WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-layer variable infiltration

  1. Training two-layered feedforward networks with variable projection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C T; Lee, J J

    2008-02-01

    The variable projection (VP) method for separable nonlinear least squares (SNLLS) is presented and incorporated into the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm for training two-layered feedforward neural networks. It is shown that the Jacobian of variable projected networks can be computed by simple modification of the backpropagation algorithm. The suggested algorithm is efficient compared to conventional techniques such as conventional Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), hybrid gradient algorithm (HGA), and extreme learning machine (ELM).

  2. The impact of baroclinic eddy feedback on the persistence of jet variability in the two-layer model

    OpenAIRE

    Zurita-Gotor, Pablo; Blanco-Fuentes, Javier; Gerber, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that the persistence of extratropical jet shifts is enhanced by a positive eddy feedback, the dynamics of this feedback is still debated. Two types of mechanisms have been proposed: barotropic mechanisms rely on changes in upper-level propagation and baroclinic mechanisms rely on the coupling between barotropic and baroclinic flow. Recent studies have suggested that barotropic models can capture key aspects of the observed jet variability but the role of baroclinic d...

  3. Solitons, Bäcklund transformation and Lax pair for a generalized variable-coefficient Boussinesq system in the two-layered fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Hui; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Wu, Yu-Xiao; Guo, Yong-Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized variable-coefficient Boussinesq system, which describes the propagation of the shallow water waves in the two-layered fluid flow. Bilinear forms, Bäcklund transformation and Lax pair are derived by virtue of the Bell polynomials. Hirota method is applied to construct the one- and two-soliton solutions. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are illustrated graphically: kink- and bell-shape solitons are obtained; shapes of the solitons are affected by the variable coefficients α1, α3 and α4 during the propagation, kink- and anti-bell-shape solitons are obtained when α3 > 0, anti-kink- and bell-shape solitons are obtained when α3 < 0; Head-on interaction between the two bidirectional solitons, overtaking interaction between the two unidirectional solitons are presented; interactions between the two solitons are elastic.

  4. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  5. Biopsy variability of lymphocytic infiltration in breast cancer subtypes and the ImmunoSkew score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Mujahid; Yuan, Yinyin

    2016-11-01

    The number of tumour biopsies required for a good representation of tumours has been controversial. An important factor to consider is intra-tumour heterogeneity, which can vary among cancer types and subtypes. Immune cells in particular often display complex infiltrative patterns, however, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of immune cells and how this fundamental biological nature of human tumours influences biopsy variability and treatment resistance. We systematically investigate biopsy variability for the lymphocytic infiltrate in 998 breast tumours using a novel virtual biopsy method. Across all breast cancers, we observe a nonlinear increase in concordance between the biopsy and whole-tumour score of lymphocytic infiltrate with increasing number of biopsies, yet little improvement is gained with more than four biopsies. Interestingly, biopsy variability of lymphocytic infiltrate differs considerably among breast cancer subtypes, with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) subtype having the highest variability. We subsequently identify a quantitative measure of spatial variability that predicts disease-specific survival in HER2+ subtype independent of standard clinical variables (node status, tumour size and grade). Our study demonstrates how systematic methods provide new insights that can influence future study design based on a quantitative knowledge of tumour heterogeneity.

  6. Modelling infiltration and geostatistical analysis of spatial variability of sorptivity and transmissivity in a flood spreading area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi-Fashi, F.; Sharifi, F.; Kamali, K.

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of infiltration characteristics is useful in hydrological studies of agricultural soils. Soil hydraulic parameters such as steady infiltration rate, sorptivity, and transmissivity can exhibit appreciable spatial variability. The main objectives of this study were to examine several mathematical models of infiltration and to analyze the spatial variability of observed final infiltration rate, estimated sorptivity and estimated transmissivity in flood spreading and control areas in Ilam province, Iran. The suitability of geostatistics to describe such spatial variability was assessed using data from 30 infiltration measurements sampled along three lines. The Horton model provided the most accurate simulation of infiltration considering all measurements and the Philips two-term model provided less accurate simulation. A comparison of the measured values and the estimated final infiltration rates showed that the Kostiakov- Lewis, Kostiakov, and SCS models could not estimate the final infiltration rate as well as Horton model. Estimated sorptivity and transmissivity parameters of the Philips two-term model and final infiltration rate had spatial structure, and were considered to be structural variables over the transect pattern. The Gaussian model provided the best-fit theoretical variogram for these three parameters. Variogram values ranged from 99 and 88 m for sorptivity and final infiltration rate to 686 (spherical) and 384 m (Gaussian) for transmissivity. Sorptivity, transmissivity and final infiltration attributes showed a high degree of spatial dependence, being 0.99, 0.81 and 1, respectively. Results showed that kriging could be used to predict the studied parameters in the study area. (Author)

  7. Supervised Learning of Two-Layer Perceptron under the Existence of External Noise — Learning Curve of Boolean Functions of Two Variables in Tree-Like Architecture —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the supervised batch learning of Boolean functions expressed by a two-layer perceptron with a tree-like structure. We adopt continuous weights (spherical model) and the Gibbs algorithm. We study the Parity and And machines and two types of noise, input and output noise, together with the noiseless case. We assume that only the teacher suffers from noise. By using the replica method, we derive the saddle point equations for order parameters under the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We study the critical value αC of the loading rate α above which the learning phase exists for cases with and without noise. We find that αC is nonzero for the Parity machine, while it is zero for the And machine. We derive the exponents barβ of order parameters expressed as (α - α C)bar{β} when α is near to αC. Furthermore, in the Parity machine, when noise exists, we find a spin glass solution, in which the overlap between the teacher and student vectors is zero but that between student vectors is nonzero. We perform Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations by simulated annealing and also by exchange Monte Carlo simulations in both machines. In the Parity machine, we study the de Almeida-Thouless stability, and by comparing theoretical and numerical results, we find that there exist parameter regions where the RS solution is unstable, and that the spin glass solution is metastable or unstable. We also study asymptotic learning behavior for large α and derive the exponents hat{β } of order parameters expressed as α - hat{β } when α is large in both machines. By simulated annealing simulations, we confirm these results and conclude that learning takes place for the input noise case with any noise amplitude and for the output noise case when the probability that the teacher's output is reversed is less than one-half.

  8. MODELING OF THE REAL SYSTEM «STRUCTURE-FOUNDATION-BEDDING» THROUGH THE EMPLOYMENT OF A MODEL OF A TWO-LAYER BEAM OF VARIABLE RIGIDITY RESTING ON THE ELASTIC BEDDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors provide the results of analysis of a real construction facility performed with the help of a model of a two-layer beam of variable rigidity resting on the elastic bedding. The bottom layer of a two-layer beam simulates the foundation, the upper payer stands for the structure, and the weight of each layer is taken into consideration. The characteristics of the upper layer change alongside its length. Analytical and numerical methods of calculation were applied to solve this problem. The analytical solution is based on the method of initial parameters and backed by the practical data extracted from "Frame and Towerlike Buildings: Mattress Foundation Design Manual". According to the above manual, whenever the length-to-width ratio of a building exceeds 1.5, one-dimensional pattern composed of a composite beam resting on the elastic bedding may be used. The beam is divided into several sections, and deflection of each section is identified. It is equal to the settlements of the bedding surface. The rigidity change alongside the length of each section is assumed to be permanent, i.e. the beam is considered as the one that demonstrates its piecewise-constant rigidity. The following conclusion can be made on the basis of the calculations performed by the authors: the calculation of the «structure-foundation-bedding» system may require a simplified model representing composite beams and plates resting on the elastic bedding. More accurate models, such as sets of finite elements, are recommend for use in conjunction with simplified ones.

  9. Lymphoid infiltration as a prognostic variable for early-onset breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, S; Tomasic, G; Casalini, P; Balsari, A; Pilotti, S; Cascinelli, N; Salvadori, B; Colnaghi, M I; Rilke, F

    1997-05-01

    Infiltration by lymphoid cells is a common feature of many human tumors, including breast carcinomas, and the degree of infiltration has been suggested to be a measure of the host immune response. Our analyses in a series of 1919 cases of primary ductal and lobular infiltrating breast carcinomas from women with a long-term follow-up revealed: (a) a 16-17% frequency of infiltrated tumors independent of the patient's age at diagnosis; and (b) a strong positive correlation between survival rates and the presence of lymphocytes at the tumor site in patients less than 40 years of age (P = 0.0002) but no association with prognosis in patients 40 years of age or older. Multivariate analysis indicated that lymphoid infiltration is independent of other conventional prognostic factors such as nodal status and tumor size in predicting survival. Thus, a possible immune response against the tumor seems to be relevant only in women with early-onset tumors. Because the immune system is functionally maximum in younger years, declining with age, this finding might reflect a difference in the efficiency of the immune system. Alternatively, the biology of these tumors might differ, leading to a difference in immuno-genicity.

  10. Variable infiltration and river flooding resulting in changing groundwater quality - A case study from Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Postma, Dieke; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe changes in groundwater quality occurring in a buried valley aquifer following a reduction in groundwater exploitation and enhanced infiltration due to extensive flooding of the Odra River in 1997 were investigated. Long-time series data for the chemical composition of groundwater in a large well field for drinking water supply indicated the deterioration of groundwater quality in the wells capturing water from the flooded area, which had been intensively cultivated since the 1960s. Infiltration of flooded river water into the aquifer is suggested by an elevated chloride concentration, although salt flushing from the rewatered unsaturated zone due to the enhanced recharge event is much more feasible. Concomitantly with chloride increases in the concentrations of sulphate, ferrous iron, manganese, and nickel imply the oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2) which is abundant in the aquifer. The proton production resulting from pyrite oxidation is buffered by the dissolution of calcite, while the Ca:SO 4 stoichiometry of the groundwater indicates that pyrite oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the dominant process occurring in the aquifer. The pyritic origin of SO42- is confirmed by the sulphur isotopic composition. The resultant Fe 2+ increase induces Mn-oxide dissolution and the mobilisation of Ni 2+ previously adsorbed to Mn-oxide surfaces. The study has a major implication for groundwater quality prediction studies where there are considerable variations in water level associated with groundwater management and climate change issues.

  11. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck;

    1994-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... usage of the TCR V gene families V alpha 4, V alpha 5, V alpha 22 and V beta 8, whereas the V beta 3 gene family appeared to be expressed together with HLA-A1. Other highly expressed V gene families, apparently not restricted to either HLA-A1 or -A2, were V alpha 1 (expressed in three of four primary...... tumours) and V alpha 21 (expressed in two of four tumours). We found no evidence suggesting any correlations between the haplotypes HLA-A1 and -A2 and preferential V gene family expression in the metastatic lesions, and the only common feature was V alpha 8, which was found to be highly expressed in two...

  12. Two-Layer Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new quantum key distribution protocol using coherent and thermal states was proposed. In this work this kind of two-layer QKD protocol is formalized and its security against the most common attacks, including external control and Trojan horse attacks, is discussed.

  13. Coupling study of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with WRF model to simulate the streamflow in the Guadalquivir Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; De Franciscis, Sebastiano; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a large-scale, semi-distributed hydrologic model [1]. Its most important properties are related to the land surface, modeled as a grid of large and uniform cells with sub-grid heterogeneity (e.g. land cover), as well as to the local water influx (i.e. water can only enter a grid cell via the atmosphere and the channel flow between grid cells is ignored). The portions of surface and subsurface water runoff that reach the local channel network, are assumed to stay in the channel, and cannot flow back into the soil. In a second step, routing of streamflow is performed separately from the land surface simulation, using a separate model, the Routing Model, described in [2]. The final goal of our research consists into set an optimal hydrological and climate model to study the evolution of the streamflow of Guadalquivir Basin with different future land use, land cover and climate scenarios. In this work we study the coupling between VIC model, Routing model and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to perform the evolution of the streamflow for the Guadalquivir Basin (Spain). For this end, a calibration of the most relevant VIC model parameters using real streamflow daily time series, obtained from CEDEX (Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas, Spain) database [3] was performed. In the time period under study, i.e. the decades 1988-1997 (calibration step) and 1998-2007 (verification step), the VIC model has been coupled with observational climate data, obtained from SPAIN02 database [4]. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis of WRF model to different parameterizations using different cumulus, microphysics and surface/planetary boundary layer schemes for the period 1995-1996. WRF runs were carried over a domain encompassing the Iberian Peninsula and nested in the coarser EURO-CORDEX domain [5]. The optimal parameters set resulting from such analysis have been used to obtain a

  14. Interfacial Stability in a Two-Layer Benard Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko Renardy Technical Summary Report #2814 April 1985 I cti- Work Unit Number 2 - Physical Mathematics...34•"• -••’-’• ^ ••’••• VI , •• W -•- • •- ’•"• INTERFACIAL STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko Renardy I. INTRODUCTION Two layers of fluids are...Subtltl») INTERFACIAL STABILITY IN A TWO-LAYER BENARD PROBLEM 7. AUTMORf.; Yuriko Renardy »• PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

  15. Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, David; Colombo, Paolo C; Latif, Farhana; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies can result from a wide spectrum of both inherited and acquired conditions with varying systemic manifestations. They portend an adverse prognosis, with only a few exceptions (ie, glycogen storage disease), where early diagnosis can result in potentially curative treatment. The extent of cardiac abnormalities varies based on the degree of infiltration and results in increased ventricular wall thickness, chamber dilatation, and disruption of the conduction system. These changes often lead to the development of heart failure, atrioventricular (AV) block, and ventricular arrhythmia. Because these diseases are relatively rare, a high degree of clinical suspicion is important for diagnosis. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are helpful, but advanced techniques including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear imaging are increasingly preferred. Treatment is dependent on the etiology and extent of the disease and involves medications, device therapy, and, in some cases, organ transplantation. Cardiac amyloid is the archetype of the infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is discussed in great detail in this review. PMID:26244036

  16. Theoretical Permeability of Two-layered Nonwoven Geotextiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-fang; CHU Cai-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The two-layered nonwoven geotextile, which consists of a layer constructed with fine fibers for providing optimal filtration characteristics and another layer constructed with coarse fibers for providing the required mechanical properties, is desirable for drainage and filtration system.Based on Darcy's law and drag force theory, a mathematical model on vertical permeability coefficient of two-layered nonwoven geotextile is estabilished. Comparison with experimental results shows that the present model possesses 83.6% accuracy for needle-punched two-layered nonwoven geotextiles. And experimental results also show that with the increasing of needle density the vertical permeability coefficient of two-layered nonwoven geotextiless firstly decreases and then increases, reaching the smallest value at 470 p/cm2.

  17. Improved efficient routing strategy on two-layer complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Zhihao

    2016-10-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has become a hot research topic since many networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the traditional shortest path routing (SPR) protocol is susceptible to congestion on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing strategy named improved global awareness routing (IGAR) strategy which is based on the betweenness centrality of nodes in the two layers. With the proposed strategy, the routing paths can bypass hub nodes of both layers to enhance the transport efficiency. Simulation results show that the IGAR strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than the SPR and the global awareness routing (GAR) strategies. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this study is helpful to alleviate congestion of the two-layer complex networks.

  18. Synchronization of Stochastic Two-Layer Geophysical Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yongqian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the two-layer quasigeostrophic flow model under stochastic wind forcing is considered. It is shown that when the layer depth or density difference across the layers tends to zero, the dynamics on both layers synchronizes to an averaged geophysical flow model.

  19. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluidsover a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformaltransformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, forthe dispersion relation between wave frequency and general

  20. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, L.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and gene

  1. Enhancing the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model to Account for Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Evapotranspiration in the North American Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. Due to the region's arid to semi-arid climate, two factors play major roles in ET: sparse vegetation that exhibits dramatic seasonal greening, and irrigated agriculture. To more accurately characterize the spatio-temporal variations of ET in the NAM region, we used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at fifty-nine eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major source areas for ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relations with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to one month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. These VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region, outperforming several other process-based and remote-sensing-based gridded ET products. Furthermore, spatio-temporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region, with implications for land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  2. Pattern Synchronization in a Two-Layer Neuronal Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-Juan; LU Qi-Shao

    2009-01-01

    Pattern synchronization in a two-layer neuronal network is studied.For a single-layer network of Rulkov map neurons,there are three kinds of patterns induced by noise.Additive noise can induce ordered patterns at some intermediate noise intensities in a resonant way;however,for small and large noise intensities there exist excitable patterns and disordered patterns,respectively.For a neuronal network coupled by two single-layer networks with noise intensity differences between layers,we find that the two-layer network can achieve synchrony as the interlayer coupling strength increases.The synchronous states strongly depend on the interlayer coupling strength and the noise intensity difference between layers.

  3. TWO-LAYER MODEL DESCRIPTION OF POLYMER THIN FILM DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong Peng; Ran-xing Nancy Li; Chi-hang Lam; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in the past two decades have shown that the glass transition temperature of polymer films can become noticeably different from that of the bulk when the film thickness is decreased below ca.100 nm.It is broadly believed that these observations are caused by a nanometer interfacial layer with dynamics faster or slower than that of the bulk.In this paper,we examine how this idea may be realized by using a two-layer model assuming a hydrodynamic coupling between the interfacial layer and the remaining,bulk-like layer in the film.Illustrative examples will be given showing how the two-layer model is applied to the viscosity measurements of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate films supported by silicon oxide,where divergent thickness dependences are observed.

  4. Electromagnetic Scattering in a Two-layered Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG LI-XIN; LI YUAN; Ma Fu-ming

    2011-01-01

    The object of this paper is to investigate the three-dimensional electro-magnetic scattering problems in a two-layered background medium.These problems have an important application in today's technology,such as to detect objects that are buried in soil.Here,we model both the exterior impedance problem and the inhomogeneous medium problem in R3.We establish uniqueness and existence for the solution of the two scattering problems,respectively.

  5. Two-Layer Feedback Neural Networks with Associative Memories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gui-Kun; ZHAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    We construct a two-layer feedback neural network by a Monte Carlo based algorithm to store memories as fixed-point attractors or as limit-cycle attractors. Special attention is focused on comparing the dynamics of the network with limit-cycle attractors and with fixed-point attractors. It is found that the former has better retrieval property than the latter. Particularly, spurious memories may be suppressed completely when the memories are stored as a long-limit cycle. Potential application of limit-cycle-attractor networks is discussed briefly.

  6. Tidal modulation of two-layer hydraulic exchange flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Frankcombe

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent, two layer hydraulic exchange flow is studied using an idealised shallow water model. It is found that barotropic time-dependent perturbations, representing tidal forcing, increase the baroclinic exchange flux above the steady hydraulic limit, with flux increasing monotonically with tidal amplitude (measured either by height or flux amplitude over a tidal period. Exchange flux also depends on the non-dimensional tidal period, γ, which was introduced by Helfrich (1995. Resonance complicates the relationship between exchange flux and height amplitude, but, when tidal strength is characterised by flux amplitude, exchange flux is a monotonic function of γ.

  7. Baroclinic instability in the two-layer model. Interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Joseph [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Two new interpretations of the wellknown instability criterion of the two-layer model of baroclinic instability are given whereby also a slight generalization of this model is introduced by admitting an interface on top with a reduced gravity g. It is found that instability sets in when the horizontal potential temperature advection by the barotropic mode becomes more important than the vertical temperature advection due to this mode. The second interpretation is based on potential vorticity (PV) thinking. Instability implies a dominance of the vertical PV coupling coefficient compared to horizontal mean state PV advection generated at the same level. The interface damps with decreasing g. (orig.)

  8. Interference testing of a two-layer commingled reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M.; Reynolds, A.C. (Tulsa Univ., OK (USA))

    1989-12-01

    A two-well system in an infinite-acting, commingled, two-layer reservoir is considered. One well, the active well, is produced at a constant total rate, and the second well, the observation well, is shut in at all times. An analytical solution in Laplace space is presented, and the parametric groups that uniquely determine the pressure and rate solutions are identified. Results regarding crossflow through the observation well are presented. Conditions under which the line-source solution can be used to analyze observations-well pressure data are delineated.

  9. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  10. Nonlinear topographic effects in two-layer flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter George Baines

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nature of non-linear flow of a two-layer fluid with a rigid lid over a long obstacle, such that the flow may be assumed to be hydrostatic. Such flows can generate hydraulic jumps upstream, and the model uses a new model of internal hydraulic jumps, which results in corrections to flows that have been computed using earlier models of jumps that are now known to be incorrect. The model covers the whole range of ratios of the densities of the two fluids, and is not restricted to the Boussinesq limit. The results are presented in terms of flow types in various regions of a Froude number-obstacle height (F0 – Hm diagram, in which the Froude number F0 is based on the initial flow conditions. When compared with single-layer flow, and some previous results with two layers, some surprising and novel patterns emerge on these diagrams. Specifically, in parts of the diagram where the flow may be supercritical (F0 > 1, there are regions where hysteresis may occur, implying that the flow may have two and sometimes three multiple flow states for the same conditions (i.e. values of F0 and Hm.

  11. Two-Layer Elastographic 3-D Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-González, Begoña; Zhang, Shun; Gómez-González, Manuel; Meili, Ruedi; Firtel, Richard A.; Lasheras, Juan C.; Del Álamo, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular traction force microscopy (TFM) requires knowledge of the mechanical properties of the substratum where the cells adhere to calculate cell-generated forces from measurements of substratum deformation. Polymer-based hydrogels are broadly used for TFM due to their linearly elastic behavior in the range of measured deformations. However, the calculated stresses, particularly their spatial patterns, can be highly sensitive to the substratum’s Poisson’s ratio. We present two-layer elastographic TFM (2LETFM), a method that allows for simultaneously measuring the Poisson’s ratio of the substratum while also determining the cell-generated forces. The new method exploits the analytical solution of the elastostatic equation and deformation measurements from two layers of the substratum. We perform an in silico analysis of 2LETFM concluding that this technique is robust with respect to TFM experimental parameters, and remains accurate even for noisy measurement data. We also provide experimental proof of principle of 2LETFM by simultaneously measuring the stresses exerted by migrating Physarum amoeboae on the surface of polyacrylamide substrata, and the Poisson’s ratio of the substrata. The 2LETFM method could be generalized to concurrently determine the mechanical properties and cell-generated forces in more physiologically relevant extracellular environments, opening new possibilities to study cell-matrix interactions.

