia for azo dye decolorization. As mixed cultures are regularly used in industrial dye-laden wastewater treatment, understanding species competition of mixed consortia is apparently of great importance to azo dye decolorization. In aerobic growth conditions, Escherichia coli DH5alpha owned a growth advantage to out-compete Pseudomonas luteola due to preferential growth rate of DH5alpha. However, in static decolorization conditions DH5alpha surrendered some proportion of its advantage (i.e., a decrease in its competitive power for metabolite stimulation) to enhance color removal of P. luteola for total coexistence. In aerobic growth, DH5alpha had its growth advantage to exclude P. luteola for dominance (i.e, conflict strategy) according to competitive exclusion principle. In static decolorization conditions, as the removal of a common dye threat was crucial to both species for survival, both species selected cooperation strategy through metabolite stimulation of DH5alpha to enhance effective decolorization of P. luteola for long-term sustainable management. This analysis of game theory clearly unlocked unsolved mysteries in previous studies.
Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.
Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H
2014-08-06
Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.
Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel.
Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F; Tekle, Yonas I; Galvani, Alison P
2012-01-01
The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast, for low vaccination costs, improving awareness of the vaccine and the potential cost of chickenpox infection is crucial.
GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.
Lin, Chi; Wu, Guowei; Pirozmand, Poria
2015-06-04
The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.
Sub-watershed prioritization based on sediment yield using game theory
Adhami, Maryam; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza
2016-10-01
The proper placement of soil and water conservation measures cannot be designated due to lack of appropriate technical prioritization of different areas of a watershed. Therefore, quantifying soil erosion hazard and spatial prioritization of sub-watersheds would aid in better watershed management planning. Although, many approaches have been applied to prioritize sub-watersheds, but still the efficient techniques like game theory have not been practically applied to prioritize sub-watersheds. The present study therefore has used the game theory to prioritize sub-watersheds in Gorganroud and Qareh Sou watersheds in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Towards this goal, 38 independent factors were classified in seven components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method with one representative variable in each component. The Condorcet method used for prioritization of effective variables indicated that the percent of forestry lands (52 scores) and discharge with 10 years of return period (32 scores) were respectively the most and the least effective variables on sediment yield. The Fallback bargaining and the Borda Scoring algorithms were also selected to prioritize study sub-watersheds based on weighted grades of total score for each variable. Accordingly, the aforesaid algorithms classified sub-watersheds in three categories. Comparison of results similarly introduced Galikesh, Qazaqli, Gonbad, Siyah Ab and Tamar as first ranked sub-watersheds with the worth condition, Tangrah and Naharkhoran as second priority and eventually Pole Ordougah as sub-watershed with the lowest priority.
The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.
Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin
2017-03-28
Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prokhin Egor Anatol’evich
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In the modern conditions innovatization of construction is of great necessity, though it is associated with a number of problems of first of all institutional genesis. The development of green construction in Russia is on its first stages, though its necessity is growing according to the tendency for energy efficiency and sustainable development. The innovative process of ecological construction has a network model and requires its optimization with the aim of further development by advancing the institutional platform. The author proposed a conceptual scheme for an institutional platform of the innovative process of green construction and conducted systematization of institutional structures. The unique role of innovative and ecological institutes is substantiated. The author recommends an optimization method for institutional interaction of the subjects using the stakeholder theory and the theory of matrix games aimed at activation of innovative green technologies. Practical application of the offered algorithms and methods will allow increasing the efficiency of green construction development.
Analysis of Product Distribution Strategy in Digital Publishing Industry Based on Game-Theory
Xu, Li-ping; Chen, Haiyan
2017-04-01
The digital publishing output increased significantly year by year. It has been the most vigorous point of economic growth and has been more important to press and publication industry. Its distribution channel has been diversified, which is different from the traditional industry. A deep research has been done in digital publishing industry, for making clear of the constitution of the industry chain and establishing the model of industry chain. The cooperative and competitive relationship between different distribution channels have been analyzed basing on a game-theory. By comparing the distribution quantity and the market size between the static distribution strategy and dynamic distribution strategy, we get the theory evidence about how to choose the distribution strategy to get the optimal benefit.
Integration of Large-Scale Optimization and Game Theory for Sustainable Water Quality Management
Tsao, J.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Tung, C.
2009-12-01
Sustainable water quality management requires total mass control in pollutant discharge based on both the principles of not exceeding assimilative capacity in a river and equity among generations. The stream assimilative capacity is the carrying capacity of a river for the maximum waste load without violating the water quality standard and the spirit of total mass control is to optimize the waste load allocation in subregions. For the goal of sustainable watershed development, this study will use large-scale optimization theory to optimize the profit, and find the marginal values of loadings as reference of the fair price and then the best way to get the equilibrium by water quality trading for the whole of watershed will be found. On the other hand, game theory plays an important role to maximize both individual and entire profits. This study proves the water quality trading market is available in some situation, and also makes the whole participants get a better outcome.
Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory
Tarasenko, Sergey
The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.
Junhai Ma; Yuehong Guo
2014-01-01
This paper studied system dynamics characteristics of closed-loop supply chain using repeated game theory and complex system theory. It established decentralized decision-making game model and centralized decision-making game model and then established and analyzed the corresponding continuity system. Drew the region local stability of Nash equilibrium and Stackelberg equilibrium, and a series of chaotic system characteristics, have an detail analysis of the Lyapunov index which is under the ...
语言博弈论与科学博弈%Theory of Language-Game and Science-Game
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐晓嘉
2001-01-01
@@ 一、从维特根斯坦的语言游戏到辛提卡的语言博弈 "语言博弈,Language-game"概念源于维特根斯坦.它又被学者们译作"语言游戏",因为"game"既有"游戏"也有"博弈"的含义.其实博弈本身也是一种游戏,只不过它更强调弈手间的对抗性.从这个意义上讲,就维氏对"Language-game"的运用而言译为"语言游戏"是恰当的.但从辛提卡理论中"Language-game"译作"语言博弈"更准确.
An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load
Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan
2013-01-01
This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…
An educational video game for nutrition of young people: Theory and design
Playing Escape from Diab (DIAB) and Nanoswarm (NANO), epic video game adventures, increased fruit and vegetable consumption among a multi-ethnic sample of 10-12 year old children during pilot testing. Key elements of both games were educational mini-games embedded in the overall game that promoted k...
An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load
Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan
2013-01-01
This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…
Multi-objective optimization strategies using adjoint method and game theory in aerodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhili Tang
2006-01-01
There are currently three different game strategies originated in economics:(1) Cooperative games (Pareto front),(2)Competitive games (Nash game) and (3)Hierarchical games (Stackelberg game).Each game achieves different equilibria with different performance,and their players play different roles in the games.Here,we introduced game concept into aerodynamic design, and combined it with adjoint method to solve multicriteria aerodynamic optimization problems.The performance distinction of the equilibria of these three game strategies was investigated by numerical experiments.We computed Pareto front, Nash and Stackelberg equilibria of the same optimization problem with two conflicting and hierarchical targets under different parameterizations by using the deterministic optimization method.The numerical results show clearly that all the equilibria solutions are inferior to the Pareto front.Non-dominated Pareto front solutions are obtained,however the CPU cost to capture a set of solutions makes the Pareto front an expensive tool to the designer.
