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Sample records for two-level factorial design

  1. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  2. SCREENING OF MEDIUM COMPOUNDS USING A TWO-LEVEL FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOWEI SHU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even if the probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii is has been reported, this yeast is rarely used in medium composition. Based on single factor experiment, two-level factorial design was employed to evaluate the effect of carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, nitrogen sources (soy peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, calf serum, malt extract and salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, CaCl2, sodium citrate, sodium glutamate on the growth of S. boulardii. At the same time, the optical density (OD in the medium was measured at 560 nm after 36 h of incubation. The result of two-level factorial design experiment showed that calf serum (p = 0.0214 and sodium citrate (p = 0.0045 are the significant growth factors of S. boulardii, sucrose (p = 0.0861 and malt extract (p = 0.0763 are important factors. In addition, sucrose and sodium citrate showed positive effect on the growth of S. boulardii. However, calf serum and malt extract showed negative effect on the growth. And we determined that the optimum medium composition for S. boulardii was as follow: 37.5 g·L-1 sucrose, 6 g·L-1 calf serum, 6 g·L-1 malt extract, 5 g·L-1 sodium citrate.

  3. Uniformity pattern and related criteria for two-level factorials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Kaitai; QIN; Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,the study of projection properties of two-level factorials in view of geometry is reported.The concept of uniformity pattern is defined.Based on this new concept,criteria of uniformity resolution and minimum projection uniformity are proposed for comparing two-level factorials.Relationship between minimum projection uniformity and other criteria such as minimum aberration,generalized minimum aberration and orthogonality is made explict.This close relationship raises the hope of improving the connection between uniform design theory and factorial design theory.Our results provide a justification of orthogonality,minimum aberration,and generalized minimum aberration from a natural geometrical interpretation.

  4. Analytical Enantio-Separation of Linagliptin in Linagliptin and Metformin HCl Dosage Forms by Applying Two-Level Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant B. Jadhav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel, stability indicating, reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed to determine the S-isomer of linagliptin (LGP in linagliptin and metformin hydrochloride (MET HCl tablets (LGP–MET HCl by implementing design of experiment (DoE, i.e., two-level, full factorial design (23 + 3 centre points = 11 experiments to understand the critical method parameters (CMP and its relation with the critical method attribute (CMA, and to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of the S-isomer, LGP and MET HCl in the presence of their impurities was achieved on Chiralpak® IA-3 (Amylose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate, immobilized on 3 µm silica gel stationary phase (250 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm using isocratic elution and detector wavelength at 225 nm with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min−1, an injection volume of 10 µL with a sample cooler (5 °C and column oven temperature of 25 °C. Ethanol:Methanol:Monoethanolamine (EtOH:MeOH:MEA in the ratio of 60:40:0.2 v/v/v was used as a mobile phase. The developed method was validated in accordance with international council for harmonisation (ICH guidelines and was applied for the estimation of the S-isomer of LGP in LGP–MET HCl tablets. The same method also can be extended for the estimation of the S-isomer in LGP dosage forms.

  5. A Comprehensive Guide to Factorial Two-Level Experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mee, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Statistical design of experiments is useful in virtually every quantitative field. This book focuses on two-level factorial designs that provide efficient plans for exploring the effects of many factors at once. It is suitable for engineers, physical scientists, and those who conduct experiments.

  6. Testing Nelder-Mead based repulsion algorithms for multiple roots of nonlinear systems via a two-level factorial design of experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C V Ramadas

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as 'erf', is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm.

  7. Testing Nelder-Mead based repulsion algorithms for multiple roots of nonlinear systems via a two-level factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Gisela C V; Rocha, Ana Maria A C; Fernandes, Edite M G P

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M) local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as 'erf', is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm.

  8. Modeling and process optimization for microbial desulfurization of coal by using a two-level full factorial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golshani T.; Jorjani E.; Chelgani S.Chehreh; Shafaei S.Z.; Nafechi Y.Heidari

    2013-01-01

    The microbial sulfur removal was investigated on high sulfur content (1.9%) coal concentrate from Tabas coal preparation plant.A mixed culture of ferrooxidans microorganisms was isolated from the tailing dam of the plant.Full factorial method was used to design laboratory test and to evaluate the effects of pH,particle size,iron sulfate concentration,pulp density,and bioleaching time on sulfur reduction.Statistical analyses of experimental data were considered and showed increases of pH and particle size had negative effects on sulfur reduction,whereas increases of pulp density and bioleaching time raised microbial desulfurization rate.According to results of designing,and regarding statistical factors,the optimum values for maximum sulfur reduction were obtained; pH (1.5),particle size (-180μm),iron sulfate concentration (2.7 mmol/L),pulp density (10%) and bioleaching time (14d),which leaded to 51.5% reduction from the total sulfur of sample.

  9. Novel lectin-modified poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) mucoadhesive nanoparticles of carvedilol: preparation and in vitro optimization using a two-level factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Moazen, Ellaheh

    2014-08-01

    Carvedilol used in cardiovascular diseases has systemic bioavailability of 25-35%. The objective of this study was production of lectin-modified poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) as mucoadhesive nanoparticles to enhance low oral bioavailability of carvedilol. Nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method using a two-level factorial design. The studied variables included the vinyl acetate content of the polymer, drug and polymer content. Surface modification of PEVA nanoparticles with lectin was carried out by the adsorption method and coupling efficiency was determined using the Bradford assay. Mucoadhesion of nanoparticles was studied on mucin. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, drug loading and drug release from nanoparticles were studied. The morphology of nanoparticles and crystalline status of the entrapped drug were studied by SEM, DSC and XRD tests, respectively. Results showed the most effective factor on particle size and zeta potential was the interaction of polymer and drug content while, drug loading efficiency and mucoadhesion were more affected by the interaction of polymer type and drug content. Drug concentration was the most effective variable on the drug release rate. The drug was in amorphous state in nanoparticles. The optimum nanoparticles obtained by 45 mg of copolymer contained 12% vinyl acetate/4.3 ml of organic phase and drug concentration of 37.5 wt% of polymer.

  10. Development of RP UPLC-TOF/MS, stability indicating method for omeprazole and its related substances by applying two level factorial design; and identification and synthesis of non-pharmacopoeial impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sushant Bhimrao; Kumar, C Kiran; Bandichhor, Rakeshwar; Bhosale, P N

    2016-01-25

    A new UPLC-TOF/MS compatible, reverse phase-stability indicating method was developed for determination of Omeprazole (OMP) and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms by implementing Design of Experiment (DoE) i.e. two level full factorial Design (2(3)+3 center points=11 experiments) to understand the Critical Method Parameters (CMP) and its relation with Critical Method Attribute (CMA); to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of eleven specified impurities including conversion product of OMP related compound F (13) and G (14) i.e. Impurity-I (1), OMP related compound-I (11) and OMP 4-chloro analog (12) was achieved in a single method on Acquity BEH shield RP18 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column, with inlet filter (0.2 μm) using gradient elution and detector wavelength at 305 nm and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust and specific. The drug was found to degrade extensively in heat, humidity and acidic conditions and forms unknown degradation products during stability studies. The same method was used for LC-MS analysis to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unknown impurities (Non-Pharmacopoeial) i.e. Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of identified impurities i.e. impurities (Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9)) are discussed in detail to ensure in-depth understanding of OMP and its related impurities and optimum performance during lifetime of the product.

  11. SUPERSATURATED DESIGN WITH MORE THAN TWO LEVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supersaturated designs are useful in screening experiments. This paper discusses the topic of multi-level supersaturated design. Two quantities, E(d2) and Df, are proposed to evaluate the optimality of supersaturated designs. A lower bound of E(d2) is obtained with a necessary condition for achieving it. Some E(d2)-optimal supersaturated designs of 3, 4, and 5 levels are given.

  12. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  13. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  14. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  15. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular fra

  16. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  17. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ankenbrandt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a low-energy (4 GeV neutrino factory (NF is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The π^{±} decay to produce muons (μ^{±}, which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by ∼1.4×10^{21} μ^{+} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of μ^{-} decays.

  18. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  19. Bayesian analysis of factorial designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Verhagen, Josine; Swagman, April R; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a Bayes factor approach to multiway analysis of variance (ANOVA) that allows researchers to state graded evidence for effects or invariances as determined by the data. ANOVA is conceptualized as a hierarchical model where levels are clustered within factors. The development is comprehensive in that it includes Bayes factors for fixed and random effects and for within-subjects, between-subjects, and mixed designs. Different model construction and comparison strategies are discussed, and an example is provided. We show how Bayes factors may be computed with BayesFactor package in R and with the JASP statistical package. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,R. B.; J. B. Almeida e Silva; Lima,U. A.; Assis,A. N.

    2000-01-01

    A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort) were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and es...

  1. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  2. Design and Implementation of Two-Level Metadata Server in Small-Scale Cluster File System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuling; YU Hongfen; SONG Weiwei

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and high performance of metadata service is crucial to the store architecture. A novel design of a two-level metadata server file system (TTMFS) is presented, which behaves high reliability and performance. The merits both centralized management and distributed management are considered simultaneously in our design. In this file system, the advanced-metadata server is responsible for manage directory metadata and the whole namespace. The double-metadata server is responsible for maintaining file metadata. And this paper uses the Markov return model to analyze the reliability of the two-level metadata server. The experiment data indicates that the design can provide high throughput.

  3. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  4. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  5. Theory of optimal blocking for fractional factorial split-plot designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [1]Box, G.E.P., Jones, S., Split-plot designs for robust product experimentation, J. Appl. Statist., 1992, 19: 3-26.[2]Mukerjee, R., Fang, K.T., Fractional factorial split-plot designs with minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity, Statist, Sinica, 2002, 12: 885-903.[3]Huang, P., Chen, D., Voelkel, J.O., Minimum aberration two-level split-plot designs, Technometrics, 1998, 40(4):314-326.[4]Fries, A., Hunter, W.G., Minimum aberration 2k-p designs, Technometrics, 1980, 22(4): 601-608.[5]Bingham, D., Sitter, R.R., Minimum aberration two-level fractional factorial split-plot designs, Technometrics,1999, 41(1): 62-70.[6]Bingham, D., Sitter, R.R., Some theoretical results for fractional factorial split-plot designs, Ann. Statist., 1999,27 (4): 1240-1255.[7]Bingham, D., Sitter, R.R., Design issues in fractional factorial split-plot experiments, J. Quality Technology,2001, 33(1): 2-15.[8]Cheng, C.S., Steinberg, D.M., Sun, D.X., Minimum aberration and model robustness for two-level factorial designs, J. Roy. Statist. Soc., Ser. B, 1999, 61: 85-93.[9]Cheng, C.S., Mukerjee, R., Regular fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 2289-2300.[10]Zhang, R., Park, D.K., Optimal blocking of two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Statist. Plann. Infer., 2000,91 (1): 107-121.[11]Ai, M., Zhang, R., Theory of minimum aberration blocked regular mixed factorial designs, J. Statist. Plann.Infer., 2004, 126(1): 305-323.[12]Ai, M., Zhang, R., Theory of optimal blocking of nonregular factorial designs, Canad. J. Statist., 2004, 32(1):57-72.[13]Tang, B., Wu, C.F.J., Characterization of minimum aberration 2n-k designs in terms of their complementary designs, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24(6): 2549-2559.[14]Suen, C.Y., Chen, H., Wu, C.F.J., Some identities on qn-m designs with application to minimum aberrations,Ann. Statist., 1997, 25(3): 1176-1188.[15]Mukerjee, R., Wu, C.F.J., Minimum aberration designs for mixed

  6. Connection Among Some Optimal Criteria for Symmetrical Fractional Factorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qin; Ming-yao Ai; Jian-hui Ning

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental and practical question for fractional factorial designs is the issue of optimal factor assignment. Recently, some new criteria, such as generalized minimum aberration, WV-criterion, NB-criterion and uniformity criterion are proposed for comparing and selecting fractions. In this paper, we indicate that these criteria agree quite well for symmetrical fraction factorial designs.

  7. Status of the Neutrino Factory accelerator design studies

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, Gersende

    2013-01-01

    This document is a review of the present status of the Neutrino Factory design study, after the publication of the Interim Design Report and before the publication of the Reference Design Report. The different components of the accelerator as well as their current design stage and future tasks are described here.

  8. A cost-Effective Design for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Caspi, S.; Cobb, J.; Fernow, R.C.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Witte, H.; Zisman, M.

    2006-06-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a Neutrino Factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed Feasibility Study (FS2) for a Neutrino Factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as Study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  9. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Bogacz

    2006-01-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2) for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  10. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  11. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  12. An Energy-Efficient Instruction Scheduler Design with Two-Level Shelving and Adaptive Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Lai Zhao; Xian-Feng Li; Dong Tong; Xu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Mainstream processors implement the instruction scheduler using a monolithic CAM-based issue queue (IQ),which consumes increasingly high energy as its size scales.In particular, its instruction wakeup logic accounts for a major portion of the consumed energy.Our study shows that instructions with 2 non-ready operands (called 2OP instructions) are in small percentage, but tend to spend long latencies in the IQ.They can be effectively shelved in a small RAM-based waiting instruction buffer (WIB) and steered into the IQ at appropriate time.With this two-level shelving ability, half of the CAM tag comparators are eliminated in the IQ, which significantly reduces the energy of wakeup operation.In addition,we propose an adaptive banking scheme to downsize the IQ and reduce the bit-width of tag comparators.Experiments indicate that for an 8-wide issue superscalar or SMT processor, the energy consumption of the instruction scheduler can be reduced by 67%.Furthermore, the new design has potentially faster scheduler clock speed while maintaining close IPC to the monolithic scheduler design.Compared with the previous work on eliminating tags through prediction, our design is superior in terms of both energy reduction and SMT support.

  13. Método estadístico factorial a dos niveles aplicado en los experimentos de explotación de los Simuladores. // Two levels factorial statistical method applied in experiments of Simulators operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moreno Quintana

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de los simuladores en el proceso de instrucción en el país cuenta con una dificultad al no conocerse el realimpacto de este tipo de equipamiento en la adquisición de las habilidades dentro del proceso de entrenamiento a que vadirigido.El empleo del método estadístico factorial a dos niveles permite la obtención de un modelo lineal de respuesta de laeficiencia, o calificación, en función de la forma cuantitativa de empleo de los diversos medios de entrenamiento y suscombinaciones.Este modelo es validado con un nivel de confianza calculado y puede ser optimizado por los métodos matemáticoscorrespondientes. Para esto se realiza un grupo de recomendaciones en la organización de los experimentos que han sidoobtenidos durante la aplicación de este método en diversas ocasiones.Palabras claves: Simuladores, modelación matemática, diseño de experimentos._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The introduction of simulators in the country´s instruction process deals with the difficulty of not knowing the real impactof this equipment in the acquisition of abilities within the training process. The use of the factorial statistical method at twolevels allows the obtaining of a linear model with answer about efficiency or qualification based on the quantitative form ofuse of diverse means of training and its combinations. This model is validated with a calculated level of confidence and canbe optimized by the corresponding mathematical methods. For this a group of recommendations is made in the organizationof experiments that have been obtained during the application of this method in diverse combnations.Key words: Simulators, mathematical modelation, experiment design.

  14. Bioretention Systems: Partial Factorial Designs for Nitrate Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in nutrient loadings are monitored by introducing captured stormwater runoff into eight outdoor rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey scaled for residential and urban landscapes. The partial factorial design includes non-vegetated meso...

  15. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  16. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  17. Two Ways Factorial Design for round robin test of anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-07-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. KEKB B-factory design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    KEKB is an asymmetric electron-positron collider at 8 x 3.5 GeV which aims at providing electron-positron collision at the center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. Its mission is to support high energy physics research programs on CP violation and other topics in B-meson decay. Its luminosity goal is 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}s. As the construction of the KEKB was approved as a five-year project by the Japanese government, it was begun formally in April, 1994. The low energy ring LER for positrons at 3.5 GeV and the high energy ring HER for electrons at 8 GeV will be built side by side in the existing TRISTAN tunnel with 3 km circumference, and the maximum use of the infrastructure of TRISTAN will be made. The KEKB has only one interaction point in the Tsukuba experimental hall, and the BELLE detector will be installed in this interaction region. The layout of the two rings is explained. In this report, the basic design, hardware systems, the construction schedule, physics requirement, machine parameters, beam-beam interaction, RF parameters, impedance and collective effects, lattice design, interaction region, RF system, magnet system, vacuum system, beam instrumentation, injection and accelerator control system are described. (K.I.).

  19. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Berg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2 for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B, that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  20. ULTRA HIGH SPEED FACTORIAL DESIGN IN SUB-NANOMETER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Banerjee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a high speed and low power factorial design in 22nm technology and also it counts the effect of sub nano-meter constraints on this circuit. A comparative study for this design has been done for 90nm, 45nm and 22nm technology. The rise in circuit complexity and speed is accompanied by the scaling of MOSFET’s. The transistor saturation current Idsat is an important parameter because the transistor current determines the time needed to charge and discharge the capacitive loads on chip, and thus impacts the product speed more than any other transistor parameter. The efficient implementation of a factorial number is carried out by using a decremented and multipliers which has been lucidly discussed in this paper. Normally in a factorial module a number is calculated as the iterative multiplication of the given number to the decremented value of the given number. A Parallel adder based decremented has been proposed for calculating the factorial of any number that also includes 0 and 1. The performances are calculated by using the existing 90-nm CMOS technology and scaling down the existing technology to 45-nm and 22-nm.

  1. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...

  2. Minimum secondary aberration fractional factorial split-plot designs in terms of consulting designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al; Mingyao; ZHANG; Runchu

    2006-01-01

    It is very powerful for constructing nearly saturated factorial designs to characterize fractional factorial (FF) designs through their consulting designs when the consulting designs are small. Mukerjee and Fang employed the projective geometry theory to find the secondary wordlength pattern of a regular symmetrical fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) design in terms of its complementary subset, but not in a unified form. In this paper, based on the connection between factorial design theory and coding theory, we obtain some general and unified combinatorial identities that relate the secondary wordlength pattern of a regular symmetrical or mixed-level FFSP design to that of its consulting design. According to these identities, we further establish some general and unified rules for identifying minimum secondary aberration, symmetrical or mixed-level, FFSP designs through their consulting designs.

  3. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias C.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  4. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; /Michigan State U.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  5. The Elements of Effective Program Design: A Two-Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy and program design is a major theme of contemporary policy research, aimed at improving the understanding of how the processes, methods and tools of policy-making are employed to better formulate effective policies and pro-grams, and to understand the reasons why such designs are not forthcoming. However while many efforts have been made to evaluate policy design, less work has focused on program designs. This article sets out to fill this gap in knowledge of design practices in policy-making. It outlines the nature of the study of policy design with a particular focus on the nature of programs and the lessons derived from empirical experience regarding the conditions that enhance program effectiveness.

  6. Optimal Design for Two-Level Random Assignment and Regression Discontinuity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher H.; Dye, Charles

    2016-01-01

    An important concern when planning research studies is to obtain maximum precision of an estimate of a treatment effect given a budget constraint. When research designs have a "multilevel" or "hierarchical" structure changes in sample size at different levels of the design will impact precision differently. Furthermore, there…

  7. Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicat...

  8. A two-level approach to automated conformance testing of VHDL designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, J.R.; Romijn, J.M.T.; Sies, O.; Springintveld, J.G.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Koymans, R.L.C.

    1997-01-01

    For manufacturers of consumer electronics, conformance testing of embedded software is a vital issue. To improve performance, parts of this software are implemented in hardware, often designed in the Hardware Description Language VHDL. Conformance testing is a time consuming and error-prone process.

  9. New and Efficient Neutrino Factory Front-End Design

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo, Juan C; Kirk, Harold G; Neuffer, David V; Palmer, Robert; Paul, Kevin; Scott Berg, J

    2005-01-01

    As part of the APS Joint Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics* we have carried out detailed studies of the Neutrino Factory front-end. A major goal of the new study was to achieve equal performance to our earlier feasibility studies** at reduced cost. The optimal channel design is described in this paper. New innovations included an adiabatic buncher for phase rotation and a simplified cooling channel with LiH absorbers. The linear channel is 295 m long and produces 0.17 muons per proton on target into the assumed accelerator transverse acceptance of 30 mm and longitudinal acceptance of 150 mm.

  10. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST and emulsification index (EI. The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v and glycerol (2% w/v, which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process.

  11. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaj Shah; S K Garg

    2014-01-01

    The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental ...

  12. Design and Implementation of a Two Level Scheduler for HADOOP Data Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr G. Sudha sadhasivam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hadoop is a large scale distributed processing infrastructure designed to handle data intensive applications. In a commercial large scale cluster framework, a scheduler distributes user jobs evenly among the cluster resources. The proposed work enhances Hadoop’s fair scheduler that queues the jobs for execution in a fine grained manner using task scheduling. In contrast, the proposed approach allows backfilling ofjobs submitted to the scheduler. Thus job level and task level scheduling is enabled by this approach. The jobs are fairly scheduled with fairness among users, pools and priority. The outcome of the proposed work is that short narrow jobs will be executed in the slot if sufficient resource is not available for larger jobs. Thus shorter jobs get executed faster by the scheduler when compared to the existing fair scheduling policy that schedules tasks based on their fairness of remaining execution time. This approach prevents the starvation of smaller jobs if sufficient resources are available.

  13. Optimization of MCM-48 synthesis using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.R. do; Medeiros, R.L.B. de A.; Melo, M. A. de F.; Melo, D.M. de A. [Universitdade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B. de, E-mail: ale3ufs@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    MCM-48 mesoporous materials were hydrothermally synthesized according to the 2{sup 2} factorial design by varying the crystallization time and temperature of the synthesis gel, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and adsorption of N{sub 2} . In the crystallization temperature and time conditions used, specific areas between 924 to 1102 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}, pore volumes between 0.015 to 0.087 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} and pore diameters between 3.2 to 4.0 nm were obtained. It was observed that for the syntheses performed at high temperature, the crystallization time should be reduced so that the material structure is formed. (author)

  14. Designing High Performance Factory Automation Applications on Top of DDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DDS is a recent specification aimed at providing high‐performance publisher/subscriber middleware solutions. Despite being a very powerful flexible technology, it may prove complex to use, especially for the inexperienced. This work provides some guidelines for connecting software components that represent a new generation of automation devices (such as PLCs, IPCs and robots using Data Distribution Service (DDS as a virtual software bus. More specifically, it presents the design of a DDS‐based component, the so‐called Automation Component, and discusses how to map different traffic patterns using DDS entities exploiting the wealth of QoS management mechanisms provided by the DDS specification. A case study demonstrates the creation of factory automation applications out of software components that encapsulate independent stations.

  15. Designing High Performance Factory Automation Applications on Top of DDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DDS is a recent specification aimed at providing high-performance publisher/subscriber middleware solutions. Despite being a very powerful flexible technology, it may prove complex to use, especially for the inexperienced. This work provides some guidelines for connecting software components that represent a new generation of automation devices (such as PLCs, IPCs and robots using Data Distribution Service (DDS as a virtual software bus. More specifically, it presents the design of a DDS-based component, the so-called Automation Component, and discusses how to map different traffic patterns using DDS entities exploiting the wealth of QoS management mechanisms provided by the DDS specification. A case study demonstrates the creation of factory automation applications out of software components that encapsulate independent stations.

  16. Efficient Design for the Implementation of Wong-Lam Multicast Authentication Protocol Using Two-Levels of Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada F. Elkabbany

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Group communication can benefit from Internet Protocol (IP multicast protocol to achieve efficient exchange of messages. However, IP multicast does not provide any mechanisms for authentication. In literature, many solutions to solve this problem were presented. It has been shown that Wong and Lam protocol is the only protocol that can resist both packet loss and pollution attacks. In contrast, it has high computation and communication overheads. In the present paper, an efficient design for the implementation of Wong and Lam multicast authentication protocol is proposed. In order to solve the computation overhead problem, we use two-levels of parallelism. To reduce the communication overhead, we use Universal Message Authentication Codes (UMAC instead of hash functions. The design is analyzed for both NTRU and elliptic curve cryptography signature algorithms. The analysis shows that the proposed design decreases significantly the execution time of Wong-Lam protocol which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  17. Factorial Design and Development of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaic, Allan; de Paula, Eneida; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo

    2015-02-01

    Several scientific hurdles still have to be overcome before gene therapy becomes a reality. One of them is the development of safe and efficient gene delivery system. Here, we have employed factorial design to optimize the production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for gene delivery. A 2 x 3 full-factorial experimental design was used for the optimization of SLNs formulations. The variables were defined by the components of the formulation: concentration of stearic acid, DOTAP, and Pluronic F68 at two levels (-1, 1) and 3 central points (0). Different SNL formulations were prepared by varying the amount of components and several properties were tested, including their capacity to accommodate DNA and protection against DNase degradation, colloidal stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency in prostate cancer cells. Finally, response Surface Methodology was used to select the most effective formulation for gene delivery to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study revealed that stearic acid and Pluronic F68 were determinant to SLN size and stability, respectively, while small amounts of DOTAP are essential for a successful transfection.

  18. Optimization of permeability for quality improvement by using factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Rahaini Mohd; Miswan, Nor Hamizah; Juan, Ng Shu; Hussin, Nor Hafizah; Ahmad, Aminah; Kamal, Mohamad Ridzuan Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    Sand castings are used worldwide by the manufacturing process in Metal Casting Industry, whereby the green sand are the commonly used sand mould type in the industry of sand casting. The defects on the surface of casting product is one of the problems in the industry of sand casting. The problems that relates to the defect composition of green sand are such as blowholes, pinholes shrinkage and porosity. Our objective is to optimize the best composition of green sand in order to minimize the occurrence of defects. Sand specimen of difference parameters (Bentonite, Green Sand, Cold dust and water) were design and prepared to undergo permeability test. The 24 factorial design experiment with four factors at difference composition were runs, and the total of 16 runs experiment were conducted. The developed models based on the experimental design necessary models were obtained. The model with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.9841) and model for predicted and actual fitted well with the experimental data. Using the Analysis of Design Expert software, we identified that bentonite and water are the main interaction effect in the experiments. The optimal settings for green sand composition are 100g silica sand, 21g bentonite, 6.5 g water and 6g coal dust. This composition gives an effect of permeability number 598.3GP.

  19. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  20. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  1. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  2. Industry 4.0 learning factory didactic design parameters for industrial engineering education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sackey, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To manage the impact of Industry 4.0 on industrial engineering (IE education curriculum requirements, realistic teaching and learning infrastructure such as a learning factory are required. This paper scans the literature to determine Industry 4.0’s principles and interactions with IE and a learning factory, surveys relevant universities by questionnaire to determine its current status and practices, and formulates didactic design parameters for an Industry 4.0 learning factory to support IE education in South Africa, making use of existing models of cyber-physical systems and learning factory morphology. In other results, the technical universities are discovered to be more positively disposed, in general terms, to developing an Industry 4.0 learning factory than are the traditional programmes which, with one exception, prefer computational facilities. Of ten universities that offer IE, only one — a traditional programme — has made significant progress towards creating an Industry 4.0 learning factory.

  3. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  4. Formulation development and evaluation of zolmitriptan oral soluble films using 22 factorial designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswari, Poluri; Sravanthi, G. Puja; Mounika, M.; Mohammed Rafi, S. K.; Nirosha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation involves the development of zolmitriptan oral soluble film (OSF) formulations and optimization with quality by design (QBD) using natural polymers and evaluation. Materials and Methods: Initially, various natural polymers such as sodium alginate, pectin, and gelatin were screened by casting films using solvent casting technique and the prepared films were evaluated. Based on the physical and mechanical properties, sodium alginate was selected as best film former and zolmitriptan-loaded films were casted. The formulation was optimized with the help of 22 factorial experimental designs (QBD) in which sodium alginate concentration and plasticizer concentrations were used as factors and at two levels. The drug-loaded films were evaluated for various mechanical, physicochemical properties, and in vitro drug release properties. Factor effects were interpreted by calculating the main factor effects and by plotting the interaction plots. Results: Thickness of the films, disintegration time, and percent drug loading efficiency were in the range of 0.698 ± 0.13–1.318 ± 0.22 mm, 175 ± 3.1–280 ± 1.7 s, and 68.34 ± 0.5–94.70 ± 0.7% w/v, respectively. Cumulative percent drug released was 61.8 ± 2.6–94.7 ± 4.1% after 30 min. Polymer concentration at two levels of plasticizer had statistically significant effect on drug loading efficiency and in vitro drug release rate. X2 formulation was found to be excellent in drug loading efficiency and in vitro drug release profiles; hence, drug excipient compatibility studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and stability studies for 60 days were carried out for X2 formulation and found to be stable. Conclusion: Sodium alginate OSFs containing zolmitriptan was successfully prepared, optimized, and evaluated. PMID:28123989

  5. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubakri, Ali; Helali, Nawel; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben [Center of Researches and Water Technologies, Soliman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Excessive fluoride concentration in potable water can lead to fluorosis of teeth and bones. In the present study, Donnan dialysis (DD) is applied for the removal of fluoride ions from diluted sodium fluoride solutions. A four factor two level (2{sup 4}) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on fluoride removal efficiency (Y{sub F}) and fluoride flux (J{sub F}) through anion exchange membrane. The statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on Donnan dialysis performance and studies all interactions among the considered parameters. The four significant factors were initial fluoride concentration, feed flow rate, temperature and agitation speed. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the temperature and agitation speed have positive effects on fluoride removal efficiency and the initial fluoride concentration has a negative effect. In the case of fluoride flux, feed flow rate and initial concentration are the main effect and all factors have a positive effect. The interaction between studied parameters was not negligible on two responses. A maximum fluoride removal of 75.52% was obtained under optimum conditions and the highest value of fluoride flux obtained was 2.4 mg/cm{sup 2}·h. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the flux and the fluoride removal profiles with satisfactory results.

  6. Green Project System Design of Machine Process Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As the specialty of the product and the dim conscio us ness of environmental protection, the status of dirty, chaos and difference is l ong-term existed in the machine process factory. It seriously affects workers' work and living environment, and restricts the total level of the environment p rotection in our country. The project is the fatal scientific research task of H enan province in 2001. As the members' endeavor of task group, we have finished the total plan of green project system and some other ...

  7. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  8. Factorial design in the spheronization of ibuprofen microparticulates using the rotor disk fluid-bed technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwumezie, Beatrice Nkem; Wojcik, Mark; Malak, Paul; Damico, Frank; Adeyeye, Moji Christianah

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to statistically evaluate the effects of some formulation and process variables in the spheronization of microparticulates of ibuprofen using the rotor disk fluid-bed technology and water as binder. Preliminary studies revealed that presence of surfactant, plate material type, and nature and content of binder influenced the process and quality of the spheronized material. A 2 x 2 x 3 full factorial randomized experiment was designed, demonstrating the influence of these factors on properties such as percent yield, particle size distribution, densities, ibuprofen release, moisture content, etc., as well as their interactions in the experimental response. A response known as the usable fraction was created representing microparticulates of 250 to 850 microm sizes (mesh size 20-60). The reproducibility of the spheronization process was assessed by blocking the experiments with the experiments within the blocks randomly replicated. The main effects included two binder levels (X1), two surfactant levels (X2), and a three-level plate type (X3) in which 2 two-level factors were collapsed into a single three-level factor. The results from the statistical analysis (general linear model, JMP 4) showed that the variables studied had a significant influence on most of the response variables evaluated (p experiments had no significant effect on the process and product characteristics analyzed, indicating the reproducibility of the process.

  9. CrossRef Neutrino factory proton driver and target design

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, Roland; Thomason, John; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Back, John J

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are very elusive particles belonging to the lepton family. They exist in different types corresponding to the different charged leptons, namely electrons, muons and taus. Contrary to electrons, neutrinos hardly interact with matter which makes them very difficult to detect and study. To the best of today’s knowledge, neutrinos have hardly any mass and they can change from one type to another (so-called “neutrino oscillation”). Most physicists think that this oscillation occurs because neutrinos have mass. A Neutrino Factory [1] is a special facility producing a large amount of neutrinos every year (typically 10$^{21}$ neutrinos/year). Its main purpose is to study the change of type of neutrinos between the place where they are generated and a remote location. In a Neutrino Factory, neutrinos result from the decay of muons, unstable particles with a mean lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s in their rest frame. Sharp beams of high energy neutrinos are obtained at the end of the long straight sections of a mu...

  10. Optimization parameter design of a circular e+e-Higgs factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dou; GAO Jie; XIAO Ming; GENG Hui-Ping; GUO Yuan-Yuan; XU Shou-Yan; WANG Na

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will show a general method of how to make an optimized parameter design of a circular e+e-Higgs factory by using analytical expression of maximum beam-beam parameter and beamstrahlung beam lifetime starting from a given design goal and technical limitations.A parameter space has been explored.Based on beam parameters scan and RF parameters scan,a set of optimized parameter designs for 50 km Circular Higgs Factory (CHF) with different RF frequency was proposed.

  11. Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vectors driven by an ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of heterogeneities in disease transmission dynamics as far as malaria vectors are concerned is a big challenge. Many studies while tackling this problem don't find exact models to explain the malaria vectors propagation. Methods To solve the problem we define an Adaptive Multi-Agent System (AMAS which has the property to be elastic and is a two-level system as well. This AMAS is a dynamic system where the two levels are linked by an Ontology which allows it to function as a reduced system and as an extended system. In a primary level, the AMAS comprises organization agents and in a secondary level, it is constituted of analysis agents. Its entry point, a User Interface Agent, can reproduce itself because it is given a minimum of background knowledge and it learns appropriate "behavior" from the user in the presence of ambiguous queries and from other agents of the AMAS in other situations. Results Some of the outputs of our system present a series of tables, diagrams showing some factors like Entomological parameters of malaria transmission, Percentages of malaria transmission per malaria vectors, Entomological inoculation rate. Many others parameters can be produced by the system depending on the inputted data. Conclusion Our approach is an intelligent one which differs from statistical approaches that are sometimes used in the field. This intelligent approach aligns itself with the distributed artificial intelligence. In terms of fight against malaria disease our system offers opportunities of reducing efforts of human resources who are not obliged to cover the entire territory while conducting surveys. Secondly the AMAS can determine the presence or the absence of malaria vectors even when specific data have not been collected in the geographical area. In the difference of a statistical technique, in our case the projection of the results in the field can sometimes appeared to be more general.

  12. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  13. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  14. Theory of optimal blocking for fractional factorial split-plot designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Mingyao; HE Shuyuan

    2005-01-01

    The issue of optimal blocking for fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) designs is considered under the two criteria of minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity. The criteria of minimum secondary aberration (MSA) and maximum secondary estimation capacity (MSEC) are developed for discriminating among rival nonisomorphic blcoked FFSP designs. A general rule for identifying MSA or MSEC blocked FFSP designs through their blocked consulting designs is established.

  15. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; /Brookhaven; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.

    2011-10-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has

  16. Degradation characteristics of metoprolol during UV/chlorination reaction and a factorial design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Yeomin; Choi, Dae-Jin; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2015-03-21

    Metoprolol (MTP), a hypertension depressor, has been increasingly detected even after conventional water treatment processes. In this study, the removal of MTP was compared using chlorination (Cl2), UV-C photolysis, and UV/chlorination (Cl2/UV) reactions. The results showed that the UV/chlorination reaction was most effective for MTP removal. MTP removal during UV/chlorination reaction was optimized under various conditions of UV intensity (1.1-4.4 mW/cm(2)), chlorine dose (1-5 mg/L as Cl2), pH (2-9), and dissolved organic matter (DOM, 1-4 mgC/L) using a two-level factorial design with 16 experimental combinations of the four factors. Among the factors examined, DOM scavenging by OH radicals was the most dominant in terms of MTP removal during UV/chlorination reaction. The established model fit well with the experimental results using to various water samples including surface waters, filtered and tap water samples. The optimized conditions (UV intensity=4.4 mW/cm(2), [Cl2]=5 mg/L, pH 7, and [DOM]=0.8-1.1 mgC/L) of the model removed more than 78.9% of MTP for filtered water samples during UV/chlorination reaction. Using LC-MS/MS, five byproducts of MTP (molecular weight: 171, 211, 309, 313, and 341, respectively) were identified during UV/chlorination reaction. Based on this information, the MTP transformation mechanism during UV/chlorination was suggested. Our results imply that applying UV/chlorination process after filtration stage in the water treatment plant (WTP) would be the most appropriate for effective removal of MTP.

  17. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  18. Effect of experimental design on production responses in high-producing dairy cows fed two levels of metabolizable protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from studies on lactation responses to diet have been hypothesized to be affected by the use of change-over (CHANGE) instead of continuous (CONT) experimental designs; a direct test of this hypothesis has not been well-studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduc...

  19. Statistical analysis of efficient unbalanced factorial designs for two-color microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs that efficiently embed a fixed effects treatment structure within a random effects design structure typically require a mixed-model approach to data analyses. Although mixed model software tailored for the analysis of two-color microarray data is increasingly available, much of this software is generally not capable of correctly analyzing the elaborate incomplete block designs that are being increasingly proposed and used for factorial treatment structures. That is, optimized designs are generally unbalanced as it pertains to various treatment comparisons, with different specifications of experimental variability often required for different treatment factors. This paper uses a publicly available microarray dataset, as based upon an efficient experimental design, to demonstrate a proper mixed model analysis of a typical unbalanced factorial design characterized by incomplete blocks and hierarchical levels of variability.

  20. The future of tau physics and tau-charm detector and factory design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, M.L.

    1991-02-01

    Future research on the tau lepton requires large statistics, thorough investigation of systematic errors, and direct experimental knowledge of backgrounds. Only a tau-charm factory with a specially designed detector can provide all the experimental conditions to meet these requirements. This paper is a summary of three lectures delivered at the 1991 Lake Louise Winter Institute.

  1. Clustering Words to Match Conditions: An Algorithm for Stimuli Selection in Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Marc; Haro, Juan; Boada, Roger

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing refinement of language processing models and the new discoveries about which variables can modulate these processes, stimuli selection for experiments with a factorial design is becoming a tough task. Selecting sets of words that differ in one variable, while matching these same words into dozens of other confounding variables…

  2. More Powerful Tests of Simple Interaction Contrasts in the Two-Way Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Gregory R.; McNeish, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    For the two-way factorial design in analysis of variance, the current article explicates and compares three methods for controlling the Type I error rate for all possible simple interaction contrasts following a statistically significant interaction, including a proposed modification to the Bonferroni procedure that increases the power of…

  3. Design and analysis of a cogeneration plant using heat recovery of a cement factory

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is a more potential in a cement factory for electric power generation using waste heat recovery compared to the other industries. A case study has been done at a cement factory having two units, 1600 TPD and 5500 TPD, identified three waste heat rejections at 176 °C, 330 °C and 420 °C and designed a suitable power plant configuration. In this work, an attempt has been made to quantify the power generation capacity with plant analysis. It has been resulted that 12.5 MW of power can be pr...

  4. Redirector: designing cell factories by reconstructing the metabolic objective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rockwell

    Full Text Available Advances in computational metabolic optimization are required to realize the full potential of new in vivo metabolic engineering technologies by bridging the gap between computational design and strain development. We present Redirector, a new Flux Balance Analysis-based framework for identifying engineering targets to optimize metabolite production in complex pathways. Previous optimization frameworks have modeled metabolic alterations as directly controlling fluxes by setting particular flux bounds. Redirector develops a more biologically relevant approach, modeling metabolic alterations as changes in the balance of metabolic objectives in the system. This framework iteratively selects enzyme targets, adds the associated reaction fluxes to the metabolic objective, thereby incentivizing flux towards the production of a metabolite of interest. These adjustments to the objective act in competition with cellular growth and represent up-regulation and down-regulation of enzyme mediated reactions. Using the iAF1260 E. coli metabolic network model for optimization of fatty acid production as a test case, Redirector generates designs with as many as 39 simultaneous and 111 unique engineering targets. These designs discover proven in vivo targets, novel supporting pathways and relevant interdependencies, many of which cannot be predicted by other methods. Redirector is available as open and free software, scalable to computational resources, and powerful enough to find all known enzyme targets for fatty acid production.

  5. Industry Standards for Technological Design and Construction Drawing Design of Rubber Factories Carried Out on August 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 18, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology approved 2 industry standards of Rules of Technological Design Technology of Rubber Factories(HG/T 21558-2011) and Rules of Rubber Factories Construction Drawing Design Document Content and Depth (HG/T 21511-2011), which are to be carried out on August 1.