  12. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  13. A TWO-LAYER RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORK BASED APPROACH FOR OVERLAY MULTICAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shidong; Zhang Shunyi; Zhou Jinquan; Qiu Gong'an

    2008-01-01

    Overlay multicast has become one of the most promising multicast solutions for IP network, and Neutral Network(NN) has been a good candidate for searching optimal solutions to the constrained shortest routing path in virtue of its powerful capacity for parallel computation. Though traditional Hopfield NN can tackle the optimization problem, it is incapable of dealing with large scale networks due to the large number of neurons. In this paper, a neural network for overlay multicast tree computation is presented to reliably implement routing algorithm in real time. The neural network is constructed as a two-layer recurrent architecture, which is comprised of Independent Variable Neurons (IDVN) and Dependent Variable Neurons (DVN), according to the independence of the decision variables associated with the edges in directed graph. Compared with the heuristic routing algorithms, it is characterized as shorter computational time, fewer neurons, and better precision.

  14. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  15. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  16. Designing Two-Layer Optical Networks with Statistical Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, B.; Capone, A.; Carello, G.; Malucelli, F.; Fumagalli, M.; Pedrin Elli, E.

    The possibility of adding multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support to transport networks is considered an important opportunity by telecom carriers that want to add packet services and applications to their networks. However, the question that arises is whether it is suitable to have MPLS nodes just at the edge of the network to collect packet traffic from users, or also to introduce MPLS facilities on a subset of the core nodes in order to exploit packet switching flexibility and multiplexing, thus providing induction of a better bandwidth allocation. In this article, we address this complex decisional problem with the support of a mathematical programming approach. We consider two-layer networks where MPLS is overlaid on top of transport networks-synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)-depending on the required link speed. The discussions' decisions take into account the trade-off between the cost of adding MPLS support in the core nodes and the savings in the link bandwidth allocation due to the statistical multiplexing and the traffic grooming effects induced by MPLS nodes. The traffic matrix specifies for each point-to-point request a pair of values: a mean traffic value and an additional one. Using this traffic model, the effect of statistical multiplexing on a link allows the allocation of a capacity equal to the sum of all the mean values of the traffic demands routed on the link and only the highest additional one. The proposed approach is suitable to solve real instances in reasonable time.

  17. Variabilidad espacial de la infiltración y su relación con algunas propiedades físicas Spatial variability of infiltration and its relationship to some physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Moura Emanoel

    2010-08-01

    some physical properties of soil by means of geostatistical techniques in Typic Plinthaquult soils having average texture and flat relief. A 113 point mesh was designed, having a regular distance of 10 m between points, samples being taken from 0 to 0.20 meters depth. Sand, silt and clay content, bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity and total porosity were determined. Infiltration tests were carried out in the field by means of a 15 cm diameter ring. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics were used for analysing the data. Infiltration, silt and microporosity data did not fit a normal distribution curve. Infiltration had high variability, having an average 36.03 mm h-1. Total porosity was 56.73%, this being the only property that did not show spatial dependency. The smallest ranges were observed for bulk density, macroporosity and microporosity, having values of less than 40 m. The smallest degrees of spatial dependence were observed for infiltration, silt and clay, evidence also being shown of the influence of silt and clay on infiltration rate. Contour maps were constructed; fitting them to the semivariogram models, together with studying the correlations, led to establishing re- lationships between the properties.

  18. Desert shrub responses to experimental modification of precipitation seasonality and soil depth: relationship to the two-layer model and ecohydrological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.; Reinhardt, Keith

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecohydrological niches are important for understanding plant community responses to climate shifts, particularly in dry lands. According to the two-layer hypothesis, selective use of deep-soil water increases growth or persistence of woody species during warm and dry summer periods and thereby contributes to their coexistence with shallow-rooted herbs in dry ecosystems. The resource-pool hypothesis further suggests that shallow-soil water benefits growth of all plants while deep-soil water primarily enhances physiological maintenance and survival of woody species. Few studies have directly tested these by manipulating deep-soil water availability and observing the long-term outcomes. 2. We predicted that factors promoting infiltration and storage of water in deep soils, specifically greater winter precipitation and soil depth, would enhance Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) in cold, winter-wet/summer-dry desert. Sagebrush responses to 20 years of winter irrigation were compared to summer- or no irrigation, on plots having relatively deep or shallow soils (2 m vs. 1 m depths). 3. Winter irrigation increased sagebrush cover, and crown and canopy volumes, but not density (individuals/plot) compared to summer or no irrigation, on deep-soil plots. On shallow-soil plots, winter irrigation surprisingly decreased shrub cover and size, and summer irrigation had no effect. Furthermore, multiple regression suggested that the variations in growth were related (i) firstly to water in shallow soils (0-0.2 m) and secondly to deeper soils (> 1 m deep) and (ii) more by springtime than by midsummer soil water. Water-use efficiency increased considerably on shallow soils without irrigation and was lowest with winter irrigation. 4. Synthesis. Sagebrush was more responsive to the seasonal timing of precipitation than to total annual precipitation. Factors that enhanced deep-water storage (deeper soils plus more winter precipitation) led to increases in Artemisia tridentata that

  19. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Wheeler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  20. Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nina A; Allen, Ryan W; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2010-08-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  1. Study on regional drought assessment based on Variable Infiltration Capacity model and Palmer Drought Severity Index%基于可变下渗容量模型和Palmer干旱指数的区域干旱化评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝庆; 吴普特; 赵西宁; 高晓东

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new climate change estimation system was created wherein the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model for hydrological processes simulation was combined with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for climate change estimation. The simulation results and the grid system of VIC were applied to substitute for the two-layer bucket-type model to carry out the hydrological accounting in PDSI. Moreover, the determining method of climatic characteristic, K, was optimized using a classified calibration procedure. These measures could greatly improve the physical mechanism of PDSI and expand its applica- tion range. Then, this estimation system was applied to a grid system of 293 points with a resolution of 50km-50km on the Chinese Loess Plateau. The resuhs show that the Loess Plateau exhibited an overall climatic warming-drying trend between 1970 and 2010, and this trend became increasingly significant over the past two decades. The drought frequency decreased from northwest to southeast on the Plateau, and there were some differences in the spatial distribution of drought frequency in different seasons. Due to this new climate change estimation system having a clear physical mechanism, and because of its relatively strong regional applicability, this estimation system is expected to be widely used in regional drought assessment and monitoring the spatial-temporal trends of climate change.%基于可变下渗容量(Variable Infiltration Capacity,VIC)模型的流域网格划分及其对径流、蒸散发和土壤含水量变化的模拟,对Palmer干旱指数各水量平衡分量的计算进行了优化,并采用分级修正的方式,改进了Palmer干旱指数中气候特征系数K的确定方法。在此基础上,建立了基于VIC模型和Palmer干旱指数的区域气候干湿变化评价系统,并采用该系统对黄土高原进行了研究。结果表明,近40年黄土高原气候正向暖干化趋势发展,1990年以

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  3. Reflected light intensity profile of two-layer tissues: phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, Rinat; Taitelbaum, Haim; Fixler, Dror

    2011-08-01

    Experimental measurements of the reflected light intensity from two-layer phantoms are presented. We report, for the first time, an experimental observation of a typical reflected light intensity behavior for the two-layer structure characterized by two different slopes in the reflected light profile of the irradiated tissue. The point in which the first slope changes to the second slope, named as the crossover point, depends on the upper layer thickness as well as on the ratio between the absorption coefficients of the two layers. Since similar experiments from one-layer phantoms present a monotonic decay behavior, the existence and the location of the crossover point can be used as a diagnostic fingerprint for two-layer tissue structures. This pertains to two layers with greater absorptivity in the upper layer, which is the typical biological case in tissues like skin.

  4. Extreme events statistics in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfi, Vera Melinda; Bodai, Tamas; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events statistics provides a theoretical framework to analyze and predict extreme events based on the convergence of the distribution of the extremes to some limiting distribution. In this work we analyze the convergence of the distribution of extreme events to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution and to the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), using a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model, and compare our results with theoretical findings from the field of extreme value theory for dynamical systems. We study the behavior of the GEV shape parameter by increasing the block size and of the GPD shape parameter by increasing the threshold, and compare the inferred parameters with a theoretical shape parameter that depends only on the geometrical properties of the attractor. The main objective is to find out whether this theoretical shape parameter can be used to evaluate extreme event analysis based on model output. For this, we perform very long simulations. We run our system with two different levels of forcing determined by two different meridional temperature gradients, one inducing a medium level of chaos and the other one a high level of chaos. We analyze in both cases extremes of energy variables.

  5. MHD two-layered unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer through a horizontal channel between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju T. Linga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD two-layered fluids flow and heat transfer in a horizontal channel between two parallel plates in the presence of an applied magnetic and electric field is investigated, when the whole system is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the flow. The flow is driven by a constant uniform pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel insulating plates, when both fluids are considered as electrically conducting, incompressible with variable properties, viz. different viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations using two-term series. Closed form solutions for primary and secondary velocity, also temperature distributions are obtained in both the fluid regions of the channel. Profiles of these solutions are plotted to discuss the effects of the flow and heat transfer characteristics, and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, rotation parameter, ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities

  6. Two-Layer Linear MPC Approach Aimed at Walking Beam Billets Reheating Furnace Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Zanoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the control and optimization of a walking beam billets reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is analyzed. An ad hoc Advanced Process Control framework has been developed, based on a two-layer linear Model Predictive Control architecture. This control block optimizes the steady and transient states of the considered process. Two main problems have been addressed. First, in order to manage all process conditions, a tailored module defines the process variables set to be included in the control problem. In particular, a unified approach for the selection on the control inputs to be used for control objectives related to the process outputs is guaranteed. The impact of the proposed method on the controller formulation is also detailed. Second, an innovative mathematical approach for stoichiometric ratios constraints handling has been proposed, together with their introduction in the controller optimization problems. The designed control system has been installed on a real plant, replacing operators’ mental model in the conduction of local PID controllers. After two years from the first startup, a strong energy efficiency improvement has been observed.

  7. A global-scale two-layer transient groundwater model: Development and application to groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge E. M.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils; Schmitz, Oliver; Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of freshwater to satisfy human water needs. Moreover, groundwater buffers variable precipitation rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of droughts and evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. In this study, building on previous work, we simulate groundwater head fluctuations and groundwater storage changes in both confined and unconfined aquifer systems using a global-scale high-resolution (5‧) groundwater model by deriving new estimates of the distribution and thickness of confining layers. Inclusion of confined aquifer systems (estimated 6-20% of the total aquifer area) improves estimates of timing and amplitude of groundwater head fluctuations and changes groundwater flow paths and groundwater-surface water interaction rates. Groundwater flow paths within confining layers are shorter than paths in the underlying aquifer, while flows within the confined aquifer can get disconnected from the local drainage system due to the low conductivity of the confining layer. Lateral groundwater flows between basins are significant in the model, especially for areas with (partially) confined aquifers were long flow paths crossing catchment boundaries are simulated, thereby supporting water budgets of neighboring catchments or aquifer systems. The developed two-layer transient groundwater model is used to identify hot-spots of groundwater depletion. Global groundwater depletion is estimated as 7013 km3 (137 km3y-1) over 1960-2010, which is consistent with estimates of previous studies.

  8. Storage capacity and learning algorithms for two-layer neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Köhler, H. M.; Tschepke, F.; Vollmayr, H.; Zippelius, A.

    1992-05-01

    A two-layer feedforward network of McCulloch-Pitts neurons with N inputs and K hidden units is analyzed for N-->∞ and K finite with respect to its ability to implement p=αN random input-output relations. Special emphasis is put on the case where all hidden units are coupled to the output with the same strength (committee machine) and the receptive fields of the hidden units either enclose all input units (fully connected) or are nonoverlapping (tree structure). The storage capacity is determined generalizing Gardner's treatment [J. Phys. A 21, 257 (1988); Europhys. Lett. 4, 481 (1987)] of the single-layer perceptron. For the treelike architecture, a replica-symmetric calculation yields αc~ √K for a large number K of hidden units. This result violates an upper bound derived by Mitchison and Durbin [Biol. Cybern. 60, 345 (1989)]. One-step replica-symmetry breaking gives lower values of αc. In the fully connected committee machine there are in general correlations among different hidden units. As the limit of capacity is approached, the hidden units are anticorrelated: One hidden unit attempts to learn those patterns which have not been learned by the others. These correlations decrease as 1/K, so that for K-->∞ the capacity per synapse is the same as for the tree architecture, whereas for small K we find a considerable enhancement for the storage per synapse. Numerical simulations were performed to explicitly construct solutions for the tree as well as the fully connected architecture. A learning algorithm is suggested. It is based on the least-action algorithm, which is modified to take advantage of the two-layer structure. The numerical simulations yield capacities p that are slightly more than twice the number of degrees of freedom, while the fully connected net can store relatively more patterns than the tree. Various generalizations are discussed. Variable weights from hidden to output give the same results for the storage capacity as does the committee

  9. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably......In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is shown...

  10. Investigations of Two-Layer Earth Parameters at Low Voltage: Measurements and Calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. Ramdan; N. M. Nor; K. Ramar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The two-layer soil model at low magnitude voltage is assumed to be accurate for the measurement and calculation of the earth resistance of a combined grid-multiple rods electrode...

  11. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrač, Rožle

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  12. Infiltration and extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The Infusion Nurses Society's national standards of practice require that a nurse who administers IV medication or fluid know its adverse effects and appropriate interventions to take before starting the infusion. A serious complication is the inadvertent administration of a solution or medication into the tissue surrounding the IV catheter--when it is a nonvesicant solution or medication, it is called infiltration; when it is a vesicant medication, it is called extravasation. Both infiltration and extravasation can have serious consequences: the patient may need surgical intervention resulting in large scars, experience limitation of function, or even require amputation. Another long-term effect is complex regional pain syndrome, a neurologic syndrome that requires long-term pain management. These outcomes can be prevented by using appropriate nursing interventions during IV catheter insertion and early recognition and intervention upon the first signs and symptoms of infiltration and extravasation. Nursing interventions include early recognition, prevention, and treatment (including the controversial use of antidotes, and heat and cold therapy). Steps to manage infiltration and extravasation are presented.

  13. Process analysis of two-layered tube hydroforming with analytical and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedkashi, S. M. Hossein [The University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahizadeh R, Valiollah [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xu, Haibin; Kim, Sang Yun; Moon, Young Hoon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Two-layered tubular joints are suitable for special applications. Designing and manufacturing of two layered components require enough knowledge about the tube material behavior during the hydroforming process. In this paper, hydroforming of two-layered tubes is investigated analytically, and the results are verified experimentally. The aim of this study is to derive an analytical model which can be used in the process design. Fundamental equations are written for both of the outer and inner tubes, and the total forming pressure is obtained from these equations. Hydroforming experiments are carried out on two different combinations of materials for inner and outer tubes; case 1: copper/aluminum and case 2: carbon steel/stainless steel. It is observed that experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical model obtained for estimation of forming pressure able to avoid wrinkling.

  14. Lie symmetry analysis and exact solutions of the quasigeostrophic two-layer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Popovych, Roman O.

    2011-03-01

    The quasigeostrophic two-layer model is of superior interest in dynamic meteorology since it is one of the easiest ways to study baroclinic processes in geophysical fluid dynamics. The complete set of point symmetries of the two-layer equations is determined. An optimal set of one- and two-dimensional inequivalent subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed. On the basis of these subalgebras, we exhaustively carry out group-invariant reduction and compute various classes of exact solutions. Wherever possible, reference to the physical meaning of the exact solutions is given. In particular, the well-known baroclinic Rossby wave solutions in the two-layer model are rediscovered.

  15. On stratification, barotropic tides, and secular changes in surface tidal elevations: Two-layer analytical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wetzel, Alfredo N; Cerovecki, Ivana; Hendershott, Myrl C; Karsten, Richard H; Miller, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    In this study the influence of stratification on surface tidal elevations in a two-layer analytical model is examined. The model assumes linearized, non-rotating, shallow-water dynamics in one dimension with astronomical forcing and allows for arbitrary topography. Both large scale (barotropic) and small scale (baroclinic) components of the surface tidal elevation are shown to be affected by stratification. It is also shown that the topography and basin boundaries affect the sensitivity of the barotropic surface tide to stratification significantly. In a companion paper it is shown that the barotropic tide in two-layer numerical models run in realistic global domains differs from its value in one-layer numerical models by amounts qualitatively consistent with analytic predictions from this paper. The analytical model also roughly predicts the sensitivity to perturbations in stratification in the two-layer domain model. Taken together, this paper and the companion paper therefore provide a framework to underst...

  16. Wave scattering by undulating bed topography in a two-layer ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. MAITI; B. N. MANDAL; U. BASU

    2009-01-01

    The problem of wave scattering by undulating bed topography in a two-layer ocean is investigated on the basis of linear theory. In a two-layer fluid with the upper layer having a free surface, there exist two modes of waves propagating at both the free surface of the upper layer and the interface between the two layers. Due to a wave train of a particular mode incident on an obstacle which is bottom-standing on the lower layer, reflected and transmitted waves of both modes are created by the obstacle. For small undulations on the bottom of the lower layer, a perturbation method is employed to obtain first-order reflection and transmission coefficients of both modes for incident wave trains of again both modes in terms of integrals involving the bed-shape function. For sinusoidal undulations, numerical results are presented graphically to illustrate the energy transfer between the waves of different modes by the undulating bed.

  17. THE WAVE-MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF A MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei

    2005-01-01

    The Wave-making characteristics of a moving body in a two-layer fluid with free surface is investigated numerically and experimentally. The numerical analysis is based on the modified layered boundary integral equation system. The wave characteristics on the free surface and interface generated by a moving sphere and an ellipsoid is numerically simulated in both finite depth and infinite depth of lower layer model. The numerical results of the sphere are compared with the analytical results for a dipole with the same velocity in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. The dependence of the wave systems and structures on the characteristic quantities is discussed. Three kinds of measurement techniques are used in model experiments on the internal waves generated by a sphere advancing in a two-layer fluid. The effects of the varying velocity and stratification on the wavelength, wave amplitudes and the maximum half angles of internal waves are analyzed qualitatively.

  18. Band splitting and relative spin alignment in two-layer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the single-particle spectra of the low Hubbard zone in the two-layer correlated 2D-systems sharply differ in the case of different relative alignment of the layers spin systems. The behavior of the two-layer splitting in the Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta gives all reasons for the hypothesis on the possible rearrangement of the F sub z -> AF sub z alignment configuration, occurring simultaneously with the superconducting transition. The effects of the spin alignment on the magnetic excitations spectrum, as the way for studying the spin structure of the two-layer systems, are discussed by the example of homogenous solutions for the effective spin models

  19. Ultrasound evaluation of the cesarean scar: comparison between one- and two layer uterotomy closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch; Uldbjerg, Niels

    Objectives: To compare the residual myometrial thickness and the size of the cesarean scar defect after one- and two layer uterotomy closure. Methods: From July 2010 a continuous two-layer uterotomy closure technique replaced a continuous one-layer technique after cesarean delivery...... at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Aarhus University Hospital. A total of 149 consecutively invited women (68 women with one-layer and 81 women with two-layer closure) had their cesarean scar examined with 2D transvaginal sonography (TVS) 6-16 months post partum. Inclusion criteria were non......-pregnant women with one previous elective cesarean, no post-partum uterine infection or uterine re-operation, and no type 1 diabetes. Scar defect width, depth, and residual myometrial thickness were measured on the sagittal plane, and scar defect length was measured on the transverse plane. Results: The median...

  20. Design of two-layer switching rule for stabilization of switched linear systems with mismatched switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan MA

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer switching architecture and a two-layer switching rule for stabilization of switched linear control systems are proposed, under which the mismatched switching between switched systems and their candidate hybrid controllers can be allowed. In the low layer, a state-dependent switching rule with a dwell time constraint to exponentially stabilize switched linear systems is given;in the high layer, supervisory conditions on the mismatched switching frequency and the mismatched switching ratio are presented, under which the closed-loop switched system is still exponentially stable in case of the candidate controller switches delay with respect to the subsystems. Different from the traditional switching rule, the two-layer switching architecture and switching rule have robustness, which in some extend permit mismatched switching between switched subsystems and their candidate controllers.

  1. Random Boundary Simulation of Pumping Groundwater on Two-layer Soft Soil Structure with Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on random theory,fluid dynamics,porous media and soil mechanics,the porosity and random characteristic of the two-layer soft soil in Wuhan region were studied in this paper.The random seepage coefficient on the two-layer soft soil was analyzed,and the seepage model and its random distribution function were given.The groundwater flow differential equations related to the two layer soft soil structure were also established.The evaluation procedure of effect boundary on the pumping water in deep foundation pit was put forward.Moreover,with an engineering example,the probability distribution on random boundary prediction for pumping water of foundation pit was computed.

  2. Solutions to Overland Flow Incorporating Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Uǧur; Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza

    2017-04-01

    Overland flow is represented by flood wave propagation and plays an important role in hydrology and hydraulics. Flood wave propagation concerns many disciplines and thus, scientists such as hydrologists, city planners, irrigation practitioners and hydraulic and environmental engineers are studying on developing accurate solutions for flood wave equations. The dynamic wave equations consist of continuity and momentum equations and describe unsteady and non-uniform flow conditions. Diffusion wave equations can be derived from the dynamic wave equations by neglecting the local and convective acceleration terms in the momentum equation. The kinematic wave model obtained by ignoring both inertial and pressure terms is the simplest routing method which substitutes a steady uniform flow relationship in the momentum equation. In order to calculate the overland flow, these three types of flood wave equations are solved with many different numerical techniques. Nevertheless, the dynamic interaction between surface flow and infiltration is not sufficiently investigated. In this study, the effect of infiltration on overland flow is explored by incorporating the integrated Horton equation into the flood wave equations. Integrated Horton method calculates infiltration under variable rainfall intensity. MacCormack explicit finite difference method is employed in solving the coupled infiltration-overland flow problem. Hydrographs for overland flow with and without infiltration effects are obtained under different rainfall intensities and soil conditions and compared. It is found that infiltration affects both the peak and the shape of hydrographs considerably. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity and soil conditions on overland flow is also observed. Keywords: Overland flow; MacCormack; infiltration; Integrated Horton Method; Kinematic waves, Diffusion waves, Dynamic waves.