Internal Telephone Billing Rates - A Novel Application of Non-Atomic Game Theory.
1977-04-01
variation if it is the difference between two monotonic games. The space of all games of bounded variation is called By. If Q is any space of games, Q...is a real-valued set function on C satisfying v(+) = 0. A game v is monotonic if for all S,T ~ C , S ~ T ~ v(S) < v(T). A game V IS of bounded
Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor
2014-01-01
This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.
The Localized Area Coverage algorithm Based on Game-Theory for WSN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin He
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. Among this, in the study of area coverage, the set K-cover algorithm is broadly accepted because that it can prolong network lifetime rather well. However, the existing set K-cover algorithms are centralized, and can not adapt to the large-scale sensor network applications and expansion. Game theory is a kind of decision theory, which is concerned with the situation where players directly interact with each other and can from the angle of participant’s rational favor look for root of influence on macro-construction. It is very suitable for characteristic of node in wireless sensor network, which is only to know its own and neighbors’ local state information and according to local information to implement behavior decision, making it convenient to realize distribution algorithm. In the previous work, the maximum coverage set calculated algorithm is proposed by us. So, this paper utilizes the number of maximum coverage set as the upper limit of coverage node set division. On the basis of this maximum, it takes number of minimum layer overlapping subfields, which satisfy division condition, as node’s utility function. Thus, this paper uses game theory model realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage. Then, it puts forward a distribution algorithm to get optimal strategy by iteration so as to reach realize Nash Equilibrium and realize node set’s rational division. Simulation results show it realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage.
Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H
2015-01-01
One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider.
Oil supply between OPEC and non-OPEC based on game theory
Chang, Yuwen; Yi, Jiexin; Yan, Wei; Yang, Xinshe; Zhang, Song; Gao, Yifan; Wang, Xi
2014-10-01
The competing strategies between OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) and non-OPEC producers make the oil supply market a complex system, and thus, it is very difficult to model and to make predictions. In this paper, we combine the macro-model based on game theory and micro-model to propose a new approach for forecasting oil supply. We take into account the microscopic behaviour in the clearing market and also use the game relationships to adjust oil supplies in our approach. For the supply model, we analyse and consider the different behaviour of non-OPEC and OPEC producers. According to our analysis, limiting the oil supply, and thus maintaining oil price, is the best strategy for OPEC in the low-price scenario, while the rising supply is the best strategy in the high-price scenario. No matter what the oil price is, the dominant strategy for non-OPEC producers is to increase their oil supply. In the high-price scenario, OPEC will try to deplete non-OPEC's share in the oil supply market, which is to OPEC's advantage.
Characteristics of traffic flow at a non-signalized intersection in the framework of game theory
Fan, Hongqiang; Jia, Bin; Tian, Junfang; Yun, Lifen
2014-12-01
At a non-signalized intersection, some vehicles violate the traffic rules to pass the intersection as soon as possible. These behaviors may cause many traffic conflicts even traffic accidents. In this paper, a simulation model is proposed to research the effects of these behaviors at a non-signalized intersection. Vehicle’s movement is simulated by the cellular automaton (CA) model. The game theory is introduced for simulating the intersection dynamics. Two types of driver participate the game process: cooperator (C) and defector (D). The cooperator obey the traffic rules, but the defector does not. A transition process may occur when the cooperator is waiting before the intersection. The critical value of waiting time follows the Weibull distribution. One transition regime is found in the phase diagram. The simulation results illustrate the applicability of the proposed model and reveal a number of interesting insights into the intersection management, including that the existence of defectors is benefit for the capacity of intersection, but also reduce the safety of intersection.
Use of cooperative game theory concepts for loss allocation in bilateral electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Satyaramesh, P.V. [AP Transco, Hyderabad, AP (India); Radhakrishna, C. [Global Energy Consulting Engineers Private Ltd., Hyderabad, AP (India)
2009-07-01
The deregulation of electricity markets has resulted in changes in electricity pricing. Participants in a deregulated market require a fair and equitable pricing structure that reflects both the share of power produced and consumed in the network, as well as the cost of power loss caused by users. This paper focused on the allocation of losses using the cooperative game theory (CGT) where many transactions take place in a bilateral electricity market environment. A set of approaches documented in literature in the areas of application of CGT were first identified and their applicability to allocations of losses in bilateral electricity markets were then reviewed. The allocation methods can be classified into 3 broad categories, namely classical, new, and variants of nucleolus. The structure of the game and the concept of fairness behind it were the 2 points that were examined in detail in this study. The allocation concept of these methods was systematically analyzed and compared. Calculations were performed on a six-bus system sample and a standard IEEE 14-bus system. The variants of nucleolus were shown to be among the most plausible concepts. The power losses for each transaction were calculated using a power flow procedure. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.
Reallocation of water in the state of New Mexico based on cooperative game theory
Rouhi Rad, M.
2011-12-01
Water allocation models often aim to maximize net benefits in the river basin based on the water rights, thus there is no motivation to use water efficiently by the users with lower marginal value for water. Water markets not only could help increase the net benefits over the basin but also will encourage the stakeholders to save the water and use it in transfer markets and increase their income. This issue can be viewed as a game in which stakeholders can play non-cooperatively and try to increase their own benefits using the amount of water assigned to them or they could cooperate and make coalitions in order to increase the total benefits in the coalition and the whole basin. The aim of this study is to reallocate the water based on cooperation among different stakeholders, namely agricultural, municipal and industrial and environmental, in the Upper Rio Grande river basin in the state of New Mexico in order to increase efficiency, sustainability and equity of water distribution in the basin using different game theory schemes such as Nucleolus and the Shapley Value.
Economic game theory to model the attenuation of virulence of an obligate intracellular bacterium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian Tago
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host’s defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g. with Ehrlichia ruminantium, there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.
A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network.
Chen, Yuzhong; Weng, Shining; Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue
2016-02-19
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.
A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuzhong Chen
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.
Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…
Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Leslie, Alan M.
2016-01-01
This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member…
Wang, Lijuan
2013-01-01
This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…
Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Leslie, Alan M.
2016-01-01
This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member…
Wang, Lijuan
2013-01-01
This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…
西方文化中的“游戏”理论演变%The"Game"Theory in Western Cultural Evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李智; 李舒
2016-01-01
该文将主要以历史的发展为线索，对西方文化中有代表性的游戏理论进行简单的梳理和分类。从古代原始的游戏观，到近代基本的游戏理论，再到现代系统的游戏学说，“游戏”理论经历了漫长的发展过程。%This article make simple carding and classification for representative game theory in western culture mainly in the form of the history development, The game theory has experienced a long developing process from original game view in an-cient time to the basic game theory in recent time, and then to the systematic game theory in modern time.