  6. Status of the Super-B factory Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.; Bertsche, K.; Chao, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Vobly, P.; Okunev, I.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /CERN /Orsay, LAL /LPSC, Grenoble /Saclay

    2012-05-18

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the Y(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low {beta}{sub y} without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point. Optimized for best colliding-beam performance, the facility may also provide high-brightness photon beams for synchrotron radiation applications.

  7. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  8. Design of Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables: A Resource Management Perspective on Complete and Reduced Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct an experiment with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy.…

  9. Factorial design approach for optimization of floating microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Singh Panwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform optimization of floating microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride for the prolongation of gastric residence time. The microspheres were prepared by a nonaqueous solvent evaporation method using polycarbonate. A full factorial design was applied to optimize the formulation. Preliminary studies revealed that the concentration of polymer and stirring speed significantly affected the characteristics of floating microspheres. The optimum batch of microsphere exhibited smooth surfaces with good flow and packing properties, prolonged sustained drug release, remained buoyant for more than 10 h, high entrapment efficiency up to 97% w/w. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the hollow structure with particle size in the order of 190 μm. The studies revealed that the increase in concentration of polycarbonate increased the drug release from the floating microspheres. The results of two third full factorial design revealed that the concentration of polycarbonate (X1 and stirring speed (X2 significantly affected drug entrapment efficiency, percentage release.

  10. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  11. Full factorial design analysis of carbon nanotube polymer-cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Paiva Cota

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper is related to the effect of adding carbon nanotubes (CNT on the mechanical properties of polymer-cement composites. A full factorial design has been performed on 160 samples to identify the contribution provided by the following factors: polymeric phase addition, CNT weight addition and water/cement ratio. The response parameters of the full factorial design were the bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and elastic modulus of the polymer-cement-based nanocomposites. All the factors considered in this analysis affected significantly the bulk density and apparent porosity of the composites. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were affected primarily by the cross-interactions between polymeric phase and CNT additions, and the water/cement ratio with polymeric phase factors.

  12. Experimentation and Optimization of Surface Roughness in WEDM Process using Full Factorial Design integrated PCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismaya Kumar Mishra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of WEDM is growing rapidly since the last three decades due its several advantages and applicability of the process to produce complicated intrinsic, extrinsic shapes of miniaturized size, so there is a need to analyze and optimize the process. In this research work the experiments were conducted using the general full factorial design methodology with 48 experimental runs. The values response parameters Ra, Rq and Rz were measured and the effect of process parameters wire type, wire tension, power, pulse on time and discharge current on these responses were studied qualitatively and quantitatively using main effect plots, interaction plots and ANOVA. Finally the optimal process parameter setting for responses were found by using full factorial design integrated PCA Approach.

  13. Study of formulation variables on properties of glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres by factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Hosmani A.H; Kasture, P. V.; ID Gonjari; A.B. Karmarkar

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground and the Purpose of the study:The purpose of the study was formulate and systemsystematic evaluation in-vitro and in-vivo behaviour of Glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres using 32 full factorial design. "nMethods:Concentration of Polycarbophil and Sodium Alginate were selected as independent variables and the effects were checked on dependent variables like swelling index, mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency and T75. In vivo studies were also performed to determine ...

  14. Development of standardized extractive solution from Lippia sidoides by factorial design and their redox active profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of variables of preparation on total flavonoids content from extractive solution of Lippia sidoides Cham., Verbenaceae. Thus a 23 factorial design was used to study the importance of plant proportion, the extraction method and solvent on the extraction of flavonoid. The methodology of determination of chemicals in factorial design was validated according to the parameters required by Brazilian Health Agency. The extraction solution was selected through a full factorial design where the best conditions to achieve the highest content of flavonoids were: 7.5% (w/v of plant with ethanol 50% (v/v as solvent. The polyphenols content was determined by LC method and its relationship with the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities was evaluated. The free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant potentials were determined for different concentrations using various in vitro models. Our results indicate that extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent antioxidant effect as evaluated by TRAP/TAR assays. Besides, we observed an antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide, and protection against lipid peroxidation in vitro. Our results suggest that the extract presents significant in vitro antioxidant potential indicating promising perspectives for its use as pharmaceutical/or food additive.

  15. A Preliminary Interaction Region Design for a Super B-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Michael K; Donald, Martin; Ecklund, Stanley; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The success of the two B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has encouraged us to look at design parameters for a B-Factory with a 30-50 times increase in the luminosity of the present machines (L~1e36). In order to achieve this high luminosity, the beta y* values are reduced to 3-2 mm, the bunch spacing is minimized (0.6-0.3 m) and the bunch currents are increased. Total beam currents range from 5-25 A. The interaction region (IR) of these "SuperB" designs presents special challenges. Synchrotron radiation fans from local bending in shared magnets and from upstream sources pose difficulties due to the high power levels in these fans. High-order-mode(HOM)heating, effects that have been seen in the present B-factories, will become much more pronounced with the very short bunches and high beam currents. Masking the detector beam pipe from synchrotron radiation must take into account effects of HOM power generation. Backgrounds that are a function of the luminosity will become very important. We presen...

  16. Fractional Factorial Design for Parameter Sweep Experiments Using Nimrod/E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Peachey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of formal experimental design and analysis are powerful tools for scientists and engineers. However, these techniques are currently underused for experiments conducted with computer models. This has motivated the incorporation of experimental design functionality into the Nimrod tool chain. Nimrod has been extensively used for exploration of the response of models to their input parameters; the addition of experimental design tools will combine the efficiency of carefully designed experiments with the power of distributed execution. This paper describes the incorporation of one type of design, the fractional factorial design, and associated analysis tools, into the Nimrod framework. The result provides a convenient environment that automates the design of an experiment, the execution of the jobs on a computational grid and the return of results, and which assists in the interpretation of those results. Several case studies are included which demonstrate various aspects of this approach.

  17. A COMPARISON BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND ROBUST METHOD IN A FACTORIAL DESIGN IN THE PRESENCE OF OUTLIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Fitrianto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Variance (ANOVA techniques which is based on classical Least Squares (LS method requires several assumptions, such as normality, constant variances and independency. Those assumptions can be violated due to several causes, such as the presence of an outlying observation. There are many evident in literatures that the LS estimate is easily affected by outliers. To remedy this problem, a robust procedure that provides estimation, inference and testing that are not influenced by outlying observations is put forward. A well-known approach to handle dataset with outliers is the M-estimation. In this study, both classical and robust procedures are employed to data of a factorial experiment. The results signify that the classical method of least squares estimates instead of robust methods lead to misleading conclusion of the analysis in factorial designs.

  18. Two-Level Optimization for GFRP Wind Turbine Blade Structural Design%GFRP风机叶片结构设计的二级优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 姚卫星

    2011-01-01

    Based on the topology of wind turbine blade structures, the web position of the blade is chosen as systematical design variable and the layer thickness as size design variable, and then a two-level opti-mization method is proposed to determine web position and skin layer thickness. Firstly, the surrogate model of web position is established based on which the system level optimization is performed with weight minimum as objective in order to obtain the position variable values. Then the position values are passed to sub-system where the layer thickness is optimized with a fractional step strategy. When the results of system and sub-system satisfy convergent condition, the optimum blade structure design is ob-tained. The two-level optimization method is proved to be efficient to obtain better blade design by the given examples.%通过对风机叶片结构特性的分析,以叶片腹板位置和蒙皮锗层厚度为设计变量,发展了一种二级优化设计方法.首先建立腹板位置参数的代理模型,根据所建的代理模型以质量最轻为目标进行系统级优化求解出腹板位置,然后将结果传给予系统级,子系统级采取分步优化策略求解叶片铺层厚度.当两级优化结果收敛时得到叶片最佳设计.经算例验证,采用这种二级优化方法,可得到较为理想的叶片结构设计结果.

  19. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a potential vehicle for Carvedilol delivery: Application of factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ganesh B; Patil, Nandkishor D; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Pravin O; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-01-01

    Present invention relates to design of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) to augment oral bioavailability of Carvedilol (CAR). In this attempt, formulations of CAR-NLCs were prepared with glyceryl-monostearate (GMS) as a lipid, poloxamer 188 as a surfactant and tween 80 as a co-surfactant using high pressure homogenizer by 2(3) factorial design approach. Formed CAR-NLCs were assessed for various performance parameters. Accelerated stability studies demonstrated negligible change in particle size and entrapment efficiency, after storage at specified time up to 3 months. The promising findings in this investigation suggest the practicability of these systems for enhancement of bioavailability of drugs like CAR.

  20. Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: factorial design and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

    2013-10-01

    The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1 Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1 Pa, heating temperature of 1023 K and heating time of 120 min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scattering correction algorithm in the PET sinogram using the factorial design of experimental method: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Yung; Lu, Nan-Han; Huang, Yung-Hui; Chen, Tai-Been

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) had been utilized to image gene therapy, estimate tumor growth, detect neural function of the brain, and diagnose disease. However, sinogram noise always results inaccurate PET images. The factorial design of experiment (DOE), a statistical method, was applied to investigate, correct and estimate the fraction of scattering of 2D sinogram in PET. The DOE was included as factors of angle views and scatter media with two levels designed. The PET sinogram after scattering correction was then reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP). Both Ge-68 uniform phantom and Jaszczak anthropomorphic torso phantom were applied to exam the performance of presented scattering correction algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), standard deviation (STD) of background, and full width at half maximum (FWHM), and uniformity test were applied to validate the performance of presented method. The proposed method provides a narrower FWHM, smaller STD of the background, higher SNR and better uniformity than those of original protocols. This method should be tested for accuracy and feasibility with three-dimensional phantoms or real animal studies and consideration effects of cross-talk between slices in future work.

  2. Design and analysis of a cogeneration plant using heat recovery of a cement factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Pradeep Varma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a more potential in a cement factory for electric power generation using waste heat recovery compared to the other industries. A case study has been done at a cement factory having two units, 1600 TPD and 5500 TPD, identified three waste heat rejections at 176 °C, 330 °C and 420 °C and designed a suitable power plant configuration. In this work, an attempt has been made to quantify the power generation capacity with plant analysis. It has been resulted that 12.5 MW of power can be produced with the available heat recovery against a cement factory demand of 15 MW. The available process heat for cement production and power generation has been estimated at a capacity range from 5000 to 9000 TPD. The analysis recommended a low steam pressure for power generation at above said heat recovery gas temperature.

  3. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5. [Cost analysis and factory design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiello, R.V.

    1977-10-01

    During this quarter, an interim 1982 factory was designed for the large-scale production of silicon solar cell array modules. The boundary conditions for this design are the use of Czochralski silicon crystals and $25/kg polycrystalline silicon. The objective is a large-scale production facility to meet an intermediate ERDA cost goal of $2.00/W in 1982. The approach was to first consider a panel design which could be expected to have a 20-year life and would also meet the JPL specification on mechanical, electrical, and environmental stability. Attention was then directed to a cost analysis of the production of the elements comprising this panel. Since it was expected that wafer production would comprise a major fraction of the cost, several cost reduction schemes were considered for the Czochralski pulling and sawing of the wafers. A solar-cell processing sequence was selected on the basis of our previous cost studies and the projected availability of production equipment by 1982. These criteria resulted in the selection of POCl/sub 3/ gaseous diffusion for junction formation, thick-film Ag screen-printed metallization, spray-on antireflection (AR) coating, and solder reflow interconnect technology. The economic study was made by computer analysis of the cost elements of these process sequences at production levels ranging from 3 to 100 MW/yr. With the results of this study, a 30-MW/yr factory was designed, and a preliminary floor plan layout is given. A manufacturing cost of $2.01/W is projected and, including factory overhead and profit, a selling price of $2.27/W is projected.

  4. Analysis, control and design of a non-inverting buck-boost converter: A bump-less two-level T-S fuzzy PI control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Omid Naghash; Fereshtehpoor, Vahid; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified fuzzy Two-Level Control Scheme (TLCS) is proposed to control a non-inverting buck-boost converter. Each level of fuzzy TLCS consists of a tuned fuzzy PI controller. In addition, a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy switch proposed to transfer the fuzzy PI controllers to each other in the control system. The major difficulty in designing fuzzy TLCS which degrades its performance is emerging unwanted drastic oscillations in the converter output voltage during replacing the controllers. Thereby, the fuzzy PI controllers in each level of TLCS structure are modified to eliminate these oscillations and improve the system performance. Some simulations and digital signal processor based experiments are conducted on a non-inverting buck-boost converter to support the effectiveness of the proposed TLCS in controlling the converter output voltage.

  5. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  6. Application of Full Factorial Experimental Design and Response Surface Methodology for Chromite Beneficiation by Knelson Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Akar Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is undertaken to determine the effect of operational variables, namely: feed rate, centrifugal force and fluidization water flow rate on the efficiency of Knelson concentrator for chromite ore beneficiation. A full factorial design with three factors at three levels and response surface methodology (RSM were applied for this purpose. The quadratic models were developed to predict the concentrate Cr2O3 grade and recovery as the process responses. The results suggest that all the variables affect the grade and recovery of the Cr2O3 concentrate to some degree. However, the fluidization water rate was found as the most effective parameter.

  7. A comprehensive factorial design study of variables affecting protein extraction from formalin-fixed kidney tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J E; Oliveira, E; Otero-Glez, A; Santos Nores, J; Igrejas, G; Lodeiro, C; Capelo, J L; Santos, H M

    2014-02-01

    Formalin-fixed tissues are an important source of biological samples for biomedical research. However, proteomics analysis of formalin-fixed tissues has been set aside by formalin-induced protein modifications, which reduce protein extraction efficiency. In this study, a two level full factorial experimental design (2(4)) was used to determine the effects of the extracting conditions in the efficiency of protein recovery from formalin-fixed kidney samples. The following variables were assessed: temperature of extraction, pH of extraction, composition of the extracting buffer and the use ultrasonic energy applied with probe. It is clearly demonstrated that when hating and ultrasonic energy are used in conjunction, a 7-fold increase (p protein extraction is obtained if compared to extracting conditions for which neither heating nor ultrasonic energy are used. The optimization study was done following the amount of protein extracted by UV (Nanodrop(®) technology, protein ABS at 280 nm) and by 1D SDS-PAGE. Extracts obtained with the optimized conditions were subjected to LC-MALDI MS/MS. A total of 112 proteins were identified.

  8. The increase of surface area of a Brazilian palygorskite clay activated with sulfuric acid solutions using a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palygorskite is fibrous clay in which the structural tetrahedral and octahedral layers are organized in a way that structural channels are formed, leading to high surface area. However, impurities inside the channels and aggregated ones considerably reduce the available area. In order to increase the surface area, an activation treatment can be considered useful. The goal of this work is the activation of palygorskite from Guadalupe, Piauí, via sulfuric acid treatment using a two-level factorial design. The influence of three parameters (solution molarity, temperature and time on BET surface area was determined. Moreover, samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD and fluorescence (XRF, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The largest surface area (282 m²/g without considerable changes in clay structure and morphology was found in a sample treated with 5M H2SO4 at 70°C for 1h. The main parameters that favored the improvement of the surface area were the solution's molarity, temperature and their interaction.

  9. Influence of urea, isopropanol, and propylene glycol on rutin in vitro release from cosmetic semisolid systems estimated by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Andre Rolim; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Pinto, Claudineia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valeria Robles

    2009-03-01

    Rutin, one of the major flavonoids found in an assortment of plants, was reported to act as a sun protection factor booster with high anti-UVA defense, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticellulite, by improvement of the cutaneous microcirculation. This research work aimed at evaluating the rutin in vitro release from semisolid systems, in vertical diffusion cells, containing urea, isopropanol and propylene glycol, associated or not, according to the factorial design with two levels with center point. Urea (alone and in association with isopropanol and propylene glycol) and isopropanol (alone and in association with propylene glycol) influenced significant and negatively rutin liberation in diverse parameters: flux (microg/cm(2).h); apparent permeability coefficient (cm/h); rutin amount released (microg/cm(2)); and liberation enhancement factor. In accordance with the results, the presence of propylene glycol 5.0% (wt/wt) presented statistically favorable to promote rutin release from this semisolid system with flux = 105.12 +/- 8.59 microg/cm(2).h; apparent permeability coefficient = 7.01 +/- 0.572 cm/h; rutin amount released = 648.80 +/- 53.01 microg/cm(2); and liberation enhancement factor = 1.21 +/- 0.07.

  10. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Gabriela Breaban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC. In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design (FFD for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m2, initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9, electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min, GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L, support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM, initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L and current type (Direct Current—DC or Alternative Pulsed Current—APC. GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  11. Full factorial experimental design applied to oxalic acid photocatalytic degradation in TiO2 aqueous suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between operational parameters in the photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid in a batch photo-reactor using TiO2 aqueous suspension. The important parameters which affect the removal efficiency of oxalic acid such as agitation, initial concentration, volume of the solution and TiO2 dosage were investigated. The parameters were coded as X1, X2, X3 and X4, consecutively, and were investigated at two levels (−1 and +1. The effects of individual variables and their interaction effects for dependent variables, namely, photocatalytic degradation efficiency (% were determined. From the statistical analysis, the most effective parameters in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were initial concentration and volume of solution. The interaction between initial concentration, volume of solution and TiO2 dosage was the most influencing interaction. However, the interaction between agitation, initial concentration and volume of solution was the least influencing parameter.

  12. Factorial design analysis for COD removal from landfill leachate by photoassisted Fered-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yanli; Zhang, Daobin; Li, Xianwang

    2014-01-01

    The Fered-Fenton process has been shown to be an effective method for leachate treatment, but it still faces problems of inadequate regeneration of ferrous ion. However, the use of the photoassisted Fered-Fenton process could overcome this difficulty and improve the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal since photoassisted Fered-Fenton process induces the production of hydroxyl radicals from the regeneration of ferrous ions and the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with UV light. As there are so many operating parameters in photoassisted Fered-Fenton process, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model in order to produce the most economical process. In the present study, a factorial design was carried out to evaluate leachate treatment by photoassisted Fered-Fenton process. The influence of the following variables: H₂O₂ concentration, Fe(2+) concentration, current density, and initial pH in the photoassisted Fered-Fenton process was investigated by measuring COD removal efficiencies after 60-min reaction. The relationship between COD removal and the most significant independent variables was established by means of an experimental design. The H₂O₂ concentration, Fe(2+) concentration, initial pH, and the interaction effect between current density and initial pH were all significant factors. The factorial design models were derived based on the COD removal efficiency results and the models fit the data well.

  13. Application of factorial design to accelerate identification of CHO growth factor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chung; Heineken, Katy; Szeto, Dongmei; Ryll, Thomas; Chamow, Steve; Chung, John D

    2003-01-01

    To accelerate recombinant CHO media and process development, we describe a simple approach to integrating multiple tasks associated with these processes including initial media design, serum-free adaptation, stability analysis and first generation scale-up. Factorial design techniques and normal probability chart representation of the results were first applied to identify potent parental CHO cell growth factors in a lean basal medium. These results were then applied to identify a suitable manufacturing medium from a panel of commercial and proprietary media formulations. When this approach was applied to recombinant CHO cell line, rapid adaptation of the cell line to an appropriate production medium occurred during culture expansion in the presence of the identified growth factor(s). This approach allows media component screening to be naturally integrated into the adaptation and scale-up processes since components that have little or no relative effect on cell proliferation are selected against as the "best" cultures are moved forward. The rapidity of the adaptation process allowed cell line stability studies to be initiated relatively early in the development process, thus providing preliminary stability information by the time the "outgrowing" culture could be scaled to 100-L reactors some 30 days after adaptation commenced. The application of full factorial design techniques allowed us to calculate the maximum number of interaction effects, the interpretation of which we believe can provide insights into growth factor biology.

  14. MOBILITY OF MERCURY OF THE DENTAL AMALGAM IN REDUCTION PROCESS IN THE SEDIMENTS: FACTORIAL DESIGN ANALISYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Dalla Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The dental wastewater can contribute to the total daily mercury load on environment. Factorial design of experiments is useful toanalysis of factors that influence in this mobility. The aim of the present study was to design experiments to examine the effects ofoperational variables – temperature, pH and contact time - which may affect the mobility of mercury in form of dental amalgamresidue in reduction process in the sediments of the Pirapó River. Based on the factorial design of experiments and the analysis ofvariance, the temperature was the most significant factor in this process, followed by the pH and contact time. The parametersaffecting the mobility of total mercury showed that when the temperature and contact time increases and pH decreases there is animportant increase of mercury concentration in process. For the tested conditions, the high total mercury concentration was obtainedusing the temperature = 35oC, pH = 4.0 and contact time = 10 days.

  15. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  16. Factorial design of a solar photocatalytic process to treatment of wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: adriana.francisco@agr.unicamp.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CESET/UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Centro Superior de Educacao Tecnologica

    2008-07-01

    Advanced treatments are attributed to improving the quality of various types of waste such as the sanitary wastewater. The heterogeneous photocatalysis is an alternative that allows to improve the effluents conditions. This is possible because many chemical compounds of environmental concern can be degraded using UV radiation on a semiconductor. However, to enable the efficiency of the process photocatalytic is necessary to conduct a study of optimization to establish favorable conditions between selected variables. The aim of this work was a reactor solar photocatalytic optimization using factorial design 2{sup k}, depending on variables: mass (TiO{sub 2}), time (min) and flow of air (L min{sup -1}), using as analytical response the removal of color. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) and it was used the sanitary wastewater of there. The results indicated that there were significant efficiency using combinations mass = 1000 mg L{sup -1}, time = 360 min and flow of air = 5 L min{sup -1}. In the calculations of factorial design, the time showed a marked positive effect of 7.76, while the flow of air, when in excess, had an inhibitor behavior, even getting positive effect. (author)

  17. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  18. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  19. Neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogomilov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ_{13}>0. The measured value of θ_{13} is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (antineutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EUROν Design Study consortium. EUROν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF collaboration. The EUROν baseline accelerator facility will provide 10^{21} muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  20. Design and Factory Test of the E /E- Frascati Linear Accelerator for DAFNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anamkath, H.; Lyons, S.; Nett, D.; Treas, P.; Whitham, K.; Zante, T.; /Titan Beta, Dublin; Miller, R.; /Titan Beta, Dublin /SLAC; Boni, R.; Hsieh, H.; Sannibale, F.; Vescovi, M.; Vignola, G.; /Frascati

    2011-11-28

    The electron-positron accelerator for the DAFNE project has been built and is in test at Titan Beta in Dublin, CA. This S-Band RF linac system utilizes four 45 MW sledded klystrons and 16-3 m accelerating structures to achieve the required performance. It delivers a 4 ampere electron beam to the positron converter and accelerates the resulting positrons to 550 MeV. The converter design uses a 4.3T pulsed tapered flux compressor along with a pseudo-adiabatic tapered field to a 5 KG solenoid over the first two positron accelerating sections. Quadrupole focusing is used after 100 MeV. The system performance is given in Table 1. This paper briefly describes the design and development of the various subassemblies in this system and gives the initial factory test data.

  1. Evaluation of effervescent floating matrix tablet formulations of salbutamol sulfate using full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to formulate and optimize an effervescent floating tablet formulation of salbutamol sulfate using full factorial design. Salbutamol sulfate has an absorption window in the stomach and in the upper part of the small intestine. A 3 2 full factorial design (eight runs was utilized to optimize the formulation wherein the content of hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC (X 1 and sodium bicarbonate (X 2 were taken as independent variables and % drug release after 6 h (Y 1 , t 50% (Y 2 , and buoyancy lag time (BLT (Y 3 were taken as the dependent variables. Salbutamol sufate, HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M CR, stearic acid, talc, dicalcium phosphate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and magnesium stearate were used for the current research work. Two viscosity grades of HPMC as matrix materials were used for formulating the tablets, which were prepared by wet granulation. The release data were evaluated by the model-dependent (curve fitting method using the PCP Disso v2.08 software. Optimization studies were carried out using the Design Expert Software (Version 7.0.3. The in vitro drug release mechanism showed anomalous transport. An increase in the concentration and viscosity grade of the polymer resulted in a decrease in the release rate, but it was found that at a higher concentration of HPMC, the viscosity grade did not significantly affect the drug release. Concentration of both HPMC and sodium bicarbonate had a significant effect on the BLT. Optimized effervescent floating tablets of salbutamol sulfate were successfully prepared and a good correlation was observed between predicted and actual values of the dependent variables chosen for the study. Viscosity grade of HPMC did not significantly impact the floatability of the dosage form. Thus, we can conclude that a combination of HPMC, stearic acid, and sodium bicarbonate can be used to increase the gastric residence time of the dosage form up to 12 h.

  2. Factorial and time course designs for cDNA microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonek, G F V; Solomon, P J

    2004-01-01

    Microarrays are powerful tools for surveying the expression levels of many thousands of genes simultaneously. They belong to the new genomics technologies which have important applications in the biological, agricultural and pharmaceutical sciences. There are myriad sources of uncertainty in microarray experiments, and rigorous experimental design is essential for fully realizing the potential of these valuable resources. Two questions frequently asked by biologists on the brink of conducting cDNA or two-colour, spotted microarray experiments are 'Which mRNA samples should be competitively hybridized together on the same slide?' and 'How many times should each slide be replicated?' Early experience has shown that whilst the field of classical experimental design has much to offer this emerging multi-disciplinary area, new approaches which accommodate features specific to the microarray context are needed. In this paper, we propose optimal designs for factorial and time course experiments, which are special designs arising quite frequently in microarray experimentation. Our criterion for optimality is statistical efficiency based on a new notion of admissible designs; our approach enables efficient designs to be selected subject to the information available on the effects of most interest to biologists, the number of arrays available for the experiment, and other resource or practical constraints, including limitations on the amount of mRNA probe. We show that our designs are superior to both the popular reference designs, which are highly inefficient, and to designs incorporating all possible direct pairwise comparisons. Moreover, our proposed designs represent a substantial practical improvement over classical experimental designs which work in terms of standard interactions and main effects. The latter do not provide a basis for meaningful inference on the effects of most interest to biologists, nor make the most efficient use of valuable and limited resources.

  3. Effect of polymers on crystallo-co-agglomeration of ibuprofen-paracetamol: Factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol and ethyl cellulose on the properties of agglomerates of ibuprofen-paracetamol obtained by crystallo-co-agglomeration technique. The process of crystallo-co-agglomeration involved recrystallization of ibuprofen and its simultaneous agglomeration with paracetamol in presence polymers. The effect of combination of polyethylene glycol and ethylcellulose was studied by 2 2 factorial design. Ibuprofen content of the agglomerate increased with increase in ethyl cellulose while paracetamol content was decreased with increase in polyethylene glycol. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of agglomerates showed the unchanged endotherm for ibuprofen melting, whereas paracetamol endotherm was diffused with low enthalpy. The agglomerates were spherical but increase in polyethylene glycol caused its deformation. Agglomerates containing ethylcellulose with polyethylene glycol have higher resistance for fragmentation, modulus of elasticity but impart high tensile strength.

  4. Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of factorial design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Cristóvão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4 h and an initial DOC of 406.2 mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.

  5. Study of formulation variables on properties of glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres by factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosmani A.H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the study:The purpose of the study was formulate and systemsystematic evaluation in-vitro and in-vivo behaviour of Glipizide mucoadhesive microspheres using 32 full factorial design. "nMethods:Concentration of Polycarbophil and Sodium Alginate were selected as independent variables and the effects were checked on dependent variables like swelling index, mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency and T75. In vivo studies were also performed to determine hypoglycemic activity of the mucoadhesive microspheres. "nResults:The best batch exhibited drug entrapment efficiency of 75%, swelling index of 1.8 and mucoadhesion was 100%. The drug release from the microspheres was also sustained for more than 9 hrs. Conclusion:The concentration of polycarbophil and sodium alginate had highly significant effects on dependent variables. In-vivo testing demonstrated a significant hypoglycemic effect of glipizide.

  6. Novel Starch-PVA Polymer for Microparticle Preparation and Optimization Using Factorial Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Helen; De, Amit Kumar; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our present work was to optimize the ratio of a very novel polymer, starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), for controlled delivery of Ornidazole. Polymer-coated drug microparticles were prepared by emulsion method. Microscopic study, scanning electron microscopic study, and atomic force microscopic study revealed that the microparticles were within 10 micrometers of size with smooth spherical shape. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of drug polymer interaction. A statistical 3(2) full factorial design was used to study the effect of different concentration of starch and PVA on the drug release profile. The three-dimensional plots gave us an idea about the contribution of each factor on the release kinetics. Hence this novel polymer of starch and polyvinyl alcohol can be utilized for control release of the drug from a targeted delivery device.

  7. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  8. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  9. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  10. 关于因析设计混杂度量的研究进展%Research Progress on Confounding Measure of Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金官; 陈雪平

    2014-01-01

    对因析设计在混杂度量方面的前沿研究进行了回顾,包括二水平正规设计的最大分辨度准则和最小低阶混杂准则,二水平非正规设计的J值,素数幂情形时的最小杂合准则,以及混合水平时的广义最小低阶混杂准则,另外也包括一般最小低阶混杂准则和基于矩阵像的混杂度量准则。%The paper has reviewed frontier research on confounding measure of factorial design including max-imal resolution criterion and minimal low-level confounding criterion of two-level formal design, value J of two-level informal design, minimal heterozygosis criterion in the condition of prime power, and generalized minimal low-level confounding criterion in the condition of mix level; moreover, it also includes general mini-mal low-level confounding criterion and confounding measure criterion based on matrix image.

  11. Factorial design application in photocatalytic wastewater degradation from TNT industry-red water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Ricardo; de Moura, Cristiane; da Cunha, Mário Antônio Alves; Rodrigues, Marcio Barreto

    2017-03-01

    In trinitrotoluene (TNT) purification process, realized in industries, there are two washes carried out at the end of the procedure. The first is performed with vaporized water, from which the first effluent, called yellow water, is originated. Then, a second wash is performed using sodium sulfite, generating the red water effluent. The objective of this work was to get the best conditions for photocatalytic degradation of the second effluent, red water, in order to reduce toxicity and adjust legal parameters according to regulatory agencies for dumping these effluents into waterways. It has used a statistical evaluation for factor interaction (pH, concentration) that affects heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2). Thus, the treatment applied in the factorial experimental design consisted of using a volume equal to 500 mL of the effluent to 0.1 % by batch treatment, which has changed TiO2 pH and concentration, according to the design, with 20 min time for evaluation, where it was used as response to the reduction of UV-Vis absorption. According to the design responses, it has obtained optimum values for the parameters evaluated: pH = 6.5 and concentration of 100 mg/L of TiO2 were shown to be efficient when applied to red water effluent, obtaining approximately 91 % of discoloration.

  12. Design and optimization of mucoadhesive nasal in situ gel containing sodium cromoglycate using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riten A Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal in situ gel of sodium cromoglycate was prepared for sustained release and improvement of drug bioavailability. Carbopol 940 was used as a key ingredient which gives pH-induced sol to gel conversion of the formulations. Different formulations were prepared by varying the concentrations of carbopol 940 and different grades of Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K100, HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M. These formulations were evaluated for parameters like pH, drug content, viscosity, gel strength, in vitro drug release and drug excipient compatibility. In this study, the release profile depends on the concentration of carbopol 940 and grade HPMC. A 3 2 factorial was applied to check the effect of varying the concentration of carbopol 940 (X 1 and different grades of HPMC (X 2 on the dependent variable i.e. viscosity, mucoadhesive strength, cumulative percentage drug released in 1 h (Q 1 , 4 h (Q 4 and 8 h (Q 8 as dependent variables . In vitro release data was fitted to various models to ascertain the kinetic of drug release. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed for dependent variables. The results of the F-statistics were used to select the most appropriate model. Formulation F6 was considered optimum which contained carbopol 940 (0.75% and HPMC K4M (0.50% and was more similar to the theoretical predicted dissolution profile (f2 =70.99. The studies indicate that the formulation was effective in providing in vitro release, in vitro permeation of drug and the mucoadhesion which increases the residence time of drug.

  13. Development and physical evaluation of Maytenus ilicifolia effervescent granules using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Sérgio Soares da Cunha-Filho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Maytenus ilicifolia is a commonly used phytomedicine for the treatment of gastritis. The high dose required and low density of these extracts make necessary a daily intake of several capsules, hindering adherence to the medication. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable dosage form for the administration of Maytenus ilicifolia using effervescent granules. A 23 factorial design was used to study the physical characteristics of the granules (particle size distribution, repose angle, Carr index, scanning electron microscopy and disintegration time. Moisture stability was also determined. According to the experimental design, granule size is the most important factor in determining the flow characteristics of effervescent granules. In turn, the disintegration time is controlled by the content of sodium bicarbonate present in the effervescent mixture as well as the granule size. The stability of formulations when exposed to moisture is strongly influenced by the percentage of effervescent mixture present in the vegetal granules. Precautions in handling and storage should be taken to ensure the stability of these preparations. The effervescent granules produced from Maytenus ilicifolia met the pharmacopoeial quality parameters, with appropriate mechanical and physical characteristics and proved to be a promising vehicle for plant extracts.

  14. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  15. Floating granules of ranitidine hydrochloride-gelucire 43/01: formulation optimization using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dasharath M; Patel, Natavarlal M; Patel, Viral F; Bhatt, Darshini A

    2007-04-13

    The purpose of this research was to develop and optimize a controlled-release multiunit floating system of a highly water soluble drug, ranitidine HCl, using Compritol, Gelucire 50/13, and Gelucire 43/01 as lipid carriers. Ranitidine HCl-lipid granules were prepared by the melt granulation technique and evaluated for in vitro floating and drug release. Ethyl cellulose, methylcellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated as release rate modifiers. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of Gelucire 43/01 (X (1)) and ethyl cellulose (X (2)) as independent variables, and the percentage drug released in 1(Q(1)), 5(Q(5)), and 10 (Q(10)) hours as dependent variables. The results revealed that the moderate amount of Gelucire 43/01 and ethyl cellulose provides desired release of ranitidine hydrochloride from a floating system. Batch F4 was considered optimum since it contained less Gelucire and was more similar to the theoretically predicted dissolution profile (f(2) = 62.43). The temperature sensitivity studies for the prepared formulations at 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity for 3 months showed no significant change in in vitro drug release pattern. These studies indicate that the hydrophobic lipid Gelucire 43/01 can be considered an effective carrier for design of a multiunit floating drug delivery system for highly water soluble drugs such as ranitidine HCl.

  16. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  17. Optimizing the lanthanum adsorption process onto chemically modified biomaterials using factorial and response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andreea; Davidescu, Corneliu Mircea; Negrea, Adina; Ciopec, Mihaela; Grozav, Ion; Negrea, Petru; Duteanu, Narcis

    2017-01-29

    The rare metals' potential to pollute air, water, soil, and especially groundwater has received lot of attention recently. One of the most common rare earth group elements, lanthanum, is used in many industrial branches, and due to its toxicity, it needs to be eliminated from all residual aqueous solutions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the control of the adsorption process for lanthanum removal from aqueous solutions, using cellulose, a known biomaterial with high adsorbent properties, cheap, and environment friendly. The cellulose was chemically modified by functionalization with sodium β-glycerophosphate. The experimental results obtained after factorial design indicate optimum adsorption parameters as pH 6, contact time 60 min, and temperature 298 K, when the equilibrium concentration of lanthanum was 250 mg L(-1), and the experimental adsorption capacity obtained was 31.58 mg g(-1). Further refinement of the optimization of the adsorption process by response surface design indicates that at pH 6 and the initial concentration of 256 mg L(-1), the adsorption capacity has maximum values between 30.87 and 36.73 mg g(-1).

  18. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  19. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  20. Optimization of a chondrogenic medium through the use of factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochson, Lars; Brittberg, Mats; Lindahl, Anders

    2012-12-01

    The standard culture system for in vitro cartilage research is based on cells in a three-dimensional micromass culture and a defined medium containing the chondrogenic key growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The aim of this study was to optimize the medium for chondrocyte micromass culture. Human chondrocytes were cultured in different media formulations, designed with a factorial design of experiments (DoE) approach and based on the standard medium for redifferentiation. The significant factors for the redifferentiation of the chondrocytes were determined and optimized in a two-step process through the use of response surface methodology. TGF-β1, dexamethasone, and glucose were significant factors for differentiating the chondrocytes. Compared to the standard medium, TGF-β1 was increased 30%, dexamethasone reduced 50%, and glucose increased 22%. The potency of the optimized medium was validated in a comparative study against the standard medium. The optimized medium resulted in micromass cultures with increased expression of genes important for the articular chondrocyte phenotype and in cultures with increased glycosaminoglycan/DNA content. Optimizing the standard medium with the efficient DoE method, a new medium that gave better redifferentiation for articular chondrocytes was determined.

  1. Optimization of Extracellular Lipase Production by Penicillium chrysogenum Using Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafei, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxygen on lipase production by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied under two operating modes, controlled aeration rate tested and controlled agitation at dissolved oxygen concentration (DO 1.00 vvm. Lipase production and cell dry weight were tested in a stirred batch fermenter 5 L. Improvement in oxygen transfer rate (OTR either by aeration or agitation resulted in an increase in lipase production. Growth curves and lipase activities of P.chrysogenum were examined at agitation rates (200,400,600 rpm, aeration rates (2,4 vvm at different fermentation periods (24,48,72,96,120 h. Response Surface Methodology (RSM using Design Expert software was used to study the effect of aeration, agitation, and fermentation time on lipase activity and cell dry weight. These factors were analyzed using 21. 32 level factorial design. An optimal set of conditions that maximize lipase production: (2 vvm aeration; 600 rpm agitation after 72 h was obtained. The maximum lipase activity obtained was 240 U/mL. Beside lipase activity, this paper also studies the optimal combination of the controllable factors (aeration; agitation and fermentation time that will maximize the cell dry weight.

  2. Ground-up circular Higgs Factory ring design and cell length optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2017-02-01

    A “ground-up” Higgs Factory design methodology is described. For concreteness, numerical parameter choices are drawn primarily from CEPC, the Circular Electron Positron Collider. The goals are to find: (i) optimal parameters, (ii) improved understanding , (iii) a tentative lattice design. As illustration of the method, six chromaticity-corrected lattices, with cell lengths ranging from 45 m to 280 m, all with identical βy = 2 mm or βy = 10 mm intersection region optics, are designed and their properties compared. For simplicity only a single “toy ring,” circumference (76 km), with one interaction point, and a single beam energy (120 GeV) is considered. For the cell-length optimization a figure of merit FOM (essentially integrated luminosity) is maximized consistent with a dimensionless “fine tuning penalty function” or figure of demerit FOD not being allowed to exceed a conservatively chosen upper limit. The tentative recommendation from this investigation is that the optimal CEPC route is (except for obvious changes) to simply copy LEP: 80 m cell length and two-in-one single-ring operation. The main luminosity-increasing improvements are increased radius and power, top-off-full-energy-injection, noninterleaved sextupoles, more than 100 beam bunch operation, and improved intersection region design. Local chromaticity compensation (with its inevitable intense hard X-rays incident on the detectors) is found to be unnecessary. With these changes luminosity in excess of 1034cm‑2s‑1 is projected to be achievable.