  3. Lie symmetry analysis and exact solutions of the quasi-geostrophic two-layer problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bihlo, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The quasi-geostrophic two-layer model is of superior interest in dynamic meteorology since it is one of the easiest ways to study baroclinic processes in geophysical fluid dynamics. The complete set of point symmetries of the two-layer equations is determined. An optimal set of one- and two-dimensional inequivalent subalgebras of the maximum Lie invariance algebra is constructed. On the basis of these subalgebras we exhaustively carry out group-invariant reduction and compute various classes of exact solutions. Where possible, reference to the physical meaning of the exact solutions is given.

  4. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  5. The Generalized Energy Equation and Instability in the Two-layer Barotropic Vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The linear two-layer barotropic primitive equations in cylindrical coordinates are used to derive a generalized energy equation, which is subsequently applied to explain the instability of the spiral wave in the model. In the two-layer model, there are not only the generalized barotropic instability and the super highspeed instability, but also some other new instabilities, which fall into the range of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the generalized baroclinic instability, when the upper and lower basic flows are different.They are perhaps the mechanisms of the generation of spiral cloud bands in tropical cyclones as well.

  6. Sorptivity and liquid infiltration into dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Patricia J.; Ivanov, Vladimir; Germaine, John T.

    2005-10-01

    The sorptivity S quantifies the effect of capillarity on liquid movement in a porous material. For liquid infiltration into an initially dry material, S is a parameter that is contingent on both liquid and material properties as well as the maximum liquid content behind the infiltrating front, θm. Scaling analyses are used to derive a dimensionless, intrinsic sorptivity S∗ that is constant for different liquids, Miller-similar materials and different values of θm. The analyses confirm that S is dependent on β1/2, where β = cos ϕ is a measure of the wettability of the liquid. They also indicate a power law relationship between S and Se(av), the average liquid saturation behind the infiltrating front. Seventeen water and eleven Soltrol 220 horizontal infiltration experiments are reported in uniform, dry sand. Test results show that water is partially wetting in the sand. They also confirm that S∝Se(av)d, where d = 3.2 for the experimental conditions. The usefulness of a general, dimensionless Boltzmann variable is demonstrated to normalize infiltration profiles for the different liquids. An approximate method for sorptivity calculation is shown to provide an accurate estimate of S∗.

  7. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  8. Novel procedure to compute a contact zone magnitude of vibrations of two-layered uncoupled plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awrejcewicz J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iteration procedure for dynamical problems, where in each time step, a contacting plates' zone is improved, is proposed. Therefore, a zone and magnitude of a contact load are also improved. Investigations of boundary conditions' influence on externally driven vibrations of uncoupled two-layer plates, where for each of the layers, the Kirchhoff hypothesis holds, are carried out.

  9. Learning behavior and temporary minima of two-layer neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the occurrence of temporary minima during training of a single-output, two-layer neural network, with learning according to the back-propagation algorithm. A new vector decomposition method is introduced, which simplifies the mathematical analysis of

  10. Bilateral telemanipulation With time delays: a two-layer approach combining passivity and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak; Secchi, Cristian; Macchelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a two-layer approach is presented to guarantee the stable behavior of bilateral telemanipulation sys- tems in the presence of time-varying destabilizing factors such as hard contacts, relaxed user grasps, stiff control settings, and/or communication delays. The approach splits the con

  11. Coupling of Flexural and Longitudinal Damped Vibration in a Two-Layered Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pourroy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamics, the effect of varying the constitutive materials’ thickness of a two-layered beam is investigated. Resonance frequencies and damping variations are determined. It is shown that for specific thicknesses the coupling of longitudinal and flexural vibrations influences the global modal damping ratio significantly.

  12. Two-layer sheet of gelatin: A new topical hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshitaka; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2016-11-02

    Uncontrolled surgical bleeding is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Topical hemostatic agents available today have problems controlling hemostatic effects; furthermore, their handling is difficult and they are unsafe. We devised a new hemostatic agent comprising gelatin sponge and film designed to be applied to the bleeding site, thereby creating a topical hemostatic agent made of gelatin alone. The gelatin was prepared by alkali treatment to eliminate viral activity. Hemostatic effects, surgical handling, and tissue reactions of the materials, namely a two-layer sheet of gelatin, TachoSil, and gelatin sponge, were evaluated using 21 dogs' spleens. The two-layer gelatin sheet and gelatin sponge exhibited superior hemostatic effects (100% hemostasis completed) compared with TachoSil (0-17% hemostasis). The gelatin matrix immediately absorbed blood flowing from wounds and activated the autologous components in the absorbed blood that promoted coagulation at the bleeding site. The two-layer gelatin sheet had the best surgical handling among the evaluated materials. Materials made of gelatin were associated with fewer inflammatory reactions compared with materials of TachoSil. The two-layer sheet of gelatin is a useful topical agent because of its superior hemostatic effects and usability, and is associated with a lower risk of transmitting diseases and inflammatory reactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  14. Single-layer versus two-layer stamps for reduced pressure thermal nanoimprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenheim, Marc; Dhima, Khalid; Wang, Si; Steinberg, Christian; Scheer, Hella-Christin

    2015-11-01

    Low-pressure imprint is interesting to avoid stamp deformation, stamp failure as well as polymer recovery. When large-area stamps are prepared with a stepping procedure, low pressure is required to optimize the stitching. However, with low-pressure imprint, conformal contact between stamp and substrate is critical. Admittedly, the imprint pressure required for conformal contact depends on the stamp material and its thickness. To get an idea to which extent the imprint pressure can be reduced with a flexible stamp, we compared different stamp materials and stamp architectures, single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps. The two-layer stamps are replica stamps, where the structures were replicated in a thin layer of OrmoStamp, fixed by a backplane. On the background of plate theory, we deduce the pressure reduction compared to a Si stamp by calculating the respective pressure ratio, independent from geometries. In addition, temperature-induced issues are addressed which are of relevance for a thermal imprint process. These issues are related to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the stamp and the substrate, and in case of a two-layer stamp, to the mismatch between the backplane material and the top layer. The latter results in temperature-induced stamp bending. On the basis of simple analytical calculations, the potential of single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps with respect to thermal imprint at reduced pressure is discussed and guidelines are provided to assess the imprint situation when replica stamps are used for imprint. The results demonstrate the attractiveness of two-layer stamps for reduced pressure nanoimprint, even in a temperature-based process.

  15. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff.

  16. Estimating Infiltration Parameters from Basic Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Genachte, G.; Mallants, D.; Ramos, J.; Deckers, J. A.; Feyen, J.

    1996-05-01

    Infiltration data were collected on two rectangular grids with 25 sampling points each. Both experimental grids were located in tropical rain forest (Guyana), the first in an Arenosol area and the second in a Ferralsol field. Four different infiltration models were evaluated based on their performance in describing the infiltration data. The model parameters were estimated using non-linear optimization techniques. The infiltration behaviour in the Ferralsol was equally well described by the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt, Kostiakov and Horton. For the Arenosol, the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt and Horton were significantly better than the Kostiakov model. Basic soil properties such as textural composition (percentage sand, silt and clay), organic carbon content, dry bulk density, porosity, initial soil water content and root content were also determined for each sampling point of the two grids. The fitted infiltration parameters were then estimated based on other soil properties using multiple regression. Prior to the regression analysis, all predictor variables were transformed to normality. The regression analysis was performed using two information levels. The first information level contained only three texture fractions for the Ferralsol (sand, silt and clay) and four fractions for the Arenosol (coarse, medium and fine sand, and silt and clay). At the first information level the regression models explained up to 60% of the variability of some of the infiltration parameters for the Ferralsol field plot. At the second information level the complete textural analysis was used (nine fractions for the Ferralsol and six for the Arenosol). At the second information level a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed prior to the regression analysis to overcome the problem of multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Regression analysis was then carried out using the orthogonally transformed soil properties as the independent variables. Results for

  17. Waves induced by a submerged moving dipole in a two-layer fluid of finite depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Dongqiang Lu; Shiqiang Dai

    2005-01-01

    The waves induced by a moving dipole in a twofluid system are analytically and experimentally investigated.The velocity potential of a dipole moving horizontally in the lower layer of a two-layer fluid with finite depth is derived by superposing Green's functions of sources (or sinks). The far-field waves are studied by using the method of stationary phase. The effects of two resulting modes, i.e. the surfaceand internal-wave modes, on both the surface divergence field and the interfacial elevation are analyzed. A laboratory study on the internal waves generated by a moving sphere in a two-layer fluid is conducted in a towing tank under the same conditions as in the theoretical approach. The qualitative consistency between the present theory and the laboratory study is examined and confirmed.

  18. Analysis of Two-Layered Random Interfaces for Two Dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical behaviors of two-layered random-phase interfaces in two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's model are investigated. The phase interfaces separate two coexisting phases of the lattice Widom-Rowlinson model; when the chemical potential μ of the model is large enough, the convergence of the probability distributions which describe the fluctuations of the phase interfaces is studied. In this paper, the backbones of interfaces are introduced in the model, and the corresponding polymer chains and cluster expansions are developed and analyzed for the polymer weights. And the existence of the free energy for two-layered random-phase interfaces of the two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson model is given.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics at the interface of two-layer stratified flows over pronounced obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Cabeza, C; Bove, I; Freire, D; Marti, Arturo C; Sarasua, L G; Usera, G; Montagne, R; Araújo, M

    2008-01-01

    The flow of a two--layer stratified fluid over an abrupt topographic obstacle, simulating relevant situations in oceanographic problems, is investigated numerically and experimentally in a simplified two--dimensional situation. Experimental results and numerical simulations are presented at low Froude numbers in a two-layer stratified flow and for two abrupt obstacles, semi--cylindrical and prismatic. We find four different regimes of the flow immediately past the obstacles: sub-critical (I), internal hydraulic jump (II), Kelvin-Helmholtz at the interface (III) and shedding of billows (IV). The critical condition for delimiting the experiments is obtained using the hydraulic theory. Moreover, the dependence of the critical Froude number on the geometry of the obstacle are investigated. The transition from regime III to regime IV is explained with a theoretical stability analysis. The results from the stability analysis are confirmed with the DPIV measurements. In regime (IV), when the velocity upstream is lar...

  20. Nonstationary Axisymmetric Temperature Field in a Two-Layer Slab Under Mixed Heating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, I. N.; Timar, I.; Kolodii, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    With the use of the Laguerre and Hankel integral transforms, the solution of a two-dimensional initial-boundary-value heat conduction problem for a two-layer slab under mixed boundary conditions is constructed: one of the surfaces is heated by a heat flux distributed axisymmetrically in a circle of radius R and is cooled by the Newton law outside this circle. The solution of the problem is reduced to a sequence of infinite quasi-regular systems of algebraic equations. The results of numerical analysis of the temperature field in the two-layer slab made from an aluminum alloy and ceramicsare presented depending on the relative geometric properties of the components and cooling intensity.

  1. A Two-layer Model for the Simulation of the VARTM Process with Resin Distribution Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the important processes to fabricate high performance composites. In this process, resin is drawn into the mold to impregnate the fiber reinforcement to a form composite. A resin distribution layer with high permeability was often introduced on top of the fiber reinforcement to accelerate the filling speed. Due to the difference of the flow resistance in the resin distribution layer and the reinforcement as well as the resulting through thickness transverse flow, the filling flow field is intrinsically three-dimensional. This study developed a two-layer model with two-dimensional formulation to simulate the filling flow of the VARTM process with a resin distribution layer. Two-dimensional flow was considered in each layer and a transverse flow in the thickness direction was estimated between the two layers. Thermal analysis including the transverse convection was also performed to better simulate the temperature distribution.

  2. Estimation of apparent soil resistivity for two-layer soil structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    High voltage (HV) earthing design is one of the key elements when it comes to safety compliance of a system. High voltage infrastructure exposes workers and people to unsafe conditions. The soil structure plays a vital role in determining the allowable and actual step/touch voltage. This paper presents vital information when working with two-layer soil structure. It shows the process as to when it is acceptable to use a single layer instead of a two-layer structure. It also discusses the simplification of the soil structure approach depending on the reflection coefficient. It introduces the reflection coefficient K interval which determines if single layer approach is acceptable. Multiple case studies are presented to address the new approach and its accuracy.

  3. TAILING WAVETRAIN GENERATION IN PRECURSOR SOLITON GENERATION IN TWO-LAYER FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhaoting; Xu Hao; Samuel Shan-pu Shen

    2000-01-01

    A theory of tailing wavetrain generation for the precursor soliton generation in two-layer flow is presented by using averaged KdV equations(AKdV),which are derived by the authors in terms of Whitham's method of averaging[1,2].From the AKdV equations,group velocities of the tailing wavetrain generation are obtained by means of generating conditions of the tailing wavetrains,furthermore an analytical solution of the tailing wavetrain generation is found theoretically.A comparison between the theoretical and numerical results is carried out in the present paper,which shows that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the numerical ones,obtained from the fKdV equation in two-layer flow with the depth of unity in the rest.

  4. Asymptotic Modelling of Crystallisation in Two Layers Systems. Application to Methane Hydrate Formation in Batch Reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Cournil, Michel; Herri, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    6 pages; This paper proposes to re-visit the problem of gas-liquid crystallization in the framework of a two-layer model and with the help of data coming from experiments on methane hydrate crystallization in a semi-batch reactor. Preliminary quantitative discussion of the order of magnitude of different effects makes possible realistic simplifications in the theoretical models. In particular, the role of the interfacial film is clearly defined. As previous authors did, we use a formulation i...

  5. Unidirectional light propagation through two-layer nanostructures based on optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Ishii, Satoshi; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Tate, Naoya; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate direction-dependent polarization conversion efficiency, yielding unidirectional light transmission, through a two-layer nanostructure by using the angular spectrum representation of optical near-fields. The theory provides results that are consistent with electromagnetic numerical simulations. This study reveals that optical near-field interactions among nanostructured matter can provide unique optical properties, such as the unidirectionality observed here, and offers fundamental guiding principles for understanding and engineering nanostructures for realizing novel functionalities.

  6. Two-layer cold storage method for pancreas and islet cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro; Fujino

    2010-01-01

    The two-layer cold storage method (TLM) was f irst reported in 1988, consisting of a perfluorochemical (PFC) and initially Euro-Collins' solution, which was later replaced by University of Wisconsin solution (UW). PFC is a biologically inert liquid and acts as an oxygen-supplying agent. A pancreas preserved using the TLM is oxygenated through the PFC and substrates are supplied by the UW solution. This allows the pancreas preserved using the TLM to generate adenosine triphosphate during storage, prolonging ...

  7. SH-TM mathematical analogy for the two-layer case. A magnetotellurics application

    OpenAIRE

    J. Carcione; F. Poletto

    2017-01-01

    The same mathematical formalism of the wave equation can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission) problem of two layers, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation -- viscosity in the viscoelastic case and resistivity in the electromagnetic case. The analogy is illustrated for SH (shear-horizontally polarised) and TM (transverse-magnetic) waves. In particular, w...

  8. On Theory of Dispersive Transport in a Two-Layer Polymer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in a two-layer polymer structure is modeled on the basis of the integrodifferential equation of hereditary diffusion. The model of multiple trapping in a bilayer is generalized to the case of an arbitrary density of localized states. With the help of an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm, curves of the transient current are calculated and their features are explained within the framework of a stochastic interpretation of the process.

  9. On two-layer models and the similarity functions for the PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An operational Planetary Boundary Layer model which employs similarity principles and two-layer patching to provide state-of-the-art parameterization for the PBL flow is used to study the popularly used similarity functions, A and B. The expected trends with stratification are shown. The effects of baroclinicity, secondary flow, humidity, latitude, surface roughness variation and choice of characteristic height scale are discussed.

  10. Two-layer cold storage method for pancreas and islet cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The two-layer cold storage method (TLM) was first reported in 1988, consisting of a perfluorochemical (PFC) and initially Euro-Collins’ solution, which was later replaced by University of Wisconsin solution (UW). PFC is a biologically inert liquid and acts as an oxygen-supplying agent. A pancreas preserved using the TLM is oxygenated through the PFC and substrates are supplied by the UW solution. This allows the pancreas preserved using the TLM to generate adenosine triphosphate during storag...

  11. A Two Layer Approach to the Computability and Complexity of Real Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2003-01-01

    We present a new model for computability and complexity of real functions together with an implementation that it based on it. The model uses a two-layer approach in which low-type basic objects perform the computation of a real function, but, whenever needed, can be complemented with higher type...... in computable analysis, while the efficiency of the implementation is not compromised by the need to create and maintain higher-type objects....

  12. Phase transitions and kinetic properties of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Nanhua; Chen, Jionghua; Wang, Jinjian; Shao, Jingling; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Lucun

    2016-11-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (two-layer-GNSs) are examined and investigated during heating and cooling processes via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. An EAM potential is applied to represent the gold-gold interactions while a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential is used to describe the gold-GNS interactions. The MD melting temperature of 1345 K for bulk gold is close to the experimental value (1337 K), confirming that the EAM potential used to describe gold-gold interactions is reliable. On the other hand, the melting temperatures of gold clusters supported on graphite bilayer are corrected to the corresponding experimental values by adjusting the εAu-C value. Therefore, the subsequent results from current work are reliable. The gold nanoparticles confined within two-layer GNSs exhibit face center cubic structures, which is similar to those of free gold clusters and bulk gold. The melting points, heats of fusion, and heat capacities of the confined gold nanoparticles are predicted based on the plots of total energies against temperature. The density distribution perpendicular to GNS suggests that the freezing of confined gold nanoparticles starts from outermost layers. The confined gold clusters exhibit layering phenomenon even in liquid state. The transition of order-disorder in each layer is an essential characteristic in structure for the freezing phase transition of the confined gold clusters. Additionally, some vital kinetic data are obtained in terms of classical nucleation theory.

  13. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  14. Steady internal waves in an exponentially stratified two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Maltseva, Janna; Ivanova, Kseniya

    2016-04-01

    The problem on internal waves in a weakly stratified two-layered fluid is studied analytically. We suppose that the fluid possess exponential stratification in both the layers, and the fluid density has discontinuity jump at the interface. By that, we take into account the influence of weak continuous stratification outside of sharp pycnocline. The model equation of strongly nonlinear interfacial waves propagating along the pycnocline is considered. This equation extends approximate models [1-3] suggested for a two-layer fluid with one homogeneous layer. The derivation method uses asymptotic analysis of fully nonlinear Euler equations. The perturbation scheme involves the long wave procedure with a pair of the Boussinesq parameters. First of these parameters characterizes small density slope outside of pycnocline and the second one defines small density jump at the interface. Parametric range of solitary wave solutions is characterized, including extreme regimes such as plateau-shape solitary waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grant No 15-01-03942). References [1] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. Asymptotic models of internal stationary waves, J. Appl. Mech. Techn. Phys, 2008, 49(4), 646-654. [2] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. Phase velocity spectrum of internal waves in a weakly-stratified two-layer fluid, Fluid Dynamics, 2009, 44(2), 278-294. [3] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. An analytical model of large amplitude internal solitary waves, Extreme Ocean Waves, 2nd ed. Springer 2015, E.Pelinovsky and C.Kharif (Eds), 191-201.

  15. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V.; Payne, A. J.; Gregory, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer. The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  16. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer.

    The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  17. A two-layer optimization model for high-speed railway line planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Li-min JIA; Yong QIN; Jie XU; Wen-ring MO

    2011-01-01

    Line planning is the first important strategic element in the railway operation planning process,which will directly affect the successive planning to determine the efficiency of the whole railway system.A two-layer optimization model is proposed within a simulation framework to deal with the high-speed railway (HSR) line planning problem.In the model,the top layer aims at achieving an optimal stop-schedule set with the service frequencies,and is formulated as a nonlinear program,solved by genetic algorithm.The objective of top layer is to minimize the total operation cost and unserved passenger volume.Given a specific stop-schedule,the bottom layer focuses on weighted passenger flow assignment,formulated as a mixed integer program with the objective of maximizing the served passenger volume and minimizing the total travel time for all passengers.The case study on Taiwan HSR shows that the proposed two-layer model is better than the existing techniques.In addition,this model is also illustrated with the Beijing-Shanghai HSR in China.The result shows that the two-layer optimization model can reduce computation complexity and that an optimal set of stop-schedules can always be generated with less calculation time.

  18. Diffraction of Water Waves by A Vertically Floating Cylinder in A Two-Layer Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the diffraction of water waves by a vertically floating cylinder in a two-layer luid of a finite depth is studied. Analytical expressions for the hydrodynamic loads on the vertically floating cylinder are obtained by use of the method of eigenfunction expansions. The hydrodynamic loads on the vertically floating cylinder in a two-layer fluid include not only the surge, heave and pitch exciting forces due to the incident wave of the surface-wave mode, but also those due to the incident wave of the internal-wave mode. This is different from the case of a homogenous fluid. Some given examples show that, for a two-layer fluid system with a small density difference, the hydrodynamic loads for the surface-wave mode do not differ significantly from those due to surface waves in a single-layer fluid, but the hydrodynamic loads for the internal-wave mode are important over a wide range of frequencies. Moreover, also considered are the free surface and interface elevations generated by the diffraction wave due to the incident wave of the surface-wave and internal-wave modes, and transfer of energy between modes.

  19. [Lung infiltrations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea-Löchel, A; Ciurea, A; Stey, C; Pestalozzi, B

    2001-08-02

    We report the case of a young patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates due to Hodgkin's Disease. Although lung involvement regressed under chemotherapy, we observed new alveolar infiltrates during treatment. Steroid administration after exclusion of an infectious cause was followed by rapid clinical and radiological improvement, indicating the probable presence of pulmonary bleomycine toxicity.