Research on the Cost Allocation of Joint Distribution of Agricultural Products based on Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Wang
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Joint distribution in the process of circulation of agricultural products can reduce the cost of agricultural products circulation, improves the efficiency of logistics distribution, but for how to solve the problem of cost allocation has always been the major obstacle to the development of this model. The joint distribution model of agricultural products is presented in this study and then considers the problem of cost reduction in joint distribution of two agricultural products retailers. The amount of cost reduction is regarded as the income of distribution, which is distributed effectively by using game theory and resolve the problem of Cost allocation in joint distribution. Through the analysis of an example the joint distribution model can largely reduce the cost of distribution for agricultural products. Finally, through the distribution cost allocation verified the effectiveness and feasibility of this method of cost allocation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moghddas-Tafreshi, S.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saliminia Lahiji, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghaei, J., E-mail: aghaei@iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
Unlike the traditional policy, Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) problem in competitive framework is complicated. In the new policy, each GENeration COmpany (GENCO) decides to invest in such a way that obtains as much profit as possible. This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm to determine GEP in a Pool market. The proposed algorithm is divided in two programming levels: master and slave. In the master level a modified game theory (MGT) is proposed to evaluate the contrast of GENCOs by the Independent System Operator (ISO). In the slave level, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is used to find the best solution of each GENCO for decision-making of investment. The validity of the proposed method is examined in the case study including three GENCOs with multi-types of power plants. The results show that the presented method is both satisfactory and consistent with expectation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shayanfar, H.A.; Lahiji, A. Saliminia; Aghaei, J.; Rabiee, A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran)
2009-05-15
Unlike the traditional policy, Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) problem in competitive framework is complicated. In the new policy, each Generation Company (GENCO) decides to invest in such a way that obtains as much profit as possible. This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm to determine GEP in a Pool market. The proposed algorithm is divided in two programming levels: master and slave. In the master level a Modified Game Theory (MGT) is proposed to evaluate the contrast of GENCOs by the Independent System Operator (ISO). In the slave level, an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) method is used to find the best solution of each GENCO for decision-making of investment. The validity of the proposed method is examined in the case study including three GENCOs with multi-type of power plants. The results show that the presented method is both satisfactory and consistent with expectation. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jiwei; Yang Zhifeng; Huang Xinyu
2009-01-01
The problem of marine environmental risk is ultimately the result of game theory between the marine environmental managers and the enterprise of potential environmental risk.This paper analyzes the internal economic relationship that whether the "protection" policy is applied between the protection action of marine environmental managers and the chemical enterprise, The result shows that the key factor whether the enterprise adopt the "protection" policy or not is the amount of penalty and the government's cost of execution, and the compulsive ecological compensation is obligatory from the angle of stimulating the enterprise of canontcal action and adopting the "protection" policy.To build the ecological compensation mechanism based on the environmental risk will effectively improve the level of management in sea area and decrease the probability of chemical spill.
Marler, Thomas E; Wiecko, Greg; Moore, Aubrey
2012-03-01
We recently described threats to the terrestrial biological resources on the Mariana islands of Guam and Tinian resulting from the large-scale buildup of military operations. Attitudes that view these military buildup plans in a zero sum context whereby the positives of greater security and improved local economy can be attained only with corresponding negatives of environmental destruction are prevalent. We argue these attitudes oversimplify the complicated interactions between military operations and environmental damage. Here we discuss aspects of our case study that would benefit from application of game theory. Declines in ecosystem health are not unavoidable forms of collateral damage of peace-time military operations. We repeat, conservation of environmental resources is not ancillary to national security, it is integral.
Study on Cooperative Mechanism of Prefabricated Producers Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongyao Feng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Good cooperation mechanism is an important guarantee for the advancement of industrialization construction. To strengthen the partnership between producers, we analyze the behavior evolution trend of both parties using an evolutionary game theory. Based on the original model, the mechanism of coordination and cooperation between prefabricated producers is explained under the condition of punishment and incentive. The results indicate that stable evolutionary strategies exist under both cooperation and noncooperation, and the evolutionary results are influenced by the initial proportion of both decision-making processes. The government can support the production enterprises to establish a solid partnership through effective punishment and incentive mechanisms to reduce the initial cost in the supply chain of prefabricated construction, resulting in a win-win situation.
How Albanian Private Universities can use Game Theory for Optimization of Scholarship Offers
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Llambrini Sota
2013-04-01
Full Text Available There are 46 private universities in Albania. We believe that the tuition fee andscholarship for high GPA students are two important components of the competitionbetween private universities. This study is a first attempt in applying Game Theory foroptimization of scholarship offers by Albanian private universities during academic years.There is a conflict between the utility functions of shareholders to maximize their profitsand the utility functions of the students enrolled in private universities to minimize theirexpenses. The best solution of the conflict is a Nash equilibrium or Bayes-Nash-Harsanyiequilibrium, respectively. We prove the existence of these equilibria. However, there existmany equilibria, depending of private information. We interpret the Boyes-Nash-Harsanyiequilibrium solution as the set of possible rational concessions made by all players.
Dressed coherent states in finite quantum systems: A cooperative game theory approach
Vourdas, A.
2017-01-01
A quantum system with variables in Z(d) is considered. Coherent density matrices and coherent projectors of rank n are introduced, and their properties (e.g., the resolution of the identity) are discussed. Cooperative game theory and in particular the Shapley methodology, is used to renormalize coherent states, into a particular type of coherent density matrices (dressed coherent states). The Q-function of a Hermitian operator, is then renormalized into a physical analogue of the Shapley values. Both the Q-function and the Shapley values, are used to study the relocation of a Hamiltonian in phase space as the coupling constant varies, and its effect on the ground state of the system. The formalism is also generalized for any total set of states, for which we have no resolution of the identity. The dressing formalism leads to density matrices that resolve the identity, and makes them practically useful.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An optimal routing scheme in space information networks was presented to balance network loads for heterogeneous users. According to the competition among the nodes, the model was built based on queuing game theory. The virtual routing platform was in charge of resources allocation and route selection. It got user’s gain to decide which node the user joined in. Owning to the existing of heterogeneous users, an optimal admission fee needed to be obtained to avoid congestion. In our model, firstly, the whole welfare of the system was formulated. Then the optimal admission fee was calculated through maximizing the whole welfare. Meanwhile, the average maximum queue length was generated to set the buffer space of the node. At last, a routing factor was introduced into the route algorithm in order that the optimal routing could be selected by heterogeneous users. As a result, the system welfare reaches the maximum.
Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Jusup, Marko; Tanimoto, Jun
2015-09-01
While comprehensive reviews of the literature, by gathering in one place most of the relevant information, undoubtedly steer the development of every scientific field, we found that the comments in response to a review article can be as informative as the review itself, if not more. Namely, reading through the comments on the ideas expressed in Ref. [1], we could identify a number of pressing problems for evolutionary game theory, indicating just how much space there still is for major advances and breakthroughs. In an attempt to bring a sense of order to a multitude of opinions, we roughly classified the comments into three categories, i.e. those concerned with: (i) the universality of scaling in heterogeneous topologies, including empirical dynamic networks [2-8], (ii) the universality of scaling for more general game setups, such as the inclusion of multiple strategies and external features [4,9-11], and (iii) experimental confirmations of the theoretical developments [2,12,13].
Evacuation of pedestrians from a single room by using snowdrift game theories
Shi, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Hong
2013-02-01
Game theory is introduced to simulate the complicated interaction relations among the conflicting pedestrians in a pedestrian flow system, which is defined on a square lattice with the parallel update rule. Modified on the traditional lattice gas model, each pedestrian can move to not only an empty site, but also an occupied site. It is found that each individual chooses its neighbor randomly and occupies the site with the probability W(x→y)=(1)/(1+exp[-(Px-Ux)/κ]), where Px is the x's payoff representing his personal energy, and Ux is the average payoff of its neighborhood indicating the potential well energy if he stays. Two types of pedestrians are considered, and they interact with their neighbors following the payoff matrix of snowdrift game theory. The cost-to-benefit ratio r=c/(2b-c) (where b is the perfect payoff and c is the labor cost) represents the fear index of the pedestrians in this model. It is found that there exists a moderate value of r leading to the shortest escape time, and the situation for large values of r is better than that for small ones in general. In addition, the pedestrian flow system always arrives at a consistent state in which the two types of walkers have the same number and evolve by the same law irrespectively of the parameters, which can be interpreted as the self-organization effect of pedestrian flow. It is also proven that the time point of the onset of the steady state is unrelated to the scale of the pedestrians and the square lattice. Meanwhile, the system exhibits different dynamics before reaching the consistent state: the number of the two types of walkers oscillates when PC>0.5 (i.e., probability to change the present strategy), while no oscillation happens for PC≤0.5. Finally, it is shown that a smaller density of pedestrians ρ induces a shorter average escape time.
Schultz, Wolfram
2004-04-01
Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put f...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states.......Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...
Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Michail Giannakos
2014-01-01
There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two...
Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Michail Giannakos
2014-01-01
There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two...
Game Theory Study on Distributors' Alliance to Gain Competitive Advantage in Marketing Channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Shi-ying; CHEN Jie; WANG Fang-hua
2005-01-01
Using the Cournot Game Model, this paper has analyzed the motivation of the distributors' alliance to gain competitive advantage in marketing channel. At first, this paper separately analyzed the advantage of alliance in the situation of oneshort game and infinitely repeated game, then, based on the analysis of distributors' betrayal of the alliance under infinitely repeated game, the conditions to maintain the distributors alliance are put forward and discussed.
Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
2014-09-01
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1 engage the students with narrative (hero, story, 2 employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3 engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4 situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.
Dov Monderer; Moshe Tennenholtz
1997-01-01
The Internet exhibits forms of interactions which are not captured by existing models in economics, artificial intelligence and game theory. New models are needed to deal with these multi-agent interactions. In this paper we present a new model--distributed games. In such a model each players controls a number of agents which participate in asynchronous parallel multi-agent interactions (games). The agents jointly and strategically control the level of information monitoring by broadcasting m...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...
Game theory analysis of statistical information distortion in China%统计数据失真成因的博弈分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢冶飞
2003-01-01
Statistical bodies are in essence interest bodies. To analyse the fundamental reasons Why somestatistical data are untrue, we need to consider the inerests ofthe statistical bodies. Their choices are thetesults of interest gaming. Based on this awareness, this article analyses the game action of the Statisticalbodies when prouding statistical date according to game theory. Therefore we get to know the reasons of theuntrueness of some statistical date. Furthermore the measures and suggestions are given.
Quantifying Engagement of Various Games
Xiong, Shuo; ZUO, Long; Chiewvanichakorn, Rachaya; Iida, Hiroyuki
2014-01-01
Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the traditional board games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of various games such as RTS(StarCraft II), MOBA(DotA), crane game and score limited sports. In conclusion, this paper makes contribution to apply game refinement theory in these new ar...
Uniformity pattern and related criteria for two-level factorials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG; Kaitai; QIN; Hong
2005-01-01
In this paper,the study of projection properties of two-level factorials in view of geometry is reported.The concept of uniformity pattern is defined.Based on this new concept,criteria of uniformity resolution and minimum projection uniformity are proposed for comparing two-level factorials.Relationship between minimum projection uniformity and other criteria such as minimum aberration,generalized minimum aberration and orthogonality is made explict.This close relationship raises the hope of improving the connection between uniform design theory and factorial design theory.Our results provide a justification of orthogonality,minimum aberration,and generalized minimum aberration from a natural geometrical interpretation.
Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.
2016-08-01
Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
2010-01-01
The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…
Zhang, Le; Zhang, Shaoxiang
2017-03-01
A body of research [1-7] has already shown that epigenetic reprogramming plays a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. However, the mechanistic quantitation of the epigenetic interactions between sperms and oocytes and the related impact on embryo development are still not clear [6,7]. In this study, Wang et al., [8] develop a modeling framework that addresses this question by integrating game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development.
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
博弈论在交通工程建设管理中的应用%Application of Game Theory in Transport Engineering Construction Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔颖
2016-01-01
介绍博弈论的基本概念，探求博弈论与交通工程建设管理的结合，侧重运用博弈论于工程质量管理、费用索赔及费用控制、工期优化及控制、市场信用管理等几个方面，并在工程实践中加以应用。%The basic concepts of game theory are introduced and the combination of game theory and transport engineering construction management is explored.It focuses on the application of game the-ory in proj ect quality management,cost claim and cost control,optimizing proj ect duration and control and market credit management.Three practical game theory models are applied in engineering proj ect.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Miroslav Klusák
2012-01-01
This paper examines Piaget's theory of the role of games in moral development because it proposes a theoretical sensitivity for the hidden requirements that children face when dealing with moral side of dexterity games...
Game meaning in Kant’s aesthetic theory as the paradigm of European artistic thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Strelnikova Larisa Yurievna
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The article proves that Kant includes in his philosophy the concept of the game as an aesthetic principle. The game is identified with art as a free activity, which has no practical purpose and delivers the pleasure of beauty. Kant opens in creative game dual nature - a combination of reason and imagination, reflecting the duality of his philosophic system and giving rise to the idea double world in Romanticism and fragmented consciousness in contemporary literature. In modern works the writer assumes the functions of Magister Ludi, creating its own gaming procedure of the artistic space.
Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia
2016-04-01
Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning.