  3. Statistical optimization of dithranol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarand Suresh Gambhire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a 3² full factorial experimental design to optimize the formulation of dithranol (DTH loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN by the pre-emulsion ultrasonication method. The variables drug: lipid ratio and sonication time were studied at three levels and arranged in a 3² factorial design to study the influence on the response variables particle size and % entrapment efficiency (%EE. From the statistical analysis of data polynomial equations were generated. The particle size and %EE for the 9 batches (R1 to R9 showed a wide variation of 219-348 nm and 51.33- 71.80 %, respectively. The physical characteristics of DTH-loaded SLN were evaluated using a particle size analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results of the optimized formulation showed an average particle size of 219 nm and entrapment efficiency of 69.88 %. Ex-vivo drug penetration using rat skin showed about a 2-fold increase in localization of DTH in skin as compared to the marketed preparation of DTH.Este estudo descreve o planejamento factorial 3² para otimizar a formulação de nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas (SLN carregadas com ditranol (DTH pelo método da ultrassonificação pré-emulsão. As variáveis como proporção de fármaco:lipídio e o tempo de sonicação foram estudados em três níveis e arranjados em planejamento fatorial 3² para estudar a influência nas variáveis de resposta tamanho de partícula e eficiência percentual de retenção do fármaco (%EE. Pela análise estatística, geraram-se equações polinomiais. O tamanho da partícula e a %EE para os 9 lotes (R1 a R9 mostraram ampla variação, respectivamente, 219-348 nm e 51,33-71,80%. As características físicas das SLN carregadas com DTN foram avaliadas utilizando-se analisador de tamanho de partícula, calorimetria de varredura diferencial e difração de raios X. Os resultados da formulação otimizada mostraram tamanho médio de partícula de

  4. A quality by design approach to optimization of emulsions for electrospinning using factorial and D-optimal designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Mariam A; El-Khordagui, Labiba K

    2014-07-16

    Emulsion electrospinning is a multifactorial process used to generate nanofibers loaded with hydrophilic drugs or macromolecules for diverse biomedical applications. Emulsion electrospinnability is greatly impacted by the emulsion pharmaceutical attributes. The aim of this study was to apply a quality by design (QbD) approach based on design of experiments as a risk-based proactive approach to achieve predictable critical quality attributes (CQAs) in w/o emulsions for electrospinning. Polycaprolactone (PCL)-thickened w/o emulsions containing doxycycline HCl were formulated using a Span 60/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) emulsifier blend. The identified emulsion CQAs (stability, viscosity and conductivity) were linked with electrospinnability using a 3(3) factorial design to optimize emulsion composition for phase stability and a D-optimal design to optimize stable emulsions for viscosity and conductivity after shifting the design space. The three independent variables, emulsifier blend composition, organic:aqueous phase ratio and polymer concentration, had a significant effect (pquality in electrospinnable emulsions, allowing development of hydrophilic drug-loaded nanofibers with desired morphological characteristics.

  5. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  6. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yuancai [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China); Lin Chejen, E-mail: Jerry.Lin@lamar.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710-0024 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong (China); Jones, Gavin [Texas Research Institute for Environmental Studies, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341-2506 (United States); Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2009-11-15

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R{sup 2} value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  7. HPLC analysis of oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria tomentosa: sample preparation and analysis optimisation by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Gustavo; Franco, Luzia; Oliveira, Brás Heleno de

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa ("cat's claw") is widely used for the treatment of some infectious and inflammatory diseases. Oxindole alkaloids are regarded as the most important components responsible for the biological activities attributed to the plant. Their analysis require efficient sample preparation and suitable reference standards but few are commercially available. To develop and validate a HPLC analytical method for oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria tomentosa with emphasis on sample preparation. Factorial experimental designs were used for the optimisation of both sample preparation and chromatographic separation. The optimised sample preparation involved extraction with aqueous ethanol, and the granulometry of the powdered plant material significantly influenced extraction yields. Mitraphylline was used as a calibration reference for the determination of total alkaloids. The method was fully validated and showed good selectivity, linearity (r²  ≥ 0.9996), accuracy (≥ 96%) and precision (RSD < 2.4%). Detection and quantification limits for mitraphylline were 0.8 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The optimised chromatographic method, using organic buffer in the mobile phase, provided baseline separation of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids in the samples. Calibration using mitraphylline provided more accurate estimates of total alkaloid content when compared to other available reference alkaloids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Full factorial design, physicochemical characterisation and biological assessment of cyclosporine A loaded cationic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Kris; Van den Plas, Dave; Everaert, Arnout; Weyenberg, Wim; Ludwig, Annick

    2012-09-01

    Cyclosporine A loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles coated with chitosan were prepared using the o/w emulsification solvent evaporation method. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to investigate the effect of 3 preparation parameters on the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and drug release. In vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the developed nanoparticles. Particle sizes varied from 156 nm to 314 nm, and polydispersity index values of 0.07-0.56 were obtained depending on the different preparation parameters. All nanoparticles showed positive zeta potential values. Nanoparticles prepared with the highest concentration chitosan retained a positive zeta potential after dispersion in simulated lachrymal fluid, which supports the possibility of an electrostatic interaction between these particles and the negatively charged mucus layer at the eye. The in vitro release profile of cyclosporine A from the chitosan-coated nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the release medium used. None of the cationic nanoparticle formulations showed significant cytotoxicity compared to the negative control using human epithelial cells (HaCaT). Cyclosporine A encapsulated in the various nanoparticle formulations remained anti-inflammatory active as significant suppression of interleukine-2 secretion in concanavalin A stimulated Jurkat T cells was observed.

  9. Biosorption of Ni(II) by Fig Male: Optimization and Modeling Using a Full Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjene, F; Chergui, A; Trari, M

    2016-06-01

    The fig male (FM) is successfully used as biosorbent for Ni(2+) removal. The maximum removal efficiency (96.6%) is obtained at pH ~ 5 for a concentration of 1.70 mmol L(-1) and catalyst dose of 5 g L(-1) in less than 10 minutes. The Ni(2+) uptake follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic, the rate constants increase with increasing temperature, and an activation energy of 55.48 kJ mol(-1) is found. The thermodynamic parameters indicate a spontaneous endothermic bisorption. The isotherm data are fitted by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The former indicates a maximum Ni(2+) uptake of 0.459 mmol g(-1), which is higher than that of most biosorbents investigated to date. The FTIR spectra reveal the biosorption mechanism between Ni(2+) and FM functional groups. An empirical modeling is performed by using a 2(3) full factorial design, and a regression equation for Ni(2+) biosorption is determined. The biosorbent mass and pH are the most significant parameters affecting the Ni(2+) biosorption.

  10. Pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis, fluid therapy, and cerebral injury: the design of a factorial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Nicole S; Ghetti, Simona; Casper, T Charles; Dean, J Michael; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Treatment protocols for pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) vary considerably among centers in the USA and worldwide. The optimal protocol for intravenous (IV) fluid administration is an area of particular controversy, mainly in regard to possible associations between rates of IV fluid infusion and the development of cerebral edema (CE), the most common and the most feared complication of DKA in children. Theoretical concerns about associations between osmotic fluid shifts and CE have prompted recommendations for conservative fluid infusion during DKA. However, recent data suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion may play a role in cerebral injury associated with DKA. Currently, there are no existing data from prospective clinical trials to determine the optimal fluid treatment protocol for pediatric DKA. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network FLUID (FLuid therapies Under Investigation in DKA) study is the first prospective randomized trial to evaluate fluid regimens for pediatric DKA. This 13-center nationwide factorial design study will evaluate the effects of rehydration rate and fluid sodium content on neurological status during DKA treatment, the frequency of clinically overt CE and long-term neurocognitive outcomes following DKA.

  11. Dynamic maceration of Copaifera langsdorffii leaves: a technological study using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. M. Costa-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, is a Brazilian native tree, known as copaiba, which oil is commonly used in folk medicine as muscle relaxant, wound healing, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory to respiratory and urinary tracts. Despite of the wide use of the oil of Copaifera species, scientific works related to the study of its leaves are rarely found. In fact, processes for flavonoid extraction from C. langsdorffii leaves have not been studied yet leaving a wide field to be investigated. In this work, the 2(5-2 fractional factorial design was selected in order to study how the factors of a dynamic maceration process influence the responses of total flavonoids, total phenols, quercetrin and afzelin contents, and antioxidant activity in extracts from C. langsdorffii leaves. The results demonstrated that the significant factors studied were the drug load in extractor, the ethanol/water ratio and the stirring speed whereas the temperature and the extraction time were not significant. In conclusion, this study allowed visualizing which factors were considered the most important in copaiba leaves dynamic maceration and their effect in extract antioxidant activity. Furthermore, this technological study gives directions to optimize future extraction experiments from C. langsdorffii.

  12. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results.

  13. Design of a Low Cost Smart Dryer Temperature Measurement System for Tea Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a low cost smart dryer temperature measurement system for Tea Factories using K-type Thermocouple implementing linearization polynomial. The thermo emf is amplified by an instrumentation amplifier having high CMRR (106 dB and high input impedance (1012 Ohm. The analog signal is converted to digital form with the help of an SPI compatible 12-bit ADC. Data acquisition and transmission is done with an 8- bit microcontroller. As the dependence of thermo emf on temperature is not linear hence it is fitted with a polynomial. NIST data for K-type TC is taken as a standard for this fitting. The error with linear fit and polynomial fit is also presented. The digital data is corrected according to the polynomial and sent to a PC located at a remote control room for monitoring and data logging via RS232C communication. The performance of the entire system is discussed in the paper.

  14. Dynamic maceration of Copaifera langsdorffii leaves: a technological study using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. M. Costa-Machado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, is a Brazilian native tree, known as copaiba, which oil is commonly used in folk medicine as muscle relaxant, wound healing, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory to respiratory and urinary tracts. Despite of the wide use of the oil of Copaifera species, scientific works related to the study of its leaves are rarely found. In fact, processes for flavonoid extraction from C. langsdorffii leaves have not been studied yet leaving a wide field to be investigated. In this work, the 2(5-2 fractional factorial design was selected in order to study how the factors of a dynamic maceration process influence the responses of total flavonoids, total phenols, quercetrin and afzelin contents, and antioxidant activity in extracts from C. langsdorffii leaves. The results demonstrated that the significant factors studied were the drug load in extractor, the ethanol/water ratio and the stirring speed whereas the temperature and the extraction time were not significant. In conclusion, this study allowed visualizing which factors were considered the most important in copaiba leaves dynamic maceration and their effect in extract antioxidant activity. Furthermore, this technological study gives directions to optimize future extraction experiments from C. langsdorffii.

  15. Development and optimization of novel controlled-release pioglitazone provesicular powders using 3² factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukr, Marwa H; Eltablawy, Nadia A

    2015-02-01

    This work aimed at studying a novel controlled drug delivery proniosomal formulation of pioglitazone for treatment of diabetes type-2. The effects of independent variables like type of surfactant and ratio of surfactants/cholesterol were studied using 3(2) factorial design. The provesicular powders were characterized regarding their encapsulation efficiency, vesicle size, morphology, and in vitro drug release. The revealed optimal provesicular powder was exposed to stability testing and in vivo performance evaluation. Results showed that F6 was selected as the optimal formulation, and its in vivo hypoglycemic effect on normal healthy and STZ-induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. F6 proniosomal formulation exhibited a significantly higher % decrease (56.18 % for STZ-induced diabetic albino rats) of blood glucose level (BGL) than Actos® (32. % for STZ-induced diabetic albino rats). Higher % decrease of BGL with longer t max and lower AUC0-24 confirms the development of a successful proniosomal pioglitazone formulation.

  16. Benzocaine loaded biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules: factorial design and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Moraes, Carolina; Prado de Matos, Angelica; Paula, Eneida de [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.b [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief since they bind to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic that presents limited application in topical formulations due to its low water-solubility. This study aimed to develop polymeric nanocapsules as a drug delivery system for the local anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). To do so, BZC loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsules were prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized. The factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables on response to nanocapsules drug loading. The physical characteristics of PLGA nanocapsules were evaluated by analyzing the particle size, the polydispersion index and the zeta potential, using a particle size analyzer. The results of the optimized formulation showed a size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.12, an average diameter of 123 nm, zeta potential of -33.6 mV and a drug loading of more than 69%. The release profiles showed a significant difference in the release behavior for the pure drug in solution when compared with that containing benzocaine loaded PLGA nanocapsules. Thus, the prepared nanocapsules described here may be of clinical importance in both the processes of stabilization and delivery of benzocaine for pain treatment.

  17. Evaluating treatment of obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia disorder using an incomplete factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Megan R.; Turner, Arlener D.; Wyatt, James K.; Fogg, Louis F.; Ong, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) for OSA. Participants are randomized to receive one of three treatment combinations. Individuals randomized to treatment Arm A receive sequential treatment beginning with CBT-I followed by PAP, in treatment Arm B CBT-I and PAP are administered concurrently. These treatment arms are compared to a control condition, treatment Arm C, where individuals receive PAP alone. Adopting an incomplete factorial study design will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (Arms A & B) versus standard treatment alone (Arm C). In addition, the random allocation of individuals to the two different combined treatment sequences (Arm A and Arm B) will allow us to understand the benefits of the sequential administration of CBT-I and PAP relative to concurrent treatment of PAP and CBT-I. These findings will provide evidence of the clinical benefits of treating insomnia disorder in the context of OSA. PMID:26733360

  18. Evaluating the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia disorder using an incomplete factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Megan R; Turner, Arlener D; Wyatt, James K; Fogg, Louis F; Ong, Jason C

    2016-03-01

    Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and positive airway pressure (PAP) for OSA. Participants are randomized to receive one of three treatment combinations. Individuals randomized to treatment Arm A receive sequential treatment beginning with CBT-I followed by PAP, in treatment Arm B CBT-I and PAP are administered concurrently. These treatment arms are compared to a control condition, treatment Arm C, where individuals receive PAP alone. Adopting an incomplete factorial study design will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (Arms A & B) versus standard treatment alone (Arm C). In addition, the random allocation of individuals to the two different combined treatment sequences (Arm A and Arm B) will allow us to understand the benefits of the sequential administration of CBT-I and PAP relative to concurrent treatment of PAP and CBT-I. These findings will provide evidence of the clinical benefits of treating insomnia disorder in the context of OSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE MICROSPHERES BY USING 32 FULL FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride is a centrally acting α-2 adrenergic agonist muscle relaxant. In the present study an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate tizanidine hydrochloride microspheres by using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and carboxymethyl cellulose as polymers. Tizanidine hydrochloride microspheres were prepared by simple emulsification phase separation technique using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Twenty preliminary trial batches, B1-B20 batches of microspheres were prepared by using different volume (2 to 10 ml of glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent, cross-linking time 1 to 4 hours and 3:1 ratio of polymer-to-drug with two different polymers. From these twenty batches of each polymer, the optimized formulation is selected based on the percentage of mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency and sphericity of microspheres. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer-to-drug ratio (X1, and stirring speed (X2 on dependent variables percentage of mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency, swelling index and in-vitro drug release study. The drug polymer compatibility studies were carried out using FTIR. Among the two polymers hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose K4M exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 79% and a swelling index 1.260, percentage of mucoadhesive after 1hour was 80% and the drug release was also sustained for more than 10 hours.

  20. Improvement of biomass production and glucoamylase activity by Candida famata using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Aissa, Imen; Hassad, Nahla; Farh, Dhaker; Bakhrouf, Amina; Achour, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To improve biomass production and glucoamylase activity (GA) by Candida famata, culture conditions were optimized. A 2(3) full factorial design (FFD) with a response surface model was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of pH (X1 ), time of cultivation (X2 ), and starch concentration (X3 ) on the biomass production and enzyme activity. A total of 16 experiments were conducted toward the construction of an empiric model and a first-order equation. It was found that all factors (X1 , X2 , and X3 ) and their interactions were significant at a certain confidence level (P biomass production and GA of C. famata. Under this optimized medium, the experimental biomass production and GA obtained were 1.8 ± 0.54 g/L and 0.078 ± 0.012 µmol/L/Min, about 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, higher than those in basal medium. The (R(2) ) coefficients obtained were 0.997 and 0.990, indicating an adequate degree of reliability in the model. Approximately 99% of validity of the predicted value was achieved.

  1. Optimization of Cu(II) biosorption onto Ascophyllum nodosum by factorial design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Olga; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Boaventura, Rui

    2009-08-15

    A Box-Behnken factorial design coupled with surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH and initial concentration in the Cu(II) sorption process onto the marine macro-algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The effect of the operating variables on metal uptake capacity was studied in a batch system and a mathematical model showing the influence of each variable and their interactions was obtained. Study ranges were 10-40 degrees C for temperature, 3.0-5.0 for pH and 50-150 mg L(-1) for initial Cu(II) concentration. Within these ranges, the biosorption capacity is slightly dependent on temperature but markedly increases with pH and initial concentration of Cu(II). The uptake capacities predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. Maximum biosorption capacity of Cu(II) by A. nodosum is 70 mg g(-1) and corresponds to the following values of those variables: temperature=40 degrees C, pH=5.0 and initial Cu(II) concentration=150 mg L(-1).

  2. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Bettoni, S.; /CERN; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; /Pisa U.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  3. Full Factorial Experimental Design Analysis of Reactive Dye Removal by Carbon Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Özbay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of Remazol Yellow dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of sunflower seed cake. It was found that the carbon content of biomass increases up to 65.12% after activation and carbonization processes. The maximum percentage dye removal was obtained as 82.12% with 0.4 g/50 mL adsorbent dosage at 313 K. The Langmuir model showed the best fit with equilibrium isotherm data. The interactions were evaluated with respect to both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The adsorption process was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. To optimize the operating conditions, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration were investigated by full factorial experimental design method; adsorbent dosage was found as the most significant factor with lower than 95% confidence level. The obtained results are very promising since (i the utilization of sunflower seed cake activated carbon (SSCAC played a critical role in the adsorption of dye; (ii sunflower seed cake was an intriguing, low-cost, and easily available material. It can be an alternative adsorbent precursor for more expensive adsorbents used for Remazol Yellow (RY removal.

  4. Full factorial design, physicochemical characterization of phenylephrine HCl loaded oral thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Bonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules. The primary objective of the present research work was to optimize oral thin film (OTF formulation of phenylephrine HCl, a water soluble drug with three loading concentrations: High, medium and low and also to evaluate their effect on the final product attributes. The OTF was prepared by solvent casting method. All the formulations were evaluated for film forming properties, appearance, thickness, folding endurance, tensile strength, percent moisture absorption, surface morphology, in vitro and in vivo disintegration. Formulations containing low and medium loading concentration gave acceptable results while formulation with higher loading concentration resulting poor film forming properties. Hence, another objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of anti-tacking agent namely magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS, microcrystalline cellulose and colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD by applying 2 3 full factorial design on improving the film properties of high concentration phenylephrine HCl. Formulation containing microcystalline cellulose and CSD at low level and MAS at high level was found to be suitable for film formation with desirable physicochemical properties, faster disintegration and optimum in vitro release.

  5. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  7. Full factorial design optimization of anti-inflammatory drug release by PCL–PEG–PCL microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, L' Hachemi, E-mail: azouz.chimie@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Organiques (LMO), Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Département de Chimie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia Algérie (Algeria); Dahmoune, Farid, E-mail: farid.dahmoune@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biomathématiques, Biophysique, Biochimie et Scientométrie (L3BS-Bejaia), Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie et des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Bouira 10000 Bouira (Algeria); Rezgui, Farouk, E-mail: rezgui-farouk@netcourrier.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Organiques (LMO), Faculté de Technologie, Département de Génie des Procédés, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); G' Sell, Christian, E-mail: gsell.christian@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Pôle scientifique M4, Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS-UL 7198, Département SI2M, 54000 Nancy (France)

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable triblock poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer was successfully synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and was characterized by intrinsic viscosimetry, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Copolymer microparticles loaded with ibuprofen were prepared by an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation process. They were carefully weighted and characterized through their zeta potential. In this work, 4 selected process parameters (shaking speed X{sub 1}, time of contact X{sub 2}, poly(vinyl alcohol) concentration X{sub 3}, and ibuprofen concentration X{sub 4}) were adjusted at 2 different values. For each of the 16 experimental conditions, repeated twice, the drug encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres was determined, according to the following definition: EE (X{sub 1}, X{sub 2}, X{sub 3}, X{sub 4}) = mass of encapsulated ibuprofen / total weight of ibuprofen. A “full factorial design method” was applied to analyze the results statistically according to a polynomial fit and to determine the optimal conditions for the microencapsulation of the ibuprofen through an accurate statistical protocol. The microparticles obtained exhibit a spherical shape as shown by electron microscopy. - Highlights: • PCEC copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. • 2{sup 4} experimental design was used to optimize the IBF encapsulation efficiency (EE). • 88.86% of ibuprofen (IBF) was encapsulated in PCEC microspheres. • EE significantly decreases with increasing shaking speed (antagonist effect). • EE significantly increases with increasing IBF concentration (synergetic effect).

  8. Statistical optimization of the growth factors for Chaetoceros neogracile using fractional factorial design and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung-Eun; Park, Jae-Kweon; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Chang, In-Jeong; Hong, Seong-Joo; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2008-12-01

    Statistical experimental designs; involving (i) a fractional factorial design (FFD) and (ii) a central composite design (CCD) were applied to optimize the culture medium constituents for production of a unique antifreeze protein by the Antartic microalgae Chaetoceros neogracile. The results of the FFD suggested that NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and Na2SiO3 were significant variables that highly influenced the growth rate and biomass production. The optimum culture medium for the production of an antifreeze protein from C. neogracile was found to be Kalleampersandrsquor;s artificial seawater, pH of 7.0ampersandplusmn;0.5, consisting of 28.566 g/l of NaCl, 3.887 g/l of MgCl2, 1.787 g/l of MgSO4, 1.308 g/l of CaSO4, 0.832 g/l of K2SO4, 0.124 g/l of CaCO3, 0.103 g/l of KBr, 0.0288 g/l of SrSO4, and 0.0282 g/l of H3BO3. The antifreeze activity significantly increased after cells were treated with cold shock (at -5oC) for 14 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating an antifreeze-like protein of C. neogracile.

  9. fullfact: an R package for the analysis of genetic and maternal variance components from full factorial mating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Aimee Lee S; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-03-01

    Full factorial breeding designs are useful for quantifying the amount of additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance that explain phenotypic traits. Such variance estimates are important for examining evolutionary potential. Traditionally, full factorial mating designs have been analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, which may produce negative variance values and is not suited for unbalanced designs. Mixed-effects models do not produce negative variance values and are suited for unbalanced designs. However, extracting the variance components, calculating significance values, and estimating confidence intervals and/or power values for the components are not straightforward using traditional analytic methods. We introduce fullfact - an R package that addresses these issues and facilitates the analysis of full factorial mating designs with mixed-effects models. Here, we summarize the functions of the fullfact package. The observed data functions extract the variance explained by random and fixed effects and provide their significance. We then calculate the additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance components explaining the phenotype. In particular, we integrate nonnormal error structures for estimating these components for nonnormal data types. The resampled data functions are used to produce bootstrap-t confidence intervals, which can then be plotted using a simple function. We explore the fullfact package through a worked example. This package will facilitate the analyses of full factorial mating designs in R, especially for the analysis of binary, proportion, and/or count data types and for the ability to incorporate additional random and fixed effects and power analyses.

  10. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  11. Formulation Optimization of Rosuvastatin Calcium-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles by 32 Full-Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti A. Dhoranwala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at developing Rosuvastatin Calcium loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. The SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS and Poloxamer 188 were employed as lipid carrier and surfactant respectively. A two factor, three level (32 full factorial design was applied to study the effect of independent variables i.e. amount of GMS (X1 and amount of Poloxamer 188 (X2 on dependent variables i.e. Particle size (Y1 and % entrapment efficiency (Y2. Particles size, % entrapment efficiency (%EE, zeta potential, drug content, in vitro drug release and particles morphology were evaluated for SLNs. Contour plots and response surface plots showed visual representation of relationship between the experimental responses (dependent variables and the set of input (independent variables. The adequacy of the regression model was verified by a check point analysis. The optimized batch (B10 contained 2.2 gm of GMS and 1% of Poloxamer 188. Batch B 10 exhibited mean particle size of 529.6 nm ± 6.36 nm; polydispersity index (PDI of 0.306 ± 0.042; zeta potential of -31.88 mV ± (-2.50 mV and %EE of 48.90% ± 1.72%. The drug release experiments exhibited an initial rapid release followed by sustained release extended upto 36 h. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies showed that there was no chemical interaction between drug (Rosuvastatin Calcium and lipid (GMS whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies indicated that Rosuvastatin Calcium loaded SLNs are spherical, discrete and homogenous. Accelerated stability studies showed that there was no significant change occurring in the responses after storage for a total period of 3 months.

  12. Study of Electrochemical Degradation of Bromophenol Blue at Boron-doped Diamond Electrode by Using Factorial Design Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an ideal anode material, Boron-doped diamond (BDD has been widely applied in electro-chemical oxidation of various organic pollutants, for its unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, the authors studied the degradation of bromophenol blue through the electrochemical anodic oxidation by using the boron-doped BDD as the anode. The effect of statistically important operating parameters on treatment per-formance, such as treatment time, flow rate, applied current and concentration of supporting electrolyte, was evaluated by employing a factorial design analysis in terms of color removal and COD removal amount. As a result, the BDD technology was approved to be highly effective in treating bromophenol blue. Moreover, the results revealed the applicability and potential of factorial design analysis in operating parameters optimization and practical engineering application of BDD technology.

  13. A Fractional Factorial Design to Study the Effect of Process Variables on the Preparation of Hyaluronidase Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated to understand the effect of PLGA concentration, PVA concentration, internal-external phase ratio, homogenization speed, and homogenization time on mean particle size, zeta potential, and percentage drug encapsulation using fractional factorial design. Using PLGA (50-50 as the carrier, hyaluronidase loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The particle size was analyzed by dynamic light scattering technique and protein content by Lowry method. The study showed that homogenization speed as an independent variable had maximum effect on particle size and zeta potential. Internal-external phase volume ratio had maximum effect on drug encapsulation. Mean particle size also had high dependency on the combined effect of PVA concentration and phase volume ratio. Using fractional factorial design particle size of <400 nm, zeta potential of <−30 mV, and percentage encapsulation of 15–18% were achieved.

  14. Analyze of Impedance for Water Management in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using Factorial Design of (DoE) Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Mammar; Abdelkader Chaker

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a very powerful tool for exploitation as a rich source of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) diagnostic information. A primary goal of this work is to develop a suitable PEMFC impedance model, which can be used to analyze flooding and drying of the fuel cell. For this one a novel optimization method based on Factorial Design methodology is used. It was applied to parametric analysis of electrochemical impedance Thus it is pos...

  15. Factorial design based preparation, optimization, characterization and in vitro drug release studies of olanzapine loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop and optimize olanzapine loaded polymeric nanoparticles using a factorial design. The presented work developed and optimized olanzapine loaded polymeric nanoparticles by using a 33 factorial design. The 33 factorial design was used for studying the effect of the main preparation variables on particle size and percent drug entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles. A modified nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare nanoparticles successfully by using the biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA), and they were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, shape, zeta potential, percent drug entrapment efficiency, percent process yield and in vitro drug release behavior. Examination of the interaction between the excipients used as well as investigation of the nature of the drug, the formulation and the nature of the drug in the formulations was carried out by FTIR studies. Different kinetic models were used to analyze the in vitro drug release data. The preferred formulation showed a particle size of 127.6 ± 1.9 nm, PDI of 0.239 ± 0.013, zeta potential of -29.2 mV, entrapment efficiency of 72.46 ± 3.8% and process yield of 89.65 ± 1.3%. TEM results showed that these nanoparticles were spherical in shape and follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with different release exponent values.

  16. Influence of the Formulation Parameters on the Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency of Resveratrol in PLA and PLA-PEG Blend Nanoparticles: A Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gabriela da Rocha; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal systems that promote protection and modification of physicochemical characteristics of a drug and that also ensure controlled and extended drug release. This paper reports a 2(3) factorial design study to optimize poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide)-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing resveratrol (RVT) for prolonged release. The independent variables analyzed were solvent composition, surfactant concentration and ratio of aqueous to organic phase (two levels each factor). Mean particle size and RVT encapsulation efficiency were set as the dependent variables. The selected optimized parameters were set as organic phase comprised of a mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, 1% of surfactant polyvinyl alcohol and a 3:1 ratio of aqueous to organic phase, for both PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. This formulation originated nanoparticles with size of 228 ± 10 nm and 185 ± 70 nm and RVT encapsulation efficiency of 82 ± 10% and 76 ± 7% for PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles, respectively. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic pattern with prolonged RVT release and PEG did not influence the RVT release. The in vitro release data were in favor of Higuchi-diffusion kinetics for both nanoformulations and the Kossmeyer-Peppas coefficient indicated that anomalous transport was the main release mechanism of RVT. PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles produced with single emulsion-solvent evaporation technology were found to be a promising approach for the incorporation of RVT and promoted its controlled release. The factorial design is a tool of great value in choosing formulations with optimized parameters.

  17. Understanding the Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanorods through a Fractional Factorial Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nathan D; Harvey, Samantha; Idesis, Fred A; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-02-28

    Since the development of simple, aqueous protocols for the synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, research into many promising, valuable applications of gold nanorods has grown considerably, but a number of challenges remain, including gold-particle yield, robustness to minor impurities, and precise control of gold nanorod surface chemistry. Herein we present the results of a composite fractional factorial series of experiments designed to screen seven additional potential avenues of control and to understand the seed-mediated silver-assisted synthesis of gold nanorods. These synthesis variables are the amount of sodium borohydride used and the rate of stirring when producing seed nanoparticles, the age of and the amount of seeds added, the reaction temperature, the amounts of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid added, and the age of the reduced growth solution before seed nanoparticles are added to initiate rod formation. This statistical experimental design and analysis method, besides determining which experimental variables are important and which are not when synthesizing gold nanorods (and quantifying their effects), gives further insight into the mechanism of growth by measuring the degree to which variables interact with each other by mapping out their mechanistic connections. This work demonstrates that when forming gold nanorods by the reduction of auric ions by ascorbic acid onto seed nanoparticles, ascorbic acid determines how much gold is reduced, and the amount of seeds determine how it is divided, yet both influence the intrinsic growth rates, in both width and length, of the forming nanorods. Furthermore, this work shows that the reduction of gold proceeds via direct reduction on the surface of seeds and not through a disproportionation reaction. Further control over the length of gold nanorods can be achieved by tuning the amount of silver nitrate or the reaction temperature. This work shows that silver does not directly influence rod length or

  18. Factorial Design: Binocular and Monocular Depth Perception in Vertical and Horizontal Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbolio, Dominic J., Jr.; Walker, James T.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a factorial experiment that is used as a laboratory exercise in a research methods course. Uses a Howard-Dolman depth perception apparatus, combining the factors of viewing condition and rod orientation to illustrate the nature of an interaction and the necessity of an additional analysis of simple main effects. (Author/LS)

  19. Approach to improve the productivity of bioactive compounds of the cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa A. Hamouda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are one of the richest sources of biomedical relevant compounds with extensive therapeutic pharmaceutical applications and are also known as producer of intracellular and extracellular metabolites with diverse biological activities. The genus Anabaena sp. is known to produce antimicrobial compounds, like phycocyanin and others. The goal of this study was to optimize the production of these bioactive compounds. The Plackett–Burman experimental design was used to screen and evaluate the important medium components that influence the production of bioactive compounds. In this present study, eight independent factors including NaNO3, K2HPO4, MgSO4·7H2O, CaCl2, citric acid, ammonium ferric citrate, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium magnesium salt (EDTA-Na2Mg and Na2CO3 were surveyed and the effective variables for algal components production of Anabaena oryzae were determined using two-levels Plackett–Burman design. Results analysis showed that the best medium components were NaNO3 (2.25 g l−1; K2HPO4 (0.02 g l−1; MgSO4 (0.0375 g l−1; CaCl2 (0.018 g l−1; citric acid (0.009 g l−1; ammonium ferric citrate (0.009 g l−1 and EDTA-Na2 (0.0015 g l−1 respectively. The total chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phenol, tannic acid and flavonoid contents in crude extract of Anabaena oryzae were determined. They were 47.7, 4.11, 0.256, 1.046 and 1.83 μg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was 62.81%.

  20. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  1. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bigi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Rinaldi, Luigi [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Luchetta, Adriano [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Meddour, Abdelraouf [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Moressa, Modesto [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Recchia, Mauro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wagner, Uwe [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m{sup 2} Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  2. Analyze of Impedance for Water Management in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using Factorial Design of (DoE Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mammar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is a very powerful tool for exploitation as a rich source of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC diagnostic information. A primary goal of this work is to develop a suitable PEMFC impedance model, which can be used to analyze flooding and drying of the fuel cell. For this one a novel optimization method based on Factorial Design methodology is used. It was applied to parametric analysis of electrochemical impedance Thus it is possible to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter to the simulation accuracy. Furthermore this work presents an analysis of the PEMFC impedance behavior in the case of flooding and drying.

  3. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errachidi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response, and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors. A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Brine, lactic acid and citric acid have a significant effect on the fall of pH; by contrast, lactic ferment does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between brine and lactic acid, between brine and lactic ferment , between lactic acid with citric acid and between lactic acid with lactic ferment have significant effects on the fall of pH (p El estudio del proceso de fermentación mediante un diseño factorial nos permitió determinar una función ƒ (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn que existe entre la magnitud Y que es la disminución del pH (llamada respuesta, y las variables X, que son la salmuera, ácido láctico, ácido cítrico y los fermentos lácticos (llamados factores. Un completo plan factorial 24 fue hecho con objeto de determinar los factores y las interacciones entre los factores que tienen una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la respuesta estudiada. La salmuera, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico tienen un efecto significativo en la caída del pH; por el contrario, los fermentos lácticos no tienen efecto significativo. Por otra parte, las interacciones entre salmuera y ácido láctico, salmuera y fermentos lácticos, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico, y ácido láctico y fermentos lácticos tuvieron un efecto significativo en la caída del pH (p < 0.0001. La fermentación fue hecha en el laboratorio de investigación de la Sociedad Marocapres-Fez líder Internacional en la transformación de

  4. Agglomeration of mesoporous silica by melt and steam granulation. part II: screening of steam granulation process variables using a factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialpando, Monica; Albertini, Beatrice; Passerini, Nadia; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Rombaut, Patrick; Martens, Johan A; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the key process parameters during steam granulation of disordered mesoporous silica material Syloid® 244 FP (244) and to compare two different binders: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K25 and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). Itraconazole (ITZ) was selected as the model compound for the development of an oral dosage form for enhanced release. Six factors: binder content, steam amount, mixing time, impeller speed, spray pause time, and filler content were investigated using a two-level quarter-fraction factorial design of experiment (DOE) for each binder type. As experimental responses, characteristics correlating to both granules and tablets were selected. Granules prepared from PVP resulted in an overall higher bulk density, granule size, increased flow properties, and better compression and compaction behavior. Although granulation with PVP resulted in the most ITZ to extract from the pores during processing, the premature drug release was less than 5%. The results of the DOE indicate that the risk of extracting the drug from the pores during processing is governed both by the process parameters and the binder properties. Centerpoint replicates of granules prepared with HPMC were highly variable.

  5. Standardization of biosurfactant enrichment process by factorial design and elucidating its physico-chemical and structural characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadi RV

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant recovery by Flavobacterium sp. was standardized by factorial design 3(k-p. The extraction of biosurfactant was carried out by organic solvent extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and acid precipitation. The organic solvent extraction was performed with varied proportion (3 levels of chloroform and methanol i.e. (X*:1 designated as F1 (varied proportion of chloroform and (1: X** referred as F2 (varied proportion of methanol respectively, similarly ammonium sulphate (F3 and acid precipitation (F4 was performed with 3 varying experimental level. The statistical data interpretation viz ANOVA, Pareto chart of standardized effect, Half normal probability plot inferred  organic solvent extraction as a efficient method for recovery of biosurfactant, than other counter parts of extraction .The surface plot between significant factors, given the standardized proportion of organic solvents for extraction of biosurfactant, which was found to be 1:1. Surface tension and CMC value of recovery biosurfactant was found to be 33 mN/m and its CMC was 400- 500mg respectively, it has shown maximum emulsification index of 94% for soyabean oil. The presence of glycolipid moiety in the recovery biosurfactant was elucidated by IR and NMR spectroscopic studies.   Keywords: Factorial design, organic solvent, CMC, Emulsification index

  6. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  7. Transcription factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes. PMID:23109938

  8. Analyzing the shape parameter effects on the performance of the mixed-flow fan using CFD and Factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uk Hee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Choi, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Fans are representative turbo-machinery widely used for ventilation throughout the industrial world. Recently, as the importance of energy saving has been magnified with the fans, the demand for the fans with high efficiency and performance has been increasing. The representative method for enhancing the performance includes design optimization; in practice, fan performance can be improved by changing the shape parameters such as those of meridional plane, impeller, and diffuser. Before optimizing the efficient design, a process of screening to select important design parameters is essential. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of mixed-flow fans' shape parameters on fan performance (static pressure and fan static efficiency) and derive optimum models based on the results. In this study, the shape parameters considered in the impeller domain are as follows: tip clearance, number of blades, beta angle of Leading edge (LE) in the blade, and beta angle of Trailing edge (TE) in the blade. The shape parameters considered in the diffuser domain are as follows: meridional length of the Guide vane (GV), number of GV, beta angle of LE in the GV and beta angle of TE in the GV. The effects of individual shape parameters were analyzed using the CFD (Computational fluid dynamic) and DOE (Design of experiments) methods. The reliability of CFD was verified through the comparison between preliminary fan model's experiment results and CFD results, and screening processes were implemented through 24-1 fractional factorial design. From the analysis of DOE results, it could be seen that the tip clearance and the number of blades in the impeller domain greatly affected the fan performance, and the beta angle of TE at the GV in the diffuser domain greatly affected the fan performance. Finally, the optimum models with improved fan performance were created using linear regression equations derived from 24-1 fractional factorial design.

  9. An approach to optimize sample preparation for MALDI imaging MS of FFPE sections using fractional factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Janina; Lachmund, Delf; Palmer, Andrew; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Boskamp, Tobias; Maass, Peter

    2016-09-01

    A standardized workflow for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI imaging MS) is a prerequisite for the routine use of this promising technology in clinical applications. We present an approach to develop standard operating procedures for MALDI imaging MS sample preparation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections based on a novel quantitative measure of dataset quality. To cover many parts of the complex workflow and simultaneously test several parameters, experiments were planned according to a fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE). The effect of ten different experiment parameters was investigated in two distinct DoE sets, each consisting of eight experiments. FFPE rat brain sections were used as standard material because of low biological variance. The mean peak intensity and a recently proposed spatial complexity measure were calculated for a list of 26 predefined peptides obtained by in silico digestion of five different proteins and served as quality criteria. A five-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the final scores to retrieve a ranking of experiment parameters with increasing impact on data variance. Graphical abstract MALDI imaging experiments were planned according to fractional factorial design of experiments for the parameters under study. Selected peptide images were evaluated by the chosen quality metric (structure and intensity for a given peak list), and the calculated values were used as an input for the ANOVA. The parameters with the highest impact on the quality were deduced and SOPs recommended.

  10. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis Using fractional factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Yamashita, Fábio; Pereira, José L.; Mercadante, Adriana Z.

    2012-01-01

    A fractional factorial design 25–1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch’s trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 µg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity. PMID:24031811

  11. Optimization of thiamethoxam adsorption parameters using multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of fractional factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panić, Sanja; Rakić, Dušan; Guzsvány, Valéria; Kiss, Erne; Boskovic, Goran; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate significant factors affecting the thiamethoxam adsorption efficiency using oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbents. Five factors (initial solution concentration of thiamethoxam in water, temperature, solution pH, MWCNTs weight and contact time) were investigated using 2V(5-1) fractional factorial design. The obtained linear model was statistically tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis of residuals was used to investigate the model validity. It was observed that the factors and their second-order interactions affecting the thiamethoxam removal can be divided into three groups: very important, moderately important and insignificant ones. The initial solution concentration was found to be the most influencing parameter on thiamethoxam adsorption from water. Optimization of the factors levels was carried out by minimizing those parameters which are usually critical in real life: the temperature (energy), contact time (money) and weight of MWCNTs (potential health hazard), in order to maximize the adsorbed amount of the pollutant. The results of maximal adsorbed thiamethoxam amount in both real and optimized experiments indicate that among minimized parameters the adsorption time is one that makes the largest difference. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is very useful tool for screening the higher number of parameters and reducing the number of adsorption experiments.

  12. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mandelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A fractional factorial design 2(5-1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch's trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 mg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity.

  13. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  14. Abstract Factory Design Pattern in the Application of MIS%抽象工厂设计模式在MIS中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾延明; 张永涛

    2011-01-01

    This article from the design pattern, analyzed the abstract factory pattern (Abstract Factory Pattern), the abstract factory design pattern in a hierarchy application of distributed systems, and abstract factory design pattern to management information system (MIS). Abstract factory pattern for the system architecture provides a very flexible and powerful dynamic extension mechanism, to reduce the coupling between modules, better implementation of software reuse.%本文从设计模式出发,分析了抽象工厂模式(Abstract Factory Pattern)的优缺点,研究了抽象工厂设计模式在分层分布式系统中的应用,并将抽象工厂设计模式应用于管理信息系统(MIS)中.抽象工厂模式为系统结构提供了非常灵活强大的动态扩展机制,能够降低模块间的耦合性,更好的实现软件复用.