  20. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  1. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  2. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  3. FINITE ELEMENT FOR STRESS-STRAIN STATE MODELING OF TWO-LAYERED AXIALLY SYMMETRIC SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kurochka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Computation of composite material designs requires application of numerical methods. The finiteelement method usage is connected with surface approximation problems. Application of volumetric and laminar elements leads to systems with large sizes and a great amount of computation. The objective of this paper is to present an equivalent two-layer mathematical model for evaluation of displacements and stresses of cross-ply laminated cone shells subjected to uniformly distributed load. An axially symmetric element for shell problems is described. Method. Axially symmetric finite element is proposed to be applied in calculations with use of correlation for the inner work of each layer separately. It gives the possibility to take into account geometric and physical nonlinearities and non-uniformity in the layers of the shell. Discrete mathematical model is created on the base of the finite-element method with the use of possible motions principle and Kirchhoff–Love assumptions. Hermite element is chosen as a finite one. Cone shell deflection is considered as the quantity sought for. Main Results. One-layered and two-layered cone shells have been considered for proposed mathematical model verification with known analytical and numerical analytical solutions, respectively. The axial displacements of the two-layered cone are measured with an error not exceeding 5.4 % for the number of finite elements equal to 30. The proposed mathematical model requires fewer nodes to define the finite element meshing of the system and much less computation time. Thereby time for finding solution decreases considerably. Practical Relevance. Proposed model is applicable for computation of multilayered designs under axially symmetric loads: composite high-pressure bottles, cylinder shaped fiberglass pipes, reservoirs for explosives and flammable materials, oil and gas storage tanks.

  4. PECULIARITIES OF LAMB WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH TWO-LAYERED THIN PLATE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the plate wave propagation through two-layered thin plate have been analyzed and formulas for velocity determination of the quickest plate mode have been proposed.  The ascertained interaction makes it possible   to determine coating layer thickness in accordance with the given and known elastic parameters of contacting materials. On the basis of the developed methodology experiments have been carried out that revealed qualitative and quantitative correspondence  between theoretical and experimental data. The paper shows a principle possibility for assessment  of  material separation surface by time propagation data of the investigated mode .

  5. Determination of homeostatic elastic moduli in two layers of the esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fung, Yuan Cheng

    2008-01-01

    for determination of incremental moduli in circumferential, axial, and cross directions in the two layers. The experiments are inflation, axial stretching, circumferential bending, and axial bending. The analysis takes advantage of knowing the esophageal zero-stress state (an open sector with an opening angle of 59......The function of the esophagus is mechanical. To understand the function, it is necessary to know how the stress and strain in the esophagus can be computed, and how to determine the stress-strain relationship of the wall materials. The present article is devoted to the issue of determining...

  6. A novel two-layer compact electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure and its applications in microwave circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ning(杨宁); CHEN; Zhining; (陈志宁); WANG; Yunyi; (王蕴仪); Chia; M.; Y.; W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel two-layer electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure. The studies on the characteristics of the cell are carried out numerically and experimentally. A lumped-LC equivalent circuit extracted from the numerical simulation is used to model the bandgap characteristics of the proposed EBG structure. The influences of geometric parameters on the operation frequency and equivalent LC parameters are discussed. A meander line high performance bandstop filter and a notch type duplexer are designed and measured. These EBG structures are shown to have potential applications in microwave and RF systems.

  7. A Two-Layered Model for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Considering Transportation Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Yoshitaka; Harada, Kana; Ozawa, Chisato; Iwamura, Koji; Sugimura, Nobuhiro

    This research proposes a two-layered model for dynamic supply chain management considering transportation constraint. The model provides a method for suppliers to estimate suitable prices and delivery times of products based on not only production schedules but also transportation plans in consideration of constraints about shipping times and loading capacities for transportation. A prototype of dynamic supply chain simulation system was developed and some computational experiments were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the model. The prototype system is available to determine suitable shipping times and loading capacities of transportation vehicles.

  8. Flows induced by sorption on fibrous material in a two-layer oil-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplina, T. O.; Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Stepanova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The processes of sorption on fibrous materials in the open elliptic cell filled with a two-layer oil-water liquid at rest are investigated experimentally. When the sorption efficiency dependent on the type of material proves to be reasonably high, large-scale flows are formed in the liquid. In this case, the uniformity of distribution of oil is violated and the free surface of the water is partially restored. The trajectories of motion of individual oil droplets on a released water surface are tracked, and the transfer rates are calculated in various phases of the process.

  9. SH-TM mathematical analogy for the two-layer case. A magnetotellurics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carcione

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The same mathematical formalism of the wave equation can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of two layers, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation -- viscosity in the viscoelastic case and resistivity in the electromagnetic case. The analogy is illustrated for SH (shear-horizontally polarised and TM (transverse-magnetic waves. In particular, we illustrate examples related to the magnetotelluric method applied to geothermal systems and consider the effects of anisotropy. The solution is tested with the classical solution for stratified isotropic media.

  10. Solitary SH waves in two-layered traction-free plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeran-Maigre, Irini; Kuznetsov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    A solitary wave, resembling a soliton wave, is observed when analyzing the linear problem of polarized shear (SH) surface acoustic waves propagating in elastic orthotropic two-layered traction-free plates. The analysis is performed by applying a special complex formalism and the Modified Transfer Matrix (MTM) method. Conditions for the existence of solitary SH waves are obtained. Analytical expressions for the phase speed of the solitary wave are derived. To cite this article: I. Djeran-Maigre, S. Kuznetsov, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  11. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  12. Spatial Variability of Infiltration Parameters at the Region Scales%区域尺度土壤入渗参数空间变异性规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂卫波; 费良军; 马孝义

    2011-01-01

    Based on the infiltration experiments in Yangling district, the objective was to analyze the scaling process of Philip model. The spatial variation discipline of scaling factors was found out and the pedo-transfer function was established for estimating scaling factors. The study showed that the scaling of infiltration process based on αA was the best among different scaling factors in Yangling district. Therefore, the infiltration curves in the regional scale can be scaled with αA. Meanwhile, the reasonable sampling number was calculated under the different confidence levers and required precision. The spatial variation discipline of αA by ArcGIS software was analyzed, and the pedo-transfer function was established to estimate αA. Accuracy of the estimate αA was analyzed in terms of pedo-transfer function, the results suggested that it has feasible and reliable for estimating αA, which could be used to achieve the conversion of soil infiltration between point and region.%以在杨凌区进行的土壤入渗试验为基础,利用标定理论、统计学与地统计学相结合的方法研究了Philip入渗公式的标定过程,以及标定因子的空间变异规律.研究结果表明:在研究区域内不同标定因子中αA标定的效果最优,可用αA对入渗曲线进行标定;利用统计学原理计算了不同置信水平和精度要求下入渗测点的合理取样数;采用ArcGIS软件对标定因子αA的空间变异规律进行了分析;建立了可根据易测定的土壤物理参数直接估算αA的土壤转换函数,并通过验证,其结果可较好地解决区域尺度内土壤入渗参数的点面转换问题.

  13. Theories of multiple equilibria and weather regimes : A critical reexamination. II - Baroclinic two-layer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehelsky, Priscilla; Tung, Ka Kit

    1987-01-01

    Previous results based on low- and intermediate-order truncations of the two-layer model suggest the existence of multiple equilibria and/or multiple weather regimes for the extratropical large-scale flow. The importance of the transient waves in the synoptic scales in organizing the large-scale flow and in the maintenance of weather regimes was emphasized. The result shows that multiple equilibria/weather regimes that are present in lower-order models examined disappear when a sufficient number of modes are kept in the spectral expansion of the solution to the governing partial differential equations. Much of the chaotic behavior of the large-scale flow that is present in intermediate-order models is now found to be spurious. Physical reasons for the drastic modification are offered. A peculiarity in the formulation of most existing two-layer models is noted that also tends to exaggerate the importance of baroclinic processes and increase the degree of unpredictability of the large-scale flow.

  14. Photoacoustic investigation of the effective diffusivity of two-layer semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, J; Gurevich, Yu. G; Logvinov G, N; Rodriguez, P; Gonzalez de la Cruz, G. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-08-01

    In this work, the problem of the effective thermal diffusivity of two-layer systems is investigated using the photoacoustic spectroscopy. The experimental results are examined in terms of the effective thermal parameters of the composite system determined from an homogeneous material which produces the same physical response under an external perturbation in the detector device. It is shown, that the effective thermal conductivity is not symmetric under exchange of the two layers of the composite; i.e., the effective thermal parameters depend upon which layer is illuminated in the photoacoustic experiments. Particular emphasis is given to the characterization of the interface thermal conductivity between the layer-system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se utiliza la espectroscopia fotoacustica para medir la difusividad termica de un sistema de dos capas. Los resultados experimentales son analizados en terminos de los parametros termicos efectivos determinados a partir de un material homogeneo, el cual produce la misma respuesta fisica bajo una perturbacion externa. Se puso particular enfasis en la caracterizacion de los efectos de interfase en el flujo de calor en el sistema de dos capas. Los resultados experimentales se comparan con el modelo teorico propuesto en este trabajo.

  15. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Balagansky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under explosion collapse of two-layer tubes with an outer layer of high-modulus ceramics and an inner layer of copper, formation of a fast and dense copper jet is plausible. We have performed a numerical simulation of the explosion collapse of a two-layer alumina/copper tube using ANSYS AUTODYN software. The simulation was performed in a 2D-axis symmetry posting on an Eulerian mesh of 3900x1200 cells. The simulation results indicate two separate stages of the tube collapse process: the nonstationary and the stationary stage. At the initial stage, a non-stationary fragmented jet is moving with the velocity of leading elements up to 30 km/s. The collapse velocity of the tube to the symmetry axis is about 2 km/s, and the pressure in the contact zone exceeds 700 GPa. During the stationary stage, a dense jet is forming with the velocity of 20 km/s. Temperature of the dense jet is about 2000 K, jet failure occurs when the value of effective plastic deformation reaches 30.

  16. Validation of the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Clear Sky Reflectance Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Vamal, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer model was developed in our earlier studies to estimate the clear sky reflectance enhancement near clouds. This simple model accounts for the radiative interaction between boundary layer clouds and molecular layer above, the major contribution to the reflectance enhancement near clouds for short wavelengths. We use LES/SHDOM simulated 3D radiation fields to valid the two-layer model for reflectance enhancement at 0.47 micrometer. We find: (a) The simple model captures the viewing angle dependence of the reflectance enhancement near cloud, suggesting the physics of this model is correct; and (b) The magnitude of the 2-layer modeled enhancement agree reasonably well with the "truth" with some expected underestimation. We further extend our model to include cloud-surface interaction using the Poisson model for broken clouds. We found that including cloud-surface interaction improves the correction, though it can introduced some over corrections for large cloud albedo, large cloud optical depth, large cloud fraction, large cloud aspect ratio. This over correction can be reduced by excluding scenes (10 km x 10km) with large cloud fraction for which the Poisson model is not designed for. Further research is underway to account for the contribution of cloud-aerosol radiative interaction to the enhancement.

  17. Risks of an epidemic in a two-layered railway-local area traveling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Hui, Pakming; Lin, Haiqing; Liu, Zonghua

    2013-01-01

    In view of the huge investments into the construction of high speed rails systems in USA, Japan, and China, we present a two-layer traveling network model to study the risks that the railway network poses in case of an epidemic outbreak. The model consists of two layers with one layer representing the railway network and the other representing the local-area transportation subnetworks. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we also study a simplified model that focuses on how a major railway affects an epidemic. We assume that the individuals, when they travel, take on the shortest path to the destination and become non-travelers upon arrival. When an infection process co-evolves with the traveling dynamics, the railway serves to gather a crowd, transmit the disease, and spread infected agents to local area subnetworks. The railway leads to a faster initial increase in infected agents and a higher steady state infection, and thus poses risks; and frequent traveling leads to a more severe infection. These features revealed in simulations are in agreement with analytic results of a simplified version of the model.

  18. Traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks with limited delivering capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Wang, Zhenyong

    2016-08-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has attracted a great deal of interest since many real networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the average delivery capacity allocation strategy is susceptible to congestion with the wildly used shortest path routing protocol on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we introduce a delivery capacity allocation strategy into the traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks and focus on its effect on the traffic capacity measured by the critical point Rc of phase transition from free flow to congestion. When the total nodes delivering capacity is fixed, the delivering capacity of each node in physical layer is assigned to the degree distributions of both the physical and logical layers. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than that with the average delivery capacity allocation strategy. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this work may be useful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.

  19. Investigations of Two-Layer Earth Parameters at Low Voltage: Measurements and Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The two-layer soil model at low magnitude voltage is assumed to be accurate for the measurement and calculation of the earth resistance of a combined grid-multiple rods electrode. The aim of this study is to measure and calculate the earth resistance of a combined grid-multiple rods electrode buried in a two-layer soil and to confirm the simplicity and accuracy of the used formula. Approach: Soil resistivity was measured using Wenner four point method. Advanced earth resistivity measurement interpretation techniques which include graphical curve matching based on master curves and an advanced computer program based on a genetic algorithm are used in this study. Results: Based on the resistivity data, the earth resistance value was calculated using the formulas obtained from the literature. Measurements of the earth resistance of the earthing system were also conducted using the fall of potential method. Conclusion/Recommendations: A very good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated earth resistance values. This research is the first time ever conducted where the measured earth resistance values are compared directly with the calculated earth values.

  20. Numerical simulation and analysis of complex patterns in a two-layer coupled reaction diffusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新政; 白占国; 李燕; 贺亚峰; 赵昆

    2015-01-01

    The resonance interaction between two modes is investigated using a two-layer coupled Brusselator model. When two different wavelength modes satisfy resonance conditions, new modes will appear, and a variety of superlattice patterns can be obtained in a short wavelength mode subsystem. We find that even though the wavenumbers of two Turing modes are fixed, the parameter changes have infl uences on wave intensity and pattern selection. When a hexagon pattern occurs in the short wavelength mode layer and a stripe pattern appears in the long wavelength mode layer, the Hopf instability may happen in a nonlinearly coupled model, and twinkling-eye hexagon and travelling hexagon patterns will be obtained. The symmetries of patterns resulting from the coupled modes may be different from those of their parents, such as the cluster hexagon pattern and square pattern. With the increase of perturbation and coupling intensity, the nonlinear system will con-vert between a static pattern and a dynamic pattern when the Turing instability and Hopf instability happen in the nonlinear system. Besides the wavenumber ratio and intensity ratio of the two different wavelength Turing modes, perturbation and coupling intensity play an important role in the pattern formation and selection. According to the simulation results, we find that two modes with different symmetries can also be in the spatial resonance under certain conditions, and complex patterns appear in the two-layer coupled reaction diffusion systems.

  1. Two-Layer Tight Frame Sparsifying Model for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Dong, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CSMRI) employs image sparsity to reconstruct MR images from incoherently undersampled K-space data. Existing CSMRI approaches have exploited analysis transform, synthesis dictionary, and their variants to trigger image sparsity. Nevertheless, the accuracy, efficiency, or acceleration rate of existing CSMRI methods can still be improved due to either lack of adaptability, high complexity of the training, or insufficient sparsity promotion. To properly balance the three factors, this paper proposes a two-layer tight frame sparsifying (TRIMS) model for CSMRI by sparsifying the image with a product of a fixed tight frame and an adaptively learned tight frame. The two-layer sparsifying and adaptive learning nature of TRIMS has enabled accurate MR reconstruction from highly undersampled data with efficiency. To solve the reconstruction problem, a three-level Bregman numerical algorithm is developed. The proposed approach has been compared to three state-of-the-art methods over scanned physical phantom and in vivo MR datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved. PMID:27747226

  2. Analysis and Control of Two-Layer Frenkel-Kontorova Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wen-Yan; QU Zhi-Hua; GUO Yi

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional two-layer Frenkel-Kontorova model is studied.Firstly,a feedback tracking control law is given.Then,the boundedness result for the error states of single particles of the model is derived using the Lyapunov Method.Especially,the motion of single particles can be approximated analytically for the case of sufficiently large targeted velocity.Simulations illustrate the accuracy of the derived results.Recently,the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model,which describes a chain of classical particles interacting with its nearest neighbors and subjected to a periodic one-site potential,has become a useful tool to study nanotribology.[1-6] There are several generalizations of the FK model that have been introduced with the hope of understanding friction dynamics at nanoscale.These models include a manylayer model with harmonic interactions,the FrenkelKontorova-Tomlinson model (FKT) and the singlelayer model with harmonic interactions.%A one-dimensional two-layer Frenkel-Kontorova model is studied. Firstly, a feedback tracking control law is given. Then, the boundedness result for the error states of single particles of the model is derived using the Lyapunov Method. Especially, the motion of single particles can be approximated analytically for the case of sufficiently large targeted velocity. Simulations illustrate the accuracy of the derived results.

  3. Reverse-feeding effect of epidemic by propagators in two-layered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayu, Wu; Yanping, Zhao; Muhua, Zheng; Jie, Zhou; Zonghua, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and is currently focused on the spreading of multiple pathogens, especially in multiplex networks. However, little attention has been paid to the case where the mutual influence between different pathogens comes from a fraction of epidemic propagators, such as bisexual people in two separated groups of heterosexual and homosexual people. We here study this topic by presenting a network model of two layers connected by impulsive links, in contrast to the persistent links in each layer. We let each layer have a distinct pathogen and their interactive infection is implemented by a fraction of propagators jumping between the corresponding pairs of nodes in the two layers. By this model we show that (i) the propagators take the key role to transmit pathogens from one layer to the other, which significantly influences the stabilized epidemics; (ii) the epidemic thresholds will be changed by the propagators; and (iii) a reverse-feeding effect can be expected when the infective rate is smaller than its threshold of isolated spreading. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11135001, 11375066, and 11405059) and the National Basic Key Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834100).

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEAD-CUT WITH A TWO-LAYERED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Gully erosion is one of the main causes of top soil loss, land deterioration and sources of sediment deposition in streams. Headcut often occurs in the gully erosion process when erodability of the soil layers varies, and the gully cuts through a hard layer at a point. A scouring hole appears downstream of the head cut which migrates upstream due to strong erosion in the scour hole. This paper presents numerical analyses of turbulent flow and sediment transport processes of a head-cut associated with a two-layer soil stratigraphic formation. The flow in the scour hole is three-dimensional induced by the water jet from the brink of the top layer; the sediment transport model considers sediment entrainment by the impinging jet, erosion underneath the hard layer and the retreat of the brink of the hard layer. The 3D flow simulation in the scour hole and the scouring process was verified with physical model data. The two-layer head cut migration is simulated with different flow and soil parameters, the trends of the simulated results reasonably revealed contributions of these parameters to the scouring and migration process.

  5. Two-layer wireless distributed sensor/control network based on RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Lin, Yuchi; Zhou, Jingjing; Dong, Guimei; Xia, Guisuo

    2006-11-01

    A project of embedded Wireless Distributed Sensor/Control Network (WDSCN) based on RF is presented after analyzing the disadvantages of traditional measure and control system. Because of high-cost and complexity, such wireless techniques as Bluetooth and WiFi can't meet the needs of WDSCN. The two-layer WDSCN is designed based on RF technique, which operates in the ISM free frequency channel with low power and high transmission speed. Also the network is low cost, portable and moveable, integrated with the technologies of computer network, sensor, microprocessor and wireless communications. The two-layer network topology is selected in the system; a simple but efficient self-organization net protocol is designed to fit the periodic data collection, event-driven and store-and-forward. Furthermore, adaptive frequency hopping technique is adopted for anti-jamming apparently. The problems about power reduction and synchronization of data in wireless system are solved efficiently. Based on the discussion above, a measure and control network is set up to control such typical instruments and sensors as temperature sensor and signal converter, collect data, and monitor environmental parameters around. This system works well in different rooms. Experiment results show that the system provides an efficient solution to WDSCN through wireless links, with high efficiency, low power, high stability, flexibility and wide working range.

  6. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  7. The modeling of the structurefoundation-base system with the use of two-layer beamon an elastic basis with variable coeficcient of subgrade reaction Моделирование системы здание — фундамент — основание двухслойной балкой на упругом основании с переменным коэффициентом постели

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barmenkova Elena Vjacheslavovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author presents the results of calculations of the system «structurefoundation-base» in case of using the two-layer and the single-layer beam models on an elastic basis with variable and constant coefficients of subgrade reaction. The analytical solution is obtained using the method of initial parameters. The calculations are carried out in case of building up the structure.The method of calculating two-layer beam with variable flexural rigidity along the length on an elastic foundation was described in the author’s previous articles, while in the present paper variable coefficients of subgrade reaction are taken into account. A two-layer beam is a beam of variable rigidity, the lower layer simulates the foundation, and the upper — the structure, at the same time the weight of each layer is considered.For comparison, the problem is also considered in its traditional statement. That means the problem of single-layer beam bending is solved with cross-section of constant length, which is freely lying on an elastic basis of Winkler’s type.The results of calculations of two-layer and single-layer beams show, that the values of the internal forces and stresses are higher with variable coefficient of subgrade reaction than with the constant one. When comparing the two-layer and the single-layer beam models with the same foundation characteristics, the values of internal forces in two-layer beams are much higher.On the basis of the calculations we can make the following conclusion: in order to obtain more reliable prognosis of the stress-strain state of the system «structure-foundation» on an elastic basis, it is appropriate to carry out calculations with the use of a contact model in the form of a two-layer beam on an elastic basis of Winkler’s type with variable coefficients of subgrade reaction. The model allows us to take account of such factors as rigidity changes in the base and the rigidity of the upper structure

  8. Wave turbulence in a two-layer fluid: coupling between free surface and interface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Issenmann, Bruno; Falcon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the interface between two immiscible fluids of close density with free upper surface. We locally measure the wave height at the interface between both fluids by means of a highly sensitive laser Doppler vibrometer. We show that the inertial range of the capillary wave turbulence regime is significantly extended when the upper fluid depth is increased: The crossover frequency between the gravity and capillary wave turbulence regimes is found to decrease whereas the dissipative cut-off frequency of the spectrum is found to increase. We explain most of these observations by the progressive decoupling between waves propagating at the interface and the ones at the free surface, using the full dispersion relation of gravity-capillary waves in a two-layer fluid of finite depths.s.