Agee, Mark D; Gates, Zane
2013-02-01
Game theory is useful for identifying conditions under which individual stakeholders in a collective action problem interact in ways that are more cooperative and in the best interest of the collective. The literature applying game theory to healthcare markets predicts that when providers set prices for services autonomously and in a noncooperative fashion, the market will be susceptible to ongoing price inflation. We compare the traditional fee-for-service pricing framework with an alternative framework involving modified doctor, hospital and insurer pricing and incentive strategies. While the fee-for-service framework generally allows providers to set prices autonomously, the alternative framework constrains providers to interact more cooperatively. We use community-level provider and insurer data to compare provider and insurer costs and patient wellness under the traditional and modified pricing frameworks. The alternative pricing framework assumes (i) providers agree to manage all outpatient claims; (ii) the insurer agrees to manage all inpatient clams; and (iii) insurance premiums are tied to patients' healthy behaviours. Consistent with game theory predictions, the more cooperative alternative pricing framework benefits all parties by producing substantially lower administrative costs along with higher profit margins for the providers and the insurer. With insurance premiums tied to consumers' risk-reducing behaviours, the cost of insurance likewise decreases for both the consumer and the insurer.
Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Wei; Ji, Yuefeng
2016-03-01
Various patterns of device-to-device (D2D) communication, from Bluetooth to Wi-Fi Direct, are emerging due to the increasing requirements of information sharing between mobile terminals. This paper presents an innovative pattern named device-to-device visible light communication (D2D-VLC) to alleviate the growing traffic problem. However, the occlusion problem is a difficulty in D2D-VLC. This paper proposes a game theory-based solution in which the best-response dynamics and best-response strategies are used to realize a mode-cooperative selection mechanism. This mechanism uses system capacity as the utility function to optimize system performance and selects the optimal communication mode for each active user from three candidate modes. Moreover, the simulation and experimental results show that the mechanism can attain a significant improvement in terms of effectiveness and energy saving compared with the cases where the users communicate via only the fixed transceivers (light-emitting diode and photo diode) or via only D2D.
The role of price and enforcement in water allocation: insights from Game Theory
Souza Filho, F.; Lall, U.; Porto, R.
2007-12-01
As many countries are moving towards water sector reforms, practical issues of how water management institutions can better effect allocation, regulation and enforcement of water rights have emerged. The uncertainty associated with water that is available at a particular diversion point becomes a parameter that is likely to influence the behavior of water users as to their application for water licenses, as well as their willingness to pay for licensed use. The ability of a water agency to reduce this uncertainty through effective water rights enforcement is related to the fiscal ability of the agency to sustain the enforcement effort. In this paper, this interplay across the users and the agency is explored, considering the hydraulic structure or sequence of water use, and parameters that define the users and the agency's economics. The potential for free rider behavior by the users, as well as their proposals for licensed use are derived conditional on this setting. The analyses presented are developed in the framework of the theory of "Law and Economics", with user interactions modeled as a game theoretic enterprise. The state of Ceara, Brazil is used loosely as an example setting, with parameter values for the experiments indexed to be approximately those relevant for current decisions. The potential for using the ideas in participatory decision making is discussed.
Decision Support for Energy Contracts Negotiation with Game Theory and Adaptive Learning
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Tiago Pinto
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a decision support methodology for electricity market players’ bilateral contract negotiations. The proposed model is based on the application of game theory, using artificial intelligence to enhance decision support method’s adaptive features. This model is integrated in AiD-EM (Adaptive Decision Support for Electricity Markets Negotiations, a multi-agent system that provides electricity market players with strategic behavior capabilities to improve their outcomes from energy contracts’ negotiations. Although a diversity of tools that enable the study and simulation of electricity markets has emerged during the past few years, these are mostly directed to the analysis of market models and power systems’ technical constraints, making them suitable tools to support decisions of market operators and regulators. However, the equally important support of market negotiating players’ decisions is being highly neglected. The proposed model contributes to overcome the existing gap concerning effective and realistic decision support for electricity market negotiating entities. The proposed method is validated by realistic electricity market simulations using real data from the Iberian market operator—MIBEL. Results show that the proposed adaptive decision support features enable electricity market players to improve their outcomes from bilateral contracts’ negotiations.
A Game Theory Based Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Personal Area Networks
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Chuang Ma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the presence of congestion increases the ratio of packet loss and energy consumption and reduces the network throughput. Particularly, this situation will be more complex in Internet of Things (IoT environment, which is composed of thousands of heterogeneous nodes. RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol in low power and lossy networks standardized by IETF. However, the RPL can induce problems under network congestion, such as frequently parent changing and throughput degradation. In this paper, we address the congestion problem between parent nodes and child nodes in RPL-enabled networks, which typically consist of low power and resource constraint devices. To mitigate the effect of network congestion, we design a parent-change procedure by game theory strategy, by which the child nodes can change next hop neighbors toward the sink. Comparing to the ContikiRPL implementation, the simulation results show that our protocol can achieve more than two times improvement in throughput and reduce packet loss rate with less increasing of average hop count.
A mathematical analysis of public avoidance behavior during epidemics using game theory.
Chen, Frederick
2012-06-01
The decision of individuals to engage in public avoidance during epidemics is modeled and studied using game theory. The analysis reveals that the set of Nash equilibria of the model, as well as how the equilibria compare to the social optimum, depend on the contact function that governs the rate at which encounters occur in public. If the contact ratio - defined to be the ratio of the contact rate to the number of people out in public - is increasing with the number of people out in public, then there exists a unique Nash equilibrium. Moreover, in equilibrium, the amount of public avoidance is too low with respect to social welfare. On the other hand, if the contact ratio is decreasing in the number of people out in public, then there can be multiple Nash equilibria, none of which is in general socially optimal. Furthermore, the amount of public avoidance in equilibrium with a decreasing contact ratio is too high in that social welfare can be increased if more susceptible individuals choose to go out in public. In the special case where the contact ratio does not vary with the number of people out in public, there is a unique Nash equilibrium, and it is also the socially optimal outcome.
Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.
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Alessandro Di Stefano
Full Text Available Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.
Theory of mind and paranoia in schizophrenia: a game theoretical investigation framework.
Chan, Kevin K S; Chen, Eric Y H
2011-11-01
INTRODUCTION. Ample evidence already shows that theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to critically review this literature. METHOD. We completed a selected review of the research literature on ToM in schizophrenia. RESULTS. Gaps in ToM research were identified. A specific relationship between impaired ToM and paranoid delusions, although intuitively reasonable from a theoretical basis, has only been demonstrated in a few studies. Psychometric properties of ToM tasks employed in these studies may be a confounding factor in drawing conclusions about the relationship. Because most ToM measures have focused on the third-person perspective, participants are not actively interacting. The tasks fail to capture the cognitive demands faced by individuals in real-life situations, and, in effect, are not a direct measure of ToM. CONCLUSIONS. Potential research areas are discussed. Since game theoretical paradigms require the direct involvement of the first person and situate the participant's interpersonal reasoning within an interactive context, they provide more ecologically valid experimental platforms than conventional questionnaire measures to assess ToM in schizophrenia research.
Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network
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June S. Hong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids.
Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.
Di Stefano, Alessandro; Scatà, Marialisa; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore
2015-01-01
Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.
Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and cancer therapy: An evolutionary game theory approach.
Khadem, Heydar; Kebriaei, Hamed; Veisi, Zahra
2017-03-06
Inactivation of alleles in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is one of the important issues resulting in evolution of cancerous cells. In this paper, the evolution of healthy, one and two missed allele cells is modeled using the concept of evolutionary game theory and replicator dynamics. The proposed model also takes into account the interaction rates of the cells as designing parameters of the system. Different combinations of the equilibrium points of the parameterized nonlinear system is studied and categorized into some cases. In each case, the interaction rates' values are suggested in a way that the equilibrium points of the replicator dynamics are located on an appropriate region of the state space. Based on the suggested interaction rates, it is proved that the system doesn't have any undesirable interior equilibrium point as well. Therefore, the system will converge to the desirable region, where there is a scanty level of cancerous cells. In addition, the proposed conditions for interaction rates guarantee that, when a trajectory of the system reaches the boundaries, then it will stay there forever which is a desirable property since the equilibrium points have been already located on the boundaries, appropriately. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggestions in the elimination of the cancerous cells in different scenarios.
Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium.
Somasundaram, M; Sivakumar, R
2015-01-01
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security.
Shapley's value for fuzzy games
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Raúl Alvarado Sibaja
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This is the continuation of a previous article titled "Fuzzy Games", where I defined a new type of games based on the Multilinear extensions f, of characteristic functions and most of standard theorems for cooperative games also hold for this new type of games: The fuzzy games. Now we give some other properties and the extension of the definition of Shapley¨s Value for Fuzzy Games Keywords: game theory, fuzzy sets, multiattribute decisions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王春枝; 陈莉; 陈宏伟; 周可
2011-01-01
目前提出的P2P网络节点的博弈模型大多没有考虑节点的类型,没有考虑重复博弈所产生的和一次博弈不同的结果.针对这些问题,根据节点的推荐信任值来对节点进行分类,并分析节点类型的行为特征和重复博弈的特征,提出了一种基于重复博弈的P2P网络节点行为策略模型.在此基础上,利用重复博弈的贴现率来分析博弈双方采取何种策略才能获得最大收益以及节点行为策略调整的约束性条件.使用博弈论仿真工具Gambit验证了该模型的有效性.%The existing game model of P2P nodes always do not consider types of nodes, and also the different between repeated game and one-time game. To solve these problems, this paper classify nodes with the recommendation trust of nodes, after deeply study on the behavioral characteristics of nodes and the character of repeated game theory, this paper presents a game model of behavior strategies for nodes in P2P networks based on the repeated game theory. In this model, it discuss about how the peer can achieve the most profit by using discount rate of repeated game theory, even the constraint condition of behavior strategies for nodes. Furthermore, this model is proved to be availability with game theory simulation tools named Gambit.
Gaming the Classroom Viewing Learning through the Lens Self Determination Theory
Szymanski, Antonia; Benus, Matthew
2015-01-01
Educators, designers and curriculum creators are interested in developing educational experiences that replicate the fun aspect of video games to increase student intrinsic motivation. This aspect, which compels players to engage with the game and persist despite failing, has the potential to increase student academic success. Researchers used…
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Polyakova Olga Yu.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The study is devoted to formation of the competitive strategy of a commercial bank on the basis of use of the methodology of the game theory. Competitive strategy is formed under conditions of a game, which has the studied bank, direct competitors and external environment. The game is not co-operative and has no constant amount. Efficiency of the bank strategy is determined on the basis of three indicators: interest income, share in loans of physical persons and share in loans of legal entities. Direct competitors that form an individual player were allocated with the help of the cluster analysis. The game was realised with the help of an imitation model, which allows realisation of various competitive strategies. The imitation model consists of three blocks, which model the bank behaviour, competitors and environment. The optimal competitive strategy was chosen on the basis of the principle of the guaranteed result. In the result of modelling the article determines an optimal strategy, which allows increase of both the interest rate and share in loans and deposits among competitors.
Gaming in Early Childhood Education.
Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels
This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
, called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration...
Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh
2015-08-01
Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.
Attractiveness of Real Time Strategy Games
Xiong, Shuo; Iida, Hiroyuki
2014-01-01
Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the domains such as board games and sports games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of RTS games. To do so, we use StarCraft II as a testbed and introduce a concept of strategy tree in order to construct a game tree of a RTS game. Then, game refine...
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Fernanda Kreuzberg
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Currently companies have to think about its management system to meet not only their economic interests but also their social interests aiming at the activities’ sustainability and longevity. In this research, the goal is to identify the Nash equilibrium point in the bi-matrix game of economic and social indicators of the companies of Public Utilities sector listed on the BM & FBovespa. The research was conducted with a sample of 26 companies. To evaluate the economic performance it was used the profitability and market indicators; for evaluating the social performance, it was used the indicators derived from the VAD (Value Added Statement. In the estimation of earnings among indicators, it was used the standard parameters of the multiple linear regression. The obtained results highlighted the existence of at least one point of equilibrium for the years analyzed and, especially in the models, two points of equilibrium were proposed for 2009 and 2011 and three for 2010. It is noteworthy that, in the proposed model it was confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of at least one point of equilibrium. Thus, it was possible to meet the research objective, namely, that it is possible to meet both economic aspects and the social aspects of the companies when the indicators are taken as basic information.
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S. Sofana Reka
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, demand response modeling scheme is proposed for residential consumers using game theory algorithm as Generalized Tit for Tat (GTFT Dominant Game based Energy Scheduler. The methodology is established as a work flow domain model between the utility and the user considering the smart grid framework. It exhibits an algorithm which schedules load usage by creating several possible tariffs for consumers such that demand is never raised. This can be done both individually and among multiple users of a community. The uniqueness behind the demand response proposed is that, the tariff is calculated for all hours and the load during the peak hours which can be rescheduled is shifted based on the Peak Average Ratio. To enable the vitality of the work simulation results of a general case of three domestic consumers are modeled extended to a comparative performance and evaluation with other algorithms and inference is analyzed.
Dixon, Cinnamon A; Ammerman, Robert T; Dexheimer, Judith W; Meyer, Benjamin; Jung, Heekyoung; Johnson, Boyd L; Elliott, Jennifer; Jacobs, Tom; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda
2014-01-01
Unintentional injury is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number one cause of child death in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics promotes safety recommendations to decrease child injury risk, however the majority of educational programs delivering these strategies are school-based or in community campaigns. Mobile technology provides an opportune platform to deliver pediatric injury prevention programs given its massive global reach and underrepresentation within the current mobile health market. This paper describes the development of iBsafe, a novel mobile safety game application designed to prevent injury in 5- to 6- year old children. Our multidisciplinary team utilized a step-wise approach to create an innovative child game application which is based in behavioral theory and promotes evidence-based safety recommendations. Results and future directions for iBsafe aim to interactively educate children on how to be safe and ultimately improve their safety behaviors.