  15. Newly designed double surface bimorph mirror for BL-15A of the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.igarashi@kek.jp; Nitani, Hiroaki; Takeichi, Yasuo; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masao; Mori, Takeharu; Nagatani, Yasuko; Kosuge, Takashi; Kamijo, Ai; Koyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobutaka [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, Hiromasa [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd. 20F Carrot Tower 4-1-1 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8520 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    BL-15A is a new x-ray undulator beamline at the Photon Factory. It will be dedicated to two independent research activities, simultaneous XAFS/XRF/XRD experiments, and SAXS/WAXS/GI-SAXS studies. In order to supply a choice of micro-focus, low-divergence and collimated beams, a double surface bimorph mirror was recently developed. To achieve further mirror surface optimization, the pencil beam scanning method was applied for “in-situ” beam inspection and the Inverse Matrix method was used for determination of optimal voltages on the piezoelectric actuators. The corrected beam profiles at every focal spot gave good agreement with the theoretical values and the resultant beam performance is promising for both techniques. Quick and stable switching between highly focused and intense collimated beams was established using this new mirror with the simple motorized stages.

  16. Thermodynamics-based design of microbial cell factories for anaerobic product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; van Maris, A J A; Wahl, S Aljoscha; Heijnen, J J

    2015-09-01

    The field of metabolic engineering has delivered new microbial cell factories and processes for the production of different compounds including biofuels, (di)carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amino acids. Most of these processes are aerobic, with few exceptions (e.g., alcoholic fermentation), and attention is focused on assembling a high-flux product pathway with a production limit usually set by the oxygen transfer rate. By contrast, anaerobic product synthesis offers significant benefits compared to aerobic systems: higher yields, less heat generation, reduced biomass production, and lower mechanical energy input, which can significantly reduce production costs. Using simple thermodynamic calculations, we demonstrate that many products can theoretically be produced under anaerobic conditions using several conventional and non-conventional substrates.

  17. Application of multi-factorial design of experiments to successfully optimize immunoassays for robust measurements of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chad A; Patel, Vimal; Shih, Judy; Macaraeg, Chris; Wu, Yuling; Thway, Theingi; Ma, Mark; Lee, Jean W; Desilva, Binodh

    2009-02-20

    Developing a process that generates robust immunoassays that can be used to support studies with tight timelines is a common challenge for bioanalytical laboratories. Design of experiments (DOEs) is a tool that has been used by many industries for the purpose of optimizing processes. The approach is capable of identifying critical factors and their interactions with a minimal number of experiments. The challenge for implementing this tool in the bioanalytical laboratory is to develop a user-friendly approach that scientists can understand and apply. We have successfully addressed these challenges by eliminating the screening design, introducing automation, and applying a simple mathematical approach for the output parameter. A modified central composite design (CCD) was applied to three ligand binding assays. The intra-plate factors selected were coating, detection antibody concentration, and streptavidin-HRP concentrations. The inter-plate factors included incubation times for each step. The objective was to maximize the logS/B (S/B) of the low standard to the blank. The maximum desirable conditions were determined using JMP 7.0. To verify the validity of the predictions, the logS/B prediction was compared against the observed logS/B during pre-study validation experiments. The three assays were optimized using the multi-factorial DOE. The total error for all three methods was less than 20% which indicated method robustness. DOE identified interactions in one of the methods. The model predictions for logS/B were within 25% of the observed pre-study validation values for all methods tested. The comparison between the CCD and hybrid screening design yielded comparable parameter estimates. The user-friendly design enables effective application of multi-factorial DOE to optimize ligand binding assays for therapeutic proteins. The approach allows for identification of interactions between factors, consistency in optimal parameter determination, and reduced method

  18. Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of specific flavors in enzyme modified and natural Cheddar cheese using factorial design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Julien; Sabik, Hassan; Azarnia, Sorayya; Lee, Byong

    2008-06-27

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed using experimental designs to quantify the flavor of commercial Cheddar cheese and enzyme-modified Cheddar cheese (EMCC). Seven target compounds (dimethyl disulfide, hexanal, hexanol, 2-heptanone, ethyl hexanoate, heptanoic acid, delta-decalactone) representative of different chemical families frequently present in Cheddar cheese were selected for this study. Three types of SPME fibres were tested: Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), polyacrylate (PA) and Carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB). NaCl concentration and temperature, as well as extraction time were tested for their effect on the HS-SPME process. Two series of two-level full factorial designs were carried out for each fibre to determine the factors which best support the extraction of target flavors. Therefore, central composite designs (CCDs) were performed and response surface models were derived. Optimal extraction conditions for all selected compounds, including internal standards, were: 50 min at 55 degrees C in 3M NaCl for CAR/PDMS, 64 min at 62 degrees C in 6M NaCl for PA, and 37 min at 67 degrees C in 6M NaCl for CW/DVB. Given its superior sensitivity, CAR/PDMS fibre was selected to evaluate the target analytes in commercial Cheddar cheese and EMCC. With this fibre, calibration curves were linear for all targeted compounds (from 0.5 to 6 microg g(-1)), except for heptanoic acid which only showed a linear response with PA fibres. Detection limits ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 microg g(-1) and quantification limits from 0.8 to 3.6 microg g(-1). The mean repeatability value for all flavor compounds was 8.8%. The method accuracy is satisfactory with recoveries ranging from 97 to 109%. Six of the targeted flavors were detected in commercial Cheddar cheese and EMCC.

  19. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  20. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  1. The preparation and evaluation of sustained release suppositories containing ketoprofen and Eudragit RL 100 by using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüney, I; Ozcan, I; Ertan, G; Güneri, T

    2007-01-01

    The preparation of ketoprofen (KP) sustained release (SR) suppositories was designed according to the 3(2) x 2(1) factorial design as three different KP:Eudragit RL 100 ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2), three particle sizes of prepared granules (250-500, 500-710, and 710-1000 microm) and two different PEG 400:PEG 6000 ratios (40:60, 50:50). The conventional KP suppositories were also prepared by using Witepsol H 15, Massa Estarinum B, Cremao and the mixture of PEG 400:PEG 6000. The dissolution studies of suppositories prepared were carried out according to the USP XXIII basket method in the phosphate buffer (pH = 7.2) at 50 rpm, and it was shown that the dissolution time was sustained up to 8 hours. According to the results of the factorial design, the most important independent variable on t50 and t80 was drug:polymer ratios. The log of partition coefficient of KP was determined as 1.46, showing the high affinity to the oily phase. n exponent and kinetic studies were conducted to explain diffusion mechanism, and it is understood that if the inert KP:Eudragit RL 100 ratio is increased in the particles, the Fickian difusion dominates and the best kinetic turns to Higuchi from the Hixson-Crowell. There is neither crystalline form of KP nor degradation product in the suppositories detected with the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. In addition to these studies, antiinflammatory activity of SR suppositories also determined that it was significantly extended according to the conventional suppositories.

  2. Use of fractional factorial design for selection of nutrients for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Almeida e Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A eucalyptus hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolysate was used as the substrate to grow Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 cultured for 72 or 96 hours. The influence of the inhibitors, nutrients and fermentation time was verified by a 28-4 and, subsequently, a 25-1 fractional factorial design. The effects of the inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural, nutrients (rice bran, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and sodium phosphate and fermentation time were investigated. The highest yield (10.59 g/L of biomass was obtained when the microorganisms were cultivated for 72 hours in a medium composed of 30 g/L rice bran, 9.4 g/L ammonium sulfate (2 g/L nitrogen and 2 g/L sodium phosphate.

  3. Characterization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System Based on a Factorial Design of Experiments Using Hardware Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Bernardo; Banta, Larry E; Tucker, David

    2012-10-01

    A full factorial experimental design and a replicated fractional factorial design were carried out using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project facility installed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy to simulate gasifer/fuel cell/turbine hybrid power systems. The HyPer facility uses hardware in the loop (HIL) technology that couples a modified recuperated gas turbine cycle with hardware driven by a solid oxide fuel cell model. A 34 full factorial design (FFD) was selected to study the effects of four factors: cold-air, hot-air, bleed-air bypass valves, and the electric load on different parameters such as cathode and turbine inlet temperatures, pressure and mass flow. The results obtained, compared with former results where the experiments were made using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), show that no strong interactions between the factors are present in the different parameters of the system. This work also presents a fractional factorial design (ffd) 34-2 in order to analyze replication of the experiments. In addition, a new envelope is described based on the results of the design of experiments (DoE), compared with OFAT experiments, and analyzed in an off-design integrated fuel cell/gas turbine framework. This paper describes the methodology, strategy, and results of these experiments that bring new knowledge concerning the operating state space for this kind of power generation system.

  4. Custom fractional factorial designs to develop atorvastatin self-nanoemulsifying and nanosuspension delivery systems – enhancement of oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem FM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fahima M Hashem,1 Majid M Al-Sawahli,2 Mohamed Nasr,1 Osama AA Ahmed3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA, Giza, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Abstract: Poor water solubility of a drug is a major challenge in drug delivery research and a main cause for limited bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters. This work aims to utilize custom fractional factorial design to assess the development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS and solid nanosuspensions (NS in order to enhance the oral delivery of atorvastatin (ATR. According to the design, 14 experimental runs of ATR SNEDDS were formulated utilizing the highly ATR solubilizing SNEDDS components: oleic acid, Tween 80, and propylene glycol. In addition, 12 runs of NS were formulated by the antisolvent precipitation–ultrasonication method. Optimized formulations of SNEDDS and solid NS, deduced from the design, were characterized. Optimized SNEDDS formula exhibited mean globule size of 73.5 nm, zeta potential magnitude of -24.1 mV, and 13.5 µs/cm of electrical conductivity. Optimized solid NS formula exhibited mean particle size of 260.3 nm, 7.4 mV of zeta potential, and 93.2% of yield percentage. Transmission electron microscopy showed SNEDDS droplets formula as discrete spheres. The solid NS morphology showed flaky nanoparticles with irregular shapes using scanning electron microscopy. The release behavior of the optimized SNEDDS formula showed 56.78% of cumulative ATR release after 10 minutes. Solid NS formula showed lower rate of release in the first 30 minutes. Bioavailability estimation in Wistar albino rats revealed an augmentation

  5. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    , and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve...... their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production...... or supply chains in a creative organization. The Smart factory is supposed to be organic, meaning it is able to reconfigure and adjust to new projects and customers and has to be seen and taken as a model for inspiration to manufacturing businesses in general. The project takes into consideration Danish...

  6. Higgs Factory Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Designs for future high-energy circular electron-positron colliders are based on both established and novel concepts. An appropriate design will enable these facilities to serve not only as “Higgs factories”, but also as Z, W and top factories, and, in addition, to become a possible first step to a higher-energy hadron collider.

  7. A Randomized Longitudinal Factorial Design to Assess Malaria Vector Control and Disease Management Interventions in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall A. Kramer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1 a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2 vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding. The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  8. A randomized longitudinal factorial design to assess malaria vector control and disease management interventions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Randall A; Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Paul, Christopher J; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-05-16

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  9. The PEP-II Asymmetric B Factory: Design details and R&D results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, E.; DeStaebler, H.; Dorfan, J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV {times} 3.1 GeV electron-positron collider with a design luminosity of 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} has now been approved for construction by SLAC, LBL and LLNL for the purpose of studying CP violation in the B{bar B} system. This upgrade project involves replacing the vacuum and RF systeum of PEP, which will serve as the high-energy ring (HER), along with the addition of a new low-energy ring (LER) mounted atop the HER. Designs for both rings are described, and the anticipated project construction schedule is indicated. Collider operation will begin at the end of 1998. An aggressive R&D program has been carried out to validate our design choices; key results in the areas of lattice design, vacuum, RF, and multibunch feedback are summarized.

  10. A New Interaction Region Design for the Super-B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC; Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Bettoni, Simona; /CERN; Paoloni, Eugenio; /INFN, Pisa; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Vobly, Pavel; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-07-06

    A final focus magnet design that uses super-ferric magnets is introduced for the SuperB interaction region. The baseline design has air-core super-conducting quadrupoles. This idea instead uses super-conducting wire in an iron yoke. The iron is in the shape of a Panofsky quadrupole and this allows two quadrupoles to be side-by-side with no intervening iron as long as the gradients of the two quads are equal. This feature allows us to move in as close as possible to the collision point and minimize the beta functions in the interaction region. The superferric design has advantages as well as drawbacks and we will discuss these in the paper.

  11. A New Interaction Region Design for the Super-B Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Michael; Bettoni, Simona; Paoloni, Eugenio; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Vobly, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    A final focus magnet design that uses super-ferric magnets is introduced for the SuperB interaction region. The baseline design has air-core super-conducting quadrupoles. This idea instead uses super-conducting wire in an iron yoke. The iron is in the shape of a Panofsky quadrupole and this allows two quadrupoles to be sideby- side with no intervening iron as long as the gradients of the two quads are equal. This feature allows us to move in as close as possible to the collision point and minimize the beta functions in the interaction region. The superferric design has advantages as well as drawbacks and we will discuss these in the pape

  12. Recirculating linacs for a neutrino factory--Arc optics design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bogacz, S A

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual lattice design for a muon accelerator based on recirculating linacs (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 472 (2001) 499, these proceedings) is presented here. The challenge of accelerating and transporting a large phase space of short-lived muons is answered here by presenting a proof-of-principle lattice design for a recirculating linac accelerator. It is the centerpiece of a chain of accelerators consisting of a 3 GeV linac and two consecutive recirculating linear accelerators, which facilitates acceleration starting after ionization cooling at 190 MeV/c and proceeding to 50 GeV. Beam transport issues for large-momentum-spread beams are accommodated by appropriate lattice design choices. The resulting arc optics is further optimized with a sextupole correction to suppress chromatic effects contributing to the emittance dilution. The presented proof-of-principle design of the arc optics with horizontal separation of multi-pass beams can be extended to all passes in both recirculating linacs.

  13. Improved Hyperspectral Image Testing Using Synthetic Imagery and Factorial Designed Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Mendenhall, and Scheaffer , fully detail the designing of experiments in their respective texts. For purposes of this thesis, a simplified explanation of...Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB OH, March 2007. Wackerly, Dennis D., William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer

  14. Design Concept of a Gamma-gamma Higgs Factory Driven by Thin Laser Targets and Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    A gamma-gamma collider has long been considered an option for a Higgs Factory. Such photon colliders usually rely on Compton back-scattering for generating high energy gamma photons and further Higgs bosons through gamma-gamma collisions. The presently existing proposals or design concepts all have chosen a very thick laser target (i.e., high laser photon intensity) for Compton scatterings. In this paper, we present a new design concept of a gamma-gamma collider utilizing a thin laser target (i.e., relatively low photon density), thus leading to a low electron to gamma photon conversion rate. This new concept eliminates most useless and harmful low energy soft gamma photons from multiple Compton scattering so the detector background is improved. It also greatly relaxes the requirement of the high peak power of the laser, a significant technical challenge. A high luminosity for such a gamma-gamma collider can be achieved through an increase of the bunch repetition rate and current of the driven electron beam. Further, multi-pass recirculating linac could greatly reduce the linac cost and energy recovery is required to reduce the needed RF power.

  15. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinderpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs of lamotrigine using β-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using β-CD 1 : 1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15 s, wetting time of 24 s, and % friability of 0.55.

  16. A study of physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of amoxicillin tablets using full factorial design and PCA biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Guterres, Marcos; Pereira, Flávia S; Ferreira, Márcia M C

    2007-07-09

    The variables that influence the tablets obtained by direct compression method deserve to be studied to minimize formulations costs and to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the compacts. Here, we explore the adjuvants effects on amoxicillin tablet formulations considering multiple responses, and indicate the most suitable formulation composition. A 2(3) full factorial design was built to different amoxicillin formulations, each one containing three replicate batches, and eight responses (physicochemical and biopharmaceutical parameters) were obtained. The microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) type Avicel PH-102 (low) or PH-200 (high), the absence (low) or presence (high) of spray-dried lactose (LAC), and the absence (low) or presence (high) of disintegrant (DIS) were the levels investigated. The more relevant responses to the distinct formulations from the experimental design were hardness, friability, and the amount of amoxicillin dissolved during the first hour. PCA biplot indicated high values of amount of drug dissolved in 60 min as advantageous responses for the investigated amoxicillin tablet formulations and high values of friability as not desirable. Considering the individual response evaluation, the most suitable amoxicillin tablet formulation should present in its composition the MCC type Avicel PH-102 (low level) and the superdisintegrant agent (DIS high level), croscarmellose sodium, but no LAC (low level).

  17. Design of a Two Levels Optical Receiver System for UV Scattering Communication%紫外光散射通信中一种二级光学接收系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵太飞; 柯熙政; 梁薇; 何华

    2011-01-01

    介绍了大气紫外光通信的特点和光学天线的性能指标,仿真分析了传统的复合抛物面聚光器(CPC)和半球透镜在非视距紫外信道中的聚光性能,设计了一种二级接收的光学聚光系统,并使用ZEMAX软件进行光线追迹,对其光学增益及视场进行分析.结果表明,这种二级光学系统有较高的增益及较大的视场,适合作为非视距紫外光通信中的光学天线.%This paper describes the characteristics of atmospheric ultraviolet (UV) communications and the performance of optical antenna. The concentration performance of the conventional compound parabolic concentrator ( CPC) and ther hemispherical lens in the non-light-of-sight ( NLOS) UV channel have been simulated and analyzed.A kind of two-level receiving optical light-gathering system has been designed, the ZEMAX software was used for the light-tracing and its optic gain as well as the field-of-view have heen analyzed. The simulation results show that this two levels optical systems have a higher gain and a larger field-of-view which is suitable for the optical antenna of the NLOS UV communication.

  18. Nanoemulsions containing a synthetic chalcone as an alternative for treating cutaneous leshmaniasis: optimization using a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos CB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cristiane Bastos de Mattos,1 Débora Fretes Argenta,1 Gabriela de Lima Melchiades,1 Marlon Norberto Sechini Cordeiro,2 Maiko Luis Tonini,3 Milene Hoehr Moraes,3 Tanara Beatriz Weber,4 Silvane Souza Roman,4 Ricardo José Nunes,2 Helder Ferreira Teixeira,1 Mário Steindel,3 Letícia Scherer Koester1 1Faculdade de Farmácia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Departamento de Química, 3Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 4Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões, Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that may increase the penetration of lipophilic compounds through the skin, enhancing their topical effect. Chalcones are compounds of low water solubility that have been described as promising molecules for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. In this context, the aim of this work was to optimize the development of a nanoemulsion containing a synthetic chalcone for CL treatment using a 22 full factorial design. The formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and the experimental design studied the influence of two independent variables (type of surfactant – soybean lecithin or sorbitan monooleate and type of co-surfactants – polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80 on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoemulsions, as well as on the skin permeation/retention of the synthetic chalcone in porcine skin. In order to evaluate the stability of the systems, the antileishmanial assay was performed against Leishmania amazonensis 24 hours and 60 days after the preparation of the nanoemulsions. The formulation composed of soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 presented suitable physicochemical characteristics (droplet size

  19. Recent SuperB Design Choices Improve Next-Generation e e___ B-Factory Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmer, W.; Bertsche, K.; Chao, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Vobly, P.; Okunev, I.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; /Frascati /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Saclay

    2011-08-19

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low {beta}*{sub y} without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point. Optimized for best colliding-beam performance, the facility may also provide high-brightness photon beams for synchrotron radiation applications.

  20. 基于两水平设防的连续梁桥抗震性能分析%Seismic Performance Analysis of Continuous Girder Bridge Based on Two-level Design Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小伟

    2012-01-01

    According to the new ideas and new methods by guidelines for seismic design of highway bridges (JTG / T B02-01-2008) , with the background of a continuous girder bridge in the area of 7 degree earthquake intensity, an elastic-plastic finite element model is established for dynamic characteristics analysis, seismic response spectrum analysis and nonlinear time history analysis, to reveal the force and deformation under earthquake action of two levels. Furthermore, the seismic performance is evaluated to provide a reference for seismic design of bridges.%根据《公路桥梁抗震设计细则》(JTG/T B02—01—2008)中的抗震设防新理念和新方法,以Ⅶ度区某连续梁桥为工程背景,建立了弹塑性有限元模型,依次进行了动力特性分析、地震反应谱分析和非线性时程分析,揭示了两级地震作用下桥梁的受力及变形情况,并对桥梁的抗震性能进行了评价,可供桥梁抗震设计参考.

  1. Design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Y., E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Mase, K.; Ono, K. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Inami, N. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Suga, H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Miyamoto, C. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan); Ueno, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We present a new compact instrument designed for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. It has piezo-driven linear stages, making it small and light. Optical components from the virtual source point to the detector are located on a single optical table, resulting in a portable instrument that can be operated at a general-purpose spectroscopy beamline without requiring any major reconstruction. Careful consideration has been given to solving the vibration problem common to high-resolution microscopy, so as not to affect the spatial resolution determined by the Fresnel zone plate. Results on bacteriogenic iron oxides, single particle aerosols, and rare-earth permanent magnets are presented as examples of its performance under diverse applications.

  2. Systematic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Activation of Waste Tire by Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.M. Fung; W.H-Cheung; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire was used as raw material for the production of activated carbons through pyrolysis. 'Fire char was first produced by carbomzation at 550℃ under nitrogen. A two tactortal design was used to optimize the production of activated carbon from tire char. The effects of several factors controlling the activation process, such as temperature (.830-930℃), time (2-6h) and percentage ot carbon dioxide (70%-100%) were investigated. The production was described mathematically as a function of these three factors. First order modeling equations were developed for surface area, yield and mesopore volume. It was concluded that the yield, BET surface area and mesopore volume of activated carbon were most sensitive to activation temperature and time while percentage of carbon dioxide in the activation gas was a less significant factor.

  3. Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. As the main purpose of thesimulation procedure is to find the characteristics of the system’s behaviour, the merits of the iterative method involving analysis,synthesis and evaluation of results are fully explored.

  4. Factorial experimental design of winery wastewaters treatment by heterogeneous photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, Rosa; Ormad, Peña; Mozas, Engracia; Sarasa, Judith; Ovelleiro, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Winery wastewaters are difficult to treat by conventional biological processes because they are seasonal and experience a substantial flow variations. Photocatalytic advanced oxidation is a promising technology for wastewaters containing high amounts of organic matter. In this work, the photo-Fenton process in heterogeneous phase is presented as an alternative methodology for the treatment of winery wastewaters. As a consequence of the great number of existing variables, an experimental design methodology has been used in order to study the influence and interaction of various variables and to obtain a reduced empirical model which describes the organic matter degradation process. Applying photo-Fenton treatment in heterogeneous phase under energetic conditions for synthetic samples simulating winery wastewaters results in purification levels of up to 50% (measured as total organic carbon). Different reduced models are obtained and their utilization depends mainly on the degree of degradation of organic matter required.

  5. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E.; Egea, M. A.; Souto, E. B.; Calpena, A. C.; García, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol® 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween® 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE (~90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  6. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E; Egea, M A; Garcia, M L [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Souto, E B [Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Rua Carlos da Maia, Nr. 296, Office S.1, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); Calpena, A C, E-mail: eligonzalezmi@ub.edu [Department of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-28

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE ({approx}90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  7. B-factory detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marlow, D R

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B sup 0->J/PSI K sub S decays and related modes.

  8. Amidated pectin/sodium carboxymethylcellulose microspheres as a new carrier for colonic drug targeting: Development and optimization by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Hytham H; El-Gibaly, Ibrahim; Soliman, Ghareb M; Mohamed, Fergany A; El-Sayed, Ahmed M

    2016-11-20

    The colon is a promising site for drug targeting owing to its long transit time and mild proteolytic activity. The aim of this study was to prepare new low methoxy amidated pectin/NaCMC microspheres cross-linked by a mixture of Zn(2+) and Al(3+) ions and test their potential for colonic targeting of progesterone. A 2(4) factorial design was carried out to optimize the preparation conditions. High drug entrapment efficiency (82-99%) was obtained and it increased with increasing drug concentration but decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Drug release rate was directly proportional to the microsphere drug content and inversely related to Al(3+) ion concentration. Drug release was minimal during the first 3h but was significantly improved in the presence of 1% rat caecal contents, confirming the microsphere potential for colonic delivery. The microspheres achieved >2.3-fold enhancement of colonic progesterone permeability. These results confirm the viability of the produced microspheres as colon-targeted drug delivery vehicle.

  9. A Factorial Design to Numerically Study the Effects of Brake Pad Properties on Friction and Wear Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Wahlström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate emissions originating from the wear of pads and rotors of disc brakes contribute up to 50% of the total road emissions in Europe. The wear process that takes place on a mesoscopic length scale in the contact interfaces between the pads and rotors can be explained by the creation and destruction of contact plateaus. Due to this complex contact situation, it is hard to predict how changes in the wear and material parameters of the pad friction material will affect the friction and wear emissions. This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of different parameters of the pad friction material on the coefficient of friction and wear emissions. A full factorial design is developed using a simplified version of a previously developed cellular automaton approach to investigate the effect of four factors on the coefficient of friction and wear emission. The simulated result indicates that a stable third body, a high specific wear, and a relatively high amount of metal fibres yield a high and stable mean coefficient of friction, while a stable third body, a low specific wear, a stable resin, and a relatively high amount of metal fibres give low wear emissions.

  10. A pilot human pharmacokinetic study and influence of formulation factors on orodispersible tablet incorporating meloxicam solid dispersion using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Fahmy, Rania H

    2012-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) suffers from poor aqueous solubility leading to slow absorption following oral administration; hence, immediate release MLX tablet is unsuitable in the treatment of acute pain. This study aims to overcome such a drawback by increasing MLX solubility and dissolution using PEG solid dispersion (SD), then, to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the SD into orodispersible tablets (ODTs). A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to investigate the influence of three formulation variables on MLX ODTs. The selected factors: camphor (X(1)) as pore-forming material, and croscarmellose sodium (X(2)) as superdisintegrant, showed significant positive influence, while PEG content (X(3)) was proved to negatively affect both disintegration and wetting times. In addition, isomalt increased disintegration and wetting times when compared to mannitol as diluents. The pharmacokinetic assessment of the optimum ODT formulation in healthy human subjects proved that the faster MLX dissolution by using PEG solid dispersion at pH 6.8 resulted in more rapid absorption of MLX. The rate of absorption of MLX from ODT was significantly faster (p = 0.030) with a significantly higher peak plasma concentration (P = 0.037) when compared to the marketed immediate release MLX tablet with a mean oral disintegration time of 17 ± 3 s.

  11. Optimization of primary culture condition for mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood with factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiubo; Liu, Tianqing; Liu, Yang; Ma, Xuehu; Cui, Zhanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can not only support the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, but also alleviate complications and accelerate recovery of hematopoiesis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it proved challenging to culture MSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) with a success rate of 20-30%. Many cell culture parameters contribute to this outcome and hence optimization of culture conditions is critical to increase the probability of success. In this work, fractional factorial design was applied to study the effect of cell inoculated density, combination and dose of cytokines, and presence of serum and stromal cells. The cultured UCB-MSC-like cells were characterized by flow cytometry and their multilineage differentiation potentials were tested. The optimal protocol was identified achieving above 90% successful outcome: 2 x 10(6) cells/mL mononuclear cells inoculated in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium supplied with 10% FBS, 15 ng/mL IL-3, and 5 ng/mL Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Moreover, the UCB-MSC-like cells expressed MSC surface markers of CD13, CD29, CD105, CD166, and CD44 positively, and CD34, CD45, and human leukocyte antigens-DR (HLA-DR) negatively. Meanwhile, these cells could differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes similarly to MSCs derived from bone marrow. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient protocol for the primary culture of UCB-MSCs by adding suitable cytokines into the culture system.

  12. Multivariate factorial analysis to design a robust batch leaching test to assess the volcanic ash geochemical hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Flavia; Gil, Raúl A; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Saavedra, Julio; Gimeno, Domingo; Lobo, Agustin; Martinez, Luis D; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2012-04-30

    A method to obtain robust information on short term leaching behaviour of volcanic ashes has been developed independently on the sample age. A mixed factorial design (MFD) was employed as a multivariate strategy for the evaluation of the effects of selected control factors and their interactions (amount of sample (A), contact time (B), and liquid to solid ratio or L/S (C)) on the leaching process of selected metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Si, Al, V, Mn, Fe, and Co) and anions (Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)). Box plots of the data acquired were used to evaluate the reproducibility achieved at different experimental conditions. Both the amount of sample (A) and leaching time (B) had a significant effect on the element stripping whereas the L/S ratio influenced only few elements. The lowest dispersion values have been observed when 1.0 g was leached with an L/S ratio equal to 10, shaking during 4 h. The entire method is completed within few hours, and it is simple, feasible and reliable in laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Full factorial experimental design analysis of Rhodamine B removal from water using organozeolite from coal bottom ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Alcântara, Rafael O. R. Muniz, Denise A. Fungaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolitic material synthesized using coal bottom ash asraw materialwas modified by cationic surfactant. Raw bottom ash and zeolitic materials were characterized using various techniques to obtain its physical and chemical properties. Surfactant modified zeolite (SMZBA was used as alternative low-cost adsorbent for removal of Rhodamine B (RB dye from aqueous solution. Dye adsorption equilibrium was attained after 40 min of the contact time and adsorption kinetics were described by the pseudo second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption data were adjusted using non-linear equations of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R models. Error analysis showed that D-R was the most appropriate for fitting the experimental data.The reuse of the remaining solution generated from the synthesis of zeolite was effective. To optimize the operating conditions, the temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of the dye were investigated by full factorial experimental design method; adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and interaction of the two were found as the most significant factors with P = 0.02 lower than 95% confidence level. The results showed that SMZBA is a good adsorbent for the removal of RB from aqueous effluent.

  14. Methodology of factorial design deriving guidelines for simulation of growth curve and production of sugars by Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is practical, economic and sometimes essential to derive rules or conclusions by performing lesser runs of experiments. In this part, a methodology based on 2f factorial design was brought up to derive guidelines to simulate growth curve and production of sugars by Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima. The growth curve or accumulation process of sugars was idealized by sets of straight lines limited by phase transfers of growth or accumulation of sugars. Normal analyses of the critical values of the transfers were used to derive their linear relationships with the initial conditions of the experimental factors. These linear functions were called guidelines and were used to simulate the growth curve or accumulation of sugars. Generalization of the guideline technique was determined by the kinetic limitation of nutrient nitrogen or sulfur that was dependent upon their stoichiometric deficiency directly derived from their initial values in the medium. This method uses the initial conditions of culture and does not need measurements of concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and pigments during cultivation. It is a practical and useful alternative way to trace and predict approximately the growth curve and production of sugars by S. maxima.

  15. Modelling aluminium leaching into food from different foodware materials with multi-level factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Veronika; Deconinck, Eric; Bolle, Fabien; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the contribution of aluminium (Al) leaching from different materials used for food preparation and serving to the dietary Al intake, Al release from foodware typically used in everyday life was investigated using multilevel factorial design (MFD) of experiments. For Al characterisation, sample preparation and an analytical method using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was developed and validated. Parameter influence (temperature: x₁, contact time: x₂, pH: x₃, salt concentration: x₄, viscosity: x₅), was evaluated with analysis of variance suggesting that the influence of viscosity is not significant compared to the other four studied parameters. Therefore, predictive, exponential quadratic regression models were established with x₁-x₄. Cross-validation and a set of independent experiments in real food products were used to test the prediction force of the different models. They both suggest that the quality of the models established for Al foil, Al plate and ceramic ware is satisfactory, but less good for glassware and stainless steel. Indeed, in the studied conditions, leaching from these latter food wares was often close to or even below the limit of quantification suggesting that the principal sources of Al intake from food contact materials during food processing are utensils made of Al and ceramic ware.

  16. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments.

  17. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  18. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  19. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  20. Design and Initial Commissioning of Beam Diagnostics for the PEP-II B Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. S.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E. L.; Brugnoletti, B.; Collins, B.; Daly, E.; Gioumousis, A.; Johnson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langton, J.; McCormick, D.; Noriega, R.; Smith, S.; Smith, V.; Stege, R.; Bjork, M.; Chin, M.; Hinkson, J.; McGill, R.; Suwada, T.

    1997-05-01

    PEP-II is a 2.2-km-circumference collider with a 2.1-A, 3.1-GeV positron ring (the Low-Energy Ring) 1 m above a 1-A, 9-GeV electron ring (the High-Energy Ring); both are designed for 3 A maximum. We will describe the beam diagnostics and present initial measurements from HER commissioning, expected to start in March 1997. LER commissioning will follow in 1998. The beam size and pulse duration are measured using near-UV synchrotron light extracted by grazing-incidence mirrors that must withstand up to 200 W/cm. To measure the charge in every bucket at 60 Hz with an accuracy of ≈0.5%, the sum signal from a set of 4 pickup buttons is digitized and averaged over 256 samples per bucket. The sum is normalized to the ring current, measured by a DC current transformer. The 300 beam-position monitors per ring are multiplexed to share 171 processor modules, which use DSPs for recording positions over 1024 turns and for calibration. For diagnostics and machine protection, 100 photomultiplier-based Cherenkov detectors measure beam losses and abort the beam in case of high loss.

  1. Design of Factory Information Monitoring System Via Cloud Computing%基于云计算的工厂信息监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许知博; 刘钊

    2012-01-01

    Factories in manufacturing require efficient monitoring to ensure product quality and production safety,but the traditional distributed model can not manage efficiently and meet the growing production demands.In view of this situation,this paper introduces the cloud computing technology into the factory information monitoring,and proposes a factory information monitoring system design via cloud computing.The design takes full advantages of cloud computing in management and services,improves the management of the factory efficiency,and lowers its operating cost.%制造业中工厂需要高效的监测手段来保证产品质量和生产安全,而传统的分散式模式无法进行高效的管理,不能满足日益增长的生产需求。针对这一状况,文中将云计算技术应用于工厂信息监测中,提出了一种基于云计算的现代化工厂信息监测系统设计。该设计充分利用云计算在管理、服务等方面的优点,提高了工厂的管理效率,节省了工厂的运营成本。

  2. Nanoemulsions containing a synthetic chalcone as an alternative for treating cutaneous leshmaniasis: optimization using a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Cristiane Bastos; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Melchiades, Gabriela de Lima; Cordeiro, Marlon Norberto Sechini; Tonini, Maiko Luis; Moraes, Milene Hoehr; Weber, Tanara Beatriz; Roman, Silvane Souza; Nunes, Ricardo José; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Steindel, Mário; Koester, Letícia Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that may increase the penetration of lipophilic compounds through the skin, enhancing their topical effect. Chalcones are compounds of low water solubility that have been described as promising molecules for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this context, the aim of this work was to optimize the development of a nanoemulsion containing a synthetic chalcone for CL treatment using a 2(2) full factorial design. The formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and the experimental design studied the influence of two independent variables (type of surfactant - soybean lecithin or sorbitan monooleate and type of co-surfactants - polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80) on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoemulsions, as well as on the skin permeation/retention of the synthetic chalcone in porcine skin. In order to evaluate the stability of the systems, the antileishmanial assay was performed against Leishmania amazonensis 24 hours and 60 days after the preparation of the nanoemulsions. The formulation composed of soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 presented suitable physicochemical characteristics (droplet size 171.9 nm; polydispersity index 0.14; zeta potential -39.43 mV; pH 5.16; and viscosity 2.00 cP), drug content (91.09%) and the highest retention in dermis (3.03 µg·g(-1)) - the main response of interest - confirmed by confocal microscopy. This formulation also presented better stability of leishmanicidal activity in vitro against L. amazonensis amastigote forms (half maximal inhibitory concentration value 0.32±0.05 µM), which confirmed the potential of the nanoemulsion soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 for CL treatment.

  3. REGIONAL EXPRESSION IN DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL FACTORY BUILDINGS: THE PLANNING AND MONOMER DESIGN OF FACTORY AREA FOR HUATAI GROUP%工业厂区建筑设计中的地域性表达——华泰集团安恰厂区规划及单体设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益

    2012-01-01

    工业厂区建筑设计缺乏地域特色会造成视觉的千遍一律。以华泰集团安恰厂区规划及单体设计为例,从总体布局、设计手法与要素和设计中的企业文化表达三个方面,分析如何在工业厂区建筑设计中表达地域性,为设计师设计工业厂区建筑提供一些参考和借鉴。%There are always about the similar and monotonic visions in the design of industrial factory buildings due to lack of regional characteristics. By means of taking the planning and monomer design of factory area for Huatai Group, for example, from the general layout, design skills and element, the enterprise culture expression in design, it was analyzed how to express the regional characteristics in the design of industrial factory buildings, which could provide experience for designers to design industriai factory buildings.

  4. Phi factory detector requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisaka, K.; Atac, M.; Berg, R.; Buchanan, C.; Calvette, M.; Khazin, B.; Kinoshita, K.; Muller, T.; Ohshima, T.; Olsen, S.; Park, J.; Santoni, C.; Shirai, J.; Solodov, E.; Thompson, J.; Triggiani, G.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Detector and Simulation Working Group

    1991-08-01

    We identify the experimental problems and the conditions required for successful phi-factory operation, and show the range of detector parameters which, in conjunction with different machine designs, may meet these conditions. We started by considering, comparing and criticizing the Italian and Novosibirsk designs. With this discussion as a background, we defined the apparent experimental problems and detector constraints. In this article we summarize our understanding. (orig./HSI).

  5. 最小低阶混杂混合水平(2γ)2n因子设计的一些结果%Some Results on Minimum Aberration Mixed-level (2γ)2n Factorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史成堂; 张丹; 陈宝亭; 李玉凯

    2007-01-01

    Mukerjee and Wu(2001) employed projective geometry theory to find the wordlength pattern of a regular mixed factorial design in terms of its complementary set,but only for the numbers of words of length 3 or 4. In this paper, by introducing a concept of consulting design and based on the connection between factorial design theory and coding theory, we obtain some combinatorial identities that relate the wordlength pattern of a regular mixed-level (2γ)2n factorial design to that of its consulting design. Consequently, a general rule for identifying minimum aberration (2γ)2n factorial designs through their consulting designs is established. It is an improvement and generalization of the related result in Mukerjee and Wu(2001).

  6. Factorial experimental design for the optimization of catalytic degradation of malachite green dye in aqueous solution by Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhalil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the optimization of the catalytic degradation of malachite green dye (MG by Fenton process “Fe2+/H2O2”. A 24 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of four factors considered in the optimization of the oxidative process: concentration of MG (X1, concentration of Fe2+ (X2, concentration of H2O2 (X3 and temperature (X4. Individual and interaction effects of the factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested. The effect of interactions between the four parameters shows that there is a dependency between concentration of MG and concentration of Fe2+; concentration of Fe2+ and concentration of H2O2, expressed by the great values of the coefficient of interaction. The analysis of variance proved that, the concentration of MG, the concentration of Fe2+ and the concentration of H2O2 have an influence on the catalytic degradation while it is not the case for the temperature. In the optimization, the great dependence between observed and predicted degradation efficiency, the correlation coefficient for the model (R2=0.986 and the important value of F-ratio proved the validity of the model. The optimum degradation efficiency of malachite green was 93.83%, when the operational parameters were malachite green concentration of 10 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration of 10 mM, H2O2 concentration of 25.6 mM and temperature of 40 °C.

  7. A Fractional Factorial Design Study of Reciprocating Wear Behavior of Al-Si-SiCp Composites at Lubricated Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, V. R.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Jain, S. C.