  9. Spin-3/2 Ising model AFM/AFM two-layer lattice with crystal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Albayrak; Ali Yigit

    2009-01-01

    The spin-3/2 Ising model is investigated for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions on the two-layer Bethe lattice by using the exact recursion relations in the pairwise approach for given coordination numbers q = 3, 4 and 6 when the layers are under the influences of equal external magnetic and equal crystal fields. The ground state, (GS) phase diagrams are obtained on the different planes in detail and then the temperature-dependent phase diagrams of the system are calculated accordingly. It is observed that the system presents both second- and first-order phase transitions for all q, therefore, tricritical points. It is also found that the system exhibits double-critical end points and isolated points. The model aiso presents two Néel temperatures, T_N, and the existence of which leads to the reentrant behaviour.

  10. Two-layer interfacial flows beyond the Boussinesq approximation: a Hamiltonian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassa, R.; Falqui, G.; Ortenzi, G.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of integrable systems of Hamiltonian PDEs and their near-integrable deformations is used to study evolution equations resulting from vertical-averages of the Euler system for two-layer stratified flows in an infinite two-dimensional channel. The Hamiltonian structure of the averaged equations is obtained directly from that of the Euler equations through the process of Hamiltonian reduction. Long-wave asymptotics together with the Boussinesq approximation of neglecting the fluids’ inertia is then applied to reduce the leading order vertically averaged equations to the shallow-water Airy system, albeit in a non-trivial way. The full non-Boussinesq system for the dispersionless limit can then be viewed as a deformation of this well known equation. In a perturbative study of this deformation, a family of approximate constants of the motion are explicitly constructed and used to find local solutions of the evolution equations by means of hodograph-like formulae.

  11. Central-Upwind Schemes for Two-Layer Shallow Water Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Kurganov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We derive a second-order semidiscrete central-upwind scheme for one- and two-dimensional systems of two-layer shallow water equations. We prove that the presented scheme is well-balanced in the sense that stationary steady-state solutions are exactly preserved by the scheme and positivity preserving; that is, the depth of each fluid layer is guaranteed to be nonnegative. We also propose a new technique for the treatment of the nonconservative products describing the momentum exchange between the layers. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated on a number of numerical examples, in which we successfully capture (quasi) steady-state solutions and propagating interfaces. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  13. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  14. Two-Layer Coding Rate Optimization in Relay-Aided Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan

    2011-01-01

    We consider a three-node transmission system, where a source node conveys a data block to a destination node with the help of a half-duplex decode and-forward (DF) relay node. The whole data block is transmitted as a sequence of packets. For reliable transmission in the three-node system, a two......-layer coding scheme is proposed, where physical layer channel coding is utilized within each packet for error-correction and random network coding is applied on top of channel coding for network error-control. There is a natural tradeoff between the physical layer coding rate and the network coding rate given...... requirement. Numerical results are also provided to show the optimized physical layer coding and network coding rate pairs in different system scenarios....

  15. The peak effect (PE) region of the antiferromagnetic two layer Ising nanographene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şarlı, Numan, E-mail: numansarli82@gmail.com [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbudak, Salih [Department of Physics, Adiyaman University, 02100 Adiyaman (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ellialtıoğlu, Mehmet Recai [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic two layer spin-1/2 Ising nanographene systems are investigated within the effective field theory. We find that the magnetizations and the hysteresis behaviors of the central graphene atoms are similar to those of the edge graphene atoms in the ferromagnetic case. But, they are quite different in the antiferromagnetic case. The antiferromagnetic central graphene atoms exhibit type II superconductivity and they have triple hysteresis loop. The peak effect (PE) region is observed on the hysteresis curves of the antiferromagnetic Ising nanographene system. Therefore, we suggest that there is a strong relationship between the antiferromagnetism and the peak effect. Our results are in agreement with some experimental works in recent literature.

  16. STRESS ANALYSIS AND BURST PRESSURE DETERMINATION OF TWO LAYER COMPOUND PRESSURE VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARERAM LOHAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer pressure vessel is designed to work under high-pressure condition. This paper introduces the stress analysis and the burst pressure calculation of a two-layer shrink fitted pressure vessel. In the shrink-fitting problems, considering long hollow cylinders, the plane strain hypothesis can be regarded as more natural. Generally hoops stress distribution is non-linear and sharply reduced toward the outer surface. By shrink fitting concentric shells towards the inner shells are placed in residual compression so that the initial compressive hoop stress must be relieved by internal pressure before hoop tensile stress are developed. Therefore the maximum hoop stress will be reduced, resulting more burst pressure. The analytical results of stress distribution and burst pressure is calculated and validated by ANSYS Workbench results.

  17. Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Clear Sky Reflectance near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Evans, Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Levy, Rob

    2015-01-01

    A two-layer model (2LM) was developed in our earlier studies to estimate the clear sky reflectance enhancement due to cloud-molecular radiative interaction at MODIS at 0.47 micrometers. Recently, we extended the model to include cloud-surface and cloud-aerosol radiative interactions. We use the LES/SHDOM simulated 3D true radiation fields to test the 2LM for reflectance enhancement at 0.47 micrometers. We find: The simple model captures the viewing angle dependence of the reflectance enhancement near cloud, suggesting the physics of this model is correct; the cloud-molecular interaction alone accounts for 70 percent of the enhancement; the cloud-surface interaction accounts for 16 percent of the enhancement; the cloud-aerosol interaction accounts for an additional 13 percent of the enhancement. We conclude that the 2LM is simple to apply and unbiased.

  18. Study of electronic and optical properties of two-layered hydrogenated aluminum nitrate nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihzadeh, Somayeh; Shahtahmasebi, Nasser; Rezaee Roknabadi, Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    First principle calculations based on density functional theory using GW approximation and two particle Bethe-Salpeter equation with electron-hole effect were performed to investigate electronic structure and optical properties of two-layered hydrogenated AlN. According to many body green function due to decrease in dimension and considering electron-electron effect, direct (indirect) band gap change from 2 (1.01) eV to 4.83 (3.62) eV. The first peak in imaginary part of dielectric function was observed in parallel direction to a plane obtaining 3.4 was achieved by bound exciton states possess 1.39 eV. The first absorption peak was seen in two parallel and perpendicular directions to a plane which are in UV region.

  19. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  20. Analysis of data recorded by the LCTPC equipped with a two layer GEM-system

    CERN Document Server

    Ljunggren, M

    2012-01-01

    wire based readout. The prototype TPC is placed in a 1 Tesla magnet at DESY and tested using an electron beam. Analyses of data taken during two different measurement series, in 2009 and 2010, are presented here. The TPC was instrumented with a two layer GEM system and read out using modified electronics from the ALICE experiment, including the programmable charge sensitive preamp-shaper PCA16. The PCA16 chip has a number of programmable parameters which allows studies to determine the settings optimal to the final TPC. Here, the impact of the shaping time on the space resolution in the drift direction was studied. It was found that a shaping time of 60 ns is the b...

  1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON BEHAVIOR OF THE INTERFACIAL CRACK BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena M Djoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is considered a problem of the semi-infinite crack at the interface between the two elastic isotropic layers in conditions of the environmental temperature change. The energy release rate needed for the crack growth along the interface was determined, for the case when the two-layered sample is cooled from the temperature of the layers joining down to the room temperature. It was noticed that the energy release rate increases with the temperature difference increase. In the paper is also presented the distribution of stresses in layers as a function of the temperature and the layers' thickness variations. Analysis is limited to the case when the bimaterial sample is exposed to uniform temperature.

  2. High Performance Hybrid Two Layer Router Architecture for FPGAs Using Network On Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Ezhumalai, P; Arun, C; Sakthivel, P; Sridharan, D

    2010-01-01

    Networks on Chip is a recent solution paradigm adopted to increase the performance of Multicore designs. The key idea is to interconnect various computation modules (IP cores) in a network fashion and transport packets simultaneously across them, thereby gaining performance. In addition to improving performance by having multiple packets in flight, NoCs also present a host of other advantages including scalability, power efficiency, and component reuse through modular design. This work focuses on design and development of high performance communication architectures for FPGAs using NoCs Once completely developed, the above methodology could be used to augment the current FPGA design flow for implementing multicore SoC applications. We design and implement an NoC framework for FPGAs, MultiClock OnChip Network for Reconfigurable Systems (MoCReS). We propose a novel microarchitecture for a hybrid two layer router that supports both packetswitched communications, across its local and directional ports, as well as...

  3. The fuzzy coat of pathological human Tau fibrils is a two-layered polyelectrolyte brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Susanne; Medalsy, Izhar D; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Müller, Daniel J

    2013-01-22

    The structure and properties of amyloid-like Tau fibrils accumulating in neurodegenerative diseases have been debated for decades. Although the core of Tau fibrils assembles from short β-strands, the properties of the much longer unstructured Tau domains protruding from the fibril core remain largely obscure. Applying immunogold transmission EM, and force-volume atomic force microscopy (AFM), we imaged human Tau fibrils at high resolution and simultaneously mapped their mechanical and adhesive properties. Tau fibrils showed a ≈ 16-nm-thick fuzzy coat that resembles a two-layered polyelectrolyte brush, which is formed by the unstructured short C-terminal and long N-terminal Tau domains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the fuzzy coat are modulated by electrolytes and pH, and thus by the cellular environment. These unique properties of the fuzzy coat help in understanding how Tau fibrils disturb cellular interactions and accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles.

  4. Sparse/DCT (S/DCT) two-layered representation of prediction residuals for video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Je-Won; Gabbouj, Moncef; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a cascaded sparse/DCT (S/DCT) two-layer representation of prediction residuals, and implement this idea on top of the state-of-the-art high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard. First, a dictionary is adaptively trained to contain featured patterns of residual signals so that a high portion of energy in a structured residual can be efficiently coded via sparse coding. It is observed that the sparse representation alone is less effective in the R-D performance due to the side information overhead at higher bit rates. To overcome this problem, the DCT representation is cascaded at the second stage. It is applied to the remaining signal to improve coding efficiency. The two representations successfully complement each other. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm outperforms the HEVC reference codec HM5.0 in the Common Test Condition.

  5. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  6. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yan-Xun; Deng Ming-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface.In general,the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur.However,the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied.Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation,the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined.Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.

  7. Convergent flow in a two-layer system and mountain building

    CERN Document Server

    Perazzo, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of modelling the process of mountain building, we investigate the evolution of the ridge produced by the convergent motion of a system consisting of two layers of liquids that differ in density and viscosity to simulate the crust and the upper mantle that form a lithospheric plate. We assume that the motion is driven by basal traction. Assuming isostasy, we derive a nonlinear differential equation for the evolution of the thickness of the crust. We solve this equation numerically to obtain the profile of the range. We find an approximate self-similar solution that describes reasonably well the process and predicts simple scaling laws for the height and width of the range as well as the shape of the transversal profile. We compare the theoretical results with the profiles of real mountain belts and find and excellent agreement.

  8. TWO-LAYER SECURE PREVENTION MECHANISM FOR REDUCING E-COMMERCE SECURITY RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Tarng Lai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce is an important information system in the network and digital age. However, the network intrusion, malicious users, virus attack and system security vulnerabilities have continued to threaten the operation of the e-commerce, making e-commerce security encounter serious test. How to improve ecommerce security has become a topic worthy of further exploration. Combining routine security test and security event detection procedures, this paper proposes the Two-Layer Secure Prevention Mechanism (TLSPM. Applying TLSPM, routine security test procedure can identify security vulnerability and defect, and develop repair operations. Security event detection procedure can timely detect security event, and assist follow repair. TLSPM can enhance the e-commerce security and effectively reduce the security risk of e-commerce critical data and asset.

  9. Calculation of AC loss in two-layer superconducting cable with equal currents in the layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Muzaffer

    2016-12-01

    A new method for calculating AC loss of two-layer SC power transmission cables using the commercial software Comsol Multiphysics, relying on the approach of the equal partition of current between the layers is proposed. Applying the method to calculate the AC-loss in a cable composed of two coaxial cylindrical SC tubes, the results are in good agreement with the analytical ones of duoblock model. Applying the method to calculate the AC-losses of a cable composed of a cylindrical copper former, surrounded by two coaxial cylindrical layers of superconducting tapes embedded in an insulating medium with tape-on-tape and tape-on-gap configurations are compared. A good agreement between the duoblock model and the numerical results for the tape-on-gap cable is observed.

  10. 2-DE combined with two-layer feature selection accurately establishes the origin of oolong tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Han-Ju; Chu, Yen-Wei; Chen, Chi-Wei; Juang, Yu-Min; Chien, Min-Wei; Liu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2016-11-15

    Taiwan is known for its high quality oolong tea. Because of high consumer demand, some tea manufactures mix lower quality leaves with genuine Taiwan oolong tea in order to increase profits. Robust scientific methods are, therefore, needed to verify the origin and quality of tea leaves. In this study, we investigated whether two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy (nano-LC/MS/MS) coupled with a two-layer feature selection mechanism comprising information gain attribute evaluation (IGAE) and support vector machine feature selection (SVM-FS) are useful in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as markers of the original source of oolong tea. Samples in this study included oolong tea leaves from 23 different sources. We found that our method had an accuracy of 95.5% in correctly identifying the origin of the leaves. Overall, our method is a novel approach for determining the origin of oolong tea leaves.

  11. A Two-Layer Mathematical Modelling of Drug Delivery to Biological Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Koyel

    2016-01-01

    Local drug delivery has received much recognition in recent years, yet it is still unpredictable how drug efficacy depends on physicochemical properties and delivery kinetics. The purpose of the current study is to provide a useful mathematical model for drug release from a drug delivery device and consecutive drug transport in biological tissue, thereby aiding the development of new therapeutic drug by a systemic approach. In order to study the complete process, a two-layer spatio-temporal model depicting drug transport between the coupled media is presented. Drug release is described by considering solubilisation dynamics of drug particle, diffusion of the solubilised drug through porous matrix and also some other processes like reversible dissociation / recrystallization, drug particle-receptor binding and internalization phenomena. The model has led to a system of partial differential equations describing the important properties of drug kinetics. This model contributes towards the perception of the roles...

  12. Some considerations on numerical schemes for treating hyperbolicity issues in two-layer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, L.; Carravetta, A.; Martino, R.; Papa, M. N.; Tai, Y.-C.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-layer depth-averaged models are widely employed in various hydraulic engineering applications. Yet, such models are not strictly hyperbolic. Their equation systems typically lose hyperbolicity when the relative velocities between layers become too large, which is associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities involving turbulent momentum exchanges between the layers. Focusing on the two-layer case, we present a numerical improvement that locally avoids the loss of hyperbolicity. The proposed modification introduces an additional momentum exchange between layers, whose value is iteratively calculated to be strictly sufficient to keep the system hyperbolic. The approach can be easily implemented in any finite volume scheme and there is no limitation concerning the density ratio between layers. Numerical examples, employing both HLL-type and Roe-type approximate Riemann solvers, are reported to validate the method and its key features.

  13. Two-layer networked learning control using self-learning fuzzy control algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the existing single-layer networked control systems have some inherent limitations and cannot effectively handle the problems associated with unreliable networks, a novel two-layer networked learning control system (NLCS) is proposed in this paper. Its lower layer has a number of local controllers that are operated independently, and its upper layer has a learning agent that communicates with the independent local controllers in the lower layer. To implement such a system, a packet-discard strategy is firstly developed to deal with network-induced delay and data packet loss. A cubic spline interpolator is then employed to compensate the lost data. Finally, the output of the learning agent based on a novel radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to update the parameters of fuzzy controllers. A nonlinear heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  14. Artery buckling analysis using a two-layered wall model with collagen dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottahedi, Mohammad; Han, Hai-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Artery buckling has been proposed as a possible cause for artery tortuosity associated with various vascular diseases. Since microstructure of arterial wall changes with aging and diseases, it is essential to establish the relationship between microscopic wall structure and artery buckling behavior. The objective of this study was to developed arterial buckling equations to incorporate the two-layered wall structure with dispersed collagen fiber distribution. Seven porcine carotid arteries were tested for buckling to determine their critical buckling pressures at different axial stretch ratios. The mechanical properties of these intact arteries and their intima-media layer were determined via pressurized inflation test. Collagen alignment was measured from histological sections and modeled by a modified von-Mises distribution. Buckling equations were developed accordingly using microstructure-motivated strain energy function. Our results demonstrated that collagen fibers disperse around two mean orientations symmetrically to the circumferential direction (39.02°±3.04°) in the adventitia layer; while aligning closely in the circumferential direction (2.06°±3.88°) in the media layer. The microstructure based two-layered model with collagen fiber dispersion described the buckling behavior of arteries well with the model predicted critical pressures match well with the experimental measurement. Parametric studies showed that with increasing fiber dispersion parameter, the predicted critical buckling pressure increases. These results validate the microstructure-based model equations for artery buckling and set a base for further studies to predict the stability of arteries due to microstructural changes associated with vascular diseases and aging.

  15. Quantification of the specific yield in a two-layer hard-rock aquifer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Véronique; Léonardi, Véronique; de Marsily, Ghislain; Lachassagne, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Hard rock aquifers (HRA) have long been considered to be two-layer systems, with a mostly capacitive layer just below the surface, the saprolite layer, and a mainly transmissive layer underneath, the fractured layer. Although this hydrogeological conceptual model is widely accepted today within the scientific community, it is difficult to quantify the respective storage properties of each layer with an equivalent porous medium model. Based on an HRA field site, this paper attempts to quantify in a distinct manner the respective values of the specific yield (Sy) in the saprolite and the fractured layer, with the help of a deterministic hydrogeological model. The study site is the Plancoët migmatitic aquifer located in north-western Brittany, France, with piezometric data from 36 observation wells surveyed every two weeks for eight years. Whereas most of the piezometers (26) are located where the water table lies within the saprolite, thus representing the specific yield of the unconfined layer (Sy1), 10 of them are representative of the unconfined fractured layer (Sy2), due to their position where the saprolite is eroded or unsaturated. The two-layer model, based on field observations of the layer geometry, runs with the MODFLOW code. 81 values of the Sy1/Sy2 parameter sets were tested manually, as an inverse calibration was not able to calibrate these parameters. In order to calibrate the storage properties, a new quality-of-fit criterion called ;AdVar; was also developed, equal to the mean squared deviation of the seasonal piezometric amplitude variation. Contrary to the variance, AdVar is able to select the best values for the specific yield in each layer. It is demonstrated that the saprolite layer is about 2.5 times more capacitive than the fractured layer, with Sy1 = 10% (7% < Sy1 < 15%) against Sy2 = 2% (1% < Sy2 < 3%), in this particular example.

  16. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  17. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control.

  18. Single- and Two-Layer Coatings of Metal Blends onto Carbon Steel: Mechanical, Wear, and Friction Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Single- and two-layer coatings were deposited onto carbon steel using a high-velocity oxy-fuel deposition gun. The two-layer coating consisted of a top layer of tungsten carbide cobalt/nickel alloy blend that provides wear resistance and a bottom layer of iron/molybdenum blend that provides corrosion resistance. The morphological changes in the single- and two-layer coatings were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The residual stresses formed on the surface of various coatings were determined from x-ray diffraction data. Nanomechanical properties were measured using the nanoindentation technique. Microhardness and fracture toughness were measured incorporating the microindentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characteristics were measured using the pin-on-disk testing apparatus. The goal of this study was to ensure that the mechanical properties, friction, and wear resistance of the two-layer coating are similar to that of the single-layer coating.

  19. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  20. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Francesco [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Sassaroli, Angelo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Henry, Michael E [McLean Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Fantini, Sergio [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2004-04-07

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is {approx}0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of {approx}4% for the superficial layer and {approx}10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers.

  1. Thermal properties of composite two-layer systems with a fractal inclusion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Bonilla-Capilla, B.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the thermal transport properties of platelike composite two-layer samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, their effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity were experimentally measured. The composite layers were prepared under the action of a static magnetic field, resulting in anisotropic (fractal) inclusion structures with the formation of chain-like magnetite aggregates parallel to the faces of the layers. In one kind of the bilayers, a composite layer was formed on top of a resin layer while their relative thickness was varied. These samples can be described by known models. In contrast, bilayers with the same concentration of inclusions and the same thickness on both sides, where only the angle between their inclusion structures was systematically varied, show a nontrivial behaviour of their thermal conductivity as a function of this angle. Through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis, we explain the observed thermal response in terms of the complexity of the interface between the layers.

  2. Two layer asymptotic model for the wave propagation in the presence of vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, M. Yu; Noble, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we consider the system of two layers of the immiscible constant density fluids which are modeled by the full Euler equations. The domain of the flow is infinite in the horizontal directions and delimited above by a free surface. Bottom topography is taken into account. This is a simple model of the wave propagation in the ocean where the upper layer corresponds to the (thin) layer of fluid above the thermocline whereas the lower layer is under the thermocline. Though even this simple framework is computationally too expensive and mathematically too complicated to describe efficiently propagation of waves in the ocean. Modeling assumption such as shallowness, vanishing vorticity and hydrostatic pressure are usually made to get the bi-layer shallow water models that are mathematically more manageable. Though, they cannot describe correctly the propagation of both internal and free surface waves and dispersive/non hydrostatic must be added. Our goal is to consider the regime of medium to large vorticities in shallow water flow. We present the derivation of the model for internal and surface wave propagation in the case of constant and general vorticities in each layer. The model reduces to the classical Green-Naghdi equations in the case of vanishing vorticities.

  3. Two-layer interfacial flows beyond the Boussinesq approximation: a Hamiltonian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Camassa, R; Ortenzi, G

    2015-01-01

    The theory of integrable systems of Hamiltonian PDEs and their near-integrable deformations is used to study evolution equations resulting from vertical-averages of the Euler system for two-layer stratified flows in an infinite 2D channel. The Hamiltonian structure of the averaged equations is obtained directly from that of the Euler equations through the process of Hamiltonian reduction. Long-wave asymptotics together with the Boussinesq approximation of neglecting the fluids' inertia is then applied to reduce the leading order vertically averaged equations to the shallow-water Airy system, and thence, in a non-trivial way, to the dispersionless non-linear Schr\\"odinger equation. The full non-Boussinesq system for the dispersionless limit can then be viewed as a deformation of this well known equation. In a perturbative study of this deformation, it is shown that at first order the deformed system possesses an infinite sequence of constants of the motion, thus casting this system within the framework of comp...