Simulation of Climate Negotiation Strategies b etween China and the U.S. Based on Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Zhu-Gang; CAI Wen-Jia; WANG Can
2014-01-01
Consensus and disagreements between China and the U.S. are the key factors influencing the direction that global climate negotiation is heading for. By taking into account the uncertainties of temperature increment and its impact on GDP growth, together with the positive, negative and spillover effects of climate change investment on utility, a strategic simulation model including China and the U.S. is developed. Based on utility and game theory, a sensitivity analysis is conducted. The results show that the first-mover disadvantage exists in the game, and the scale of each country’s climate change investment under non-cooperative scenario is too small to ensure the 2◦C target. To guarantee the stability and win-win basis for global cooperation, the simulation results also indicate that it makes sense to assist and compensate technology transfer and funding to China.
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Abdolreza Mohammadzadeh
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs because of their limitation in energy consumption in their nodes, high rate of energy consumption and inability interchangeable battery, are always in danger of extiction. The highest energy consumption in these networks is done when communicating of the nodes with the base station (BS and sending infirmation, which itsreason is the limitation of BS in receiving and saving the incoming message. Now, if we will be able to increase the lifespan of these networks. So, a lot of algorithms and modelshas been suggested to reduce the energy consumption of WSNs. In this study, we have tried to present a new model in order to nodes cooperation in communicating with the BS and also reducing the number of messages by using games theory and exclusively enter market game (EMG.
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Karim KONATE
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The present work is dedicated to the implementation of a secure mechanism’s modules in routing protocol of MANET with the theory of games. First we are doing an introduction to what the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs and a presentation of some various attacks in MANETs pertaining to fail routing protocols. We study these attacks and the mechanisms which the secured routing protocols use to counter them. In the second hand we also study a reputation mechanism and we also propose a secure algorithm based on the reputation. Our work ends with a proposal analytical model by the theorical games and an implementation to the modules of our mechanism..
San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca
2014-10-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Role of price and enforcement in water allocation: Insights from Game Theory
Souza Filho, Francisco Assis; Lall, Upmanu; Porto, Rubem La Laina
2008-12-01
As many countries are moving toward water sector reforms, practical issues of how water management institutions can better effect allocation, regulation, and enforcement of water rights have emerged. The problem of nonavailability of water to tailenders on an irrigation system in developing countries, due to unlicensed upstream diversions is well documented. The reliability of access or equivalently the uncertainty associated with water availability at their diversion point becomes a parameter that is likely to influence the application by users for water licenses, as well as their willingness to pay for licensed use. The ability of a water agency to reduce this uncertainty through effective water rights enforcement is related to the fiscal ability of the agency to monitor and enforce licensed use. In this paper, this interplay across the users and the agency is explored, considering the hydraulic structure or sequence of water use and parameters that define the users and the agency's economics. The potential for free rider behavior by the users, as well as their proposals for licensed use are derived conditional on this setting. The analyses presented are developed in the framework of the theory of "Law and Economics," with user interactions modeled as a game theoretic enterprise. The state of Ceara, Brazil, is used loosely as an example setting, with parameter values for the experiments indexed to be approximately those relevant for current decisions. The potential for using the ideas in participatory decision making is discussed. This paper is an initial attempt to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing such situations but with a focus on the reservoir-canal system water rights enforcement.
Feasibility Evaluation of an On-site Generator Network by the Cooperative Game Theory
Komiyama, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji
On-site generator, such as CGS (cogeneration system), is allegedly considered to be an effective end-use energy system in order to accomplish primary energy conservation, CO2 emission mitigation and system cost reduction, which characteristics eventually improve the whole performance of an existing energy system for the future. Considering the drawback of installing an end-use CGS into the customer with small or middle scale floor space, however, it is difficult to achieve those distinctive features because the thermal-electricity ratio of CGS does not always be in agreement with that of customer energy demand. In order to overcome that matching deficiency, it is hence better to organize an on-site generator network based on mutual electricity and heating transmission. But focusing on some cogenerators underlying their behaviors on maximizing their own profits, this on-site network, which situation corresponds to a grand coalition, is not necessarily established because of each cogenerator’s motivation to form a partial coalition and acquire its own profit as much as possible. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the optimal operation of an on-site generator network and identify by applying the nucleolus of the cooperative game theory the optimal benefit allocation strategy in order for the cogenerators to construct the network. Regarding the installation site of this network, the center of Tokyo area is assumed, which locational information includes floor space and so forth through a GIS (geographic information system) database. The results from the nucleolus suggest that all districts should impartially obtain the benefit from organizing network for the purpose of jointly attaining the system total cost reduction.
Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.
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Chris T Bauch
Full Text Available Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty. Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.
The puzzle of partial migration: Adaptive dynamics and evolutionary game theory perspectives.
De Leenheer, Patrick; Mohapatra, Anushaya; Ohms, Haley A; Lytle, David A; Cushing, J M
2017-01-07
We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only. We show that this allocation strategy is both an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) as well as a convergence stable strategy (CSS). To establish the former, we generalize the classical notion of an ESS because it is based on invasion exponents obtained from linearization arguments, which fail to capture the stabilizing effects of the nonlinear density dependence. These results clarify precisely when the notion of a "weak ESS", as proposed in Lundberg (2013) for a related model, is a genuine ESS. Secondly, we use an evolutionary game theory approach, and confirm, once again, that partial migration can be attributed to negative density dependence alone. In this context, the result holds even when density dependence is not attenuated. In this case, the optimal allocation strategy towards migrants is the same as the ESS stemming from the analysis based on the adaptive dynamics. The key feature of the population models considered here is that they are monotone dynamical systems, which enables a rather comprehensive mathematical analysis.
Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.
Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit
2012-01-01
Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.
Expectations of two-level telegraph noise
Fern, J
2006-01-01
We find expectation values of functions of time integrated two-level telegraph noise. Expectation values of this noise are evaluated under simple control pulses. Both the Gaussian limit and $1/f$ noise are considered. We apply the results to a specific superconducting quantum computing example, which illustrates the use of this technique for calculating error probabilities.
Combined trust model based on evidence theory in iterated prisoner's dilemma game
Chen, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weidong
2011-01-01
In the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, agents often play defection based on mutual distrust for the sake of their own benefits. However, most game strategies and mechanisms are limited for strengthening cooperative behaviour in the current literature, especially in noisy environments. In this article, we construct a combined trust model by combining the locally owned information and the recommending information from other agents and develop a combined trust strategy in the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. The proposed game strategy can provide not only a higher payoff for agents, but also a trust mechanism for the system. Furthermore, agents can form their own reputation evaluations upon their opponents and make more rational and precise decisions under our framework. Simulations of application are performed to show the performance of the proposed strategy in noise-free and noisy environments.