    2011-04-01

    The lubricated reciprocating wear behavior of two composites A319/15%SiCp and A390/15%SiCp produced by the liquid metallurgy route was investigated by means of an indigenously developed reciprocating friction wear test rig using a fractional factorial-design approach. The main purpose was to study the influence of wear and friction test parameters such as applied load, sliding distance, reciprocating velocity, counter surface temperature and silicon content in composites, as well as their interactions on the wear and friction characteristics of these composites. Two output responses (wear loss and coefficient of friction) were measured. The input parameter levels were fixed through pilot experiment conducted in the newly developed reciprocating friction and wear test rig. The counter surface material used for the wear study was cast iron having Vickers hardness of 244 HVN. It had been demonstrated through established equations that A390/15%SiCp composite is subjected to low wear compared to the A319/15%SiCp composite. The experimental results indicate that the proposed mathematical models suggested could adequately describe the performance indicators within the limits of the factors that are being investigated. The applied load, sliding distance, reciprocating velocity, counter surface temperature, and silicon content in composite are the five important factors controlling the friction and wear characteristics of the composite in lubricated condition. Moreover, the two factor interactions have a strong effect on the wear of composites. The results give a comprehensive insight into the wear of the composites.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of self-emulsifying orlistat tablet to enhance drug release and in vivo performance: factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Mukund Maruti; Hurkadale, Pramod Jayadevappa

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to formulate, evaluate, and optimize self-emulsifying orlistat tablet to enhance drug release followed by in vivo antiobesity activity in Wistar rats. Initially, the solubility of orlistat was determined in different natural oils, surfactant, and co-surfactants. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) was prepared by using castor oil, Tween 80, and Capryol PGMC as components. Liquid SEDDS evaluated for globule size and emulsification time. A 3(2) full factorial design was utilized for the optimization purpose. Formulation variables such as quantity of oil (X1) and ratio of surfactant to co-surfactant (X2) were investigated for their effect on globule size and emulsification time. Optimized formulation with minimum globule size was freeze-dried which further compressed into the tablet. Finally, optimized formulation evaluated for the in vitro drug release study followed by weight losing potential in Wistar rats. Globule size and emulsification time for the optimized formulation were found to be 96.4 ± 8.5 nm and 26 ± 4 s, respectively. Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies indicated that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study revealed that there was the conversion of crystalline orlistat to the amorphous form. Orlistat release from the self-emulsifying tablet formulation was faster with higher weight reduction potential in Wistar rats than the marketed formulation. Increased in vitro drug release with considerable in vivo weight loss by self-emulsifying tablet suggests that the SEDDS could serve as potential formulation strategy for orlistat.

  9. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate by catalytic wet air oxidation: Assessment of the role of operating parameters by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2011-08-01

    The wet air oxidation (WAO) of municipal landfill leachate catalyzed by cupric ions and promoted by hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The effect of operating conditions such as WAO treatment time (15-30min), temperature (160-200°C), Cu(2+) concentration (250-750mgL(-1)) and H(2)O(2) concentration (0-1500mgL(-1)) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was investigated by factorial design considering a two-stage, sequential process comprising the heating-up of the reactor and the actual WAO. The leachate, at an initial COD of 4920mgL(-1), was acidified to pH 3 leading to 31% COD decrease presumably due to the coagulation/precipitation of colloidal and other organic matter. During the 45min long heating-up period of the WAO reactor under an inert atmosphere, COD removal values up to 35% (based on the initial COD value) were recorded as a result of the catalytic decomposition of H(2)O(2) to reactive hydroxyl radicals. WAO at 2.5MPa oxygen partial pressure advanced treatment further; for example, 22min of oxidation at 200°C, 250mgL(-1) Cu(2+) and 0-1500mgL(-1) H(2)O(2) resulted in an overall (i.e. including acidification and heating-up) COD reduction of 78%. Amongst the operating variables in question, temperature had the strongest influence on both the heating-up and WAO stages, while H(2)O(2) concentration strongly affected the former and reaction time the latter. Nonetheless, the effects of temperature and H(2)O(2) concentration were found to depend on the concentration levels of catalyst as suggested by the significance of their 3rd order interaction term.

  10. Design of a Communication Scheme in a Modern Factory in Accordance with the Standard of Industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenár, Igor; Juhásová, Bohuslava; Juhás, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article first describes the current state of the problem in the area of communication in modern factories. Next in the article is given a summary of the requirements that must be implemented for the possibility of establishing a compatible and safe communication system. In the final part of the article is given a proposal of communication model suitable for the implementation.

  11. Design and Development of a Relative Humidity and Room Temperature Measurement System with On Line Data Logging Feature for Monitoring the Fermentation Room of Tea Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.

  12. 新的设计模式——数组工厂和数组原型模式%New design patterns: array factory and array prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世康; 周逢权

    2012-01-01

    为了去除程序中的简单开关分支结构,提出了一种新的重构方法——“以数组取代类型码”重构手法.将这种新的重构方法用于重构简单工厂模式,就得到了一种新的软件设计模式——“数组工厂”模式.数组工厂模式适用于实例化某个具体类在软件执行流程的任意时刻只存在一个实体的对象;对于软件执行流程中可以同时存在多个实体的具体类对象的实例化工作,通过改造数组工厂模式,提出了“数组原型”模式.数组工厂和数组原型模式是两种结构优良的创建型设计模式,它们免除了简单工厂方法中的开关分支语句,具有优化代码结构、提高程序执行性能等优点,并且完全符合开放—封闭原则.%A new design pattern named "array factory" was produced when the switch statements in simple factory method were refactored by "replace type code with array". Array factory pattern was applied to instantiate the object that has only one entity in software. Array prototype pattern was proposed for instantiating multiple objects of one class by improving array factory pattern. As two excellent creation patterns, array factory and array prototype patterns not only have almost all the benefits of simple factory pattern, but also eliminate the switch statements, optimize the structure of the program and improve the processing performance of the software, and they meet the open-closed principle.

  13. Two-level cervical disc replacement: perspectives and patient selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narain AS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ankur S Narain, Fady Y Hijji, Daniel D Bohl, Kelly H Yom, Krishna T Kudaravalli, Kern Singh Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: Cervical disc replacement (CDR is an emerging treatment option for cervical degenerative disease. Postulated benefits of cervical disc replacement compared to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion include preserved motion at the operative segments and decreased motion at adjacent levels. Multiple studies have been performed investigating the outcomes of CDR in single-level pathology. The investigation of the use of CDR in two-level pathology is an emerging topic within the literature.Purpose: To critically evaluate the literature regarding two-level CDR in order to determine its utility compared to two-level cervical arthrodesis. Patient selection factors including indications and contraindications will also be explored.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for all articles published on the subject of two-level CDR up until October 2016. Studies were classified by publication year, study design, sample size, follow-up interval, and conflict of interest. Outcomes were recorded from each study, and included data on patient-reported outcomes, radiographic measurements, range of motion, peri- and postoperative complications, heterotopic ossification, adjacent segment disease, reoperation rate, and total intervention cost. Results: Fourteen studies were included in this review. All studies demonstrated at least noninferiority of two-level CDR compared to both two-level arthrodesis and single-level CDR. Patient selection in two-level CDR is driven by the inclusion and exclusion criteria presented in prospective, randomized controlled trials. The most common indication is subaxial degenerative disc disease over two contiguous levels presenting with radiculopathy or myelopathy. Furthermore, costs analyses trended toward at least noninferiority of two-level

  14. Exact Solution of the Two-Level System and the Einstein Solid in the Microcanonical Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Dalia S.; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Miranda, E. N.

    2011-01-01

    The two-level system and the Einstein model of a crystalline solid are taught in every course of statistical mechanics and they are solved in the microcanonical formalism because the number of accessible microstates can be easily evaluated. However, their solutions are usually presented using the Stirling approximation to deal with factorials. In…

  15. Design of a Communication Scheme in a Modern Factory in Accordance with the Standard of Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halenár Igor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article first describes the current state of the problem in the area of communication in modern factories. Next in the article is given a summary of the requirements that must be implemented for the possibility of establishing a compatible and safe communication system. In the final part of the article is given a proposal of communication model suitable for the implementation.

  16. 南京某食品厂废水处理工艺设计%Design of Wastewater Treatment Process for a Food Factory in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸣; 陈森

    2013-01-01

      食品厂废水的成分一般较为复杂,通常包含大量可生物降解的有机物和较高浓度的动植物油。针对食品厂废水的特点,对南京某食品厂的废水处理工程进行了设计与实现,废水处理工艺采用了“混凝沉淀+水解-好氧”工艺,经处理后出水可以达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978-1996)中表4一级标准。%The wastewater in food processing factories is generally more complex, which usually contains a large number of biodegradable organic matter and a higher concentration of animal or vegetable oil. According to the characteristics of wastewater in food processing factories, wastewater treatment works are designed and implement⁃ed for a food factory in Nanjing. The wastewater treatment process uses“Coagulation + hydrolysis–aerobic”pro⁃cess, the treated effluent can reach the first grade criteria of Table 4 in“Integrated Wastewater Discharge Stan⁃dard(GB8978-1996)”.

  17. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  18. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  19. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance: Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vikram; Govorukhina, Natalia; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Hoefsloot, Huub; Westra, Inge; Smilde, Age; Reijmers, Theo; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Péter

    2016-04-19

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome of the associated statistical analysis and validation. It is therefore important to determine which factors influence the abundance of peptides in a complex proteomics experiment and to identify those peptides that are most influenced by these factors. In the current study we analyzed depleted human serum samples to evaluate experimental factors that may influence the resulting peptide profile such as the residence time in the autosampler at 4 °C, stopping or not stopping the trypsin digestion with acid, the type of blood collection tube, different hemolysis levels, differences in clotting times, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and different trypsin/protein ratios. To this end we used a two-level fractional factorial design of resolution IV (2(IV)(7-3)). The design required analysis of 16 samples in which the main effects were not confounded by two-factor interactions. Data preprocessing using the Threshold Avoiding Proteomics Pipeline (Suits, F.; Hoekman, B.; Rosenling, T.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7786-7794, ref 1) produced a data-matrix containing quantitative information on 2,559 peaks. The intensity of the peaks was log-transformed, and peaks having intensities of a low t-test significance (p-value > 0.05) and a low absolute fold ratio (factor were removed. The remaining peaks were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Permutation tests were used to identify which of the preanalytical factors influenced the abundance of the measured peptides most significantly. The most important preanalytical factors affecting peptide intensity were (1) the hemolysis level, (2) stopping trypsin digestion with

  20. Bounds on the maximum numbers of clear two-factor interactions for 2(n1+n2)-(k1+k2) fractional factorial split-plot designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZI Xuemin; ZHANG Runchu; LIU Minqian

    2006-01-01

    Fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) designs have an important value of investigation for their special structures.There are two types of factors in an FFSP design: the whole-plot (WP) factors and sub-plot (SP) factors,which can form three types of two-factor interactions:WP2fi,WS2fi and SP2fi.This paper considers FFSP designs with resolution Ⅲ or Ⅳ under the clear effects criterion.It derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum numbers of clear WP2fis and WS2fis for FFSP designs,and gives some methods for constructing the desired FFSP designs.It further examines the performance of the construction methods.

  1. Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... unique flavour is the insistence on formal proofs of correctness and the methods used to establish these. This paper develops a theory of abstract interpretation for two-level denotational definitions. There are three ingredients in this. First a framework for proving the correctness of analyses...

  2. Expectations of two-level telegraph noise

    CERN Document Server

    Fern, J

    2006-01-01

    We find expectation values of functions of time integrated two-level telegraph noise. Expectation values of this noise are evaluated under simple control pulses. Both the Gaussian limit and $1/f$ noise are considered. We apply the results to a specific superconducting quantum computing example, which illustrates the use of this technique for calculating error probabilities.

  3. Mathematical model formation of the process of deriving boric acid from ulexite mineral by full factorial design method

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Halil; GENEL, Yasar; BASHIROV, Novruz; KERIMOV, Genber

    2013-01-01

    Ulexite is a sodium calcium boron hydrate used in producing compounds, its chemical formula is Na2O2CaO5B2O3.16H2O, and it superabounds in Turkey. One of the significant boron compounds derived from boron minerals is boric acid. The aim of this study is producing boric acid in the wake of interaction of ulexite with hydrochloric acid solution, and offering an alternative process to producing boric acid by forming the mathematical model of this processing. Full factorial de...

  4. Experiments of Two-level Training in Hungarian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcsog, Andras; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An experiment designed to train engineering students to two levels of achievement in three-year and five-year programs within a single institution is reported. Organizational and curricular problems created by such integrated schemes are examined. (Author/LBH)

  5. Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... is concerned with the (preferably automatic) analysis of programs. The main purpose of these analyses is to find information that may assist in the efficient implementation of the programs. Abstract interpretation is thus related to data flow analysis, partial evaluation and other program analysis methods. Its...... unique flavour is the insistence on formal proofs of correctness and the methods used to establish these. This paper develops a theory of abstract interpretation for two-level denotational definitions. There are three ingredients in this. First a framework for proving the correctness of analyses...

  6. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  7. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Shivani; Trager, Jordan; Sitton, Oliver C.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism’s genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium. PMID:27556494

  8. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism’s genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

  9. Taguchi versus Full Factorial Design to Determine the Influence of Process Parameters on the Impact Forces Produced by Water Jets Used in Sewer Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, N.; Banica, M.

    2016-11-01

    The regular cleaning of the materials deposed in sewer networks is realized, especially with equipment that uses high pressure water jets. The functioning of this equipment is dependent on certain process parameters that can vary, causing variations of the impact forces. The impact force directly affects the cleaning of sewer systems. In order to determine the influence of the process parameters on the impact forces produced by water jets the method of research used is the experiment. The research methods used is that Taguchi design and full factorial design. For the experimental determination of the impact forces a stand for generating water jets and a device for measuring the forces of impact are used. The processing of data is carried out using the Software Minitab 17.

  10. Polymeric nanoparticles loaded with the 3,5,3´-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac, a thyroid hormone: factorial design, characterization, and release kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Karen C dos Santos,1 Maria Fatima GF da Silva,1 Edenir R Pereira-Filho,1 Joao B Fernandes,1 Igor Polikarpov,2 Moacir R Forim11Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, 2Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: This present investigation deals with the development and optimization of polymeric nanoparticle systems loaded with 3,5,3´-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac. A 211–6 fractional factorial design and another 22 factorial design were used to study the contrasts on particle size distribution, morphology, surface charge, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release profiles. The independent variables were the concentration of Triac, type and quantity of both polymer and oil, quantity of Span™ 60 and Tween® 80, volume of solvent and water, and velocity of both magnetic stirring and the transfer of the organic phase into the aqueous solution. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index lower than 0.200. The particle sizes were on average 159.6 nm and 285.6 nm for nanospheres and nanocapsules, respectively. The zeta potential was higher than 20 mV (in module and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100%. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, validated, and efficiently applied to Triac quantification in colloidal suspension. The main independent variables were the type and quantity of the polymer and oil. In vitro drug release profile depicted several features to sustain Triac release. Different formulations showed various release rates indicating an interaction between Triac and other formulation compounds such as polymer and/or oil quantity. Two different models were identified (biexponential and monoexponential that allowed the control of both the release rate and Triac concentration. Thus, the prepared nanoparticles described here may be of clinical importance

  11. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  12. Study of castor oil polyurethane - poly(methyl methacrylate semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN reaction parameters using a 2³ factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira Vieira da Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was employed a 2³ factorial experiment design to evaluate the castor oil polyurethane-poly(methyl methacrylate semi-IPN synthesis. The reaction parameters used as independent variables were NCO/OH molar ratio, polyurethane polymerization time and methyl methacrylate (MMA content. The semi-IPNs were cured over 28 h using two thermal treatments. The polymers were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis and swelling profiles in n-hexane. The glass transition temperature (Tg and the swelling were more affect by the NCO/OH molar ratio variation. The semi-IPNs showed Tg from - 27 to - 6 °C and the swelling range was from 3 to 22%, according to the crosslink density. The IPN mechanical properties were dependent on the cure temperature and MMA content in it. Lower elastic modulus values were observed in IPNs cured at room temperature.

  13. CO2 mitigation by carbon nanotube formation during dry reforming of methane analyzed by factorial design combined with response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiago P. Braga; Regina C. R. Santos; Barbara M. C. Sales; Bruno R. da Silva; Antônio N. Pinheiro; Edson R. Leite; Antoninho Valentini

    2014-01-01

    A factorial experimental design was combined with response surface methodology (RSM) to opti-mize the catalyzed CO2 consumption by coke deposition and syngas production during the dry re-forming of CH4. The CH4/CO2 feed ratio and the reaction temperature were chosen as the variables, and the selected responses were CH4 and CO2 conversion, the H2/CO ratio, and coke deposition. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be a CH4/CO2 feed ratio of approximately 3 at 700 °C, producing a large quantity of coke and realizing high CO2 conversion. Furthermore, Raman results showed that the CH4/CO2 ratio and reaction temperature affect the system’s response, particularly the characteristics of the coke produced, which indicates the formation of carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbon.

  14. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design; Processo de reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo empregando o planejamento fatorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M., E-mail: carlos.olacerda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2{sup 2} factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  15. Factorial experimental design for the culture of human embryonic stem cells as aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactors reveals the potential for interaction effects between bioprocess parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Megan M; Meng, Guoliang; Rancourt, Derrick E; Gates, Ian D; Kallos, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Traditional optimization of culture parameters for the large-scale culture of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as aggregates is carried out in a stepwise manner whereby the effect of varying each culture parameter is investigated individually. However, as evidenced by the wide range of published protocols and culture performance indicators (growth rates, pluripotency marker expression, etc.), there is a lack of systematic investigation into the true effect of varying culture parameters especially with respect to potential interactions between culture variables. Here we describe the design and execution of a two-parameter, three-level (3(2)) factorial experiment resulting in nine conditions that were run in duplicate 125-mL stirred suspension bioreactors. The two parameters investigated here were inoculation density and agitation rate, which are easily controlled, but currently, poorly characterized. Cell readouts analyzed included fold expansion, maximum density, and exponential growth rate. Our results reveal that the choice of best case culture parameters was dependent on which cell property was chosen as the primary output variable. Subsequent statistical analyses via two-way analysis of variance indicated significant interaction effects between inoculation density and agitation rate specifically in the case of exponential growth rates. Results indicate that stepwise optimization has the potential to miss out on the true optimal case. In addition, choosing an optimum condition for a culture output of interest from the factorial design yielded similar results when repeated with the same cell line indicating reproducibility. We finally validated that human ESCs remain pluripotent in suspension culture as aggregates under our optimal conditions and maintain their differentiation capabilities as well as a stable karyotype and strong expression levels of specific human ESC markers over several passages in suspension bioreactors.

  16. The effect of heterogeneous variance on efficiency and power of cluster randomized trials with a balanced 2 × 2 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemme, Francesca; van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

    2015-10-01

    Sample size calculation for cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with a [Formula: see text] factorial design is complicated due to the combination of nesting (of individuals within clusters) with crossing (of two treatments). Typically, clusters and individuals are allocated across treatment conditions in a balanced fashion, which is optimal under homogeneity of variance. However, the variance is likely to be heterogeneous if there is a treatment effect. An unbalanced allocation is then more efficient, but impractical because the optimal allocation depends on the unknown variances. Focusing on CRTs with a [Formula: see text] design, this paper addresses two questions: How much efficiency is lost by having a balanced design when the outcome variance is heterogeneous? How large must the sample size be for a balanced allocation to have sufficient power under heterogeneity of variance? We consider different scenarios of heterogeneous variance. Within each scenario, we determine the relative efficiency of a balanced design, as a function of the level (cluster, individual, both) and amount of heterogeneity of the variance. We then provide a simple correction of the sample size for the loss of power due to heterogeneity of variance when a balanced allocation is used. The theory is illustrated with an example of a published 2 x2 CRT.

  17. The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Adams, Marc A

    2015-09-11

    the first studies focusing on the individual components of combined goal setting and reward structures in a factorial design to increase walking. The trial is expected to produce results useful to future research interventions and perhaps industry initiatives, primarily focused on mHealth, goal setting, and those looking to promote behavior change through performance-based incentives. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02053259; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02053259 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6b65xLvmg).

  18. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  19. Model discrimination for dephasing two-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Er-ling [Department of Automatic Control, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); College of Science (Physics), Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Zhou, Weiwei [Department of Automatic Control, College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Schirmer, Sophie, E-mail: sgs29@swan.ac.uk [College of Science (Physics), Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-06

    The problem of model discriminability and parameter identifiability for dephasing two-level systems subject to Hamiltonian control is studied. Analytic solutions of the Bloch equations are used to derive explicit expressions for observables as functions of time for different models. This information is used to give criteria for model discrimination and parameter estimation based on simple experimental paradigms. - Highlights: • Analytic expressions for observables of driven, dephasing two-level systems. • Distinguishability of dephasing models via Rabi-oscillation experiments. • General identifiability of model parameters and cases of failure. • Application to empirically determine of effect of driving on dephasing basis. • Importance for optimal design of coherent controls for qubits subject to dephasing.

  20. Factorial design for the evaluation of the interaction effect between particle size and heating rate in the kinetic energy of coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ivonete; Silva, Eugenio A.G.; Mortari, Daniela A.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Milioli, Fernando E. [University of Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Engineering School. Group of Thermal and Fluids Engineering], Emails: iavila@sc.usp.br, eugenio.silva@usp.br, paulam@sc.usp.br, milioli@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the behavior of kinetic energy for different heating rates ({alpha}) and particle sizes of the material in the study of the coal combustion process. It aims to obtain a response surface in a large range of particle size, using heating rates between the minimum and maximum values allowed by the equipment. Therefore it searches for a model to evaluate the interaction effect between particle size and the heating rate and to predict the activation energy of the process studied. The activation energy of the process was determined using the isoconversional model Model Free Kinetics. In this model, the activation energy (E{sub {alpha}}) is obtained as a function of the reaction extent ({alpha}). The subscript in E{sub {alpha}} designates the values related to a given value of conversion ({alpha}). All experiments were conducted in thermogravimetric balance using samples of a Brazilian coal (EC4500) witch average particle size between 163 to 650 {mu}m and heating rates between 10 and 40 deg C min{sup -1} in dynamic atmosphere of air. A central rotatable composite design was applied for the 2{sup 2} factorial design including 4 tests under the axial conditions and 3 repetitions in the central point. As expected, the results show that both the particle size and the heating rate affected significantly the values of activation energy of the coal combustion process obtained by the model used. (author)

  1. Custom fractional factorial designs to develop atorvastatin self-nanoemulsifying and nanosuspension delivery systems--enhancement of oral bioavailability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hashem, Fahima M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Nasr, Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama A A

    2015-01-01

    ...) and solid nanosuspensions (NS) in order to enhance the oral delivery of atorvastatin (ATR). According to the design, 14 experimental runs of ATR SNEDDS were formulated utilizing the highly ATR solubilizing SNEDDS components...

  2. Comparison of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction and Dynamic Maceration Over Content of Tagitinin C obtained from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Leaves Using Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline M R; Ferreira, Nayara L O; Oliveira, Anselmo E; Borges, Leonardo L; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia belongs to the Asteraceae family. The leaves of T. diversifolia have been studied lately because of the presence of tagitinin C. Looking for an easy and inexpensive method to extract tagitinin C from T. diversifolia leaves, this work aims to conduct a screening to evaluate the influence of different experimental factors using the dynamic maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with 2(3) factorial design based on response surface methodology in enhancing this chemical marker extraction. The experimental factors were: extraction time (ET) of 30 and 60 minutes, solid: liquid ratio (SLR) of 5 and 10 grams/grams and ethanolic strength (ES) 48 and 96% (w/w). The experiments were done tripled. The content of tagitinin C in each produced extract was quantified by HPLC method. The highest concentrations of tagitinin C obtained under the experimental design were 0.53 mg/mL and 0.71 mg/mL, respectively for dynamic maceration (DM) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) from Tithonia diversifolia powdered leaves. For the UAE method, the main parameter for higher contents of tagitinin C was the solid: liquid ratio, followed by the ethanolic strength, and the extraction time was not significant for this method. As for the DM method, all the parameters (SLR, ES, and ET) were significant for a higher content of tagitinin C. Based on the obtained results, it was revealed that the ultrasound-assisted extraction was more effective than dynamic maceration for tagitinin C extraction from T. diversifolia powdered leaves. Tithonia diversifolia leaves possess tagitinin C, a sesquiterpene lactone, as an important secondary metabolite with several biological activities, such as antimalarial, gastroprotective, chemotherapeutic adjuvants, and toxic activities.Ultrasound-assisted extraction was more effective to obtain higher levels of tagitinin C when compared with dynamic maceration extraction.Factorial design can be employed as a screening tool to find

  3. Virtual patients design and its effect on clinical reasoning and student experience: a protocol for a randomised factorial multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman James

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual Patients (VPs are web-based representations of realistic clinical cases. They are proposed as being an optimal method for teaching clinical reasoning skills. International standards exist which define precisely what constitutes a VP. There are multiple design possibilities for VPs, however there is little formal evidence to support individual design features. The purpose of this trial is to explore the effect of two different potentially important design features on clinical reasoning skills and the student experience. These are the branching case pathways (present or absent and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre randomised 2x2 factorial design study evaluating two independent variables of VP design, branching (present or absent, and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent.The study will be carried out in medical student volunteers in one year group from three university medical schools in the United Kingdom, Warwick, Keele and Birmingham. There are four core musculoskeletal topics. Each case can be designed in four different ways, equating to 16 VPs required for the research. Students will be randomised to four groups, completing the four VP topics in the same order, but with each group exposed to a different VP design sequentially. All students will be exposed to the four designs. Primary outcomes are performance for each case design in a standardized fifteen item clinical reasoning assessment, integrated into each VP, which is identical for each topic. Additionally a 15-item self-reported evaluation is completed for each VP, based on a widely used EViP tool. Student patterns of use of the VPs will be recorded. In one centre, formative clinical and examination performance will be recorded, along with a self reported pre and post-intervention reasoning score, the DTI. Our power calculations indicate a sample size of 112 is required for

  4. Application of factorial design to the study of xylitol production from corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production from corncob hemicelluloses hydrolysate was carried out using Candida guillermondii (NCIM 3124. The optimization was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. The four selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum level (g/l is: MgSO4.7H2O- 1.34, yeast extract- 4.34, KH2PO4- 2.94 and xylose- 9.49 and influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels were quantified by the central composite design using RSM. The optimum level of process variables are: temperature (29.88 oC, substrate concentration (3.26 g/l, pH (7.25, agitation speed (170.42 rpm, inoculum size (3.41 ml. These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.73 g/g.

  5. A review of the efficacy of fixed-dose combinations olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine besylate/benazepril in factorial design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Allen; Chavanu, Kathleen; Merkel, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In order to adequately control hypertension, the majority of patients will require treatment with more than one antihypertensive agent. Fixed-dose combination therapy offers several advantages, including improved efficacy, tolerability, and treatment compliance. Certain combinations have benefits in specific patient populations, such as the elderly or those with comorbidities. In this review, we evaluate the BP-lowering efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amlodipine besylate/benazepril in similarly designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in similar patient populations. This indirect comparison showed that both combinations significantly improve both systolic and diastolic BP compared with monotherapy with the individual agents or placebo; it also demonstrated that the combinations were well tolerated. Both combination therapies significantly improved response rates, but olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ achieved the highest control rates compared with the individual agents. On the basis of an indirect comparison of published factorial design studies, olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ appears to be at least as effective as amlodipine besylate/benazepril and may provide quantitatively greater reductions in diastolic BP at commonly used dosages. A randomized clinical trial comparing the two combinations is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Optimization of parameters for the quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of mephedrone using a fractional factorial design and a portable Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Samuel; Correa, Elon; Cowcher, David P; Allwood, J William; Goodacre, Royston

    2013-01-15

    A new optimization strategy for the SERS detection of mephedrone using a portable Raman system has been developed. A fractional factorial design was employed, and the number of statistically significant experiments (288) was greatly reduced from the actual total number of experiments (1722), which minimized the workload while maintaining the statistical integrity of the results. A number of conditions were explored in relation to mephedrone SERS signal optimization including the type of nanoparticle, pH, and aggregating agents (salts). Through exercising this design, it was possible to derive the significance of each of the individual variables, and we discovered four optimized SERS protocols for which the reproducibility of the SERS signal and the limit of detection (LOD) of mephedrone were established. Using traditional nanoparticles with a combination of salts and pHs, it was shown that the relative standard deviations of mephedrone-specific Raman peaks were as low as 0.51%, and the LOD was estimated to be around 1.6 μg/mL (9.06 × 10(-6) M), a detection limit well beyond the scope of conventional Raman and extremely low for an analytical method optimized for quick and uncomplicated in-field use.

  7. Determination of nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after preconcentration and microextraction based ionic liquids using full factorial and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Zohre; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2012-12-01

    In this research, a microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was used for determination of nickel in solutions. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was chosen as a complexing agent. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 50 μL of ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 μL volumes of analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. ISFME is based on phase separation phenomenon of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. This method is simple and rapid for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from food samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction because of using ionic liquid. The effective parameters such as amount of IL, salt effect, concentration of the chelating agent and ion pairing agent were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 2 to 80 ng/mL. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n= 6) were 0.6 ng/mL and 2%, respectively.

  8. Using ProModel as a simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning: Case study plastic packaging factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochamarn Tearwattanarattikal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the application of a Simulation Model to assist decision making on expanding capacity and plant layout design and planning. The plant layout design concept is performed first to create the physical layouts then the simulation model used to test the capability of plant to meet various demand forecast scena. The study employed ProModel package as a tool, using the model to compare the performances in term of % utilization, characteristics of WIP and ability to meet due date. The verification and validation stages were perform before running the scenarios. The model runs daily production and then the capacity constraint resources defined by % utilization. The expanding capacity policy can be extra shift-working hours or increasing the number of machines. After expanding capacity solutions are found, the physical layout is selected based on the criterion of space available for WIP and easy flow of material.

  9. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant

  10. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant.

  11. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  12. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  13. Influence of parental sample sizes on the estimating genetic parameters in cultured clamMeretrix meretrix based on factorial mating designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bingbing; YUE Xin; WANG Hongxia; LIU Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The precise and accurate knowledge of genetic parameters is a prerequisite for making efficient selection strategies in breeding programs. A number of estimators of heritability about important economic traits in many marine mollusks are available in the literature, however very few research have evaluated about the accuracy of genetic parameters estimated with different family structures. Thus, in the present study, the effect of parent sample size for estimating the precision of genetic parameters of four growth traits in clamM. meretrix by factorial designs were analyzed through restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Bayesian. The results showed that the average estimated heritabilities of growth traits obtained from REML were 0.23–0.32 for 9 and 16 full-sib families and 0.19–0.22 for 25 full-sib families. When using Bayesian inference, the average estimated heritabilities were 0.11–0.12 for 9 and 16 full-sib families and 0.13–0.16 for 25 full-sib families. Compared with REML, Bayesian got lower heritabilities, but still remained at a medium level. When the number of parents increased from 6 to 10, the estimated heritabilities were more closed to 0.20 in REML and 0.12 in Bayesian inference. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and high and had no significant difference between different sizes of designs. The accuracies of estimated breeding values from the 9 and 16 families were less precise than those from 25 families. Our results provide a basic genetic evaluation for growth traits and should be useful for the design and operation of a practical selective breeding program in the clamM. meretrix.

  14. Use of factorial design for evaluation of plasma conditions and comparison of two liquid sample introduction systems for an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizan, Lilian C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Edivan C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil); Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana Rita A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2005-06-30

    A factorial design was applied to evaluate plasma conditions employing the Mg II 280/Mg I 285 nm intensity ratio in an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer using different sample introduction devices: a concentric or a V-groove nebulizer and a cyclonic or a Sturman-Masters spray chamber. Effects of nebulizer gas flow-rate on Mg II/Mg I ratio were different in each introduction system. Robust conditions were obtained at low nebulizer gas flow-rate when using concentric nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber or a concentric nebulizer and a Sturman-Masters spray chamber. However, when using a V-groove nebulizer with a Sturman-Masters spray chamber, Mg II/Mg I ratio increased at high nebulizer gas flow-rates. Recovery experiments for a milk standard reference material diluted in water-soluble tertiary amines in both robust and non-robust conditions indicated that the robust condition was reached at higher nebulizer gas flow-rates and led to better accuracy and precision when using a V-groove nebulizer.

  15. Optimization of mechanical properties of non-woven short sisal fibre-reinforced vinyl ester composite using factorial design and GA method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Velumani; P Navaneethakrishnan; S Jayabal; D S Robinson Smart

    2013-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to evaluate and study the effect of process parameters on tensile, flexural and impact strength of untreated short sisal fibre-reinforced vinyl ester polymer-based composites and predicts the optimum properties of random natural fibre-reinforced composites. The natural fibre of sisal at lengths of 10, 30 and 50 mm and vinyl ester resin at loadings of 15, 30 and 45 (wt%) were prepared. The composite panel was then fabricated using hand lay method in cold process of size 180 × 160 mm2. Samples were then cut from the panel and subjected to mechanical properties testing such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths. The average tensile strength ranges between 27.1 and 43.9 MPa. The flexural strength ranged between 26.9 and 49.5 MPa and the impact strength ranged between 16 and 93 J/m. The strength values were optimized using factorial design and genetic algorithm (GA) method. The predicted optimum process parameter values are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Optimization of hydrothermal synthesis of H-ZSM-5 zeolite for dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether using full factorial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samaneh Hosseini; Majid Taghizadeh; Ali Eliassi

    2012-01-01

    H-ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized by hydrothermal method.The effects of different synthesis parameters,such as hydrothermal crystallization temperature (170-190 ℃) and Si/Al molar ratio (100-150),on the catalytic performance of the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over the synthesized H-ZSM-5 zeolite were studied.The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption,XRD,NH3-TPD,TGA/DTA,and SEM techniques.The full factorial design of experiments was applied to the synthesis of H-ZSM-5 zeolite and the effects of synthesis conditions and their interaction on the yield of DME as the response variable were determined.Analysis of variance showed that two variables and their interaction significantly affected the response.According to the experimental results,the optimized catalyst prepared at 170 ℃ with the Si/Al molar ratio of 100 showed the best catalytic performance among the tested H-ZSM-5 zeolite.

  17. Adsorption of Disperse Orange 30 dye onto activated carbon derived from Holm Oak (Quercus Ilex) acorns: A 3(k) factorial design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Ates, Funda; Erginel, Nihal; Ozcan, Oznur; Oduncu, Emre

    2015-05-15

    In this study, samples of activated carbon were prepared from Holm Oak acorns by chemical activation with H3PO4, ZnCl2 and KOH as activating agents. The samples were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR and elemental analysis, and were then evaluated for the removal of Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) dyes from aqueous solutions. A 3(k) factorial design was used to determine the interaction effects of carbonization temperature, pH, dosage of adsorbent and type of activating agent on the amount of dye removal. Also, level of effectiveness factors were determined by conducting regression models for maximum adsorption efficiency. Of all the samples, the sample generated using ZnCl2 as an activating agent showed a maximum dye removal efficiency of 93.5% at a carbonization temperature of 750 °C, a pH of 2 and an adsorbent dosage of 0.15 g/25 ml. The analysis shows that the adsorption process depends significantly on the type of activating agent used in the preparation of activated carbon.

  18. A FACTORIAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF CHROMIUM TOXICITY ON THE GLUTATHIONE LEVELS OF Brachiaria brizantha AND Brachiaria ruziziensis SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium toxicity affects redox reactions within plant cells, generating detrimental reactive oxygen species. Glutathione is an antioxidant peptide and also a substrate for the production of phytochelatins, which are chelating peptides reported to mitigate Cr3+ toxicity in plants. In this study, Brachiaria brizantha (B. brizantha and Brachiaria ruziziensis (B. ruziziensis seedlings were evaluated for physiological responses and glutathione production following the addition of zero or 5 mg L-1 Cr3+ to the nutrient solution. Glutathione levels were determined by colorimetric analysis at 412 nm using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid as a chromophore reagent and recovery with glutathione reductase (with evaluations at days 10 and 20 of continuous growth. The assessments were carried out in a completely randomized design with 2 authentic replications, and arranged in a 23 factorial. Cr3+ caused an average increase of 0.76 mg g-1 in the initial glutathione content. However, by day 20 there was an average reduction of 3.63 mg g-1. Chromium-affected physiological detrimental responses, albeit detected in both species, were less-pronounced in B. ruziziensis, along with a much higher level of glutathione. This study indicates that B. ruziziensis has a greater tolerance for chromium toxicity than B. brizantha, and that glutathione is likely to be involved in the mitigation of chromium stress in B. ruziziensis.

  19. Application of full-factorial design in the synthesis of polypropylene-g-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) functional material for metal ion adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2017-07-01

    The graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto electron beam pre-irradiated polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabric was optimized using a 43 full factorial design analysis. The analysis yielded a polynomial equation that relates the linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the independent parameters to degree of grafting (Dg). The linear terms (i.e. absorbed dose, reaction time and monomer concentration), quadratic terms of time and concentration, and interaction term between absorbed dose and time were determined as significant independent parameters based from analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum grafting time and absorbed dose to achieve 150% Dg at 5% monomer concentration were 3.5 h and 39.8 kGy, respectively. The pristine PP, polypropylene-g-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PP-g-PGMA) and functionalized grafted materials were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The affinities of the synthesized adsorbents towards the target metal ions at pH 4 were established to be in the following order: Cr(VI) >> Pb(II) Cd(II) for the amine functionalized PP-g-PGMA; and Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cr(VI) for the carboxylic acid functionalized PP-g-PGMA.

  20. Development of innovative oil-core self-organized nanovesicles prepared with chitosan and lecithin using a 2(3) full-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sandra Elisa; de Andrade, Cristiane; Sansone, Pedro Ernesto da Silva; Guterres, Silvia; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop innovative nanosystems with isopropyl myristate as the oil core of self-assembly nanovesicles constituted of chitosan and lecithin using a 2(3) factorial design. The factors analyzed were chitosan (X1, levels 4 and 8  mg/ml), oil (X2, levels 10 and 20  mg/ml) and lecithin (X3, levels 4 and 8 mg/ml). The responses evaluated were diameter, zeta potential, pH, viscosity, and backscattering analysis. The bioavailability was evaluated after oral administration of clozapine free and nanoencapsulated in rats. The diameter ranged from 0.348 to 1.5 µm for F2 (X1, 4; X2, 10; X3, 8 mg/ml) and F7 (X1, 8; X2, 20; X3, 4  mg/ml), respectively. Laser diffractometry analysis revealed only one diameter population for all batches. Zeta potential was positive, being influenced by X1 and X2/X3 association. Viscosity values were dependent on the X1 and X2 concentrations used. A structure proposed for the nanosystem consists of chitosan forming the hydrophilic shell layer that protects the core comprised of lecithin and the hydrophobic groups of oil. The AUC0-∞ was almost 3 times higher with the clozapine nanoencapsuted in relation to free drug. It was developed a new nanosystem which is able of improving the absorption of drugs.

  1. Box-Behnken factorial design to obtain a phenolic-rich extract from the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Sampaio, Maria; Lima, Júlio; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to study the influence of four parameters (X1: % methanol; X2: extraction time; X3: extraction temperature; X4: solid/solvent ratio) on two responses, namely extraction yield and phenolics content of the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. The model presented a good fit to the experimental results for the extraction yield, being significantly influenced by X1 and X4. On the other hand a parameter reduction was necessary to run the model for phenolics content, showing that only X1 and X2 had great influence on the response. Two best extraction conditions were defined: X1=76.8% MeOH, X2=150.0 min, X3=60.0°C and X4=1:100 and X1=69.2%, X2=150 min, X3=42.5°C and X4=1:100. Moreover, the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis conducted with the center point sample revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids and 15 phenolic compounds, from which the 9 flavonoids and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids are described for the first time. Only phenolic compounds were quantified by a validated HPLC-DAD method, the pair quercetin-3-O-rutinoside+quercetin-3-O-glucoside dominating all the 29 extracts. This study is of great importance for future works that seek to apply the phenolic profile to the quality control of C. majus samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Photon collider Higgs factories

    CERN Document Server

    Telnov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  4. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  5. The Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W M; Lee Byung Cheol; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Siegrist, J L; Wang, L; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Copin, Y; Smadja, G; Gangler, E; Castera, A; Adam, G; Bacon, R; Lemonnier, J P; Pecontal, A; Pécontal, E; Kessler, R

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) at redshifts 0.03designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ~12 SNe/month in 2003.