  4. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

  5. Display of the β-effect in the Black Sea Two-Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pavlushin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is a continuation of a series of numerical experiments on modeling formation of wind currents and eddies in the Black Sea within the framework of a two-layer eddy-resolving model. The main attention is focused on studying the β-effect role. The stationary cyclonic wind is used as an external forcing and the bottom topography is not considered. It is shown that at the β-effect being taken into account, the Rossby waves propagating from east to west are observed both during the currents’ formation and at the statistical equilibrium mode when the mesoscale eddies are formed. In the integral flows’ field the waves are visually manifested in a form of the alternate large-scale cyclonic gyres and zones in which the meso-scale anti-cyclones are formed. This spatial pattern constantly propagates to the west that differs from the results of calculations using the constant Coriolis parameter when the spatially alternate cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices are formed, but hold a quasi-stationary position. The waves with the parameters of the Rossby wave first barotropic mode for the closed basin are most clearly pronounced. Interaction of the Rossby waves with large-scale circulation results in intensification of the of the currents’ hydrodynamic instability and in formation of the mesoscale eddies. Significant decrease of kinetic and available potential energy as compared to the values obtained at the constant Coriolis parameter is also a consequence of the eddy formation intensification.

  6. Inferring topologies via driving-based generalized synchronization of two-layer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfei; Wu, Xiaoqun; Feng, Hui; Lu, Jun-an; Xu, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    The interaction topology among the constituents of a complex network plays a crucial role in the network’s evolutionary mechanisms and functional behaviors. However, some network topologies are usually unknown or uncertain. Meanwhile, coupling delays are ubiquitous in various man-made and natural networks. Hence, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the whole or partial topology of a complex dynamical network by taking into consideration communication delay. In this paper, topology identification of complex dynamical networks is investigated via generalized synchronization of a two-layer network. Particularly, based on the LaSalle-type invariance principle of stochastic differential delay equations, an adaptive control technique is proposed by constructing an auxiliary layer and designing proper control input and updating laws so that the unknown topology can be recovered upon successful generalized synchronization. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The technique provides a certain theoretical basis for topology inference of complex networks. In particular, when the considered network is composed of systems with high-dimension or complicated dynamics, a simpler response layer can be constructed, which is conducive to circuit design. Moreover, it is practical to take into consideration perturbations caused by control input. Finally, the method is applicable to infer topology of a subnetwork embedded within a complex system and locate hidden sources. We hope the results can provide basic insight into further research endeavors on understanding practical and economical topology inference of networks.

  7. Deposition, Heat Treatment And Characterization of Two Layer Bioactive Coatings on Cylindrical PEEK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, John W; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2016-09-15

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods were coated via ion beam asssited deposition (IBAD) at room temperature. The coating consists of a two-layer design of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a heat-protection layer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a top layer to increase bioactivity. A rotating substrate holder was designed to deposit an even coating on the cylindrical surface of PEEK rods; the uniformity is verified by cross-sectional measurements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition is followed by heat treatment of the coating using microwave annealing and autoclaving. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a dense, uniform columnar grain structure in the YSZ layer that is well bonded to the PEEK substrate, while the calcium phosphate layer was amorphous and pore-free in its as-deposited state. Subsequent heat treatment via microwave energy introduced HA crystallization in the calcium phosphate layer and additional autoclaving further expanded the crystallization of the HA layer. Chemical composition evaluation of the coating indicated the Ca/P ratios of the HA layer to be near that of stoichiometric HA, with minor variations through the HA layer thickness. The adhesion strength of as-deposited HA/YSZ coatings on smooth, polished PEEK surfaces was mostly unaffected by microwave heat treatment, but decreased with additional autoclave treatment. Increasing surface roughness showed improvement of bond strength.

  8. A novel approach to ECG classification based upon two-layered HMMs in body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; Tan, Jindong; Li, Yang

    2014-03-27

    This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient's ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS) filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC) in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN) platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  9. Dynamics and flow-coupling in two-layer turbulent thermal convection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the dynamics and flow-coupling of convective turbulent flows in a cylindrical Rayleigh-Benard convection cell with two immiscible fluids, water and fluorinert FC-77 electronic liquid (FC77). It is found that one large-scale circulation (LSC) roll exists in each of the fluid layers, and that their circulation planes have two preferred azimuthal orientations separated by $\\sim\\pi$. A surprising finding of the study is that cessations/reversals of the LSC in FC77 of the two-layer system occur much more frequently than they do in single-layer turbulent RBC, and that a cessation is most likely to result in a flow reversal of the LSC, which is in sharp contrast with the uniform distribution of the orientational angular change of the LSC before and after cessations in single-layer turbulent RBC. This implies that the dynamics governing cessations and reversals in the two systems are very different. Two coupling modes, thermal coupling (flow directions of the two LSCs are o...

  10. A Two-Layer Method for Sedentary Behaviors Classification Using Smartphone and Bluetooth Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús D; López, Diego M; Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that outline the health of populations, person's lifestyle is the more important one. This work focuses on the caracterization and prevention of sedentary lifestyles. A sedentary behavior is defined as "any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METs (Metabolic Equivalent) or less while in a sitting or reclining posture". To propose a method for sedentary behaviors classification using a smartphone and Bluetooth beacons considering different types of classification models: personal, hybrid or impersonal. Following the CRISP-DM methodology, a method based on a two-layer approach for the classification of sedentary behaviors is proposed. Using data collected from a smartphones' accelerometer, gyroscope and barometer; the first layer classifies between performing a sedentary behavior and not. The second layer of the method classifies the specific sedentary activity performed using only the smartphone's accelerometer and barometer data, but adding indoor location data, using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. To improve the precision of the classification, both layers implemented the Random Forest algorithm and the personal model. This study presents the first available method for the automatic classification of specific sedentary behaviors. The layered classification approach has the potential to improve processing, memory and energy consumption of mobile devices and wearables used.

  11. Long-time Behavior of a Two-layer Model of Baroclinic Quasi-geostrophic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Farhat, Aseel; Titi, Edriss S; Ziane, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    We study a viscous two-layer quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model that is forced by imposition of a spatially uniform vertical shear in the eastward (zonal) component of the layer flows, or equivalently a spatially uniform north-south temperature gradient. We prove that the model is linearly unstable, but that non-linear solutions are bounded in time by a bound which is independent of the initial data and is determined only by the physical parameters of the model. We further prove, using arguments first presented in the study of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the existence of an absorbing ball in appropriate function spaces, and in fact the existence of a compact finite-dimensional attractor, and provide upper bounds for the fractal and Hausdorff dimensions of the attractor. Finally, we show the existence of an inertial manifold for the dynamical system generated by the model's solution operator. Our results provide rigorous justification for observations made by Panetta based on long-time numerical integra...

  12. A two-layer $\\alpha\\omega$ dynamo model, and its implications for 1-D dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Roald, C B

    1999-01-01

    I will discuss an attempt at representing an interface dynamo in a simplified, essentially 1D framework. The operation of the dynamo is broken up into two 1D layers, one containing the $\\alpha$ effect and the other containing the $\\omega$ effect, and these two layers are allowed to communicate with each other by the simplest possible representation of diffusion, an analogue of Newton's law of cooling. Dynamical back-reaction of the magnetic field on them with diagrams I computed for a comparable purely 1D model. The bifurcation structure shows remarkable similarity, but a couple of subtle changes imply dramatically different physical behaviour for the model. In particular, the solar-like dynamo mode found in the 1-layer model is not stable in the 2-layer version; instead there is an (apparent) homoclinic bifurcation and a sequence of periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic modes. I argue that the fragility of these models makes them effectively useless as predictors or interpreters of more complex dynamos.

  13. A Novel Approach to ECG Classification Based upon Two-Layered HMMs in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient’s ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  14. A two-layer recurrent neural network for nonsmooth convex optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a two-layer recurrent neural network is proposed to solve the nonsmooth convex optimization problem subject to convex inequality and linear equality constraints. Compared with existing neural network models, the proposed neural network has a low model complexity and avoids penalty parameters. It is proved that from any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the equality feasible region in finite time and stays there thereafter. Moreover, the state is unique if the initial point lies in the equality feasible region. The equilibrium point set of the proposed neural network is proved to be equivalent to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality set of the original optimization problem. It is further proved that the equilibrium point of the proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Moreover, from any initial point, the state is proved to be convergent to an equilibrium point of the proposed neural network. Finally, as applications, the proposed neural network is used to solve nonlinear convex programming with linear constraints and L1 -norm minimization problems.

  15. Convergence of Extreme Value Statistics in a Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Melinda Gálfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We search for the signature of universal properties of extreme events, theoretically predicted for Axiom A flows, in a chaotic and high-dimensional dynamical system. We study the convergence of GEV (Generalized Extreme Value and GP (Generalized Pareto shape parameter estimates to the theoretical value, which is expressed in terms of the partial information dimensions of the attractor. We consider a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model of the mid-latitudes, adopt two levels of forcing, and analyse the extremes of different types of physical observables (local energy, zonally averaged energy, and globally averaged energy. We find good agreement in the shape parameter estimates with the theory only in the case of more intense forcing, corresponding to a strong chaotic behaviour, for some observables (the local energy at every latitude. Due to the limited (though very large data size and to the presence of serial correlations, it is difficult to obtain robust statistics of extremes in the case of the other observables. In the case of weak forcing, which leads to weaker chaotic conditions with regime behaviour, we find, unsurprisingly, worse agreement with the theory developed for Axiom A flows.

  16. Critical properties of XY model on two-layer Villain-ferromagnetic lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; R. Quartu; Liu Xiao-Yan; Han Ru-Qi; Horiguchi Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate phase transitions of the XY model on a two-layer square lattice which consists of a Villain plane(J) and a ferromagnetic plane (I), using Monte Carlo simulations and a histogram method. Depending on the values of interaction parameters (I, J), the system presents three phases: namely, a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase in which the two planes are critical for I predominant over J, a chiral phase in which the two planes have a chiral order for J predominant over I and a new phase in which only the Villain plane has a chiral order and the ferromagnetic plane is paramagnetic with a small value of chirality. We clarify the nature of phase transitions by using a finite size scaling method. We find three different kinds of transitions according to the values of (I, J): the KT transition, the Ising transition and an XY-Ising transition with v = 0.849(3). It turns out that the Ising or XY-Ising transition is associated with the disappearance of the chiral order in the Villain plane.

  17. Powerful Amplification Cascades of FRET-Based Two-Layer Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ke; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Ying, Le; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-07

    Nucleic acid circuits have played important roles in biological engineering and have increasingly attracted researchers' attention. They are primarily based on nucleic acid hybridizations and strand displacement reactions between nucleic acid probes of different lengths. Signal amplification schemes that do not rely on protein enzyme show great potential in analytical applications. While the single amplification circuit often achieves linear amplification that may not meet the need for detection of target in a very small amount, it is very necessary to construct cascade circuits that allow for larger amplification of inputs. Herein, we have successfully engineered powerful amplification cascades of FRET-based two-layer nonenzymatic nucleic acid circuits, in which the outputs of catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) activate hybridization chain reactions (HCR) circuits to induce repeated hybridization, allowing real-time monitoring of self-assembly process by FRET signal. The cascades can yield 50000-fold signal amplification with the help of the well-designed and high-quality nucleic acid circuit amplifiers. Subsequently, with coupling of structure-switching aptamer, as low as 200 pM adenosine is detected in buffer, as well as in human serum. To our knowledge, we have for the first time realized real-time monitoring adaptation of HCR to CHA circuits and achieved amplified detection of nucleic acids and small molecules with relatively high sensitivity.

  18. Synchronization and chaos control in a periodically forced quasi-geostrophic two-layer model of baroclinic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. R. Eccles

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic forcing on many timescales is believed to have a significant effect on various quasi-periodic, geophysical phenomena such as El Niño, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, and glacial cycles. This variability has been investigated by numerous previous workers, in models ranging from simple energy balance constructions to full general circulation models. We present a numerical study in which periodic forcing is applied to a highly idealised, two-layer, quasi-geostrophic model on a β-plane. The bifurcation structure and (unforced behaviour of this particular model has been extensively examined by Lovegrove et al. (2001 and Lovegrove et al. (2002. We identify from their work three distinct regimes on which we perform our investigations: a steady, travelling wave regime, a quasi-periodic, modulated wave regime and a chaotic regime. In the travelling wave regime a nonlinear resonance is found. In the periodic regime, Arnol'd tongues, frequency locking and a Devil's staircase is seen for small amplitudes of forcing. As the forcing is increased the Arnol'd tongues undergo a period doubling route to chaos, and for larger forcings still, the parameter space we explored is dominated by either period 1 behaviour or chaotic behaviour. In the chaotic regime we extract unstable periodic orbits (UPOs and add the periodic forcing at periods corresponding to integer multiples of the UPO periods. We find regions of synchronization, similar to Arnol'd tongue behaviour but more skewed and centred approximately on these periods. The regions where chaos suppression took place are smaller than the synchronization regions, and are contained within them.

  19. Dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered nanoparticles on parameters of gold core and material shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovalov, V. K.; Astafyeva, L. G.; Zharov, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling of nonlinear dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered gold core and some material shell nanoparticles (NPs) placed in water on parameters of core and shell was carried out on the basis of the extended Mie theory. Efficiency cross-sections of absorption, scattering and extinction of radiation with wavelength 532 nm by core-shell NPs in the ranges of core radii r00=5-40 nm and of relative NP radii r1/r00=1-8 were calculated (r1-radius of two-layered nanoparticle). Shell materials were used with optical indexes in the ranges of refraction n1=0.2-1.5 and absorption k1=0-3.5 for the presentation of optical properties of wide classes of shell materials (including dielectrics, metals, polymers, vapor shell around gold core). Results show nonlinear dependences of optical properties of two-layered NPs on optical indexes of shell material, core r00 and relative NP r1/r00 radii. Regions with sharp decrease and increase of absorption, scattering and extinction efficiency cross-sections with changing of core and shell parameters were investigated. These dependences should be taken into account for applications of two-layered NPs in laser nanomedicine and optical diagnostics of tissues. The results can be used for experimental investigation of shell formation on NP core and optical determination of geometrical parameters of core and shell of two-layered NPs.

  20. THE SEMI-GEOSTROPHIC ADAPTATION PROCESS WITH TWO-LAYER BAROCLINIC MODEL IN LOW LATITUDE ATMOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptation process in low latitude atmosphere is discussed by means of a two-layer baroclinic model on the equator β plane, showing that the adaptation process in low latitude is mainly dominated by the internal inertial gravity waves. The initial ageostrophic energy is dispersed by the internal inertial gravity waves, and as a result, the geostrophic motion is obtained in zonal direction while the ageostrophic motion maintains in meridional direction, which can be called semi-geostrophic balance in barotropic model as well as semi-thermal-wind balance in baroclinic model. The vertical motion is determined both by the distribution of the initial vertical motion and that of the initial vertical motion tendency, but it is unrelated to the initial potential vorticity. Finally, the motion tends to be horizontal. The discussion of the physical mechanism of the semi-thermal-wind balance in low latitude atmosphere shows that the achievement of the semi-thermal-wind balance is due to the adjustment between the stream field and the temperature field through the horizontal convergence and divergence which is related to the vertical motion excited by the internal inertial gravity waves. The terminal adaptation state obtained shows that the adaptation direction between the mean temperature field and the shear flow field is determined by the ratio of the scale of the initial ageostrophic disturbance to the scale of one character scale related to the baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. The shear stream field adapts to the mean temperature field when the ratio is greater than 1, and the mean temperature field adapts to the shear stream field when the ratio is smaller than 1.

  1. Convective instability in a two-layer system of reacting fluids with concentration-dependent diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitova, E. V.; Bratsun, D. A.; Kostarev, K. G.; Mizev, A. I.; Mosheva, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The development of convective instability in a two-layer system of miscible fluids placed in a narrow vertical gap has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The upper and lower layers are formed with aqueous solutions of acid and base, respectively. When the layers are brought into contact, the frontal neutralization reaction begins. We have found experimentally a new type of convective instability, which is characterized by the spatial localization and the periodicity of the structure observed for the first time in the miscible systems. We have tested a number of different acid-base systems and have found a similar patterning there. In our opinion, it may indicate that the discovered effect is of a general nature and should be taken into account in reaction-diffusion-convection problems as another tool with which the reaction can govern the movement of the reacting fluids. We have shown that, at least in one case (aqueous solutions of nitric acid and sodium hydroxide), a new type of instability called as the concentration-dependent diffusion convection is responsible for the onset of the fluid flow. It arises when the diffusion coefficients of species are different and depend on their concentrations. This type of instability can be attributed to a variety of double-diffusion convection. A mathematical model of the new phenomenon has been developed using the system of reaction-diffusion-convection equations written in the Hele-Shaw approximation. It is shown that the instability can be reproduced in the numerical experiment if only one takes into account the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the reagents. The dynamics of the base state, its linear stability and nonlinear development of the instability are presented. It is also shown that by varying the concentration of acid in the upper layer one can achieve the occurrence of chemo-convective solitary cell in the bulk of an almost immobile fluid. Good agreement between the

  2. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A., E-mail: ryzhovea@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute of FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Koshel, Konstantin V., E-mail: kvkoshel@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute of FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero–oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  3. An operational two-layer remote sensing model to estimate surface flux in regional scale: Physical background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Renhua; SUN; Xiaomin; WANG; Weimin; XU; Jinping; ZH

    2005-01-01

    Based on the improved interaction mechanism of two-layer model, this paper proposed Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA) and theoretically positioning algorithm, estimated the true temperature of mixed pixel in four extreme points in combination with the measurements of dry and wet points in calibration fields and improved the reliability of positioning dry and wet line. A new two-layer energy-separation algorithm was proposed,which was simple and direct without resistance network parameters for each pixel. We also proposed a new thought about the effect of advection. The albedo of mixed pixel was also separated with PCACA. In combination with two-layer energy-separation algorithm, the net radiation of mixed pixel was separated to overcome the uncertainty of conventional energy-separation algorithm using Beer's Law. Through the validation of retrieval result, this method is proved to be feasible and operational. At the same time, the uncertainty of this algorithm was objectively analyzed.

  4. Experimental shortcomings and applicability of in-situ ponded infiltration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Vogel, Tomas; Tesar, Miroslav; Cislerova, Milena

    2017-04-01

    Ponded infiltration experiments are usually performed in an ad hoc grid of measurement points with a regular or random layout. At the end of the measurement campaign, the measurement grid is dismantled. Such experimental design allows for the basic evaluation of spatial variability of the soil infiltrability, however, to examine the temporal component of the overall variability of soil infiltration properties, the measurement campaign needs to be repeated at different times (e.g. different seasons of a year or the same season of different years). Reestablishing the measurement grid exactly into the same measurement positions can be very difficult, especially in structured soils. At such circumstances, a permanent grid of ring infiltrometers seems to be a viable option. In 2003, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a mountain meadow site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic). Since then, ponded infiltration experiments were conducted annually. The study was aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of the soil infiltrability. When only initial four years are analyzed, the temporal variability of the infiltration rates in individual rings is generally less than the spatial variability among the rings in individual years. In later years, the spatial variability of the infiltration rates was overridden by interannual changes. The shift toward higher infiltration rates generally corresponds to the development of the weather conditions encountered during the years of study (extremely wet year 2002 and exceptionally dry year 2015). The excessive infiltration rates encountered in later years together with the contrasting results obtained in temporally installed rings indicate that the results were affected by local soil changes at the tested spots that were directly or indirectly induced by the experimental procedure. The observed infiltration rates could be influenced by the volumetric changes of the installed plastic infiltration rings or by the

  5. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-10-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using a 19 year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated depth of less than 1.5-3 m in sandy loam, 6.5-8 m in silt loam and 11-12 m in silty clay loam. A correction factor that can be applied for infiltration trench design when there is a shallow groundwater table is presented. The analyses showed that below a certain value of unsaturated depth the dissipation capacity of the mound/groundwater becomes the dominant process determining the infiltration capacity from infiltration trenches. In these cases it is essential to consider the local groundwater conditions in the infiltration trench design process.

  6. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  7. Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijen, JW; van der Werf, TS; Ligtenberg, JJM; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG

    1999-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients is very extensive. We describe two immunocompromised patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrative changes. Bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage after orotracheal intubation using topical anaesthe

  8. Correlations between thermal environment and egg quality of two layer commercial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress limits the productivity of laying hens, as reflected by egg production and egg quality. The present study aimed at showing the correlations between egg quality parameters and environmental variables recorded on the day eggs were laid and on the previous days. Birds were housed in battery cages in a commercial poultry house. Main component analyses were used to verify associations between environmental and production variables, and Pearson's linear correlation tests were used to further investigate those associations. Analyses were carried out separately for to layer strains, Dekalb® White and Hy-Line® w36, and the variables egg weight (g, eggshell weight (g, specific gravity (g/cm³ and eggshell percentage (% were compared with the environmental variables of the same day of the production, and one, two, three, and four days before egg production. Sound intensity measured inside the houses was positively associated with the quality parameters of eggs produced on the next day. Thermal environmental variables affected the egg quality differently in each strain, particularly air temperature, internal roof tile temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. Ammonia concentration measured inside the houses was lower than 1ppm, and did not affect production performance.

  9. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  10. Electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole antenna laid on the surface of a two-layer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    With applications to geophysical subsurface probings, electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole laid on the surface of a two-layer medium are solved by a combination of analytic and numerical methods. Interference patterns are calculated for various layer thickness. The results are interpreted in terms of normal modes, and the accuracies of the methods are discussed.