Mathematical games, abstract games
Neto, Joao Pedro
2013-01-01
User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.
Uncertain game-collaborative decision-making of combo-biding based on fuzzy Bernardo theory
Yao, Ruojun; Ma, Guangwen
2012-01-01
Combo-biding is uncertain game-collaborative with uncertainty,and decision maker's experience is fuzzy.Gameoptimizing of combo-biding can be translated into fuzzy-chance- restriction programming according to Fuzzy Bernardo Methed with a view to creditability measure of fuzzy occurrence.The method can adapt itself to game-collaborative decision-making of combo-biding in allusion to different gaol.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵慧臣
2013-01-01
游戏与教育如何融合一直是教育游戏研究的重要命题。教育游戏研究不仅应该根据教育理论，而且需要参考游戏理论。传统游戏理论过于强调游戏者的主体性，具有哲学上的主客二分的问题。而伽达默尔游戏理论突破了近代认识论模式的束缚，侧重于游戏与游戏者的统一，对教育游戏研究具有重要启示。根据伽达默尔的游戏理论，教育游戏的真实主体是游戏自身，存在方式为自我表现，意义产生需要观者在场参与。因此，教育游戏应该将娱乐性与严肃性紧密结合，引导学习者融入游戏；使游戏规则与自由保持张力，优化学习者的游戏过程；注重观看与参与相互渗透，促使学习者获得意义。%The integration between game and education has been the important proposition in educational game research. The educational game research should not only base itself on educational theories, but also should refer to game theories. The traditional game theories overemphasize on the subjectivity of players, which have the issue of subject-object dichotomy in terms of philosophy. Gadamer's game theory breaks through the manacles of epistemology mode and focuses on the unification of games and players, which has important enlightenment on educational game research. It is shown in Gadamer's game theory that the real subject of educational games is themselves, their existing mode is self-expression and meaning comes from the participation of viewers. Therefore, educational games should be both entertaining and serious, guiding the learners into the game;tension should be maintained between game rules and freedom; the learning process should be optimized; stress should be laid on the mutual infiltration between observation and involvement in games for motivating learners to acquire meanings.
Zhang, Le; Zhang, Shaoxiang
2017-03-01
A body of research [1-7] has already shown that epigenetic reprogramming plays a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. However, the mechanistic quantitation of the epigenetic interactions between sperms and oocytes and the related impact on embryo development are still not clear [6,7]. In this study, Wang et al., [8] develop a modeling framework that addresses this question by integrating game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
张雪门的幼儿园游戏思想述评%Theory and Inspiration on Zhang Xuemen’s Kindergarten’s Games
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张亭亭; 刘丹
2012-01-01
本文主要介绍和梳理了《张雪门幼儿教育文集》一书中阐述的张雪门关于幼儿园游戏的基本思想，包括游戏的含义及目的、游戏的分类、游戏的选材标准、游戏的设备以及游戏的指导方法等问题，并分析了张雪门的幼儿园游戏思想对我国当代幼儿园游戏的几点启示。% This paper describes and combs Zhang Xuemen’s basic theory about kindergarten games that the book“Zhang Xuemen early childhood education Anthology”elaborated, including the meaning and purpose of the kindergarten games, the classification of the games, the selection standard and equipment of the games as well as games guidance methods, then clarify Zhang Xuemen’s kindergarten games theory taking inspiration for our contemporary kindergarten games.
Ghaffari, Meysam; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad
2016-11-01
This paper investigates three models to implement Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system with aid of game theory approach. In particular, the competition between thermal and renewable power plants is formulated in three models: namely cooperative, Nash and Stackelberg game models. The price of TGC is assumed to be determined by the legislative body (government) which is fixed. Numerical examples presented in this paper include sensitivity analysis of some key parameters and comparison of the results of different models. In all three game models, the parameters that influence pricing of the TGC based on the optimal amounts are obtained. The numerical examples demonstrate that in all models: there is a reverse relation between the price of electricity and the TGC price, as well as a direct relation between the price of electricity and the share of green electricity in total electricity generation. It is found that Stackelberg model is an appropriate structure to implement the TGC system. In this model, the supply of electricity and the production of green electricity are at the highest level, while the price of electricity is at the lowest levels. In addition, payoff of the thermal power plant is at the highest levels in the Nash model. Hence this model can be an applicatory structure for implementation of the TGC system in developing countries, where the number of thermal power plants is significantly greater than the number of renewable power plants.
Game Theory as a Social Science Methodology%作为社会科学方法论的博弈论
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘天群
2016-01-01
博弈论以广义的游戏为其研究对象，游戏的参与人被假定是理想的理性人。冯·诺依曼将博弈确定成数学的研究对象，本质上讲博弈是一门数学。冯·诺依曼希望通过博弈论的构建与研究，希望自己成为社会科学中的牛顿。博弈论自诞生后得到迅猛的发展。今天，博弈论被广泛并成功地运用于社会科学之中，成了社会科学的通用方法论。%Game theory is based on games in general as the study focus .Game participants are theorized as i-deal rational persons .Game is established as a mathematical subject by Von Neumann and essentially it is of such nature .Von Neumann hoped to be acknowledged as Newton in the field of social studies .Game theory has been e-volving rapidly since being established .Nowadays , game theory , as a general methodology , has been widely and successfully applied in social studies .
Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.
2016-03-01
In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Yihui; Govindan, Kannan; Zhu, Qinghua
2014-01-01
In this study, a system dynamics (SD) model is developed to guide the subsidy policies to promote the diffusion of green supply chain management (GSCM) in China. The relationships of stakeholders such as government, enterprises and consumers are analyzed through evolutionary game theory. Finally......, the GSCM diffusion process is simulated by the model with a case study on Chinese automotive manufacturing industry. The results show that the subsidies for manufacturers are better than that for consumers to promote GSCM diffusion, and the environmental awareness is another influential key factor. © 2014...
基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤
2001-01-01
BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.
Digital games for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: underpinning theory with three illustrative examples.
Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P
2015-03-18
Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes-children/adolescents and adults-from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs-children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria.
Digital Games for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Underpinning Theory With Three Illustrative Examples
Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P
2015-01-01
Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes—children/adolescents and adults—from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs—children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria. PMID:25791276
Modeling and Analysis of Single Machine Scheduling Based on Noncooperative Game Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGChang-Jun; XIYu-Geng
2005-01-01
Considering the independent optimization requirement for each demander of modern manufacture, we explore the application of noncooperative game in production scheduling research,and model scheduling problem as competition of machine resources among a group of selfish jobs.Each job has its own performance objective. For the single machine, multi-jobs and non-preemptive scheduling problem, a noncooperative game model is established. Based on the model, many problems about Nash equilibrium solution, such as the existence, quantity, properties of solution space,performance of solution and algorithm are discussed. The results are tested by numerical example.