  6. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  7. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  8. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  9. Novel non-ionic surfactant proniosomes for transdermal delivery of lacidipine: optimization using 2(3) factorial design and in vivo evaluation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sara M; Abdelmalak, Nevine S; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Abdelaziz, Nabaweya

    2016-06-01

    Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle drug delivery concept with potential for delivery of drugs via transdermal route. To develop proniosomal gel using cremophor RH 40 as non-ionic surfactant containing the antihypertensive drug lacidipine for transdermal delivery so as to avoid its extensive first pass metabolism and to improve its permeation through the skin. Proniosomes containing 1% lacidipine were prepared by the coacervation phase separation method, characterized, and optimized using a 2(3) full factorial design to define the optimum conditions to produce proniosomes with high entrapment efficiency, minimal vesicle size, and high-percentage release efficiency. The amount of cholesterol (X1), the amount of soya lecithin (X2), and the amount of cremophor RH 40 (X3) were selected as three independent variables. The system F4 was found to fulfill the maximum requisite of an optimum system because it had minimum vesicle size, maximum EE, maximum release efficiency, and maximum desirability. The optimized system (F4) was then converted to proniosomal gel using carbopol 940 (1% w/w). In vitro permeation through excised rabbit skin study revealed higher flux (6.48 ± 0.45) for lacidipine from the optimized proniosomal gel when compared with the corresponding emulgel (3.04 ± 0.13) mg/cm(2)/h. The optimized formulation was evaluated for its bioavailability compared with commercial product. Statistical analysis revealed significant increase in AUC (0 - α) 464.17 ± 113.15 ng h/ml compared with 209.02 ± 47.35 ng h/ml for commercial tablet. Skin irritancy and histopathological investigation of rat skin revealed its safety. Cremophor RH 40 proniosomal gel could be considered as very promising nanocarriers for transdermal delivery of lacidipine.

  10. Pituitary response to auditory stress: effect of treatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. Usefulness of a factorial mixed design for statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu, R; Jéquier, J

    1976-08-01

    Eight adult male rats were chronically cannulated in the jugular vein and placed individually in a sound-attenuated cubicle. Four of the animals were also implanted with a permanent cannula in the right lateral ventricle of the brain. Each animal was submitted twice to auditory stress at a 24-h interval. Before each stress, the rats were pretreated with either saline or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MT), the order of administration of the drug and its vehicle being alternated in the eight rats. The injections were made either intravenously or intraventricularly. Auditory stress significantly depressed plasma growth hormone (GH) levels irrespective of the type of pretreatment. Mean plasma GH levels were significantly lower after alpha-MT pretreatment. alpha-MT pretreated animals had higher mean plasma corticosterone (B) levels which remained unchanged during stress. Plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were not modified by stress nor by alpha-MT pretreatment. The intraventricular administration of alpha-MT at a dose (20 mg/kg) which is ineffective by a systemic route produced the same effects on GH and B levels as the intravenous injection (250 mg/kg). These data seem to indicate that auditory stress exerts its inhibitory effect on GH secretion through a noncatecholaminergic pathway. They show, on the other hand, the existence of a central catecholaminergic tonus, stimulatory for GH and inhibitory for B. Statistical analysis was based on a factorial mixed design for repeated measurements after logarithmic transformation of the data. The purpose, advantages and limits of this procedure are presented and discussed.

  11. Gastroretentive Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablets with Combined Floating and Bioadhesive Properties: Factorial Design Analysis, In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Abdominal X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Hana N; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Aldawsari, Hibah M

    2015-01-01

    Ranitidine HCl is an H2-antagonist that suffers from low oral bioavailability of 50%. The site-specific absorption from the upper part of the small intestine and the colonic metabolism of the drug could partially contribute to its reduced bioavailability. To surmount these drawbacks, this work aimed at the formulation of Ranitidine HCl gastroretentive floating-biaodhesive tablets. A 3(2) factorial design was applied to assess the effects of matrix former (HPMC K100M): drug ratio, and the release retardant (Carbopol 971) amount on the characteristics of the tablets prepared using direct compression technique. The prepared tablets were thoroughly evaluated for physical properties, floating, swelling, bioadhesive and in vitro release behaviors. Statistical analysis of the results revealed significant effects for both formulation variables on the swelling index, maximum detachment force and cumulative percent drug released after 6 hours. In addition, the matrix- former: drug ratio showed a statistically significant effect on the floating lag time. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated Higuchi diffusion kinetics and anomalous transport mechanism for all formulations. Scanning electron micrographs of the selected tablet formulation; F8, revealed intact surface without any perforations or channels in the dry state, while polymer expansion (relaxation) with some perforated areas were observed on the surface of the tablets after 12 hours dissolution in 0.1 N HCl. Furthermore, in vivo abdominal x-ray imaging showed good floating behavior of the selected formulation; F8, for up to 6 hours with appropriate bioadhesive property. In conclusion, the selected ranitidine HCl floating-bioadhesive tablets could be regarded as a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system that could deliver the drug at a controlled rate.

  12. Effect of Sericin in [HA/Bioplastic] Composite Composed by 2k Factorial Design Method on Solidification Time and Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic hydroxyapatite has been attractive ceramic for a decade as main material of bonegraft. However, in powder form it was difficult to shape into certain geometry due to its brittleness characteristic. For this, composing it with another biomaterial as a matrix in a proper composition can be a challenging. In the present work, bioplastic (B made of cassava starch was selected as a matrix material and silk sericin (SS extracted from B.mori cocoon was added. Hydroxyapatite was obtained from bovine hydroxyapatite (H. The composite was prepared by mixing of H/B with ratio of 20/80 and 80/20 and sericin of 8% and 16%w/w was blended to form pasta. It was then casted layer by layer (0.1mm and 0.5mm thick into mould with size of 6mm diameter and 3mm deep. The composite component was composed by utilizing 2k Factorial Design Method and selected the highest of diametral tensile strength (DTS. ANOVA was performed to evaluate hypothesis H0 and H1 based upon the sources and two regression models of Y=f(X, that represented solidification time and tensile strength were developed. The result of solidification time model reveals that composite [H80/B20/S16] with 0.1mm layer thickness had the shortest time of 106.36sec and the highest DTS of 3.46MPa. These results were slightly lower than that obtained by experiment i.e. 107sec and 3.88MPa, respectively. Additional sericin twice for this composite gains more significant effect in improving DTS and solidification time compared to that of giving hydroxyapatite.

  13. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune B Jakobsen

    Full Text Available The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  14. The effect of stimulation therapy and donepezil on cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease. A community based RCT with a two-by-two factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Fred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD induces cognitive deterioration, and there is controversy regarding the optimal treatment strategy in early AD. Stimulation therapy, including physical exercise and cholinesterase inhibitors are both reported to postpone cognitive deterioration in separate studies. We aimed to study the effect of stimulation therapy and the additional effect of donepezil on cognitive function in early AD. Method Design: A two-by-two factorial trial comprising stimulation therapy for one year compared to standard care to which a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial with donepezil was added. Setting: Nine rural municipalities in Northern Norway. Participants: 187 participants 65 years and older with a recent diagnosis of mild or moderate AD were included in the study of which 146 completed a one-year follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: In five municipalities the participants received stimulation therapy whereas participants in four received standard care. All participants were randomised double-blindly to donepezil or placebo and tested with three different cognitive tests four times during the one-year study period. Main outcome: Changes in MMSE sum score. Secondary outcome: Changes in ADAS-Cog and Clock Drawing Test. Results MMSE scores remained unchanged amongst AD participants receiving stimulation therapy and those receiving standard care. The results were consistent for ADAS-Cog and Clock Drawing Test. No time trend differences were found during one-year follow-up between groups receiving stimulation therapy versus standard care or between donepezil versus placebo. Conclusion In rural AD patients non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapy did not improve outcome compared with standard care but all groups retained cognitive function during one year follow-up. Other studies are needed to confirm these results. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT00443014

  15. Evaluation of two evidence-based knowledge transfer interventions for physicians. A cluster randomized controlled factorial design trial: the CardioDAS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Emmanuel; Kasparian, Christelle; Cucherat, Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Haugh, Margaret; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Nony, Patrice

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of two modes of evidence-based knowledge transfer ('active' and 'passive' modes) in terms of improvement of intention of prescription, knowledge, and real prescription in practice, we performed an open randomized controlled trial (CardioDAS) using a factorial design (two tested interventions: 'active' and 'passive' knowledge transfer) and a hierarchical structure (cluster of physicians for each department level). The participants were cardiologists working in French public hospitals. In the 'passive' transfer group, cardiologists received evidence-based knowledge material (available on Internet) every week for a duration of 1 year. In the 'active' transfer group, two knowledge brokers (EA, PN) visited the participating departments (every 2 months for 1 year, 2 h per visit). The primary outcome consisted in the adjusted absolute mean variation of score (difference between post- and pre-study session) of answers to simulated cases assessing the intention to prescribe. Secondary outcomes were the variation of answers to a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) assessing knowledge and of the conformity of real prescriptions to evidence-based reference assessing the behavioral change. Twenty-two French units (departments) of cardiology were randomized (72 participating cardiologists). In the 'active' transfer group, the primary outcome was more improved than that in the control (P = 0.031 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 5 points/100). The change in knowledge transfer (MCQ) was also significant (P = 0.039 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 6 points/100). However, no benefit was shown in terms of prescription conformity to evidence. For the 'passive' mode of knowledge transfer and for the three outcomes considered, no improvement was identified. CardioDAS findings confirm that 'active' knowledge transfer has some impact on participants' intent to prescribe and knowledge, but no effect on

  16. Web-based cognitive bias modification for problem drinkers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial with a 2x2x2 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Denise S; Salemink, Elske; Smit, Filip; Kramer, Jeannet; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-07-20

    The automatic tendency to attend to, positively evaluate and approach alcohol related stimuli has been found to play a causal role in problematic alcohol use and can be retrained by computerised Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). In spite of CBMs potential as an internet intervention, little is known about the efficacy of web-based CBM. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of web-based CBM in a double blind randomised controlled trial with a 2 (attention bias retraining: real versus placebo) x 2 (alcohol/no-go training: real versus placebo) x 2 (approach bias retraining: real versus placebo) factorial design. The effectiveness of 12 sessions of CBM will be examined among problem drinkers aged 18-65 who are randomly assigned to one of the eight CBM conditions, after completing two modules of a validated cognitive behavioural intervention, DrinkingLess. The primary outcome measure is the change in alcohol use. It is expected that, for each of the CBM interventions, participants in the real CBM conditions will show a greater decrease in alcohol use than participants in the placebo conditions. Secondary outcome measures include the percentage of participants drinking within the limits for sensible drinking. Possible mediating (change in automatic biases) and moderating (working memory, inhibition) factors will be examined, as will the comparative cost-effectiveness of the various CBM strategies. This study will be the first to test the relative efficacy of various web-based CBM strategies in problem drinkers. If proven effective, CBM could be implemented as a low-cost, low-threshold adjuvant to CBT-based online interventions for problem drinkers. Netherlands Trial register: NTR3875.

  17. Gellan gum-based mucoadhesive microspheres of almotriptan for nasal administration: Formulation optimization using factorial design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almotriptan malate (ALM, indicated for the treatment of migraine in adults is not a drug candidate feasible to be administered through the oral route during the attack due to its associated symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. This obviates an alternative dosage form and nasal drug delivery is a good substitute to oral and parenteral administration. Materials and Methods: Gellan gum (GG microspheres of ALM, for intranasal administration were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification cross-linking technique employing a 2 3 factorial design. Drug to polymer ratio, calcium chloride concentration and cross-linking time were selected as independent variables, while particle size and in vitro mucoadhesion of the microspheres were investigated as dependent variables. Regression analysis was performed to identify the best formulation conditions. The microspheres were evaluated for characteristics such as practical percentage yield, particle size, percentage incorporation efficiency, swellability, zeta potential, in vitro mucoadhesion, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and in vitro drug diffusion studies. Results: The shape and surface characteristics of the microspheres were determined by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed spherical nature and nearly smooth surface with drug incorporation efficiency in the range of 71.65 ± 1.09% - 91.65 ± 1.13%. In vitro mucoadhesion was observed the range of 79.45 ± 1.69% - 95.48 ± 1.27%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results indicated a molecular level dispersion of drug in the microspheres. In vitro drug diffusion was Higuchi matrix controlled and the release mechanism was found to be non-Fickian. Stability studies indicated that there were no significant deviations in the drug content, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug diffusion characteristics. Conclusion: The investigation revealed promising potential of GG microspheres for delivering ALM

  18. Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate cream using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana G. Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate was developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 and methanol:ethyl acetate:toluene: acetonitrile:3M ammonium formate in water (1:2.5:6.0:0.3:0.2, % v/v as optimized mobile phase at detection wavelength of 224 nm. The retardation factor (Rf values for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate were 0.23, 0.70, and 0.59, respectively. Percent recoveries in terms of accuracy for the marketed formulation were found to be 98.35–99.76%, 99.36–99.65%, and 99.16–100.25% for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate, respectively. The pooled percent relative standard deviation for repeatability and intermediate precision studies was found to be < 2% for three target analytes. The effect of four independent variables, methanol content in total mobile phase, wavelength, chamber saturation time, and solvent front, was evaluated by fractional factorial design for robustness testing. Amongst all four factors, volume of methanol in mobile phase appeared to have a possibly significant effect on retention factor of miconazole nitrate compared with the other two drugs nadifloxacin and mometasone furoate, and therefore it was important to be carefully controlled. In summary, a novel, simple, accurate, reproducible, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed, which would be of use in quality control of these cream formulations.

  19. 空调制冷自控系统在卷烟厂中的设计与应用%Design and Application of Air Conditioning Refrigeration Automatic Control System in Cigarette Factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    本文以上海卷烟厂为例,详细介绍了烟草行业建筑空调制冷自控系统的设计及应用。%This paper takes the project of Shanghai Cigarette Factory for example, introduces the design and application of building air conditioning refrigeration automatic control system in tobacco industry in detail .

  20. The Design and Implementation of Integrated Security System in Cigaretee Factory%卷烟厂综合安保系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永东

    2011-01-01

    本文对延安卷烟厂的综合安保系统进行了简要介绍,展示了视频监控系统、防盗报警系统、一卡通系统、电子巡更系统在卷烟厂中的具体应用方式。%In this paper,the integrated security system of Yan'an cigarette factory has been briefed,and a application way has been showed for a video surveillance system,anti-theft alarm system,card systems and electronic patrol system in cigarette factory.

  1. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  2. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    added (7 mL), heating temperature (84.12°C) and heating time (15 min). When these optimal ... conditions constitute one of the major obstacles for ... a two levels factorial design;. • a design of ... balance (Sartorius Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany),.

  3. 厂房内排雨水系统分析与设计%Analysis and Design of the Inner Rainwater System of Factory Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新莲; 崔云川

    2001-01-01

    The inner rainwater system of large factory buildings is analyzed and discussed in this paper.And the personal opinion is put forward.%对大型厂房内排雨水系统水流情况进行分析,对系统设计 进行了探讨,提出了个人的见解。

  4. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  5. Cell Factory Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories.

  6. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  7. Development of a biodegradable nanoparticle platform for sildenafil: formulation optimization by factorial design analysis combined with application of charge-modified branched polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Schmehl, Thomas; Gessler, Tobias; Seeger, Werner; Kissel, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    Biodegradable nanoparticles have gained tremendous attraction as carriers for controlled drug delivery to the lung. Despite numerous advances in the field, e.g. development of suitable methods for pulmonary administration of polymeric nanoparticles, a sufficient association of the therapeutic agent with the carrier system as well as drug release in a controlled fashion remain considerable challenges. Hence, this study examines the optimization of biodegradable sildenafil-loaded nanoparticle formulations intended for aerosol treatment of pulmonary hypertension. A factorial design analysis was employed to identify the important experimental factors involved in the preparation of nanoparticles by the solvent evaporation technique. The effect of tailored charge-modified branched polyesters on drug loading and in vitro drug release from nanoparticles was also evaluated. Moreover, colloidal stability of obtained nanoparticles was assessed, and stabilization of nanoparticles by lyophilization was accomplished without additional excipients. Essential experimental factors were identified and optimized to allow the preparation of nanoparticles composed of linear polyesters with a sildenafil content of ~5 wt.%. The in vitro drug release profile from these nanoparticles demonstrated a sustained release of sildenafil over ~90 min. Application of charge-modified branched polyesters enhanced the drug content in nanoparticles and drug release profile, according to the charge-density present in the employed polymer. Accordingly an increase in drug loading by a factor of ~1.4, a prolonged drug release profile from nanoparticles over ~240 min was achieved. Sildenafil release from nanoparticles made of linear and charge-modified branched polyesters was governed by a diffusion process. The obtained drug diffusion coefficients were decreased as the charge-density present in the applied polymer was increased, which promotes the strategy to improve drug loading and release rates by

  8. Effect of hexacosanol on the characteristics of novel sustained-release allopurinol solid lipospheres (SLS): factorial design application and product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gibaly, I; Abdel-Ghaffar, S K

    2005-04-27

    This investigation involved the evaluation of the effect of hexacosanol (HC, ceryl alcohol), a new hydrophobic wax modifier (WM) in comparison with conventional modifiers, on the development of sustained-release allopurinol (AP) solid lipospheres (SLS) intended for use in a suspension formulation and other oral dosage forms. Various beeswax (BW)/WM blends (composition ratio 1:1) were thus used to prepare SLS by a modified oil-in-water emulsion meltable disperse-phase (MDP) encapsulation method without using organic solvents and the influence of these blends on the drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), size distribution and the time for 50% of the drug to be released (t50%) was investigated. Results indicated that incorporation of HC in wall matrix of SLS provided the means to enhance the EE of AP and to modulate the rate of drug release into dissolution media (simulated gastric fluid (S.G.F.: pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (S.I.F.: pH 7.4). The effects of the process variables; HC concentration, dispersant (pluronic F-68: PF-68) concentration and drug:wax ratio were also studied on the properties of AP-loaded SLS by a 2(3) factorial design. The EE values were in the range of 80.8-92.67%. The only significant parameter affecting (P<0.01) the size and size distribution of the SLS formulations was the amount of the PF-68, whereas the factor with the biggest influence (P<0.05) on the drug EE was the initial loading of AP (in terms of the drug:wax ratio). The amount of HC blended with wax and the initial drug loading significantly (P<0.01) affected the t50% values of all of the formulations. The release of AP was more extended (t50% values (S.I.F.; pH 7.4)=9.91-25.36 h, depending on the drug:wax ratio) and surface morphology of SLS was improved with higher HC content (15%, w/w) formulations. The release patterns fitted the Baker-Lonsdale dissolution kinetics for spherical matrices. A significant decrease of plasma uric acid levels (P<0.05) and hepatic impairment

  9. Tolfenamic acid degradation by direct photolysis and the UV-ABC/H2O2 process: factorial design, kinetics, identification of intermediates, and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo da Silva, Lucas; Pereira Cavalcante, Rodrigo; Fabbro Cunha, Rebeca; Gozzi, Fábio; Falcao Dantas, Renato; de Oliveira, Silvio Cesar; Machulek, Amilcar

    2016-12-15

    This study employed direct UV-ABC photolysis and the UV-ABC/H2O2 process to investigate the degradation of tolfenamic acid (TA), a common anti-inflammatory drug used in both human and veterinary medicine. A 2(3) factorial design with added center point was used to evaluate the effect of three independent variables-namely, H2O2 concentration ([H2O2]), TA concentration ([TA]), and experiment time (time)-on TA degradation and H2O2 photolysis during UV-ABC/H2O2 treatment using a high-pressure mercury vapor lamp (photon flux of 2.6307 × 10(4) J s(-1)) as the UV irradiation source. The responses yielded similar values, revealing a linear behavior, with correlation coefficients R = 0.9968 and Radj = 0.9921 for TA degradation and R = 0.9828 and Radj = 0.9570 for H2O2 photolysis. The most efficient combination of variables was [H2O2] = 255 mg L(-1) and [TA] = 25 mg L(-1), resulting in 100% TA degradation and 98.87% H2O2 photolysis by 90 min of treatment. Additionally, the second-order kinetic constant of the reaction between TA and HO(●) was determined using a competitive kinetic model, employing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) as the reference compound. The kinetic constant was 1.9 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) in alkaline medium. TA degradation by direct photolysis generated quinone imines as by-products, responsible for the formation of a dark red "internal filter" that increased the value of acute toxicity to Artemia salina. The UV-ABC/H2O2 process did not promote formation of quinone imines by 90 min of treatment and therefore did not increase acute toxicity values. Several by-products generated during TA degradation were identified and possible degradation pathways for the UV-ABC and UV-ABC/H2O2 processes were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  11. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  12. Two-Level Fingerprinting Codes: Non-Trivial Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Rochanakul, Penying

    2011-01-01

    We extend the concept of two-level fingerprinting codes, introduced by Anthapadmanabhan and Barg (2009) in context of traceability (TA) codes, to other types of fingerprinting codes, namely identifiable parent property (IPP) codes, secure-frameproof (SFP) codes, and frameproof (FP) codes. We define and propose the first explicit non-trivial construction for two-level IPP, SFP and FP codes.

  13. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  14. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  15. The Two-level Management System of University and School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of our country's higher e-ducation, the school also presents the great-leap-forward devel-opment trend. The previous denotative development has changed into the way of connotative development. The two-level management system of university and school is the most common management mode in many colleges. This paper intro-duces the advantage of this mode in the objective view, analyzes the problems existing in the practice operation, put forward countermeasures to improve the two-level management and proposes a method to build the two-level management system.

  16. Fractional Factorial Experiment Design Involving Non-normal Responses and Simulation Analysis%非正态响应的部分因子试验设计与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建均; 马义中

    2011-01-01

    讨论了非正态响应试验设计中广泛应用的广义线性模型,针对小样本的部分因子试验设计,运用MCMC方法模拟出广义线性模型各参数后验分布的马尔科夫链,提出了根据各参数大于零或小于零的后验概率识别显著性因于的新方法.通过部分因子试验的仿真数据利用SAS软件对GLM进行贝叶斯分析,结果表明基于MCMC模拟的GLM贝叶斯分析方法能有效地识别出部分因子试验设计中的显著性因子.%Generalized linear models (GLM) were discussed, which are used widely in the field of experimental design involving non-normal response variables. As for small sample problem of Fractional Factorial Experiment Design, the MCMC method was putforward to simulate dynamically the Markov Chain of every parameter's posterior distribution in generalized linear models, and a new method was put forward to identify significant factors according to Bayesian posterior probability of all parameters which are more than or less than zero. Simulated fractional factorial experimental data was used to simulate and analyze the Bayesian GLM by the SAS sofiware. The results show that the Bayesian analysis method based on MCMC simulation can identify effectively significant factors in fractional factorial experiment design.

  17. Application of Factorial Designs and Simplex Optimisation in the Development of Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Procedures as Demonstrated for the Determination of Trace Levels of Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilligsøe, Bo; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1997-01-01

    The optimisation of a volume-based FI-HG-GFAAS procedure is described for the trace determination of Ge, comprising in situ collection of the generated germane in the graphite furnace. The response function is the peak area readout (A*s). Based on a preliminary study, where factorial designs were...... at a sampling frequency of 22 h-1. The sensitivity, in terms of the characteristic mass, m0, was 26 pg/0.0044 A*s, with a detection limit of 0.21 mu-g/L (3 sigma). The precision (relative standard deviation) was 2.0% (n=10) at the 1 mu-g/L level....

  18. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  19. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  20. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  1. Field correlations and effective two level atom-cavity systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebic, S; Tan, S M

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the second order correlation functions of the electromagnetic field in atom-cavity systems that approximate two-level systems. It is shown that a recently-developed polariton formalism can be used to account for all the properties of the correlations, if the analysis is extended to include two manifolds - corresponding to the ground state and the states excited by a single photon - rather than just two levels.

  2. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  3. 两级分布式采油自动化智能控制系统设计与实现%The Design and Implement of Two Level Distributed AICS(Automated Intelli-gent Control System)for Exploitation in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏朝; 胡文娟; 王百军; 陈举民; 王晓静

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure stable exploitation of oil, combined with CaiNan Oilfield ac-tual production, taking into account the external environment of the scene, we designed two level distributed automation systems. The system controller uses the well 16 monolithic INTEL 80C196 microcontroller circuit as the core monitoring and control, access to the wellhead temperature and pressure data acquisition via standard signal transmitter. Based on the principle of circuit design and control software design method,developed primarily mod-ular applications. By applying concluded: power factor follower method can achieve signifi-cant energy- saving effect,the modular controller program easy to modify and transplant,to achieve a cost-effective extraction of automated control systems.%为了确保油田稳定开采,结合彩南油田的实际生产情况,考虑外界现场环境,设计了两级分布式采油自动化系统。该系统中油井控制器采用Intel十六位单片机80C196作为测控核心,通过采集变送器标准信号获得井口温度及压力等数据。基于电路设计原理及控制软件设计方法,开发了主要的模块化应用程序。通过应用得出结论:采用功率因数随动技术节电效果显著,模块化控制器程序易于修改和移植,实现了采油自动化控制系统的低成本高效率。

  4. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  5. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a university research center under the Technical University of Denmark within the field of design, engineering and construction of superior cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals, anti-infective compounds, industrial...

  6. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  7. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  8. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  9. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  10. Generalized Subset Designs in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Vikström, Ludvig; Hector, Gustaf; Johansson, Erik; Vikström, Conny; Trygg, Johan

    2017-06-20

    Design of experiments (DOE) is an established methodology in research, development, manufacturing, and production for screening, optimization, and robustness testing. Two-level fractional factorial designs remain the preferred approach due to high information content while keeping the number of experiments low. These types of designs, however, have never been extended to a generalized multilevel reduced design type that would be capable to include both qualitative and quantitative factors. In this Article we describe a novel generalized fractional factorial design. In addition, it also provides complementary and balanced subdesigns analogous to a fold-over in two-level reduced factorial designs. We demonstrate how this design type can be applied with good results in three different applications in analytical chemistry including (a) multivariate calibration using microwave resonance spectroscopy for the determination of water in tablets, (b) stability study in drug product development, and (c) representative sample selection in clinical studies. This demonstrates the potential of generalized fractional factorial designs to be applied in many other areas of analytical chemistry where representative, balanced, and complementary subsets are required, especially when a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors at multiple levels exists.

  11. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  12. Modulated two-level system: exact work statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verley, Gatien; Van den Broeck, Christian; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2013-09-01

    We consider an open two-level system driven by a piecewise constant periodic field and described by a rate equation with Fermi, Bose, and Arrhenius rates, respectively. We derive an analytical expression for the generating function and large deviation function of the work performed by the field and show that a work fluctuation theorem holds.

  13. Two-level convolution formula for nuclear structure function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Boqiang

    1990-05-01

    A two-level convolution formula for the nuclear structure function is derived in considering the nucleus as a composite system of baryon-mesons which are also composite systems of quark-gluons again. The results show that the European Muon Colaboration effect can not be explained by the nuclear effects as nucleon Fermi motion and nuclear binding contributions.

  14. THE TWO-LEVEL MODEL AT FINITE-TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.L.

    1980-07-01

    The finite-temperature HFB cranking equations are solved for the two-level model. The pair gap, moment of inertia and internal energy are determined as functions of spin and temperature. Thermal excitations and rotations collaborate to destroy the pair correlations. Raising the temperature eliminates the backbending effect and improves the HFB approximation.

  15. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces....... This indicates that even more copies of the genes for 6-MSA production could yield even higher titers. Thus the acyl-CoA substrates do not appear to be limiting the production of 6-MSA. Construction of a cell factory and engineering it to increase production is one approach to obtaining an efficient cell factory...... been taken towards engineering an effective polyketide cell factory....

  17. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  18. USED OF JABUTICABA (Plinia sp. PEEL AS AN ADSORBENT TO REMOVAL OF CHROMIUN (VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION: DESIGN FACTORIAL, KINETIC AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaéla Candido Oliveira da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of removing ions Chromium (VI an aqueous synthetic through the adsorption process using Jabuticaba (Plinia sp. peel. This experiment was performed a 23 factorial experiment with triplicate central point in order to determine the best conditions of the adsorption process. The input variables used to evaluate were: amount of adsorbent (0.1 – 0.5 g initial pH (5.0 – 6.0 and time of the experiment (5 – 10 minutes. The dependent variable used is the efficient removal of ions (%. The highest efficiency in this study was observed with higher pH and lower sorbent and the experimental period with a value of 54%. Kinetic studies evidenced the maximum adsorption, which was obtained from 5 to 10 minutes, reached its maximum capacity saturation, with two phases, an initial phase (fast contributes significantly to the uptake equilibrium phase and a slower negligible. In the balance studies, the Langmuir model was the best fit to experimental data jabuticaba biomass, being the maximum amount of adsorption of 174.16 mg g-1.

  19. Possible Minkowskian Language in Two-level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2008-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1908, Hermann Minkowski completed his proof that Maxwell's equations are covariant under Lorentz transformations. During this process, he introduced a four-dimensional space called the Minkowskian space. In 1949, P. A. M. Dirac showed the Minkowskian space can be handled with the light-cone coordinate system with squeeze transformations. While the squeeze is one of the fundamental mathematical operations in optical sciences, it could serve useful purposes in two-level systems. Some possibilities are considered in this report. It is shown possible to cross the light-cone boundary in optical and two-level systems while it is not possible in Einstein's theory of relativity.

  20. Clustering DTDs: An Interactive Two-Level Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 钱卫宁; 钱海蕾; 张龙; 梁宇奇; 金文

    2002-01-01

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a standard which is widely appliedin data representation and data exchange. However, as an important concept of XML, DTD(Document Type Definition) is not taken full advantage in current applications. In this paper, anew method for clustering DTDs is presented, and it can be used in XML document clustering.The two-level method clusters the elements in DTDs and clusters DTDs separately. Elementclustering forms the first level and provides element clusters, which are the generalization ofrelevant elements. DTD clustering utilizes the generalized information and forms the secondlevel in the whole clustering process. The two-level method has the following advantages: 1) Ittakes into consideration both the content and the structure within DTDs; 2) The generalizedinformation about elements is more useful than the separated words in the vector model; 3) Thetwo-level method facilitates the searching of outliers. The experiments show that this methodis able to categorize the relevant DTDs effectively.

  1. Berry phase in a generalized nonlinear two-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ji-Bing; Li Jia-Hua; Song Pei-Jun; Li Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the behaviour of the geometric phase of a more generalized nonlinear system composed of an effective two-level system interacting with a single-mode quantized cavity field.Both the field nonlinearity and the atom-field coupling nonlinearity are considered.We find that the geometric phase depends on whether the index k is an odd number or an even number in the resonant case.In addition,we also find that the geometric phase may be easily observed when the field nonlinearity is not considered.The fractional statistical phenomenon appears in this system if the strong nonlinear atom-field coupling is considered.We have also investigated the geometric phase of an effective two-level system interacting with a two-mode quantized cavity field.

  2. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  3. A two level DEA in project based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hamidi Hedayat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of a project based organization using a two level fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA technique in project based organizations. In order to determine the required inputs and outputs, important indicators are selected using both expert judgments and statistical analysis and a two-level DEA model is adapted. In this model, by considering different inputs and outputs through a hierarchical process, a large number of sub indicators are provided and rolled up to a higher level. Since inputs and outputs are combinations of qualitative and quantitative indicators, fuzzy logic is also included through the modeling procedure. In addition, since the exact amount cannot be attributed to the indicators, the proposed model uses interval values for the project life cycle. Finally, some of the projects are evaluated throughout the approach proposed in this paper.

  4. Micro- and macrostresses in two level model of coating growth

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Nazarenko; Knyazeva, Anna Georgievna

    2014-01-01

    In the work, a two level model of coating growing with the diffusion and chemical compounds formation is proposed. The process of coating formation includes different physico-chemical steps and transformations of the structure. From the experiments it was established that the coating consists of the following substances: 4+ titanium oxide, titanium pyrophosphate, calcium pyrophosphate, calcium titanophosphate. Coating growth rate is determined by the deposition rate and the dispersion of the ...

  5. Franson Interference Generated by a Two-Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M.; Konthasinghe, K.; Muller, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report a Franson interferometry experiment based on correlated photon pairs generated via frequency-filtered scattered light from a near-resonantly driven two-level semiconductor quantum dot. In contrast to spontaneous parametric down-conversion and four-wave mixing, this approach can produce single pairs of correlated photons. We have measured a Franson visibility as high as 66%, which goes beyond the classical limit of 50% and approaches the limit of violation of Bell's inequalities (70.7%).

  6. Quantum modeling of two-level photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Tahereh Nemati; Asgari, Asghar; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Quémerais, Pascal; Mayou, Didier

    2017-06-01

    We present a quantum formalism that provides a quantitative picture of the fundamental processes of charge separation that follow an absorption event. We apply the formalism to two-level photovoltaic cells and our purpose is to pedagogically explain the main aspects of the model. The formalism is developed in the energy domain and provides detailed knowledge about existence or absence of localized states and their effects on electronic structure and photovoltaic yield.

  7. Two-level systems driven by large-amplitude fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, F.; Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Zagoskin, A. M.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a two-level system subject to driving by large-amplitude external fields, focusing on the resonance properties in the case of driving around the region of avoided level crossing. In particular, we consider three main questions that characterize resonance dynamics: (1) the resonance condition, (2) the frequency of the resulting oscillations on resonance, and (3) the width of the resonance. We identify the regions of validity of different approximations. In a large region of the parameter space, we use a geometric picture in order to obtain both a simple understanding of the dynamics and quantitative results. The geometric approach is obtained by dividing the evolution into discrete time steps, with each time step described by either a phase shift on the basis states or a coherent mixing process corresponding to a Landau-Zener crossing. We compare the results of the geometric picture with those of a rotating wave approximation. We also comment briefly on the prospects of employing strong driving as a useful tool to manipulate two-level systems. S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, A.M. Zagoskin, F. Nori, Two-level systems driven by large-amplitude fields, Phys. Rev. A 75, 063414 (2007). S. Ashhab et al, unpublished.

  8. Two-level leader-follower organization in pigeon flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Xi; Chen, Duxin; Zhou, Tao

    2015-10-01

    The most attractive trait of collective animal behavior is the emergence of highly ordered structures (Cavagna A., Giardina I. and Ginelli F., Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013) 168107). It has been conjectured that the interaction mechanism in pigeon flock dynamics follows a hierarchical leader-follower influential network (Nagy M., Ákos Z., Biro D. and Vicsek T., Nature, 464 (2010) 890). In this paper, a new observation is reported that shows that pigeon flocks actually adopt a much simpler two-level interactive network composed of one leader and some followers. By statistically analyzing the same experimental dataset, we show that for a certain period of time a sole leader determines the motion of the flock while the remaining birds are all followers directly copying the leader's direction with specific time delays. This simple two-level despotic organization is expected to save both motional energy and communication cost, while retaining agility and robustness of the whole group. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that a two-level organization of group flight may be more efficient than a multilevel topology for small pigeon flocks.

  9. Micro Factory Systems and Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular.......The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular....

  10. Micro Factory Systems and Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular.......The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular....

  11. Some Factories in Southern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study is an outgrowth, 267 Personnel Managers were elevated to management ... effect, the factory manager now occupies a more important position in the man- ... overview at an empirical and theoretical level of factory managers in Nigeria ... gerial work is diverse and this, according to Hales (1986), can be captured by ...

  12. 基于实时数据库的采油厂数采监控系统的设计%Design of Oil Extraction Factory Production Data Acquisition System Based on Real-time Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国俊

    2012-01-01

    针对采油厂的实际情况,提出了基于实时数据库的采油厂数采监控系统的设计.介绍了系统的总体架构及数采前置机和监控中心的设计.井口数据采集到RTU通过无线网远传到监控中心,集油阀组间、配水间和注配间的数据采集到RTU后通过网络远传到监控中心.站数采前置机通过Remote I/O对各站PLC进行数采,将数据远传到监控中心,监控中心对数据进行存储、处理、转储和发布,授权人员通过Web方式对现场设备进行远程控制.本系统已成功应用于大庆油田第八采油厂,系统应用后改变了原有的管理方式,加强了对生产数据的管理,缩短了信息沟通的时间,提高了工作效率.%In view of the actual situation of production,and put forward the design of monitoring and control system of oil production based on real-time database.Introduction of system structure and framework of the overall number of mining front-end and the design of the monitoring center.The data collected by far to the factory department RTU wireless network monitoring center,set the oil between groups,with water and note match between the data collected between RTU through the network to the factory department after far monitoring center.Stand by front-end through several remote I/O to PLC for several mining stations,the data is far to the factory department the monitoring center,the monitoring center for data storage,processing,dump and release,authorized personnel through the Web form to the scene by remote control equipment.This system has been successfully used in the eighth oil production plant of Daqing oilfield,system application enhanced the production data management,change the original management mode,shortening the communication time,improve work efficiency.

  13. Electropolishing of Re-melted SLM Stainless Steel 316L Parts Using Deep Eutectic Solvents: 3 × 3 Full Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbaey, K.; Wimpenny, D. I.; Al-Barzinjy, A. A.; Moroz, A.

    2016-07-01

    This three-level three-factor full factorial study describes the effects of electropolishing using deep eutectic solvents on the surface roughness of re-melted 316L stainless steel samples produced by the selective laser melting (SLM) powder bed fusion additive manufacturing method. An improvement in the surface finish of re-melted stainless steel 316L parts was achieved by optimizing the processing parameters for a relatively environmentally friendly (`green') electropolishing process using a Choline Chloride ionic electrolyte. The results show that further improvement of the response value-average surface roughness ( Ra) can be obtained by electropolishing after re-melting to yield a 75% improvement compared to the as-built Ra. The best Ra value was less than 0.5 μm, obtained with a potential of 4 V, maintained for 30 min at 40 °C. Electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing the residual oxide film formed during the re-melting process. The material dissolution during the process is not homogenous and is directed preferentially toward the iron and nickel, leaving the surface rich in chromium with potentially enhanced properties. The re-melted and polished surface of the samples gave an approximately 20% improvement in fatigue life at low stresses (approximately 570 MPa). The results of the study demonstrate that a combination of re-melting and electropolishing provides a flexible method for surface texture improvement which is capable of delivering a significant improvement in surface finish while holding the dimensional accuracy of parts within an acceptable range.

  14. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  15. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  16. A Two-Level Method for Nonsymmetric Eigenvalue Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karel Kolman

    2005-01-01

    A two-level discretization method for eigenvalue problems is studied. Compared to the standard Galerkin finite element discretization technique performed on a fine grid this method discretizes the eigenvalue problem on a coarse grid and obtains an improved eigenvector (eigenvalue) approximation by solving only a linear problem on the fine grid (or two linear problems for the case of eigenvalue approximation of nonsymmetric problems). The improved solution has the asymptotic accuracy of the Galerkin discretization solution. The link between the method and the iterated Galerkin method is established. Error estimates for the general nonsymmetric case are derived.

  17. Ultra-short strong excitation of two-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Eleuch, Hichem; Grazioso, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    We present a model describing the use of ultra-short strong pulses to control the population of the excited level of a two-level quantum system. In particular, we study an off-resonance excitation with a few cycles pulse which presents a smooth phase jump i.e. a change of the pulse's phase which is not step-like, but happens over a finite time interval. A numerical solution is given for the time-dependent probability amplitude of the excited level. The control of the excited level's population is obtained acting on the shape of the phase transient, and other parameters of the excitation pulse.

  18. Ultra-short strong excitation of two-level systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We present a model describing the use of ultra-short strong pulses to control the population of the excited level of a two-level quantum system. In particular, we study an off-resonance excitation with a few cycles pulse which presents a smooth phase jump i.e. a change of the pulse's phase which is not step-like, but happens over a finite time interval. A numerical solution is given for the time-dependent probability amplitude of the excited level. The control of the excited level's populatio...

  19. Levitated nanoparticle as a classical two-level atom [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmer, Martin; Gieseler, Jan; Ihn, Thomas; Novotny, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    The center-of-mass motion of a single optically levitated nanoparticle resembles three uncoupled harmonic oscillators. We show how a suitable modulation of the optical trapping potential can give rise to a coupling between two of these oscillators, such that their dynamics are governed by a classical equation of motion that resembles the Schr\\"odinger equation for a two-level system. Based on experimental data, we illustrate the dynamics of this parametrically coupled system both in the frequency and in the time domain. We discuss the limitations and differences of the mechanical analogue in comparison to a true quantum mechanical system.