  11. [Two-layer adhesive film Diplen-denta C--a new compound containing polymer base and active component Solcoseryl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakarova, D S

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of the main components of a new effective long-lasting dosage form--biopolymer two-layer adhesive solcoseryl containing film Diplen-denta C--are presented. It has a potent wound-healing action on oral mucosa, retains therapeutic properties during long time, is self dissolving and can be easily fixed on oral mucous membrane.

  12. Screen-Capturing System with Two-Layer Display for PowerPoint Presentation to Enhance Classroom Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Shou; Tsai, Hung-Hsu; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new presentation system integrating a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in a two-layer method, called the TL system, to promote learning in a physical classroom. With the TL system, teachers can readily control hints or annotations as a way of making them visible or invisible to students so as to reduce information load. In…

  13. Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh Method for Two-Layer Shallow-Water Equations Subject to the Rigid-Lid Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, C.J.; Frank, J.E.; Reich, S.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a particle-mesh method for two-layer shallow-water equations subject to the rigid-lid approximation. The method is based on the recently proposed Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method and the interpretation of the rigid-lid approximation as a set of holonomic constraints. The suggested s

  14. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Leroy, C.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.

    2016-10-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  15. Preparation of Two-Layer Anion-Exchange Poly(ethersulfone Based Membrane: Effect of Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Zarybnicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the surface modification of a commercial microfiltration poly(ethersulfone membrane by graft polymerization technique. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylbenzylchloride surface layer was covalently attached onto the poly(ethersulfone support layer to improve the membrane electrochemical properties. Followed by amination, a two-layer anion-exchange membrane was prepared. The effect of surface layer treatment using the extraction in various solvents on membrane morphological and electrochemical characteristics was studied. The membranes were tested from the point of view of water content, ion-exchange capacity, specific resistance, permselectivity, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. It was found that the two-layer anion-exchange membranes after the extraction using tetrahydrofuran or toluene exhibited smooth and porous surface layer, which resulted in improved ion-exchange capacity, electrical resistance, and permselectivity of the membranes.

  16. Tensile Properties with or without Heat Dispersion of Automotive Needlepunched Carpets Made up of Two Layers of Different Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunqing; GUO Zhiying; DONG Xianghuai; LI Dequn

    2008-01-01

    Tensile properties of automotive needlepunched carpets made up of two layers of different materials (a fabric layer and a foam layer) in their thermoforming temperatures ranges with or without heat dispersion were discussed. Effects of forming temperature, extensile speed and fiber orientation on the tensile properties were studied based on an orthogonal experiment design. The experimental results show that automotive carpets are rate-dependent anisotropic materials and more strongly depend on forming temperature than the extensile speed and fiber orientation. Furthermore,contributions of the fabric layer and the foam layer to the overall tensile performance were investigated by comparing the tensile results of single fabric layer with those of the overall carpet. Both the fabric layer and the foam layer show positive effects on the overall tensile strength which is the combination of the two layers' tensile strength and independent of temperature, extensile speed and fiber orientation.On the other hand, their influences on the overall deformation are relatively complicated.

  17. Determining particle size distribution and refractive index in a two-layer tissue phantom by linearly polarized light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Deng; Qiang Lu; Qingming Luo

    2006-01-01

    We report a new method for measuring particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index of the top layer in a two-layer tissue phantom simulated epithelium tissue by varying the azimuth angle of incident linearly polarized light. The polarization gating technique is used to decouple the single and multiple scattering components in the returned signal. The theoretical model based on Mie theory is presented and a nonlinear inversion method - floating genetic algorithm - is applied to inverting the azimuth dependence of component of polarization light backscattered. The experiment results demonstrate that the size distribution and refractive index of the scatters of the top layer can be determined by measuring and analyzing the differential signal of the parallel and perpendicular components from a two-layer tissue phantom. The method implies to detect precancerous changes in human epithelial tissue.

  18. Two-layer critical dimensions and overlay process window characterization and improvement in full-chip computational lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Liubich, Vlad; Gupta, Rachit

    2016-04-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) was a term initially introduced to describe the difference between predicted pattern contour edge and the design target for a single design layer. Strictly speaking, this quantity is not directly measurable in the fab. What is of vital importance is the relative edge placement errors between different design layers, and in the era of multipatterning, the different constituent mask sublayers for a single design layer. The critical dimensions (CD) and overlay between two layers can be measured in the fab, and there has always been a strong emphasis on control of overlay between design layers. The progress in this realm has been remarkable, accelerated in part at least by the proliferation of multipatterning, which reduces the available overlay budget by introducing a coupling of overlay and CD errors for the target layer. Computational lithography makes possible the full-chip assessment of two-layer edge to edge distances and two-layer contact overlap area. We will investigate examples of via-metal model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. We will investigate both single patterning and double patterning. For single patterning, we show the advantage of contour-to-contour simulation over contour to target simulation, and how the addition of aberrations in the optical models can provide a more realistic CD-overlay process window (PW) for edge placement errors. For double patterning, the interaction of 4-layer CD and overlay errors is very complex, but we illustrate that not only can full-chip verification identify potential two-layer hotspots, the optical proximity correction engine can act to mitigate such hotspots and enlarge the joint CD-overlay PW.

  19. Dynamics of the outflow and its effect on the hydraulics of two-layer exchange flows in a channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that an experimental study is conducted to examine the dynamics of the outflow in two-layer exchange flows in a channel connecting between two water bodies with a small density difference. The experiments reveal the generation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities within the hydraulically sub-critical flow region of the channel. During maximal exchange, those KH instabilities develops into large-amplitude KH waves as they escape the channel exit into the reservoir. The propagation speed ...

  20. Infiltration kinetics of pressureless infiltration in SiCp/Al composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhen-kai; YU Jia-kang; ZHANG Xiao-yu

    2005-01-01

    The pressureless infiltration kinetics was investigated by plotting the infiltration distance as function of the infiltration time. The effects of key process parameters such as time, temperature, Mg content on the pressureless infiltration of silicon carbide particle compacts were studied and quantified. The preform with high volume fraction SiC was obtained by mixing SiC particles with bimodal size distribution, whose diameters are 5 and 50 μm, respectively. The results show that an incubation period exists before infiltration, the influence of temperature on the incubation time exceeds that of Mg content, infiltration rate increases with the increasing temperature and Mg content, infiltration rate decreases as Mg consumes. A model of macroscopical infiltration and microscopical infiltration of liquid alloy in porous SiC preform was proposed.

  1. Two-Layer Microstructures Fabricated by One-Step Anisotropic Wet Etching of Si in KOH Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropic etching of silicon in potassium hydroxide (KOH is an important technology in micromachining. The residue deposition from KOH etching of Si is typically regarded as a disadvantage of this technology. In this report, we make use of this residue as a second masking layer to fabricate two-layer complex structures. Square patterns with size in the range of 15–150 μm and gap distance of 5 μm have been designed and tested. The residue masking layer appears when the substrate is over-etched in hydrofluoric acid (HF solution over a threshold. The two-layer structures of micropyramids surrounded by wall-like structures are obtained according to the two different masking layers of SiO2 and residue. The residue masking layer is stable and can survive over KOH etching for long time to achieve deep Si etching. The process parameters of etchant concentration, temperature, etching time and pattern size have been investigated. With well-controlled two-layer structures, useful structures could be designed for applications in plasmonic and microfluidic devices in the future.

  2. Laboratory Research of the Two-Layer Liquid Dynamics at the Wind Surge in a Strait Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Dotsenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory experiments in a straight aerohydrocanal of the rectangular cross-section filled with the two-layer (fresh-salty liquid are represented. The disturbance generator is the air flow directed to the area above the canal. The cases of the two-layer liquid dynamics in the canal with the horizontal flat bottom and in the presence of the bottom obstacle of finite width are considered. It is shown that during the surge in the straight canal, one of the possible exchange mechanisms on the boundary of fresh and salty layers may consist in the salt water emissions (resulted from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to the upper freshwater layer. The subsequent eviction can possibly be accompanied by occurrence of undulations at the interface. Besides, the evictions can be followed by formation of the oscillating layer, i.e. the layer with maximum density gradient the oscillations of which propagate to the overlying layers. Presence of the bottom obstacle complicates the structure of the two-layer liquid motions. In particular, it results in emergence of the mixed layers and transformation of the flow behind the obstacle into a turbulent one, formation of the wave-like disturbances over the obstacle, sharp change of the interface position and occurrence of large-scale vortices with the horizontal axes. It is revealed that the maximum peak of the flow velocity horizontal component is shifted upstream from the obstacle.

  3. Distributed Processing System for Restoration of Electric Power Distribution Network Using Two-Layered Contract Net Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yu; Hamagami, Tomoki

    Distributed processing system for restoration of electric power distribution network using two-layered CNP is proposed. The goal of this study is to develop the restoration system which adjusts to the future power network with distributed generators. The state of the art of this study is that the two-layered CNP is applied for the distributed computing environment in practical use. The two-layered CNP has two classes of agents, named field agent and operating agent in the network. In order to avoid conflicts of tasks, operating agent controls privilege for managers to send the task announcement messages in CNP. This technique realizes the coordination between agents which work asynchronously in parallel with others. Moreover, this study implements the distributed processing system using a de-fact standard multi-agent framework, JADE(Java Agent DEvelopment framework). This study conducts the simulation experiments of power distribution network restoration and compares the proposed system with the previous system. We confirmed the results show effectiveness of the proposed system.

  4. Storm-water management through Infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Chahar, Bhagu Ram; Graillot, Didier; Gaur, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration can occur is reducing. This is resulting in much less ground-water recharge and greatly increased surface run-off. Infiltration devices, which redirect run-off waters from the surface to the sub-surface environments, are commonly adopted to mitigate the negative hydrologic effects associated with urbanization. An infiltration trench alone or in combination with other storm water m...

  5. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  6. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  7. Net-Infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  8. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  9. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  10. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, Willem L.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample

  11. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sections of sloping terraces on water infiltration and subsequent runoff on a Haplic ... Infiltration measurements, done by a tension infiltrometer, were conducted under 3-year old tree .... head first avoid hysteresis (Reynolds and Elrick, ..... terrace (60%), perhaps reflecting the influence of ..... Water Resources Research 14:.

  12. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  13. Modelling of snowmelt infiltration in heterogeneous seasonally-frozen soil monitored by electrical resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Binley, A. M.; Voss, C.

    2016-12-01

    Infiltration during snowmelt can be highly heterogeneous due to the formation of ice on the ground surface below the snow cover. In situations where snow is contaminated, such as along highways and airports due to de-icing agents, it is important to predict the zone of infiltration, because this will determine the retention time and potential for degradation in the unsaturated zone. In 2001, infiltration during snowmelt was monitored over a small area (4m2) using time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring at Gardermoen, Norway. Data revealed a spatio-temporal variable infiltration pattern related to micro topography of the ground surface (French and Binley, 2004). In this study, we want to test the suitability of a newly developed numerical model for water and heat transport including phase change in a variably saturated soil against field observations. Monitored weather and snow data defined the boundary conditions of a simulated unsaturated profile with seasonal freezing. The dependency of capillary pressure and permeability on water saturation is taken from van Genuchten equation with the addition of a scaling parameter, to account for the heterogeneity of the hydraulic permeability. Soil physical data and heterogeneity (variance and correlation structure of the permeability) was based on local soil measurements. The available amount of meltwater for infiltration over the area was based on average snowmelt measurements at the site. Different infiltration scenarios were tested. Soil temperatures, TDR measurements of soil moisture, a tracer experiment conducted at an adjacent site and changes in electrical resistivity were used to validate the model of infiltration and thawing. The model was successful in reproducing the thawing and soil moisture patterns observed in the soil, and hence looks like a promising tool for predicting snowmelt infiltration and melting of ground frost in a sandy unsaturated soil. ReferencesFrench, H.K. and Binley, A. (2004) Snowmelt

  14. Effects of climate change on residential infiltration and air pollution exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Dawson, John; Breen, Michael; Singer, Sarany; Berg, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Air exchange through infiltration is driven partly by indoor/outdoor temperature differences, and as climate change increases ambient temperatures, such differences could vary considerably even with small ambient temperature increments, altering patterns of exposures to both indoor and outdoor pollutants. We calculated changes in air fluxes through infiltration for prototypical detached homes in nine metropolitan areas in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, and Seattle) from 1970-2000 to 2040-2070. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory model of infiltration was used in combination with climate data from eight regionally downscaled climate models from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Averaged over all study locations, seasons, and climate models, air exchange through infiltration would decrease by ~5%. Localized increased infiltration is expected during the summer months, up to 20-30%. Seasonal and daily variability in infiltration are also expected to increase, particularly during the summer months. Diminished infiltration in future climate scenarios may be expected to increase exposure to indoor sources of air pollution, unless these ventilation reductions are otherwise compensated. Exposure to ambient air pollution, conversely, could be mitigated by lower infiltration, although peak exposure increases during summer months should be considered, as well as other mechanisms.

  15. Radiative transfer theory for passive microwave remote sensing of a two-layer random medium with cylindrical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. L.; Kong, J. A.; Tsang, L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the vegetation layer as a two-layer random medium with a small correlation length l sub rho in the horizontal direction, and a large correlation length l sub z in the vertical direction, is presented for fields with cylindrical structures. As l sub z approaches infinity, closed form solutions are derived for the brightness temperatures; the kernels in the scattering terms of the radiative transfer equations result in delta functions showing that forward scattering is dominant over all other directions. The results are compared with the Gaussian quadrature method data for numerical solution of the radiative transfer equations.

  16. WAVES GENERATED BY A 3D MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  17. Wetted-perimeter dependent furrow infiltration and its implication for the hydraulic analysis of furrow irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses a methodology, derived from the two-dimensional Richards equation, for estimating furrow infiltration. The method was originally derived assuming a constant pressure head at the infiltrating surface. Application of the methodology to cases where the pressure head is variable ...

  18. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  19. Quasi-two-layer finite-volume scheme for modeling shallow water flows with the presence of external forces

    CERN Document Server

    Karelsky, K V; Slavin, A G

    2011-01-01

    The numerical method for study of hydrodynamic flows over an arbitrary bed profile in the presence of external force is proposed in this paper. This method takes into account the external force effect, it uses the quasi-two-layer model of hydrodynamic flows over a stepwise boundary with consideration of features of the flow near the step. A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the consideration of the properties of the process of the waterfall, namely the fluid flow on the step in which the fluid does not wet part of the vertical wall of the step. The presence of dry zones in the vertical part of the step indicates violation of the conditions of hydrostatic flow. The quasi-two-layer approach allows to determine the size of the dry zone of the vertical component of the step. Consequently it gives an opportunity to figure out the amount of kinetic energy dissipation. There are performed the numerical simulations based on the proposed algorithm of various physical phenomena, such as a breakdown of the r...

  20. Linear and nonlinear properties of reduced two-layer models for non-hydrostatic free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2016-11-01

    A two-layer model with uniform non-hydrostatic pressure in the bottom produces favorable dispersion properties for coastal wave transformation at the computational requirements of a one-layer model. We derive the nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding dispersion relation, shoaling gradient, and super- and sub-harmonics to understand the theoretical performance of this reduced model. With the layer interface near the bottom, the dispersion relation shows an extended applicable range into deeper water at the expense of a slight overestimation of the celerity in intermediate water depth. The shoaling gradient rapidly converges to the exact solution in the shallow and intermediate depth range. These complementary characteristics allow identification of an optimal interface position for both linear wave properties. The resulting model exhibits good nonlinear performance in shallow and intermediate water depth and produces super- and sub-harmonics comparable to a two-layer model. Numerical tests involving standing waves show the reduced model has smaller discretization errors in the dispersion relation comparing to a one-layer model. Case studies of regular wave transformation over a submerged bar and a uniform slope provide comparison with laboratory data and demonstrate the linear and nonlinear properties derived from the governing equations. The good shoaling and nonlinear properties give rise to accurate waveforms in both cases, while dispersion errors from the governing equations and numerical schemes accumulate over time leading to phase shifts of the modeled waves.

  1. Acoustic scattering by a two-layer cylindrical tube immersed in a fluid medium: Existence of a pseudo wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhanaoui, Abdelkader; Aassif, Elhoucein; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The present paper studies the acoustic signal backscattered by an air-filled copper–solid polymer two-layer cylindrical tube immersed in water. The work is done from the calculation of the backscattered pressure, an inverse Fourier Transform, which allows us to obtain an impulse signal. Smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram representations have been chosen to analyze the scattering phenomenon. For reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 200, the resonance trajectories and time–frequency images have shown the presence of the guided waves. The bifurcation of the A0 wave into the A0(-) and the A0(+) waves has also been observed. The authors provide the phase and the group velocities of guided waves and investigate the differences between curves. The findings are then compared with those obtained for the copper and the solid polymer one-layer cylindrical tubes. Group velocity values have also been extracted from smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram time–frequency images. A good agreement with the theory has, therefore, been observed. The study of acoustic backscattering by a copper–solid polymer two-layer tube has revealed the interaction and the coupling of guided waves, specially the presence of a pseudo A1 wave; which is a very interesting, remarkable phenomenon.

  2. Modeling of PZT-induced Lamb wave propagation in structures by using a novel two-layer spectral finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotong; Zhou, Li; Ouyang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel two-layer spectral finite element model, consisting of PZT wafer and host structure, to simulate PZT-induced Lamb wave propagation in beam-like and plate-like structures. Based on the idea of equal displacement on the interface between PZT wafer and host structure, the one-dimensional spectral beam element of PZT-host beam and two-dimensional spectral plate element of PZT-host plate are considered as one hybrid element, respectively. A novel approach is proposed by taking the coupling effect of piezoelectric transducers in the thickness direction into account. The dynamic equation of the two-layer spectral element is derived from Hamilton's principle. Validity of the developed spectral finite element is verified through numerical simulation. The result indicates that, compared with the conventional finite element method (FEM) based on elasticity, the proposed spectral finite element is proved to have a high accuracy in modeling Lamb wave propagation, meanwhile, significantly improve the calculation efficiency.

  3. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  4. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.67.

  5. Equivalent circuit models of two-layer flexure beams with excitation by temperature, humidity, pressure, piezoelectric or piezomagnetic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Marschner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-layer flexure beams often serve as basic transducers in actuators and sensors. In this paper a generalized description of their stimuli-influenced mechanical behavior is derived. For small deflection angles this description includes a multi-port circuit or network representation with lumped elements for a beam part of finite length. A number of coupled finite beam parts model the dynamic behavior including the first natural frequencies of the beam. For piezoelectric and piezomagnetic interactions, reversible transducer models are developed. The piezomagnetic two-layer beam model is extended to include solenoid and planar coils. Linear network theory is applied in order to determine network parameters and to simplify the circuit representation. The resulting circuit model is the basis for a fast simulation of the dynamic system behavior with advanced circuit simulators and, thus, the optimization of the system. It is also a useful tool for understanding and explaining this multi-domain system through basic principles of general system theory.

  6. Interaction of water waves with small undulations on a porous bed in a two-layer ice-covered fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Srikumar; Martha, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The scattering problem involving water waves by small undulation on the porous ocean-bed in a two-layer fluid, is investigated within the framework of the two-dimensional linear water wave theory where the upper layer is covered by a thin uniform sheet of ice modeled as a thin elastic plate. In such a two-layer fluid there exist waves with two different modes, one with a lower wave number propagate along the ice-cover whilst those with a higher wave number propagate along the interface. An incident wave of a particular wave number gets reflected and transmitted over the bottom undulation into waves of both modes. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with the Fourier transform technique is used to derive the first-order corrections of reflection and transmission coefficients for both the modes due to incident waves of two different modes. One special type of bottom topography is considered as an example to evaluate the related coefficients in detail. These coefficients are depicted in graphical forms to demonstrate the transformation of wave energy between the two modes and also to illustrate the effects of the ice sheet and the porosity of the undulating bed.

  7. A constructive algorithm to solve "convex recursive deletion" (CoRD) classification problems via two-layer perceptron networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrelli, C; Molter, U; Shonkwiler, R

    2000-01-01

    A sufficient condition that a region be classifiable by a two-layer feedforward neural net (a two-layer perceptron) using threshold activation functions is that either it be a convex polytope or that intersected with the complement of a convex polytope in its interior, or that intersected with the complement of a convex polytope in its interior or ... recursively. These have been called convex recursive deletion (CoRD) regions.We give a simple algorithm for finding the weights and thresholds in both layers for a feedforward net that implements such a region. The results of this work help in understanding the relationship between the decision region of a perceptron and its corresponding geometry in input space. Our construction extends in a simple way to the case that the decision region is the disjoint union of CoRD regions (requiring three layers). Therefore this work also helps in understanding how many neurons are needed in the second layer of a general three-layer network. In the event that the decision region of a network is known and is the union of CoRD regions, our results enable the calculation of the weights and thresholds of the implementing network directly and rapidly without the need for thousands of backpropagation iterations.

  8. Transient flexural-and capillary-gravity waves due to disturbances in two-layer density-stratified fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-qiang; SUN Cui-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Generation of the transient flexural-and capillary-gravity waves by impulsive disturbances in a two-layer fluid is investigated analytically.The upper fluid is covered by a thin elastic plate or by an inertial surface with the capillary effect.The density of each of the two immiscible layers is constant.The fluids are assumed to be inviscid and incompressible and the motion be irrotational.A point force on the surface and simple mass sources in the upper and lower fluid layers are considered.A linear system is established within the framework of potential theory.The integral solutions for the surface and interfacial waves are obtained by means of the Laplace-Fourier transform.A new representation for the dispersion relation of flexural-and capillary-gravity waves in a two-layer fluid is derived.The asymptotic representations of the wave motions are derived for large time with a fixed distance-to-time ratio with the Stokes and Scorer methods of stationary phase.It is shown that there are two different modes,namely the surface and interfacial wave modes.The wave systems observed depend on the relation between the observer's moving speed and the intrinsic minimal and maximal group velocities.