  20. Negative spontaneous emission by a moving two-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannebère, Sylvain; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the dynamics of a two-level atom is affected by its interaction with the quantized near field of a plasmonic slab in relative motion. We demonstrate that for small separation distances and a relative velocity greater than a certain threshold, this interaction can lead to a population inversion, such that the probability of the excited state exceeds the probability of the ground state, corresponding to a negative spontaneous emission rate. It is shown that the developed theory is intimately related to a classical problem. The problem of quantum friction is analyzed and the differences with respect to the corresponding classical effect are highlighted.

  1. Noise from Two-Level Systems in Superconducting Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Ohya, S.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Two-level systems (TLSs) present in amorphous dielectrics and surface interfaces are a significant source of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Linear microwave resonators offer a valuable instrument for characterizing the strongly power-dependent response of these TLSs. Using quarter-wavelength coplanar waveguide resonators, we monitored the microwave response of the resonator at a single near-resonant frequency versus time at varying microwave drive powers. We observe a time dependent variation of the resonator's internal dissipation and resonance frequency. The amplitude of these variations saturates with power in a manner similar to loss from TLSs. These results provide a means for quantifying the number and distribution of TLSs.

  2. Comparison of time optimal control for two level quantum systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Cong; Jie Wen; Xubo Zou

    2014-01-01

    The time optimal problem for a two level quantum sys-tem is studied. We compare two different control strategies of bang-bang control and the geometric control, respectively, es-pecial y in the case of minimizing the time of steering the state from North Pole to South Pole on the Bloch sphere with bounded control. The time performances are compared for different param-eters by the individual numerical simulation experiments, and the experimental results are analyzed. The results show that the ge-ometric control spends less time than the bang-bang control does.

  3. Variational Study on a Dissipative Two-Level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-Wing; REN Qing-Bao; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2008-01-01

    A new variational approach is proposed to study the ground-state of a two-level system coupled to a dispersionless phonon bath. By the extended coherent state, where the more phonon correlations are easily incorporated, we can obtain very accurate ground state energy and the tunnelling reduction factor in all regime of tunnelling matrix element δo and coupling parameter s. The relative difference between the present ones and those by exact numerical diagonalization is less then 0.001%. In addition, some simple analytical results are given in the limits of δo/s → 0 and ∞.

  4. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  5. Two-level hierarchical feature learning for image classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-hui SONG; Xiao-gang JIN; Gen-lang CHEN; Yan NIE

    2016-01-01

    In some image classifi cation tasks, similarities among different categories are different and the samples are usually misclassifi ed as highly similar categories. To distinguish highly similar categories, more specifi c features are required so that the classifi er can improve the classifi cation performance. In this paper, we propose a novel two-level hierarchical feature learning framework based on the deep convolutional neural network (CNN), which is simple and effective. First, the deep feature extractors of different levels are trained using the transfer learning method that fi ne-tunes the pre-trained deep CNN model toward the new target dataset. Second, the general feature extracted from all the categories and the specifi c feature extracted from highly similar categories are fused into a feature vector. Then the fi nal feature representation is fed into a linear classifi er. Finally, experiments using the Caltech-256, Oxford Flower-102, and Tasmania Coral Point Count (CPC) datasets demonstrate that the expression ability of the deep features resulting from two-level hierarchical feature learning is powerful. Our proposed method effectively increases the classifi cation accuracy in comparison with fl at multiple classifi cation methods.

  6. 工厂方法设计模式在农场系统中的应用研究%The Application of Factory Method Design Pattern in Farm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇军; 高静

    2013-01-01

      为提高农场系统的复用性,提出一种基于设计模式的农场系统设计方案。针对农场系统中复杂的高耦合度的问题,提出应用工厂方法设计模式来降低农场园丁和水果之间耦合度的解决方法。实验证明,工厂方法设计模式降低了农场系统各模块之间的耦合度,提高了系统的可扩展性及可复用性。%  In order to improve the reusability of Farm System, a design scheme which is based on Design Pattern is proposed in this paper. Factory Method Design Pattern is applied to the system, and it can reduce the high coupling between gardener and fruit. It has been found that this method can reduce the coupling between modules and improve the system's scalability and reusability.

  7. Avaliação por análise fatorial das condições da extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol de Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. Evaluation of extraction conditions of 4-nerolidylchatecol from Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peky Noriega

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência dos fatores (1 tempo: 10 e 40 minutos; (2 tamanho de partícula: 840 e 420 mm; (3 hidromódulo: 1:50 e 1:100 e (4 temperatura: 40 e 60 °C na extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol, (4-NC mediante planejamento fatorial "2(4" em que quatro variáveis foram estudadas em dois níveis (máximo e mínimo. O método de extração foi maceração e a quantificação do 4-nerolidilcatecol foi realizada por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com detetor eletroquímico. Os resultados da análise fatorial indicam que o fator principal que favorece a extração do princípio ativo é o tamanho de partícula [efeito (2: 12,2086]. Diminuindo o tamanho de partícula aumenta três vezes a quantidade de 4-nerolidilcatecol extraída, enquanto o tempo de maceração [efeito (1: -0,64198], hidromódulo [efeito (3: 1,069804] e temperatura [efeito (4: -0,64198] não influenciam de forma significativa a extração. As interações de dois fatores: (2:3 tamanho:hidromódulo: 1,181142; (2:1 tamanho:tempo: 0,9435065 e (2:4 tamanho:temperatura: 0,0817575 mostraram que apesar do fator tamanho(2 ter favorecido o processo, quando combinado com os demais fatores, não aumenta a eficiência da extração. A metodologia de otimização mediante análise fatorial aplicada ao processo de extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol demonstra a importância do estudo das interações e não de cada fator isolado.The influence of factors: (1 time, 10 and 40 minutes, (2 particle size, 840 and 420 mm; (3 hydromodule, 1:50 and 1:100, and (4 temperature, 40 and 60 °C, in the extraction of 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC from the roots of P. umbellata using factorial design "2(4" was studied in two levels (maximal and minimal. The extraction method was maceration and the measurement of 4-NC was by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The results of the factorial analysis indicated that the main factor that increases the extraction of the active principle is particle

  8. Optimizing ETL by a Two-level Data Staging Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    In data warehousing, the data from source systems are populated into a central data warehouse (DW) through extraction, transformation and loading (ETL). The standard ETL approach usually uses sequential jobs to process the data with dependencies, such as dimension and fact data. It is a non......-/late-arriving data, and fast-/slowly-changing data. The introduced additional staging area decouples loading process from data extraction and transformation, which improves ETL flexibility and minimizes intervention to the data warehouse. This paper evaluates the proposed method empirically, which shows......-trivial task to process the so-called early-/late-arriving data, which arrive out of order. This paper proposes a two-level data staging area method to optimize ETL. The proposed method is an all-in-one solution that supports processing different types of data from operational systems, including early...

  9. Rabi noise spectroscopy of individual two-level tunneling defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Schechter, Moshe

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the nature of two-level tunneling defects is important for minimizing their disruptive effects in various nanodevices. By exploiting the resonant coupling of these defects to a superconducting qubit, one can probe and coherently manipulate them individually. In this work, we utilize a phase qubit to induce Rabi oscillations of single tunneling defects and measure their dephasing rates as a function of the defect's asymmetry energy, which is tuned by an applied strain. The dephasing rates scale quadratically with the external strain and are inversely proportional to the Rabi frequency. These results are analyzed and explained within a model of interacting defects, in which pure dephasing of coherent high-frequency (gigahertz) defects is caused by interaction with incoherent low-frequency thermally excited defects. Our analysis sets an upper bound for the relaxation rates of thermally excited defects interacting strongly with strain fields.

  10. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  11. Factorial design analysis on the solubility of total mercury in reduction process = Análise do processo experimental na solubilidade do mercúrio total em processo redutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Dalla Costa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The dental wastewater can contribute to the total daily mercury load on the environment. Factorial design of experiments is useful to analyze factors that influence this solubility. The aim of the present study was to design experiments to examine the effects ofoperational variables, humic acid, temperature, pH and contact time that may affect the solubility of total mercury as dental amalgam residue in reduction process. Based on the factorial design of experiments, the humic acid concentration was the most significant factor in this process, followed by other factors. The parameters affecting the solubility of total mercury showed that when the [HA], T and CT increases and pH decreases there is an important increase of total mercury concentration in process. For the tested conditions, thehigh total mercury concentration was obtained using the humic acid concentration = 1.0 g L-1, temperature = 35oC, pH = 4.0 and contact time = 10 days.O esgoto odontológico pode contribuir na carga total de mercúrio noambiente. O estudo do planejamento experimental é útil para analisar os fatores que influenciam nesta solubilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um planejamento experimental para analisar os efeitos das variáveis operacionais, ácido húmico, temperatura,pH e tempo de contato, que podem afetar a solubilidade do mercúrio total como amálgama odontológico em um processo de redução. Baseado no planejamento experimental, a concentração de ácido húmico foi o fator mais significativo no processo, seguido dos demais fatores. Os parâmetros que afetam a solubilidade do mercúrio total mostram que quando a [AH], T e TC aumentam e o pH diminui há um aumento significativo na concentração de mercúrio total no processo. A maior concentração de mercúrio total foi obtido nas condições de concentração de ácido húmico = 1,0 g L-1, temperatura = 35oC, pH = 4,0 e tempo de contato = 10 dias.

  12. Experimental Research into the Two-Level Cylindrical Cyclone with a Different Number of Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Baliukas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The multichannel two-level cyclone has been designed for separating solid particles from airflow and built at the Laboratory of Environmental Protection Technologies of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The conducted research is aimed at determining air flow distribution at two levels and channels of the multichannel cyclone. The multifunctional meter Testo-400 and the dynamic Pitot tube have been used form easuring air flow rates in the channels. The obtained results show that the equal volume of air gets into two levels installed inside the cyclone, and rates are distributed equally in the channels of these levels. The maximum air flow rate is recorded in the first channel and occurs when half-rings are set in such positions so that 75% of air flow returns to the previous channel. The biggest aerodynamic resistance is 1660 Pa and has been recorded in the cyclone having eight channels under air flow distribution ratio 75/25. The highest air purification efficiency has been observed in the two-level six-channel cyclone under air flow distribution ratio 75/25. The effectiveness of separating granite particles is 92.1% and that of wood particles – 91.1 when the particles are up to 20 μm in diameter.

  13. Caracterização de hidrogéis condutores constituídos por PAAm e PEDOT/PSS por meio de planejamento fatorial Characterization of conducting hydrogels made with PAAm and PEDOT/PSS using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauze A. Aouada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, hidrogéis condutores do tipo semi-IPN constituídos por poliacrilamida (PAAm e polímero intrinsecamente condutor poli(3,4-etileno dioxitiofeno/poli(estireno-sulfonato (PEDOT/PSS foram sintetizados e suas propriedades hidrofílicas, mecânicas, condutoras e ópticas foram caracterizadas por meio de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ com ponto central. Para isso, utilizaram-se três fatores: concentrações de acrilamida (AAm e N,N’-metileno-bis-acrilamida (MBAAm, e quantidade de PEDOT/PSS, em três níveis, sendo um deles o ponto central. O planejamento foi construído para avaliar os efeitos desses fatores (efeitos principais e efeitos de interação entre os fatores nas seguintes propriedades dos hidrogéis estudados (respostas: grau de intumescimento, tensão máxima de compressão, condutância iônica e intensidade relativa de luz transmitida através dos hidrogéis estudados. Os resultados demonstraram que a estabilidade mecânica dos hidrogéis semi-IPN é preservada e a presença de PEDOT/PSS aumenta o entrelaçamento na matriz de PAAm. Observou-se também que as propriedades ópticas são fortemente influenciadas com a presença de PEDOT/PSS. Dessa forma, torna-se possível obter hidrogéis com hidrofilicidade, estabilidade mecânica e transparência controladas, o que é importante para a aplicação desses materiais, principalmente como dispositivos ópticos.Conductive semi-IPN hydrogels made with polyacrylamide (PAAm and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene/poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT/PSS were synthesized and the hydrophilicity, mechanical, ionic conductivity and optical properties were characterized through the 2³ factorial design. The experiments concerning the factorial design were randomly performed. The inputs were acrylamide (AAm, N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm and PEDOT/PSS contents, each fixed in three levels, one being the central point. The outputs were the swelling degree

  14. 基于 Android 平台的家庭植物工厂智能监控系统%Design of Intelligent Monitoring and Controlling System Based on Android Platform for Family Plant Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彤; 贺宏伟; 李尧; 马建设

    2015-01-01

    随着人们生活品质的提高,家庭植物工厂受到越来越多的关注。为此,设计了一种以 LED 光源模拟太阳光的人工光型密闭式家庭植物工厂。为了使该家庭植物工厂能够为作物提供适宜的生长环境,并且能够实现远程智能监控,设计并实现了一种基于 Android 平台的智能监控系统。该系统能够实时监测和显示种植空间的环境参数,可根据实际需要对种植空间的温度、二氧化碳浓度和 LED 灯亮度进行分时段的独立设置。该系统能够控制作物根部营养液的循环,可以通过WEB 浏览器实现远程监控。系统运行情况表明,所设计的智能监控系统能够在以LED 光源模拟太阳光的人工环境下,为作物提供满足要求的生长环境,并且通过对环境参数的合理设置,可以大大缩短作物的种植周期。%With improvement of people's life quality , family plant factory gets more and more attention .In this paper , a kind of closed family plant factory is designed , taking LED light source as simulated sunlight .In order to make sure that the family plant factory can provide crops with suitable growth environment , as well as to achieve remote intelligent moni-toring , this paper designs and realizes an intelligent monitoring system based on Android platform .The system can have real-time monitoring to and display environmental parameters of planting space , and can conduct time-phased independent settings to temperature , CO2 concentration and brightness of LED light in planting room according to actual demand .The system can also control nutrient cycle at root of crops , and achieve remote monitoring and control through a WEB browser .Based on system operation conditions , with artificial environment of taking LED light source as simulated sunlight , growing environment that is provided by the intelligent monitoring system designed in this paper meets require -ments of crops growth , and

  15. Two-level tunneling systems in amorphous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Irina V.; Paz, Alejandro P.; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Rubio, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The decades of research on thermal properties of amorphous solids at temperatures below 1 K suggest that their anomalous behaviour can be related to quantum mechanical tunneling of atoms between two nearly equivalent states that can be described as a two-level system (TLS). This theory is also supported by recent studies on microwave spectroscopy of superconducting qubits. However, the microscopic nature of the TLS remains unknown. To identify structural motifs for TLSs in amorphous alumina we have performed extensive classical molecular dynamics simulations. Several bistable motifs with only one or two atoms jumping by considerable distance ~ 0.5 Å were found at T=25 K. Accounting for the surrounding environment relaxation was shown to be important up to distances ~ 7 Å. The energy asymmetry and barrier for the detected motifs lied in the ranges 0.5 - 2 meV and 4 - 15 meV, respectively, while their density was about 1 motif per 10 000 atoms. Tuning of motif asymmetry by strain was demonstrated with the coupling coefficient below 1 eV. The tunnel splitting for the symmetrized motifs was estimated on the order of 0.1 meV. The discovered motifs are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The financial support from the Marie Curie Fellowship PIIF-GA-2012-326435 (RespSpatDisp) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. CONSENSUS FORMATION OF TWO-LEVEL OPINION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilun SHANG

    2014-01-01

    Opinion dynamics have received significant attention in recent years. This pa-per proposes a bounded confidence opinion model for a group of agents with two different confidence levels. Each agent in the population is endowed with a confidence interval around her opinion with radius αd or (1-α)d, where α ∈ (0, 1/2] represents the differentiation of confidence levels. We analytically derived the critical confidence bound dc =1/(4α) for the two-level opinion dynamics on Z. A single opinion cluster is formed with probability 1 above this critical value regardless of the ratio p of agents with high/low confidence. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to illustrate our theoretical results. Noticed is a clear impact of p on the collective behavior: more agents with high confidence lead to harder agreement. It is also experimentally revealed that the sharpness of the threshold dc increases with αbut does not depend on p.

  17. Structured Learning of Two-Level Dynamic Rankings

    CERN Document Server

    Raman, Karthik; Shivaswamy, Pannaga

    2011-01-01

    For ambiguous queries, conventional retrieval systems are bound by two conflicting goals. On the one hand, they should diversify and strive to present results for as many query intents as possible. On the other hand, they should provide depth for each intent by displaying more than a single result. Since both diversity and depth cannot be achieved simultaneously in the conventional static retrieval model, we propose a new dynamic ranking approach. Dynamic ranking models allow users to adapt the ranking through interaction, thus overcoming the constraints of presenting a one-size-fits-all static ranking. In particular, we propose a new two-level dynamic ranking model for presenting search results to the user. In this model, a user's interactions with the first-level ranking are used to infer this user's intent, so that second-level rankings can be inserted to provide more results relevant for this intent. Unlike for previous dynamic ranking models, we provide an algorithm to efficiently compute dynamic ranking...

  18. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  19. Conceptual Design Of Yang River Liquo Factory Industrial Garden%洋河酒厂产业园业概念设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈识丰; 吴航; 郭卫宏

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote induslrial competitiveness, complex function's industrial campus is the current white liquor enterprise emerging development model, often take the original production base as the center, functions and so on collection wine-making, traveling, scientific research culture, housing in a body form the head and tail docking, to be linked together, can create the higher value added the industrial chain.This article take the Yang River Brewery industry campus's design proposal as an example, how to make the high standard the modernized campus to carry on the ponder, and from enterprise culture's expression, contemporaneity, operation pattern angles of view and so on ecology carries on the ponder, in stratification planes and so on overall plan.various regional planning, architectural style carries on the preliminary discussion to the campus design.%为了提升产业的竞争性,复合功能的产业园区是当前白酒企业新兴的发展模式,其中往往以原生产基地为中心,集酿酒、旅游、科研、文化、居住等功能于一体,形成首尾相接、环环相扣、能创造更高附加价值的产业链.该文以洋河酒厂产业园区的设计方案为例,对如何打造高水准的现代化园区进行思考,并从企业文化的表达、生态性、时代性、运营模式等视角进行思考,在总体规划、各区域规划、单体建筑风格等层面对园区的设计进行初步的探讨.

  20. THE OVERALL PLANNING AND DESIGN OF ITER FACTORY BUILDING%国际热核聚变实验反应堆建筑总体规划设计初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芗

    2016-01-01

    国际热核聚变实验反应堆计划( ITER)是一项通过受控核聚变获取用之不竭的绿色洁净能源的国际合作重大科研项目。 ITER厂区建筑总体规划遵循核聚变发电主要工艺流程,围绕核心建筑Tokamak综合大厅合理布局各个功能建筑。在核辐射安全方面,有着严格的核辐射区域划分和人行货物流线设计。%The program of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor ( ITER ) is an international collaboration of major research projects, through controlled nuclear fusion to obtain green clean energy which is inexhaustible.The overall planning of the factory building for ITER follows the nuclear fusion power generation process, reasonably integrates each function building arrounding the core building Tokamak hall.In the nuclear radiation safety, nuclear radiation has a strict division and pedestrian goods streamline design.

  1. Application of fractional factorial design and Doehlert matrix in the optimization of experimental variables associated with the ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion of chocolate samples for aluminum determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbani, Nusrat; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sheerazi, Syed T; Ansari, Rehana

    2007-01-01

    A simple and rapid method based on ultrasound energy is described for the determination of aluminum (AI) in complex matrixes of chocolate and candy samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization strategy was carried out using multivariate methodologies. Five variables (temperature of the ultrasonic bath; exposure time to ultrasound energy; volumes of 2 acid mixtures, HNO3-H2SO4-H2O2 (1 + 1 + 1) and HNO3-H2O2 (1 + 1); and sample mass) were considered as factors in the optimization process. Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated using fractional factorial and Doehlert matrix designs. Validation of the ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion procedure was performed against standard reference materials, milk powder (SRM 8435) and wheat flour (SRM 1567a). The proposed procedure allowed Al determination with a detection limit of 2.3 microg/L (signal-to-noise = 3) and a precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, of 2.2% for a set of 10 measurements of certified samples. The recovery of Al by the proposed procedure was close to 100%, and no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was found between determined and certified values of Al. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of Al in chocolate and candy samples. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of Al than milk- and sugar-based chocolates and candies.

  2. Properties of bioadhesive ketoprofen liquid suppositories: preparation, determination of gelation temperature, viscosity studies and evaluation of mechanical properties using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Development and evaluation of thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing ketoprofen (KP). This study was conducted to develope thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing KP using poloxamer and different bioadhesive polymers and to investigate their gelation temperature, viscosity and mechanical properties. Bioadhesive liquid suppositories were prepared by the cold method using poloxamer 407 (P 407), Poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different bioadhesive polymers. Their gelation temperatures, viscosity values and mechanical properties were determined using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design. It was seen that in presence of KP, gelation temperature of formulation P 407/P 188 (4/20%) significantly decreased from 64 to 37.1 °C. It is to be noted that addition of increasing concentrations of bioadhesive polymers lowered gelation temperature and its decrease was highest with addition of Carbopol 934 P (C). Results of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that formulations containing C have significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values than other bioadhesive formulations. According to TPA, gel structure of liquid suppository formulation F5, containing P 407/P 188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8%), exhibited the greatest hardness, compressibilty, adhesiveness and besides greatest viscosity. According to mechanical properties and viscosity values, it was concluded that F5 could be a promising formulation.

  3. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics: The design, construction and performance of the B Factory accelerator facilities, PEP-II and KEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfan, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The discovery and elucidation of CP violation in the B-meson system presented daunting challenges for the accelerator and detector facilities. This talk discusses how these challenges were met and overcome in the electron-positron colliding-beam accelerator facilities PEP-II (at SLAC) and KEKB (at KEK). The key challenge was to produce unprecedentedly large numbers of B-mesons in a geometry that provided high-statistics, low-background samples of decays to CP eigenstates. This was realized with asymmetric collisions at the Γ(4S) at peak luminosities in excess of 3 ×1033 /sq. cm/sec. Specialized optics were developed to generate efficient, low background, multi-bunch collisions in an energy-asymmetric collision geometry. Novel technologies for the RF, vacuum and feedback systems permitted the storage of multi-amp, multi-bunch beams of electrons and positrons, thereby generating high peak luminosities. Accelerator uptimes greater than 95 percent, combined with high-intensity injection systems, ensured large integrated luminosity. Both facilities rapidly attained their design specifications and ultimately far exceeded the projected performance expectations for both peak and integrated luminosity.

  4. Phase system selection with fractional factorial design for purification of recombinant cyanovirin-N from a hydroponic culture medium using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzień, Łukasz; Madeira, Luisa; Fisher, Derek; Ma, Julian; Garrard, Ian

    2013-04-12

    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was used to purify recombinant cyanovirin-N (CV-N) from other proteins which were co-secreted into a hydroponic plant medium in a rhizosecretion process. To achieve satisfactory protein concentration, the purification was preceded by ultrafiltration performed on a 5 kDa filter. ATPS, because of their gentle nature, were selected as the phase system for CPC. A systematic phase system selection was applied. This involved studying the effect of seven parameters of ATPS: polymer type, salt type, the polymer and salt concentration, the polymer molecular weight, pH, and presence of two additional salts; NaCl and NaClO4, which all together gave 320 combinations. design of experiment (DoE) software allowed the reduction of this number to 46. Having tested partitioning of cyanovirin-N and impurities in 46 ATPS, the three best potential phase systems generated by the programme were then tested on the CPC. Out of these three, 13/13% PEG4000 sodium phosphate, pH 3.0, proved to be most effective phase system in the purification of cyanovirin-N, judged by ELISA and SDS-PAGE analysis, as it eliminated most of the impurities from the final cyanovirin-N preparation.

  5. Higgs Factory Concepts Proc. eeFACT2016 Daresbury, UK, October 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Designs for future high-energy circular electron-positron colliders are based on both established and novel concepts. An appropriate design will enable these facilities to serve not only as "Higgs factories", but also as Z, W and top factories, and, in addition, to become a possible first step to a higher-energy hadron collider.

  6. Use of a Doehlert factorial design to investigate the effects of pH and aeration on the accumulation of lactones by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E Escamilla; Belin, J-M; Waché, Y

    2007-11-01

    To detect rate-limiting steps in the production of lactones by studying the combined effect of pH and aeration on their accumulation. A Doehlert experimental design was chosen to evaluate the accumulation of four lactones in the pH (3.5-7.3) and K(L)a (4.1 h(-1) to 26 h(-1)) experimental domain. The accumulation of gamma-decalactone was higher at pH around 5 and increased at low aeration reaching 496 mg l(-1) at pH 6.35 and K(L)a 4.5 h(-1). The specific accumulation increased at low aeration. The 3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone accumulation was higher at low pH and high aeration conditions: 660 mg l(-1) at pH 4.4 and 26 h(-1). For dec-2-en-4-olide and dec-3-en-4-olide, lower amounts were reached (104 mg l(-1) and 66 mg l(-1), respectively). Although the accumulation of the four lactones should be related to catalytic steps requiring oxygen, the accumulation of gamma-decalactone was higher in low aeration conditions whereas the one of 3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone was promoted for high aeration. Decenolides accumulate independently of pH or aeration. This study gives new insights into the catabolism of lipids, such as the role of co-factor regulation and the fact that the 3-hydroxylactone dehydration step is insensitive to pH or aeration.

  7. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research is done in two different methods. One is empirical data collection using thermal data loggers and the other is questionnaire survey on the spots for three factory buildings. The field study was conducted in four different months of the same year during winter and summer period. Expected findings of this research are that the indoor environment is not comfortable for works at day time during summer season. This research will help the factory workers in providing a comfortable thermal environment and also help the employers or factory owners to increase their production margin.

  8. Tau/Charm Factory Accelerator Report

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M E; Boscolo, M; Chiarucci, A; Cimino, R; Clozza, A; Drago, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Mazzitelli, G; Ricci, R; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Bini, S; Cioeta, F; Cittadino, D; D'Agostino, M; Del Franco, M; Piane, A Delle; Di Pasquale, E; Frascadore, G; Gazzana, S; Gargana, R; Incremona, S; Michelotti, A; Sabbatini, L; Schillaci, G; Sedita, M; Raimondi, P; Petronzio, R; Paoloni, E; Liuzzo, S M; Carmignani, N; Pivi, M

    2013-01-01

    The present Report concerns the current status of the Italian Tau/Charm accelerator project and in particular discusses the issues related to the lattice design, to the accelerators systems and to the associated conventional facilities. The project aims at realizing a variable energy Flavor Factory between 1 and 4.6 GeV in the center of mass, and succeeds to the SuperB project from which it inherits most of the solutions proposed in this document. The work comes from a cooperation involving the INFN Frascati National Laboratories accelerator experts, the young newcomers, mostly engineers, of the Cabibbo Lab consortium and key collaborators from external laboratories.

  9. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.

    , substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells and affect their metabolism and consequently affect...... analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount...

  10. Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverria, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107-–136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise requi

  11. Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107--136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise requi

  12. Effect of extraction solvents on the biomolecules and antioxidant properties of Scorzonera undulata (Asteraceae: Application of factorial design optimization phenolic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Athmouni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phenolic compounds were extracted and isolated from S. undulata roots. Methods. Sample of roots from E. hirta was tested for phenolic compounds, and in vitro antioxidant activity by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, ABTS, FRAP and reducing power was measured using cyano- ferrate method. Results. The methanolic fraction exhibited the highest total phenol content (6.12 ±0.11 mg AGE/g DW. On the other hand, the highest flavonoids concentration was observed in ethyl acetate fraction (2.90 ±0.05 mg CE/g DW in addition to anthocyanins (28.56 ±3.96 mg/l. Besides, the highest level of tannins content was measured in the polar aprotic solvent ethyl acetate extract (3.25 ±0.06 mg CE/g DW. The different extracts of S. undulata were evaluated for their radical scavenging activities by means of the DPPH assay. The strongest scavenging activity was observed in methanolic fraction scavenged radicals effectively with IC   values of 0.14 ±0.02 mg/ml. Similarly, the potassium ferricyanide reduction (FRAP and ABTS•+ of methanol extract. On the other hand, the total reducing power of ethyl acetate extract was found higher than of other extracts. This paper presents the application of the design-of experiment method for optimizing the extraction of phe- nolic content using methanol solvent. The resulting regression model has shown that the effect of temperature is not statistically significant (with >95% certainty, while that of agitation speed is. The two main effects are contributed by the solvent concentration and the maceration period. Conclusion. Our results clearly showed that the extraction of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant ca- pacity is significantly affected by solvent combinations. S. undulata presented the highest total phenolic con- tent, total flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity values. The resulting regression model has shown that the effect of temperature is not statistically significant (with >95

  13. Colorimetric determination of alpha and beta-cyclodextrins and studies on optimization of CGTase production from B. firmus using factorial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19, CGTase production from B. firmus, isolated from soil of Curitiba, PR, was optimized in shake flask using an experimental design approach. The CGTase was produced when the carbon source was starch and beta-CD, but when simple sugars such as glucose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose were used, there was no enzyme production. CGTase production was the same with either organic nitrogen or inorganic nitrogen source. CGTase activity decreased 2-fold when incubation temperature was increased from 28 to 37 ° C, and decreased 2.1- fold when the initial pH was lowered from 10.3 to 7.4. The colorimetric determinations of alpha - and beta -CD were analyzed as a non-linear relationship and the equilibrium constant for alpha -CD/methyl orange and beta -CD/phenolphthalein complexes were 7.69 x 10³ L / mol and 2.33 x 10³ L/ mol, respectively.A produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase (EC2.4.1.19, CGTase de B. firmus isolada de solo de Curitiba, PR, foi otimizada com o uso de modelo estatístico fatorial. Foi estudado o efeito de componentes no meio básico bem como pH inicial e temperatura na produção da enzima. O modelo de fatorial 2k-1 foi usado. A atividade da CGTase foi monitorada pelo método colorimétrico com alaranjado de metila. Houve produção da CGTase quando a fonte de carbono era amido e beta-CD, mas quando galactose, lactose, sacarose e maltose foram usadas, nγo houve nenhuma produηγo de enzima. A produηão de CGTase foi a mesma com a fonte de nitrogênio orgânico ou inorgânico. A atividade da CGTase diminuiu 2 vezes quando a temperatura de incubação foi aumentada de 28 a 37 ° C, e diminuiu 2,1 vezes quando o pH inicial foi abaixado de 10,3 a 7,4. As determinações colorimetricas de alfa e beta - CD foram analisadas como regressão não linear e a constante de equilíbrio para os complexos alfa -CD/alaranjado de metila e beta -CD/fenolftaleina foram 7,69 x 10³ L/mol e 2

  14. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  15. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  16. Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami and introduction of two level tsunamis for tsunami disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami have been revealed by collaborative tsunami surveys extensively performed under the coordination of the Joint Tsunami Survey Group. The complex behaviors of the mega-tsunami were characterized by the unprecedented scale and the low occurrence frequency. The limitation and the performance of tsunami countermeasures were described on the basis of tsunami surveys, laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. These findings contributed to the introduction of two-level tsunami hazards to establish a new strategy for tsunami disaster mitigation, combining structure-based flood protection designed by the Level-1 tsunami and non-structure-based damage reduction planned by the Level-2 tsunami.

  17. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau; Tonnes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generat...

  18. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  19. Kinetic models in industrial biotechnology - Improving cell factory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Nielsen, Jens; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of industrial bioprocesses capitalize on living cells by using them as cell factories that convert sugars into chemicals. These processes range from the production of bulk chemicals in yeasts and bacteria to the synthesis of therapeutic proteins in mammalian cell lines. One of the tools in the continuous search for improved performance of such production systems is the development and application of mathematical models. To be of value for industrial biotechnology, mathematical models should be able to assist in the rational design of cell factory properties or in the production processes in which they are utilized. Kinetic models are particularly suitable towards this end because they are capable of representing the complex biochemistry of cells in a more complete way compared to most other types of models. They can, at least in principle, be used to in detail understand, predict, and evaluate the effects of adding, removing, or modifying molecular components of a cell factory and for supporting the design of the bioreactor or fermentation process. However, several challenges still remain before kinetic modeling will reach the degree of maturity required for routine application in industry. Here we review the current status of kinetic cell factory modeling. Emphasis is on modeling methodology concepts, including model network structure, kinetic rate expressions, parameter estimation, optimization methods, identifiability analysis, model reduction, and model validation, but several applications of kinetic models for the improvement of cell factories are also discussed.

  20. Evaluation of significant manufacturing parameters in lost foam casting of thin-wall Al-Si-Cu alloy using full factorial design of experiment%影响消失模铸造Al-Si-Cu合金薄壁铸件质量的显著性工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan JAFARI; Mohd Hsbullah IDRIS; Amirreza SHAYGANPOUR

    2013-01-01

    通过控制消失模铸造工艺参数可以制备出无缺陷的形状复杂的铸件产品。对 Al−Si−Cu 合金消失模铸造进行研究,考察浇注温度、涂料黏度、振动时间、型砂粒径以及它们之间的交互作用对铸件表面质量、孔隙率和共晶硅间距的影响。采用两水平全因子实验设计方法考察影响铸件性能的显著性影响工艺参数。结果表明,浇注温度和振动时间对铸件共晶硅间距和孔隙率的影响最明显。在细型砂模和较高的浇注温度下,铸件的表面质量几乎保持稳定不变,而在粗型砂模下铸件的表面质量较低。涂料黏度对铸件性能没有显著影响。%Controlling process parameters of lost foam casting (LFC) enables this process to produce defect-free complex shape castings. An experimental investigation on lost foam casting of an Al−Si−Cu cast alloy was carried out. The effects of pouring temperature, slurry viscosity, vibration time and sand size on surface finish, shrinkage porosity and eutectic silicon spacing of thin-wall casting were investigated. A full two-level factorial design of experimental technique was used to identify the significant manufacturing factors affecting the properties of casting. Pouring temperature was found as the most significant factor affecting Al−Si−Cu lost foam casting quality. It was shown that flask vibration time interacted with pouring temperature influenced eutectic silicon spacing and porosity percentage significantly. The results also revealed that the surface quality of the samples cast in fine sand moulds at higher pouring temperatures was almost unchanged, while those cast in coarse sand moulds possessed lower surface qualities. Furthermore, variation in slurry viscosity showed no significant effect on the evaluated properties compared to other parameters.

  1. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  2. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  3. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  4. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  5. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  6. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the p......In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature...... in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generator-side converter will have higher mean junction temperature and larger junction temperature...... fluctuation compared to grid-side converter at the rated wind speed. Moreover, the thermal performance of the generator-side converter in the partial-scale power converter becomes crucial around the synchronous operating point and should be considered carefully....

  7. Results from the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  8. Results from the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  9. Future e+ e- Flavor Factories: accelerator challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M E

    2008-01-01

    Operation of the B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has been very successful, both having exceeded their design peak and integrated luminosity and provided a huge amount of good data to the experiments. Proposal for upgrades, in order to achieve about two order of magnitude larger luminosity, are in progress in Japan, with Super-KEKB, and in Europe, with SuperB. Very high beam intensity, very short bunch length and low Interaction Point beta-functions are the key points of the Japanese design, very challenging for the hardware components (RF, vacuum). On the other hand SuperB exploits a new collision scheme, namely large Piwinski angle and "crab waist", which will allow to reach a luminosity two order of magnitude larger without increasing beam currents and decreasing bunch lengths. In this talk the present status of the two projects will be reviewed.

  10. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  11. The Use of Factorial Forecasting to Predict Public Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Policies that call for members of the public to change their behavior fail if people don't change; predictions of whether the requisite changes will take place are needed prior to implementation. I propose to solve the prediction problem with Factorial Forecasting, a version of functional measurement methodology that employs group designs. Aspects…

  12. Reversible Data Hiding Based on Two-level HDWT Coefficient Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ren Luo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, reversible data hiding has attracted much more attention than before. Reversibilitysignifies that the original media can be recovered without any loss from the marked media afterextracting the embedded message. This paper presents a new method that adopts two-level wavelettransform and exploits the feature of large wavelet coefficient variance to achieve the goal of highcapacity with imperceptibility. Our method differs from those of previous ones in which the waveletcoefficients histogram not gray-level histogram is manipulated. Besides, clever shifting rules areintroduced into histogram to avoid the decimal problem in pixel values after recovery to achievereversibility. With small alteration of the wavelet coefficients in the embedding process, and therefore lowvisual distortion is obtained in the marked image. In addition, an important feature of our design is thatthe use of threshold is much different from previous studies. The results indicate that our design issuperior to many other state-of-the-art reversible data hiding schemes.

  13. The Study of a European Neutrino Factory Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, P; Amand, J F; Autin, Bruno; Baldy, J L; Benedikt, Michael; Benett, R; Bernardon, A; Blondel, A; Bongardt, K; Cappi, R; Castellano, M G; Chiaveri, Enrico; Delahaye, J P; Densham, C J; Drumm, P V; Edgecocka, R; Fabich, A; Franchetti, Giuliano; Gareyte, Jacques; Garoby, R; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gerigk, F; Gilardoni, S S; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Haseroth, H; Hill, C; Hoffman, I; Holzer, B; Hübner, K; Jansson, A; Johnson, C D; Johnston, C; Küchler, D; Lettry, Jacques; Lindroos, M; Lombardi, A M; Martini, M; Migliorati, M; Méot, F; Métral, Elias; Möhl, D; Müller, A S; Neuffer, David V; Palumbo, L; Pasternak, J; Perrin, A; Pirkl, Werner; Poehler, M; Prior, C R; Ravn, H L; Rees, G; Riche, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Ryne, Robert D; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schriber, Stanley O; Schönauer, Horst Otto; Scrivens, R; Senichev, Yu V; Sievers, P; Silari, Marco; Tazzioli, F; Ullrich, H M; Vassilopoulos, N; Verdier, A; Vretenar, Maurizio; Wenander, F; Wilson, Edmund J N; Wyss, C; Zimmermann, M F; Zisman, M S; Zucchelli, P

    2004-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a new concept for an accelerator that produces a high-intensity, high-energy beam of electron and muon neutrinos - the ultimate tool for neutrino oscillation studies and the only machine conceived up today that could help detect CP violation of leptons. The basic concept of the Neutrino Factory is the production of neutrinos from the decay of high-energy muons. Due to their short lifetime, these muons have to be accelerated very fast. Several new accelerator techniques, like a high-intenstiy proton linac, high-power targets, ionization cooling or recirculating muon linacs are required. This paper presents a snapshot of the accelerator design at CERN. Although some aspects of this European Neutrino Factory Scheme have been optimised for the CERN site, the basic principle is site-independent.

  14. Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation for Truss Optimization by Using Discrete Shape Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation (IGATA to minimize truss weight by simultaneously optimizing size, shape, and topology variables. On the basis of a previously presented truss sizing/topology optimization method based on two-level approximation and genetic algorithm (GA, a new method for adding shape variables is presented, in which the nodal positions are corresponding to a set of coordinate lists. A uniform optimization model including size/shape/topology variables is established. First, a first-level approximate problem is constructed to transform the original implicit problem to an explicit problem. To solve this explicit problem which involves size/shape/topology variables, GA is used to optimize individuals which include discrete topology variables and shape variables. When calculating the fitness value of each member in the current generation, a second-level approximation method is used to optimize the continuous size variables. With the introduction of shape variables, the original optimization algorithm was improved in individual coding strategy as well as GA execution techniques. Meanwhile, the update strategy of the first-level approximation problem was also improved. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective in dealing with the three kinds of design variables simultaneously, and the required computational cost for structural analysis is quite small.

  15. Clinical Efficacy of Acupuncture Treatment in Combination With RehaCom Cognitive Training for Improving Cognitive Function in Stroke: A 2 × 2 Factorial Design Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cai; Yang, Shanli; Tao, Jing; Huang, Jia; Li, Yinyan; Ye, Haicheng; Chen, Shanjia; Hong, Wenjun; Chen, Lidian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in combination with RehaCom cognitive training in poststroke patients with cognitive dysfunction. This study was a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial comparing acupuncture, computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation, and the usual treatment by per-protocol analysis. The trial was completed by 204 stroke patients, including 49 patients in a control group, 52 patients in an acupuncture treatment group, 51 patients in a RehaCom training group, and 52 patients in an acupuncture combined with RehaCom group. All of the patients accepted basic treatment and health education. The interventions continued for 12 weeks (30 minutes per day, 5 days per week). The relative cognitive and functional outcomes were measured at baseline and 12 weeks (at the end of intervention) using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scales. After 12 weeks of treatment, the functional statuses of the patients in each of the 4 groups showed varying degrees of improvement. Multiple comparisons of the changes in the MMSE, MoCA, and FIM scores indicated that acupuncture combined with RehaCom cognitive training (ACR) had enhanced therapeutic effects on the functional statuses of the stroke patients (P value MMSE = 0.399, P△MoCA = 0.794, P△FIM = 0.862). The interaction effect values between acupuncture and RehaCom training (acceptance or nonacceptance) were as follows: △MMSE: F = 6.251, P = .013; △MoCA: F = 4.991, P = .027; and △FIM: F = 6.317, P = .013. Further, the main effect values for acupuncture and RehaCom training were both significant (P training has better therapeutic effects on the functional statuses of poststroke patients than the use of either treatment alone, demonstrating the clinical significance of this combination therapy. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post

  16. Endoscopic versus open radial artery harvest and mammario-radial versus aorto-radial grafting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: protocol for the 2 × 2 factorial designed randomised NEO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Christian L; Ballegaard, Martin; Werner, Mads U; Hasbak, Philip; Kjær, Andreas; Kofoed, Klaus F; Lindschou, Jane; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Olsen, Peter Skov; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2014-04-23

    Coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery has, since the 1990s, gone through a revival. Observational studies have indicated better long-term patency when using radial arteries. Therefore, radial artery might be preferred especially in younger patients where long time patency is important. During the last 10 years different endoscopic techniques to harvest the radial artery have evolved. Endoscopic radial artery harvest only requires a small incision near the wrist in contrast to open harvest, which requires an incision from the elbow to the wrist. However, it is unknown whether the endoscopic technique results in fewer complications or a graft patency comparable to open harvest. When the radial artery has been harvested, there are two ways to use the radial artery as a graft. One way is sewing it onto the aorta and another is sewing it onto the mammary artery. It is unknown which technique is the superior revascularisation technique. The NEO Trial is a randomised clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We plan to randomise 300 participants into four intervention groups: (1) mammario-radial endoscopic group; (2) aorto-radial endoscopic group; (3) mammario-radial open surgery group; and (4) aorto-radial open surgery group.The hand function will be assessed by a questionnaire, a clinical examination, the change in cutaneous sensibility, and the measurement of both sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. All the postoperative complications will be registered, and we will evaluate muscular function, scar appearance, vascular supply to the hand, and the graft patency including the patency of the central radial artery anastomosis. A patency evaluation by multi-slice computer tomography will be done at one year postoperatively.We expect the nerve conduction studies and the standardised neurological examinations to be able to discriminate differences in hand function comparing endoscopic to open harvest of the

  17. AutoPyFactory and the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P

    2013-01-01

    AutoPyFactory (APF) is a next-generation pilot submission framework that has been used as part of the ATLAS workload management system (PANDA) for two years. APF is reliable, scalable, and offers easy and flexible configuration. Using a plugin-based architecture, APF polls for information from configured information and batch systems (including grid sites), decides how many additional pilot jobs are needed, and submits them. With the advent of cloud computing, providing resources goes beyond submitting pilots to grid sites. Now, the resources on which the pilot will run also need to be managed. Handling both pilot submission and controlling the virtual machine life cycle (creation, retirement, and termination) from the same framework allows robust and efficient management of the process. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of these virtual machine management capabilities of APF. Expanding on our plugin-based approach, we allow cascades of virtual resources associated with a job queue. A si...

  18. The fulfillment of two-level control in experimental optical delay line of Michelson Stellar Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Jianing; Liu, Yi; Chen, Yi

    2010-07-01

    This article is focused on the two-level control system of ODL, which are divided into bottom layer control of linear motor and upper layer control of Piezoelectric Transducer(PZT).This ODL are designed to compensate geometrical optical path difference, which results from the earth rotation, and other disturbances, with high-accuracy and real time. Based on the PLC of PMAC controller, the linear motor tracks the trajectory of the simulated optical path difference to compensate roughly. PZT then compensates the rest error measured by ZLM almost real time. A detailed fulfillment of this method is shown in the article, and the first result data is produced. The result implies that this method is efficient. This article offers the reference for the ODL development with the practical high accuracy of compensation.

  19. Two-level system noise reduction for Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Noroozian, Omid; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; LeDuc, Henry G; Mazin, Benjamin A

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance is one of the most crucial aspects of any detector. Superconducting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have an "excess" frequency noise that shows up as a small time dependent jitter of the resonance frequency characterized by the frequency noise power spectrum measured in units of Hz^2/Hz. Recent studies have shown that this noise almost certainly originates from a surface layer of two-level system (TLS) defects on the metallization or substrate. Fluctuation of these TLSs introduces noise in the resonator due to coupling of the TLS electric dipole moments to the resonator's electric field. Motivated by a semi-empirical quantitative theory of this noise mechanism, we have designed and tested new resonator geometries in which the high-field "capacitive" portion of the CPW resonator is replaced by an interdigitated capacitor (IDC) structure with 10 - 20 micron electrode spacing, as compared to the 2 micron spacing used for our more conventional CPW resonators. Measurements show tha...

  20. A two-level formal specification of a defense communications system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Kemmerer, R.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Reliable Software Group

    1994-04-01

    Computer systems are being used in critical situations with sensitive data, which makes it very important to ensure that these systems perform as desired. The defense communications system contains particularly sensitive data. A two-level ASLAN formal specification of a defense communications system is presented. The ASLAN model is designed to enhance the understanding of critical requirements and demands of the defense communications system. For the top-level (high-level) specifications, the structural details of the actual network are actual network are abstracted to allow more time for examining the interactions between the sites and the network. At this level, DataGrams move through the network, although the actual routing decisions are not specified. More details are added in the second-level specification. At this level, structure is added to the network.

  1. Manufacturing data analytics using a virtual factory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay; Shao, Guodong; Shin, Seung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Large manufacturers have been using simulation to support decision-making for design and production. However, with the advancement of technologies and the emergence of big data, simulation can be utilised to perform and support data analytics for associated performance gains. This requires not only significant model development expertise, but also huge data collection and analysis efforts. This paper presents an approach within the frameworks of Design Science Research Methodology and prototyping to address the challenge of increasing the use of modelling, simulation and data analytics in manufacturing via reduction of the development effort. The use of manufacturing simulation models is presented as data analytics applications themselves and for supporting other data analytics applications by serving as data generators and as a tool for validation. The virtual factory concept is presented as the vehicle for manufacturing modelling and simulation. Virtual factory goes beyond traditional simulation models of factories to include multi-resolution modelling capabilities and thus allowing analysis at varying levels of detail. A path is proposed for implementation of the virtual factory concept that builds on developments in technologies and standards. A virtual machine prototype is provided as a demonstration of the use of a virtual representation for manufacturing data analytics.

  2. Structural Reinforcement Design and Construction of Light-weight Steel Factory Buildings with Solar Panels%太阳能电池板轻钢厂房结构加固设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杲磊; 吴高贤

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a structural reinforcement and constrcution plan for light-weight steel factory buildings with protal rigid frames after the installation of solar panels on the roofs.%该文介绍了既有门式钢架轻钢结构厂房屋面增加太阳能电池板后厂房结构的加固设计与施工方案。

  3. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  4. Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW: design and rationale for a large, multicenter collaborative 2 × 3 factorial trial of irrigating pressures and solutions in patients with open fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open fractures frequently result in serious complications for patients, including infections, wound healing problems, and failure of fracture healing, many of which necessitate subsequent operations. One of the most important steps in the initial management of open fractures is a thorough wound irrigation and debridement to remove any contaminants. There is, however, currently no consensus regarding the optimal approach to irrigating open fracture wounds during the initial operative procedure. The selection of both the type of irrigating fluid and the pressure of fluid delivery remain controversial. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irrigation solutions (soap vs. normal saline and pressure (low vs. high; gravity flow vs. high; low vs. gravity flow on re-operation within one year among patients with open fractures. Methods/Design The FLOW study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial using a 2 × 3 factorial design. Surgeons at clinical sites in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit 2 280 patients who will be centrally randomized into one of the 6 treatment arms (soap + low pressure; soap + gravity flow pressure; soap + high pressure; saline + low pressure; saline + gravity flow pressure; saline + high pressure. The primary outcome of the study is re-operation to promote wound or bone healing, or to treat an infection. This composite endpoint of re-operation includes a narrow spectrum of patient-important procedures: irrigation and debridement for infected wound, revision and closure for wound dehiscence, wound coverage procedures for infected or necrotic wound, bone grafts or implant exchange procedures for established nonunion in patients with postoperative fracture gaps less than 1 cm, intramedullary nail dynamizations in the operating room, and fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. Patients, outcome adjudicators, and data analysts will be blinded. We will compare

  5. Solving Two-Level Optimization Problems with Applications to Robust Design and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ˆ if for all    ,ˆ ,  ),(),,(max)ˆ,( xxgxxgxxg  for all x ( Bazaraa et al., 1993). 11 Definition 2.2: Objective...complementary 25 problems by taking the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) ( Bazaraa et al., 1993) conditions to each player‟s optimization problem and combining...based optimization algorithms ( Bazaraa et al., 1993) are used as opposed to population- based optimization ones (such as Genetic Algorithms or Simulated

  6. Two-Level Multifactor Experiment Designs for Detecting the Presence of Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    methodk2 described by Marsaglia (1972). For each 6, the non-centrality parameter was computed, then the corresponding power for the LR test at the a = .10...Technometrics 11, 431-444. Marsaglia , G. (1972). Choc’sing a point from the surface of a sphere. Ann. matu. Statist. 43, 645-646. Mitchell, T1. J

  7. 析因设计DLLME-SFO同时萃取水中EDCs的应用%Application of Factorial Design to Simultaneous Extraction of EDCs from Water Using DLLME-SFO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夏娇; 张琛; 刘建林; 李鱼

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to simultaneous extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals including (EDCs), estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estrone (El) and nonylphnol (NP) from water sample using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (abbr. DLLME-SFO) and the factorial design which was used to optimize extraction process. Regression equations for predicting extraction recovery were established, the effects of factors on DLLME-SFO analyzed and then the optimum conditions obtained. Finally, DLLME-SFO was used to analyze EDCs in the tap water and it was concluded that the regression equations could predict the recovery of extraction of EDCs with a relative deviation range of 0.87%-8.28%.%采用全析因设计对分散液液微萃取-上浮溶剂固化(DLLME-SFO)同时萃取水中五种环境内分泌干扰物包括雌酮(E1)、雌三醇(E3)、双酚A(BPA)、己烯雌酚(DES)和壬基酚(NP)的条件进行优化,建立了预测回归方程,并分析了因素对DLLME-SFO萃取回收率的影响.利用SAS软件分析得到的最优条件为盐浓度(m/v)15%、水样体积3mL、分散剂(甲醇)体积0.5 mL以及萃取剂(十二醇)体积120 μL.在优化萃取条件下,E1、E3、BPA、DES和NP萃取回收率的预测值分别为46.17%、74.38%、79.20%、69.62%和73.05%,实验验证值分别为44.15%、87.76%、77.83%、77.68%和70.01%,实验值与预测值的相对偏差小于10%.将建立的DLLME-SFO方法用于测定实际水样中的目标化合物,结果显示实际水样中E3、BPA、DES、E1和NP同时萃取回收率分别为64.81%~76.18%,88.09%~8.3.15%,68.38%~70.08%,66.37%~68.72%,68.35%~72.80%,相对标准偏差(n=3)在1.47%~8.09%之间.

  8. Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan production. However, when the production of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan production occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana

  9. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  10. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  11. 京棉二厂锯齿形厂房抗震鉴定与加固设计%Seismic Appraisal and Retrofitting Design for the Saw-tooth Factory Building of the 2nd Beijing Cotton Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明学; 李娜; 许政; 刘鹏; 于恒

    2011-01-01

    The saw-tooth factory building of the 2nd Beijing cotton mill was built in 19S4. The structure from east to west is beam-column structure, and the structure from south to north is hinge bent frame, whose hinge element is triangular skylight frames. Precast roof slabs are laid on them. The saw-tooth factory building was strengthened in 1981. To meet with the new operational functions, the reserved part of saw-tooth building structure is partitioned into 30 unattached structure units. Based on preserving the configuration of saw-tooth factory building, several strengthening techniques are used to improve its aseismic capacity and meet with the new operational functions, and it can be referred to protecting, exploiting other industrial heritages.%京棉二厂锯齿形厂房建于1954年,东西向为梁-柱结构,南北向为铰接排架,铰接构件为三角形钢筋混凝土梁式刚架,刚架上铺设预制钢筋混凝土屋面板,1981年进行过加固处理.为满足新的建筑功能要求,将拟保留厂房部分,分隔围合成30个独立的结构单元.运用多种加固手段,在基本保持结构特征的前提下,提高了结构的抗震能力,满足了转变后的建筑使用功能,可供保护开发利用工业遗迹借鉴.

  12. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  13. Efficiency analysis on a two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Pan; Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min;

    2013-01-01

    for non-conventional inverters with special shoot-through state is introduced and illustrated through the analysis on a special two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter. Efficiency comparison between the classical two-stage two-level three-phase inverter and the two-level three-phase quasi......-soft-switching inverter is carried out. A 10 kW/380 V prototype is constructed to verify the analysis. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the new inverter is higher than that of the traditional two-stage two- level three-phase inverter....

  14. A Two-Level Spreading-despreading CDMA System and Its Performance Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new two-level spreading-despreading scheme is presented in this paper. By adopting the two-level scheme, the Generalized Orthogonal (GO) zone of GO codes can be utilized. In this paper, the forward link of a multi-cell CDMA system employing the two-level scheme is presented and analyzed. The BER performance obtained by Gaussian Approximation is compared with that of the conventional single-level spreading-despreading system. The results reveal that the two*$-level CDMA system introduced in this paper exhibits larger performance gain when time delay can be restricted within a given zone.

  15. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  16. Software factory techniques applied to process control at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, Mathias D

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) - SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software, ...

  17. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  18. Software factory techniques applied to Process Control at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dutour, MD

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) – SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software...

  19. Squeezing in the interaction of radiation with two-level atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Abir; Rai, Jagdish

    1995-01-01

    We propose a simple experimental procedure to produce squeezing and other non-classical properties like photon antibunching of radiation, and amplification without population inversion. The method also decreases the uncertainties of the angular-momentum quadratures representing the two-level atomic system in the interaction of the two-level atoms with quantized radiation.

  20. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of a Two-Level Nonlinear Structural Equation Model with Fixed Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a maximum likelihood (ML) approach for analyzing a rather general two-level structural equation model is developed for hierarchically structured data that are very common in educational and/or behavioral research. The proposed two-level model can accommodate nonlinear causal relations among latent variables as well as effects…

  1. Analysis of Bullwhip Effect for Two-level Supply Chain with Multi-distributed Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LirongCui

    2004-01-01

    The bullwhip effect is studied for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers. First the model for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers is established under some assumptions, then the mathematical description is given for it. Finally a simple example is showed to illustrate the results obtained in the paper.

  2. Feasibility analysis of replacing full factorial design with Taguchi method in mini-plot soil erosion experiments%微小区土壤侵蚀试验中田口方法代替全因子设计的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风宝; 杨明义; 李占斌

    2015-01-01

    During plot experiments with full factorial designs in order to understand the effects of factors such as soil type, slope gradient, slope length, rainfall characteristics, hydraulic factors, vegetation cover and human activities on soil erosion processes, the number of tests increases with the increasing number of factors and their levels, often leading to time, cost and labor consuming. Taguchi method has been evidenced as a simple, economical and efficient experiment design method in fields of engineering, environment and others, but not in soil erosion studies. This study investigated the feasibility of using Taguchi design method in studies on soil erosion under different conditions. To achieve this objective, a published dataset of mini-plot soil erosion by Meyer and Harmon in 1989 was used. This dataset included four factors and four levels of soil type (Brooksville, Dubbs, Atwood and Loring), slope gradient (5%, 10%, 20 and 30%), slope length (0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 m) and rainfall intensity (13.6-14、26.4-27、74.3-76.3 and 112-115 mm/h). Results from Taguchi method, orthogonal design and full factorial design were compared. For comparison, the results from full factorial design were considered as measured values. Results showed that the test numbers used for Taguchi method/orthogonal design were only 6.3% of that for full factorial design, but there was no significant difference in mean of runoff and erosion rate between Taguchi method and the other methods. The maximum, minimum and variation coefficient and standard deviation for the erosion and runoff rates between the methods were slightly different. The main effect of each factor on the erosion and runoff rates obtained from Taguchi method followed the same trends with those obtained from full factorial design, but different from the orthogonal design sometimes. The three methods all could identify that rain intensity was the main contributor to slope erosion. However, the contribution rates from

  3. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  4. Réduire les coûts de la simulation informatique grâce aux plans d'expériences : un exemple en calcul de procédé Reducing Computer Simulation Costs with Factorial Designs: an Example of Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est destiné à montrer que la méthode des Plans d'Expériences utilisée dans les laboratoires et les unités de fabrication est également applicable au calcul scientifique et en particulier, à la simulation informatique. Son emploi permet de réduire, dans une forte proportion, le nombre de passages informatiques. Il permet également d'écrire des modèles mathématiques empiriques qui orientent les recherches vers la bonne solution et qui fournissent une bonne image du phénomène étudié. The aim of this article is to show that Factorial Design, which is a commonly used method in laboratories and production units, can also be very successful for designing and computerized simulations. Computer runs can be reduced by a factor as great as four to achieve a comprehensive understanding of how a plant or a process runs. Simple models can then be constructed to provide a good image of the investigated phenomenom. The example given here is that of a plant processing raw Natural Gas whose outputs are a Sales Gas and an NGL which must meet simultaneously five specifications. The operator in charge of the simulations begins by defining the Experimental Range of Investigation (Table 1. Calculations (Table 1, Fig. 2 are set in a pattern defined by Factorial Design (Table 2. These correspond to the apices of the Experimental cube (Fig. 2. Results of the simulations are then reported on Table 3. These require analysis, using Factorial Design Theory, in conjunction with each specification. A graphical approach is used to define the regions for which each specification is met: Fig. 3 shows the zone authorized for the first specification, the Wobbe Index and Fig. 4 gives the results for the outlet pressure of the Turbo-Expander. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 show the zones allowed for the CO2/C2 ratio, the TVP and the C2/C3 ratio. A satisfactory zone is found, for this last ratio, outside of the investigated range. The results acquired so far enable us

  5. Changing Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this essay the various underlying themes in the two film adaptations of Roald Dahl’s book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) are examined. These film adaptations, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) directed by Tim Burton and Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971) directed by Mel Stuart are discussed, in order to refute critical views such as found in a review by Bernard Beck. Beck states that Tim Burton’s film is darker and closer to Dahl’s original tale, whilst Mel Stuar...

  6. A Two-Level Task Scheduler on Multiple DSP System for OpenCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem that multiple DSP system does not support OpenCL programming. With the compiler, runtime, and the kernel scheduler proposed, an OpenCL application becomes portable not only between multiple CPU and GPU, but also between embedded multiple DSP systems. Firstly, the LLVM compiler was imported for source-to-source translation in which the translated source was supported by CCS. Secondly, two-level schedulers were proposed to support efficient OpenCL kernel execution. The DSP/BIOS is used to schedule system level tasks such as interrupts and drivers; however, the synchronization mechanism resulted in heavy overhead during task switching. So we designed an efficient second level scheduler especially for OpenCL kernel work-item scheduling. The context switch process utilizes the 8 functional units and cross path links which was superior to DSP/BIOS in the aspect of task switching. Finally, dynamic loading and software managed CACHE were redesigned for OpenCL running on multiple DSP system. We evaluated the performance using some common OpenCL kernels from NVIDIA, AMD, NAS, and Parboil benchmarks. Experimental results show that the DSP OpenCL can efficiently exploit the computing resource of multiple cores.

  7. Testing a Quantum Heat Pump with a Two-Level Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis; Mehboudi, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Once in its non-equilibrium steady state, a nanoscale system coupled to several heat baths may be thought-of as a quantum heat pump. Depending on the direction of its stationary heat flows it may function as e.g. a refrigerator or a heat transformer. These continuous heat devices can be arbitrarily complex multipartite systems, and yet their working principle is always the same: They are made up of several elementary three-level stages operating in parallel. As a result, it is possible to devise external black-box testing strategies to learn about their functionality and performance regardless of any internal details. In particular, one such heat pump can be tested by coupling a two-level spin to one of its contact transitions. The steady state of this external probe contains information about the presence of heat leaks and internal dissipation in the device, and also, about the direction of its steady-state heat currents. Provided that the irreversibility of the heat pump is low, one can further estimate its coefficient of performance. These techniques may find applications in the emerging field of quantum thermal engineering, as they facilitate the diagnosis and design optimization of complex thermodynamic cycles.

  8. Testing a Quantum Heat Pump with a Two-Level Spin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Correa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Once in its non-equilibrium steady state, a nanoscale system coupled to several heat baths may be thought of as a “quantum heat pump”. Depending on the direction of its stationary heat flows, it may function as, e.g., a refrigerator or a heat transformer. These continuous heat devices can be arbitrarily complex multipartite systems, and yet, their working principle is always the same: they are made up of several elementary three-level stages operating in parallel. As a result, it is possible to devise external “black-box” testing strategies to learn about their functionality and performance regardless of any internal details. In particular, one such heat pump can be tested by coupling a two-level spin to one of its “contact transitions”. The steady state of this external probe contains information about the presence of heat leaks and internal dissipation in the device and, also, about the direction of its steady-state heat currents. Provided that the irreversibility of the heat pump is low, one can further estimate its coefficient of performance. These techniques may find applications in the emerging field of quantum thermal engineering, as they facilitate the diagnosis and design optimization of complex thermodynamic cycles.

  9. SPONGY (SPam ONtoloGY): email classification using two-level dynamic ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seongwook

    2014-01-01

    Email is one of common communication methods between people on the Internet. However, the increase of email misuse/abuse has resulted in an increasing volume of spam emails over recent years. An experimental system has been designed and implemented with the hypothesis that this method would outperform existing techniques, and the experimental results showed that indeed the proposed ontology-based approach improves spam filtering accuracy significantly. In this paper, two levels of ontology spam filters were implemented: a first level global ontology filter and a second level user-customized ontology filter. The use of the global ontology filter showed about 91% of spam filtered, which is comparable with other methods. The user-customized ontology filter was created based on the specific user's background as well as the filtering mechanism used in the global ontology filter creation. The main contributions of the paper are (1) to introduce an ontology-based multilevel filtering technique that uses both a global ontology and an individual filter for each user to increase spam filtering accuracy and (2) to create a spam filter in the form of ontology, which is user-customized, scalable, and modularized, so that it can be embedded to many other systems for better performance.

  10. 门式刚架梁柱节点在玻璃厂房中的设计与应用%Design and Application of Portal Frame Post and Beam to Glass Factory Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宏伟; 王娜; 李艳霞; 赵伟哲; 梅浩栋

    2015-01-01

    The light portal frame construction has been used widely in glass factory building . The rigid connection of the posts and beams is the key both for insuring their integral rigidity and bearing capacity and for guaranteeing safety of the building structure .%轻型门式刚架结构在玻璃生产线中应用广泛,梁柱连接节点能否设计成理想的刚接节点,是保证刚架整体刚度和承载力的关键,也是保证整个玻璃生产厂房结构安全的关键.

  11. Optimized two-level placement of test points for multi-objective air monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong-hai; TAN Chun-lu; WANG Jun-qiang; ZHONG Yuan-chang

    2007-01-01

    To fit the complicated geographic conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, a two-level multi-objective monitoring system was developed to monitor the atmosphere of the area. Statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data and the macro control principle were employed to configure the upper layer. The lower layer was designed by the application of the thumb rule to a local terrain and specific point sources of pollution therein. The optimized two-level system comprises an upper layer of 16 monitoring stations distributed at places of diverse geographical, ecological, economical and social characteristics, and a lower layer of 16 sub-machines at each monitoring station of the upper layer. This optimal outcome fits the complicated conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, substantially cuts down the installation cost and the operation cost, and provides accurate monitoring data of atmosphere over the entire area with a high resolution.

  12. PSCAD modeling of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm for power electronics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design details of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm in PSCAD that is able to generate pulses for three-phase two-level DC/AC converters with two different switching patterns. The presented FORTRAN code is generic and can be easily modified to meet many other kinds of space vector modulation strategies. The code is also editable for hardware programming. The new component is tested and verified by comparing its output as six gating signals with those of a similar component in MATLAB library. Moreover the component is used to generate digital signals for closed-loop control of STATCOM for reactive power compensation in PSCAD. This add-on can be an effective tool to give students better understanding of the space vector modulation algorithm for different control tasks in power electronics area, and can motivate them for learning.

  13. Kinetics of wet air oxidation (WAO) of alcaloide factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunukcu, Y Kaçar

    2005-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) of Afyon alcaloide factory wastewater, a typical high strength industrial wastewater, was carried out. The process was performed in a specifically designed titanium bubble reactor at temperatures in the range of 140-160 degrees C. The kinetics of WAO of alcaloide factory wastewater was modeled by assuming two distinct steps. The rates of destruction were measured with respect to reduction in COD. The oxidation reaction was found to be first order with respect to COD concentration and also second order with respect to oxygen concentration in both steps. The values of activation energies were found to be in the range of 4.93 x 10(4)-7.85 x 10(4) kJ/kmol.

  14. Physics at e sup + e sup minus factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueth, V. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); MacFarlane, D.B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage rings which produce B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb{sup {minus}1} per year on the {Upsilon}(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  16. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  17. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  19. A reference architecture for the component factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  20. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A J; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T; Beneke, M; Beringer, J; Bianchi, F; Bigi, I I; Bona, M; Brambilla, N; Brodzicka, J; Chang, P; Charles, M J; Cheng, C H; Cheng, H -Y; Chistov, R; Colangelo, P; Coleman, J P; Drutskoy, A; Druzhinin, V P; Eidelman, S; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Faccini, R; Flood, K T; Gambino, P; Gaz, A; Gradl, W; Hayashii, H; Higuchi, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Hurth, T; Iijima, T; Itoh, R; Jackson, P D; Kass, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kou, E; Križan, P; Kronfeld, A; Kumano, S; Kwon, Y J; Latham, T E; Leith, D W G S; Lüth, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Meadows, B T; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Ocariz, J; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palano, A; Pich, A; Playfer, S; Poluektov, A; Porter, F C; Robertson, S H; Roney, J M; Roodman, A; Sakai, Y; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekula, S J; Steinhauser, M; Sumisawa, K; Swanson, E S; Tackmann, F; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Uno, S; van der Water, R; Vasseur, G; Verkerke, W; Waldi, R; Wang, M Z; Wilson, F F; Zupan, J; Zupanc, A; Adachi, I; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Ben-Haim, E; Biassoni, P; Cahn, R N; Cartaro, C; Chauveau, J; Chen, C; Chiang, C C; Cowan, R; Dalseno, J; Davier, M; Davies, C; Dingfelder, J C; Echenard, B; Epifanov, D; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Gary, J W; Godang, R; Graham, M T; Hafner, A; Hamilton, B; Hartmann, T; Hayasaka, K; Hearty, C; Iwasaki, Y; Khodjamirian, A; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Lafferty, G D; Lazzaro, A; Li, J; Lindemann, D; Long, O; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinelli, M; Miyabayashi, K; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Muller, D R; Nakazawa, H; Ongmongkolkul, P; Pacetti, S; Palombo, F; Pedlar, T K; Piilonen, L E; Pilloni, A; Poireau, V; Prothmann, K; Pulliam, T; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roudeau, P; Schrenk, S; Schroeder, T; Schubert, K R; Shen, C P; Shwartz, B; Soffer, A; Solodov, E P; Somov, A; Starič, M; Stracka, S; Telnov, A V; Todyshev, K Yu; Tsuboyama, T; Uglov, T; Vinokurova, A; Walsh, J J; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Ye, S; Zhang, C C; Abachi, S; Abashian, A; Abe, N; Abe, R; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adam, I; Adamczyk, K; Adametz, A; Adye, T; Agarwal, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Ahn, B S; Ahn, H S; Aitchison, I J R; Akai, K; Akar, S; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M; Akhmetshin, R; Akre, R; Alam, M S; Albert, J N; Aleksan, R; Alexander, J P; Alimonti, G; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Alsmiller, J R G; Altenburg, D; Alwyn, K E; An, Q; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Andress, J C; Angelini, C; Anipko, D; Anjomshoaa, A; Anthony, P L; Antillon, E A; Antonioli, E; Aoki, K; Arguin, J F; A, K; Arisaka, K; Asai, K; Asai, M; Asano, Y; Asgeirsson, D J; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aspinwall, M L; Aston, D; Atmacan, H; Aubert, B; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Azzolini, V; Azzopardi, D E; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bagnasco, S; Bahinipati, S; Bailey, D S; Bailey, S; Bailly, P; van Bakel, N; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Balagura, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Banas, E; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Baracchini, E; Barate, R; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bard, D J; Barillari, T; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bartelt, J; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bay, A; Beaulieu, M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Becker, J; Becla, J; Bedny, I; Behari, S; Behera, P K; Behn, E; Behr, L; Beigbeder, C; Beiline, D; Bell, R; Bellini, F; Bellis, M; Bellodi, G; Belous, K; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Benitez, J F; Benkebil, M; Berger, N; Bernabeu, J; Bernard, D; Bernet, R; Bernlochner, F U; Berryhill, J W; Bertsche, K; Besson, P; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Biagini, M E; Biasini, M; van Bibber, K; Biesiada, J; Bingham, I; Bionta, R M; Bischofberger, M; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Blouw, J; Bly, M; Blyth, S; Boeheim, C T; Bomben, M; Bondar, A; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bonvicini, G; Booke, M; Booth, J; Borean, C; Borgland, A W; Borsato, E; Bosi, F; Bosisio, L; Botov, A A; Bougher, J; Bouldin, K; Bourgeois, P; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyce, R F; Boyd, J T; Bozek, A; Bozzi, C; Bračko, M; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, B; Brau, J; Breon, A B; Breton, D; Brew, C; Briand, H; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigljević, V; Britton, D I; Brochard, F; Broomer, B; Brose, J; Browder, T E; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Browne, M; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmueller, O L; Bünger, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burgess, W; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzykaev, A R; Buzzo, A; Cai, Y; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Camanzi, B; Campagna, E; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carassiti, V; Carpinelli, M; Carroll, M; Casarosa, G; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castelli, G; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cecchi, A; Cenci, R; Cerizza, G; Cervelli, A; Ceseracciu, A; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  1. Identification of Colour Reconnection using Factorial Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Hua; LIU Lian-Shou

    2000-01-01

    A new signal is proposed for the colour reconnection in the hadronic decay of W+ W- in e+e- collisions. Using Pythia Monte Carlo it is shown that factorial correlators for W+ and W- without colour reconnection are almost identical to unity, while those for the cases with colour reconnection fall down approximately linearly in the log log plot. This signal, being based on the factorial correlator, is more sensitive than the ones using only averaged quantities.

  2. Information Entropy. and Squeezing of Quantum Fluctuations in a Two-Level Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain

    2000-01-01

    We study the atomic squeezing in the language of the quantum information theory. A rigorous entropy uncertainty relation which suits for characterizing the squeezing of a two-level atoms is obtained, and a general definition of information entropy squeezing in the two-level atoms is given. The information entropy squeezing of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode quantum field is examined. Our results show that the information entropy is a superior measure of the quantum uncertainty of atomic observable, also is a remarkable good precision measure of atomic squeezing. When the population difference of two-level atom is zero, the definition of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is trivial, while the definition of information entropy squeezing of the atom based on the entropy uncertainty relation is valid and can provide full information on the atomic squeezing in any cases.

  3. Dispersion management for two-level optically labeled signals in IP-over-WDM networks 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Carlsson, Birger; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva;

    2002-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of a two-level optically labeled signal with ASK/DPSK modulation are investigated under varying dispersion management. A limitation of extinction ratio and the resilience of fiber span, compensation ratio, and power level are obtained...

  4. Can Hare's two-level utilitarianism overcome the problems facing act-utilitarianism?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a positive defence of utilitarianism, R.M Hare presented his own theory of 'two-level' utilitarianism, claiming that it overcame the main objections directed towards traditional act utilitarianism. This essay firstly outlines the main problems associated with utilitarianism and examines whether Hare's theory is indeed able to successfully overcome them. It then goes on to examine the coherence of two-level utilitarianism itself, and thus determine whether it can provide a ...

  5. PERBANDINGAN METODE 2K-P FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DENGAN METODE TAGUCHI PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN FIBER GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanata Rahardja

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber glass products are widely used in the industry. High quality fiberglass product requires a composition and to obtain the optimal composition, an experiment needs to be done. In this project, experimental designs in 2k-p fractional factorial design and Taguchi method were carried out to obtain the optimal composition. According to the impact test results based on the model by the JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard for fiber glass, it was found that the 2k-p fractional factorial design method and Taguchi methods are the same. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Produk fiber glass banyak digunakan di dunia industri saat ini. Produk fiber glass berkualitas tinggi dibutuhkan suatu komposisi, dimana untuk komposisi yang tepat diperlukan eksperimen. Desain eksperimen 2k-p fractional factorial design dengan metode Taguchi telah digunakan untuk mendapatkan komposisi yang optimal. Hasil pengujian kekuatan impak dengan bentuk dan pengujian sesuai JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard pada fiber glass didapatkan bahwa metode 2k-p fractional factorial design dengan metode Taguchi tidak berbeda. Kata kunci : 2k-p fractional factorial design, Taguchi, JIS

  6. Two-Level Incremental Checkpoint Recovery Scheme for Reducing System Total Overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given. PMID:25111048

  7. Design and Implementation of the cigarette factory core data protection platform control%卷烟厂核心数据保护管控平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘佰林; 汪炎平; 李寒曦; 钱杰; 金振训

    2013-01-01

    After completion of the technical transformation projects,the domestic cigarette factory in the industrial production process is more populous,industrialization and information technology combined with very closely.Most enterprises have a manufacturing execution system(MES),the data exchange system (XI),Warehouse Management System(WMS)application systems for production management.When the failure of a production management system application or environment may cause local production section or the whole plant shutdowns.In this paper,Hangzhou Cigarette Factory,for example,the research is to establish a set of oriented core data protection system and build a secure support platform,so as to ensure the production management system failure can be a quick recovery in a short period of time,to keep the productioncontinuity.%  国内卷烟厂在完成技改项目之后,工业生产流程越发庞大,工业化与信息化结合非常紧密。大多数企业均有生产执行系统(MES)、数据交换系统(XI)、仓储管理系统(WMS)等多个应用系统进行生产管理。当某个生产管理系统应用或环境出现故障时,可能会造成局部生产工段或全厂性的停产。本文以杭州卷烟厂为例,研究的是建立一套面向核心数据的保护系统,并搭建一个安全支撑平台,从而确保当生产管理系统故障发生后能够在短时间内进行快速恢复,保持生产的连续性。

  8. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  9. Signatures factory: a dynamic alternative for teaching - learning layout concepts and waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luiz Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of games and simulation has now spread as a teaching support tool of engineering. This article aims to discuss this reality and this need, presenting as proposed a didactic game in a signature’s factory. From this, it was suggested that the participants involved modify the simulated factory environment through the knowledge acquired during the factory design discipline and layout. Various topics related to Production Engineering were addressed, such as layout, Takt time (TT, standardization of processes, elimination of waste and activities that add / do not add value. As a result, it was possible to see, among many things, the significant improvement in the understanding and assimilation of theoretical concepts by the participants. With the practice of simulation one can demonstrate and experience possible cases and difficulties they face on a daily basis within the factory environment.

  10. METABOLIC MODELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL FACTORIES BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  11. Design and Organization of the Dexamethasone, Light Anesthesia and Tight Glucose Control (DeLiT Trial: a factorial trial evaluating the effects of corticosteroids, glucose control, and depth-of-anesthesia on perioperative inflammation and morbidity from major non-cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang WH Wilson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perioperative period is characterized by an intense inflammatory response. Perioperative inflammation promotes postoperative morbidity and increases mortality. Blunting the inflammatory response to surgical trauma might thus improve perioperative outcomes. We are studying three interventions that potentially modulate perioperative inflammation: corticosteroids, tight glucose control, and light anesthesia. Methods/Design The DeLiT Trial is a factorial randomized single-center trial of dexamethasone vs placebo, intraoperative tight vs. conventional glucose control, and light vs deep anesthesia in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Anesthetic depth will be estimated with Bispectral Index (BIS monitoring (Aspect medical, Newton, MA. The primary outcome is a composite of major postoperative morbidity including myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis, and 30-day mortality. C-reactive protein, a measure of the inflammatory response, will be evaluated as a secondary outcome. One-year all-cause mortality as well as post-operative delirium will be additional secondary outcomes. We will enroll up to 970 patients which will provide 90% power to detect a 40% reduction in the primary outcome, including interim analyses for efficacy and futility at 25%, 50% and 75% enrollment. Discussion The DeLiT trial started in February 2007. We expect to reach our second interim analysis point in 2010. This large randomized controlled trial will provide a reliable assessment of the effects of corticosteroids, glucose control, and depth-of-anesthesia on perioperative inflammation and morbidity from major non-cardiac surgery. The factorial design will enable us to simultaneously study the effects of the three interventions in the same population, both individually and in different combinations. Such a design is an economically efficient way to study the three interventions in one clinical trial vs three. Trial registration This trial is

  12. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  13. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler’s gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler’s factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are co...

  14. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  15. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  16. Utilização de planejamento fatorial no preparo de amostras de detergente em pó para a determinação de fósforo por análise em fluxo Evaluation of sample preparation of the detergent powder using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Soraia Vital Campos Barbosa da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of detergent powder samples in a microwave oven and autoclave was evaluated. To establish the best experimental conditions a 2(5 factorial design was performed, varying the conditions in autoclave and microwave digestion and flow system parameters for the determination of phosphorus. The best composition was: 0.2 mL sulfuric acid; 500 W power and a 2 min time interval; 6 mmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and 16 mmol L-1 of molybdate to flow system. This factor levels use less reagents than the reference method. No statistically significant differences were found between the autoclave and microwave oven responses at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Two-Level Stabilized Finite Volume Methods for Stationary Navier-Stokes Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two algorithms of two-level methods for resolving the nonlinearity in the stabilized finite volume approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the equilibrium flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid. A macroelement condition is introduced for constructing the local stabilized finite volume element formulation. Moreover the two-level methods consist of solving a small nonlinear system on the coarse mesh and then solving a linear system on the fine mesh. The error analysis shows that the two-level stabilized finite volume element method provides an approximate solution with the convergence rate of the same order as the usual stabilized finite volume element solution solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a fine mesh for a related choice of mesh widths.

  18. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.

  19. Open-Loop Control in Quantum Optics: Two-Level Atom in Modulated Optical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Saifullah, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The methods of mathematical control theory are widely used in the modern physics, but still they are less popular in quantum science. We will discuss the aspects of control theory, which are the most useful in applications to the real problems of quantum optics. We apply this technique to control the behavior of the two-level quantum particles (atoms) in the modulated external optical field in the frame of the so called "semi classical model", where quantum two-level atomic system (all other levels are neglected) interacts with classical electromagnetic field. In this paper we propose a simple model of feedforward (open-loop) control for the quantum particle system, which is a basement for further investigation of two-level quantum particle in the external one-dimensional optical field.

  20. Two-Level Solutions to Exponentially Complex Problems in Glass Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Glass poses an especially challenging problem for physicists. The key to making progress in theoretical glass science is to extract the key physics governing properties of practical interest. In this spirit, we discuss several two-level solutions to exponentially complex problems in glass science....... Topological constraint theory, originally developed by J.C. Phillips, is based on a two-level description of rigid and floppy modes in a glass network and can be used to derive quantitatively accurate and analytically solvable models for a variety of macroscopic properties. The temperature dependence...... of the floppy mode density is used to derive the new MYEGA model of supercooled liquid viscosity, which offers improved descriptions for the temperature and composition dependence of relaxation time. The relaxation behavior of the glassy state can be further elucidated using a two-level energy landscape...