  9. Impacts of fractal features of soil on moisture infiltration capacity of typical stands in Jinyun mountain of Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi

    2007-01-01

    The soil structure was expressed with fractal dimensions of particle size distribution (PSD),aggregate size distribution (ASD),and soil pore size distribution (SPD).The effect of soil fractal features on soil infiltration velocity and process was studied.The result of the fractal feature shows that fractal dimensions of PSD are obviously greater than those of ASD and SPD,and in different soil genetic horizons,the fractal dimension of ASD has the greatest variability,and shows a downtrend on the top-to-bottom genetic horizon.According to the soil infiltration process curve,the infiltration process was divided into three phases:(1) the initial phase (0-5 rain),(2) the transition phase (5-30 min),and (3)the stable phase (30-180 min).In the initial phase of infiltration,the soil structure of soil genetic horizon A was the major influencing factor;in the transition phase of infiltration,the pore distribution of soil horizon AB and soil structure of horizon B were the major influencing factors;in the stable phase of infiltration,the soil structure of horizon C was the major influencing factor to the infiltration velocity.Soil infiltration process is influenced comprehensively by soil PSD,ASD,and SPD.In the overall soil water infiltration,the infiltration in shrub forest land was much faster than that in other land uses,and in the initial infiltration phase,arable land soil infiltration was much faster than that in forest land,and in the stable infiltration phase,the infiltration velocity in forest land was faster than that in arable land.

  10. MHD Heat Transfer in Two-Layered Flow of Conducting Fluids through a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Porous Plates in a Rotating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga Raju, T.; Neela Rao, B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze the heat transfer aspects of a two-layered fluid flow in a horizontal channel under the action of an applied magnetic and electric fields, when the whole system is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the flow. The flow is driven by a common constant pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel porous insulating plates, one being stationary and the other one oscillatory. The fluids in the two regions are considered electrically conducting, and are assumed to be incompressible with variable properties, namely, different densities, viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations by using a two-term series. The temperature distributions in both fluid regions of the channel are derived analytically. The results are presented graphically to discuss the effect on the heat transfer characteristics and their dependence on the governing parameters, i.e., the Hartmann number, Taylor number, porous parameter, and ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities. It is observed that, as the Coriolis forces become stronger, i.e., as the Taylor number increases, the temperature decreases in the two fluid regions. It is also seen that an increase in porous parameter diminishes the temperature distribution in both the regions.

  11. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  12. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  13. Cardiac Arrest After Submucosal Infiltration With Lignocaine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    following submucosal infiltration of lignocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:200,000 combination. ... The surgeon packed the right nasal cavity with ... alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. ... numbness of the mouth and tongue, followed by tinnitus,.

  14. INFILTRATION CHARACTERISTICS IN MULTI-FLOOR BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek KUMLUTAŞ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration or in other words the air leakage in buildings has an important role on heat load calculations. The rate of this loss has been estimated as 20 to 30 % of the total load. The indicated important effect of infiltration on the load calculations needs a reliable method for the determination of air leakeage level in buildings. Meantime, the rate of infiltration has an additional importance at the area of thermal comfort studies which deals with the air quality of enclosed volumes. During this research study, first the mechanism of infiltration and the major components of the phenomena (wind pressure, temperature difference was discussed together with the theoretical considerations. Later, several conventional engineering approachs and emprical methods was reviewed and compared among each others. At the last part of the paper, the modified DIN 4701 method which is presently used in Turkey, and some other algorithms was applied to some pilot buildings and the predictions was compared with experimental results.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration...-to-ceiling and wall-to-floor connections shall be caulked or otherwise sealed. When walls...

  16. Two-layer anti-reflection coating with mullite and polyimide foam for large-diameter cryogenic infrared filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Hamada, Takaho; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hori, Yasuto; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sakata, Toshifumi; Minamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel two-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating method for large-diameter infrared (IR) filters made of alumina, for use at cryogenic temperatures in millimeter wave measurements. Thermally sprayed mullite and polyimide foam (Skybond Foam) are used as the AR material. An advantage of the Skybond Foam is that the index of refraction is chosen between 1.1 and 1.7 by changing the filling factor. Combination with mullite is suitable for wide-band millimeter wave measurements with sufficient IR cutoff capability. We present the material properties, fabrication of a large-diameter IR filter made of alumina with this AR coating method, and characterizations at cryogenic temperatures. This technology can be applied to a low-temperature receiver system with a large-diameter focal plane for next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization measurements, such as POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2).

  17. Identification of a Segment of the Yield Surface of a Two-Layer Pa38/M2R Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscinowicz, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the initial yield surface of a two-layer aluminum alloy-copper composite in the range of small elastic-plastic deformations. Experimental tests in a plane stress state were conducted by loading tubular composite specimens with various combinations of axial forces and torque. The metal layers were joined together by using an epoxy resin. Independent studies were carried out for component of the composite under identical conditions. The yield surfaces obtained were compared with those given by the Huber-von Mises-Hencky and Tresca-Guest yield criteria. The yield criterion for the tested composite found by using a modified form of the rule of mixtures is presented. The yield surfaces of a Pa38/M2R composite and its components demonstrated the isotropic hardening.

  18. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single-layer MEMS fractal capacitors. Explicitly, a capacitor with a woven structure and another with an interleaved configuration were fabricated in the standard PolyMUMPS surface micromachining process and tested at S-band frequencies. The self-resonant frequencies of the fabricated capacitors were close to 10GHz, which is better than that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which measured only 5.5GHz. Further, the presented capacitors provided a higher capacitance when compared with the state-of-the-art-reported MEMS fractal capacitors created using a single layer at the expense of a lower quality factor. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  19. Two-layer anti-reflection coating with mullite and polyimide foam for large-diameter cryogenic infrared filters

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yuki; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hori, Yasuto; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sakata, Toshifumi; Minamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel two-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating method for large-diameter infrared (IR) filters made of alumina, for the use at cryogenic temperatures in millimeter wave measurements. Thermally- sprayed mullite and polyimide foam (Skybond Foam) are used as the AR material. An advantage of the Skybond Foam is that the index of refraction is chosen between 1.1 and 1.7 by changing the filling factor. Combination with mullite is suitable for wide-band millimeter wave measurements with sufficient IR cutoff capability. We present the material properties, fabrication of a large-diameter IR filter made of alumina with this AR coating method, and characterizations at cryogenic temperatures. This technology can be applied to a low-temperature receiver system with a large-diameter focal plane for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements, such as POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2).

  20. Efficient and stable proton acceleration by irradiating a two-layer target with a linearly polarized laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. Y.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.; He, X. T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma, W. J.; Bin, J. H.; Schreiber, J.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We report an efficient and stable scheme to generate {approx}200 MeV proton bunch by irradiating a two-layer targets (near-critical density layer+solid density layer with heavy ions and protons) with a linearly polarized Gaussian pulse at intensity of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Due to self-focusing of laser and directly accelerated electrons in the near-critical density layer, the proton energy is enhanced by a factor of 3 compared to single-layer solid targets. The energy spread of proton is also remarkably reduced. Such scheme is attractive for applications relevant to tumor therapy.

  1. Hierarchical modeling and control of hybrid systems with two layers; Hierarchische Modellierung und Regelung hybrider Systeme auf zwei Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stursberg, Olaf; Paschedag, Tina; Rungger, Matthias; Ding, Hao [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Regelungs- und Systemtheorie

    2010-08-15

    While hybrid dynamic models are, to a certain degree, established for modeling systems with heterogeneous dynamics, most approaches for design and analysis of hybrid systems are restricted to monolithic models without hierarchy. This contribution first shows, how modular hybrid systems with two layers of decision, as appropriate for representing manufacturing systems for example, can be modeled systematically. The second part proposes a technique for fixing discrete inputs (for coordinating control) and continuous inputs (for embedded continuous controllers) in combination. The method uses a graph-based search on the upper decision layer, while principles of predictive control are used on the lower layer. The procedure of modeling and control is illustrated for a manufacturing process. (orig.)

  2. Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

  3. Oblique wave scattering by an undulating porous bottom in a two-layer ice-covered fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-06-01

    The present study analyzes the reflection and transmission phenomenon of water-waves in a two-layer ice-covered system. The upper layer is covered by an ice-sheet, whereas the bottom of the lower layer is undulated and permeable. By using regular perturbation analysis and Fourier transform technique, the problem is solved and the first order reflection and transmission coefficients are determined. It is found that these coefficients depend on the shape as well as the permeability of the undulating bottom. Therefore, from the practical viewpoint, an undulating bottom topography is considered to determine all the aforesaid coefficients. The role of various system parameters, such as porosity, angle of incidence and ice parameters, are discussed to analyze the transformation of incident water wave energy from one layer to another layer. The outcomes are demonstrated in graphical forms.

  4. Synthesis and absorbing mechanism of two-layer microwave absorbers containing polycrystalline iron fibers and carbonyl iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qingwei; Zhang, Mingang; Zhang, Cunrui; Qian, Tianwei

    2013-04-01

    Polycrystalline iron fibers were fabricated by α-FeOOH fiber precursors. Two-layer microwave absorber had been prepared by as-prepared polycrystalline iron fibers and carbonyl iron. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Network Analyzer. The complex permittivity and reflection loss (dB) of the composites were measured employing vector network analyzer model PNA 3629D vector in the frequency range between 30 and 6000 MHz. The thickness effect of the carbonyl iron layer on the microwave loss properties of the composites was investigated. A possible microwave-absorbing mechanism of polycrystalline iron fibers/carbonyl iron composite was proposed. The polycrystalline iron fibers/carbonyl iron composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference, and reduction of radar signature.

  5. Synchronization in a coupled two-layer quasigeostrophic model of baroclinic instability – Part 1: Master-slave configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Read

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization is studied using a pair of diffusively-coupled, two-layer quasi-geostrophic systems each comprising a single baroclinic wave and a zonal flow. In particular, the coupling between the systems is in the well-known master-slave or one-way configuration. Nonlinear time series analysis, phase dynamics, and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the dynamics of the coupled system. Phase synchronization, imperfect synchronization (phase slips, or complete synchronization are found, depending upon the strength of coupling, when the systems are either in a periodic or a chaotic regime. The results of investigations when the dynamics of each system are in different regimes are also presented. These results also show evidence of phase synchronization and signs of chaos control.

  6. Monte carlo diffusion hybrid model for photon migration in a two-layer turbid medium in the frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, G; Farrell, T J; Patterson, M S

    2000-05-01

    We propose a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) diffusion model for calculating the spatially resolved reflectance amplitude and phase delay resulting from an intensity-modulated pencil beam vertically incident on a two-layer turbid medium. The model combines the accuracy of MC at radial distances near the incident beam with the computational efficiency afforded by a diffusion calculation at further distances. This results in a single forward calculation several hundred times faster than pure MC, depending primarily on model parameters. Model predictions are compared with MC data for two cases that span the extremes of physiologically relevant optical properties: skin overlying fat and skin overlying muscle, both in the presence of an exogenous absorber. It is shown that good agreement can be achieved for radial distances from 0.5 to 20 mm in both cases. However, in the skin-on-muscle case the choice of model parameters and the definition of the diffusion coefficient can lead to some interesting discrepancies.

  7. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-11-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls.

  8. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures.

  9. A two-layer depth-averaged approach to describe the regime stratification in collapses of dry granular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, L.; Carravetta, A.; Martino, R.; Tai, Y. C.

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of dry granular flows is still insufficiently understood. Several depth-averaged approaches, where the flow motion is described through hydrodynamic-like models with suitable resistance laws, have been proposed in the last decades to describe the propagation of avalanches and debris flows. Yet, some important features of the granular flow dynamics cannot be well delivered. For example, it is very challenging to capture the progressive deposition process, observed in collapses and dam-break flows over rough beds, where an upper surface flow is found to coexist with a lower creeping flow. The experimental observations of such flows suggest the existence of a flow regime stratification caused by different momentum transfer mechanisms. In this work, we propose a two-layer depth-averaged model, aiming at describing such a stratification regime inside the flowing granular mass. The model equations are derived for both two-dimensional plane and axi-symmetric flows. Mass and momentum balances of each layer are considered separately, so that different constitutive laws are introduced. The proposed model is equipped with a closure equation accounting for the mass flux at the interface between the layers. Numerical results are compared with experimental data of axi-symmetric granular collapses to validate the proposed approach. The model delivers sound agreement with experimental data when the initial aspect ratios are small. In case of large initial aspect ratios, it yields a significant improvement in predicting the final shape of deposit and also the run-out distances. Further comparisons with different numerical models show that the two-layer approach is capable of correctly describing the main features of the final deposit also in the case of two-dimensional granular collapses.

  10. Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-06-07

    Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and their multi-functional types (Layer II). Specifically, given a query protein, its associated gene ontology (GO) information is retrieved by searching a compact GO-term database with its homologous accession number. Subsequently, the GO information is classified by a binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether it is a membrane protein or not. If yes, it will be further classified by a multi-label multi-class SVM classifier equipped with an adaptive-decision (AD) scheme to determine to which functional type(s) it belongs. Experimental results show that Mem-ADSVM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art predictors in terms of identifying both membrane proteins and their multi-functional types. This paper also suggests that the two-layer prediction architecture is better than the one-layer for prediction performance. For reader׳s convenience, the Mem-ADSVM server is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/MemADSVMServer/.

  11. Improved lumped models for transient combined convective and radiative cooling of a two-layer spherical fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alice Cunha da; Su, Jian, E-mail: alicecs@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a fourth generation thermal nuclear reactor, graphite-moderated and helium cooled. The HTGRs have important characteristics making essential the study of these reactors, as well as its fuel element. Examples of these are: high thermal efficiency,low operating costs and construction, passive safety attributes that allow implication of the respective plants. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a HTGR with spherical fuel elements that named the reactor. This fuel element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO2 particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix and a convective heat transfer by Helium happens on the outer surface of the fuel element. In this work, the transient heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature reactor was studied in a transient situation of combined convective and radiative cooling. Improved lumped parameter model was developed for the transient heat conduction in the two-layer composite sphere subjected to combined convective and radiative cooling. The improved lumped model was obtained through two-point Hermite approximations for integrals. Transient combined convective and radiative cooling of the two-layer spherical fuel element was analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed lumped model, with respect to die rent values of the Biot number, the radiation-conduction parameter, the dimensionless thermal contact resistance, the dimensionless inner diameter and coating thickness, and the dimensionless thermal conductivity. It was shown by comparison with numerical solution of the original distributed parameter model that the improved lumped model, with H2,1/H1,1/H0,0 approximation yielded significant improvement of average temperature prediction over the classical lumped model. (author)

  12. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  13. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  14. A variable frequency semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosikhiro, F.; Khiromoto, S.

    1984-03-27

    A variable frequency, power stabilized semiconductor laser is patented. This laser includes, in addition to an active layer, a photoconducting channel layer and a layer made from a material manifesting a Pockels effect. A voltage is injected between these two layers to vary the emission frequency. The laser pumping voltage is stabilized.

  15. Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays: Fabrication and its photovoltaic property sensitized by CdSe and CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jingzhi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Jianxiong; Sun, Xiaowei [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-01

    Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays have been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The two-layer structure enables the absorption of CdSe and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on different nanostructured layers, respectively. Solar cell based on the QD sensitized ZnO nanowire arrays is fabricated. Because sequential light adsorption of different sensitizers happens in two different layers, the photoanode can reduce the interaction possibility among different QDs and extend the absorption range, and result in improved photovoltaic properties. - Highlights: • Two-layer ZnO nanowire array has been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal. • A two-layer quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanowire array solar cell has been fabricated. • The structure can reduce interaction possibility among different quantum dots. • The structure can extend the range of light absorption.

  16. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jumadar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  17. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  18. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  19. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  20. High-Performanced Cathode with a Two-Layered R-P Structure for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Daoming; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Zhenbin; Peng, Ranran; Xia, Changrong; Lu, Yalin

    2016-02-01

    Driven by the mounting concerns on global warming and energy crisis, intermediate temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) have attracted special attention for their high fuel efficiency, low toxic gas emission, and great fuel flexibility. A key obstacle to the practical operation of IT-SOFCs is their sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics. In this work, we applied a new two-layered Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) oxide, Sr3Fe2O7-δ (SFO), as the material for oxygen ion conducting IT-SOFCs. Density functional theory calculation suggested that SFO has extremely low oxygen ion formation energy and considerable energy barrier for O(2-) diffusion. Unfortunately, the stable SrO surface of SFO was demonstrated to be inert to O2 adsorption and dissociation reaction, and thus restricts its catalytic activity toward ORR. Based on this observation, Co partially substituted SFO (SFCO) was then synthesized and applied to improve its surface vacancy concentration to accelerate the oxygen adsorptive reduction reaction rate. Electrochemical performance results suggested that the cell using the SFCO single phase cathode has a peak power density of 685 mW cm(-2) at 650 °C, about 15% higher than those when using LSCF cathode. Operating at 200 mA cm(-2), the new cell using SFCO is quite stable within the 100-h' test.

  1. Forced phase-locked states and information retrieval in a two-layer network of oscillatory neurons with directional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, Victor; Pimashkin, Alexey

    2007-09-01

    We propose two-layer architecture of associative memory oscillatory network with directional interlayer connectivity. The network is capable to store information in the form of phase-locked (in-phase and antiphase) oscillatory patterns. The first (input) layer takes an input pattern to be recognized and their units are unidirectionally connected with all units of the second (control) layer. The connection strengths are weighted using the Hebbian rule. The output (retrieved) patterns appear as forced-phase locked states of the control layer. The conditions are found and analytically expressed for pattern retrieval in response on incoming stimulus. It is shown that the system is capable to recover patterns with a certain level of distortions or noises in their profiles. The architecture is implemented with the Kuramoto phase model and using synaptically coupled neural oscillators with spikes. It is found that the spiking model is capable to retrieve patterns using the spiking phase that translates memorized patterns into the spiking phase shifts at different time scales.

  2. Spin torque driven dynamics of a coupled two-layer structure: Interplay between conservative and dissipative coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, M.; Lacoste, B.; Ebels, U.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.

    2016-09-01

    The general concepts of spin wave theory are adapted to the spin torque driven dynamics of a self-polarized system based on two layers coupled via interlayer exchange (conservative coupling) and mutual spin torque (dissipative coupling). An analytical description of the nonlinear dynamics is proposed and validated through numerical simulations. In contrast to the single layer model, the phase equation of the coupled system has a contribution coming from the dissipative part of the LLGS equation. It is shown that this is a major contribution to the frequency mandatory to describe well the most basic features of the dynamics of this coupled system. Using the proposed model a specific feature of coupled dynamics is addressed: the redshift to blueshift transition observed in the frequency current dependence of this kind of exchange coupled systems upon increasing the applied field. It is found that the blueshift regime can only occur in a region of field where the two linear eigenmodes contribute equally to the steady state mode (i.e., high mode hybridization). Finally, a general perturbed Hamiltonian equation for the coupled system is proposed.

  3. TargetCrys: protein crystallization prediction by fusing multi-view features with two-layered SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Han, Ke; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The accurate prediction of whether a protein will crystallize plays a crucial role in improving the success rate of protein crystallization projects. A common critical problem in the development of machine-learning-based protein crystallization predictors is how to effectively utilize protein features extracted from different views. In this study, we aimed to improve the efficiency of fusing multi-view protein features by proposing a new two-layered SVM (2L-SVM) which switches the feature-level fusion problem to a decision-level fusion problem: the SVMs in the 1st layer of the 2L-SVM are trained on each of the multi-view feature sets; then, the outputs of the 1st layer SVMs, which are the "intermediate" decisions made based on the respective feature sets, are further ensembled by a 2nd layer SVM. Based on the proposed 2L-SVM, we implemented a sequence-based protein crystallization predictor called TargetCrys. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed 2L-SVM for fusing multi-view features. We also compared TargetCrys with existing sequence-based protein crystallization predictors and demonstrated that the proposed TargetCrys outperformed most of the existing predictors and is competitive with the state-of-the-art predictors. The TargetCrys webserver and datasets used in this study are freely available for academic use at: http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetCrys .

  4. A novel technique for chest drain removal using a two layer method with triclosan-coated sutures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yujiro; Nakagomi, Takahiro; Shikata, Daichi

    2017-01-01

    In thoracic surgery, a thoracic drain is always inserted after the surgical procedure. Repair of the wound after removal of the thoracic tube is performed postoperatively, but no universally standard methods currently exists for this tube removal. Here we report a technique using triclosan-coated sutures that is used in thoracic surgery in our hospital. There are several advantages of this technique. First, there is no need for stitches removal on follow-up. Second, it prevents the leakage of pleural exudate because of the tight two-layer sutures. In addition, it was observed to be superior in terms of both wound healing and cosmetic aspects, due to the layer-to-layer sutures. The use of triclosan-coated sutures helps prevent infection and empyema is quite unlikely to occur as the result of the tight ligating of the muscular layer using these sutures. We applied this method in 168 patients over a period of 24 months. There were no complications on removal of the chest tube such as infection, fluid leakage or opening of the surgical wound. PMID:28203426

  5. Diffraction of Oblique Water Waves by Small Uneven Channel-bed in a Two-layer Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smrutiranjan Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Obliquely incident water wave scattering by an uneven channel-bed in the form of a small bottom undulation in a two-layer fluid is investigated within the frame work of three-dimensional linear water wave theory. The upper fluid is assumed to be bounded above by a rigid lid, while the lower one is bounded below by a bottom surface having a small deformation and the channel is unbounded in the horizontal directions. Assuming irrotational motion, perturbation technique is employed to calculate the first-order corrections to the velocity potentials in the two fluids by using Fourier transform approximately, and also to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function representing the bottom deformation. Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples shows that the reflection coefficient is an oscillatory function of the ratio of twice the component of the wave number along x-axis and the ripple wave number. When this ratio approaches one, the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and interface, and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of ripples. High reflection of incident wave energy occurs if this number is large.

  6. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, C; Xie, H J; Wang, Y Z; Chen, Y M; Jiang, Y S; Tang, X W

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems.

  7. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits using two-layered column with graphitized carbon and water absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, H; Akutsu, K; Okihashi, M; Hori, S

    2001-09-01

    A high-throughput multiresidue analysis of pesticides in non-fatty vegetables and fruits was developed. The method consisted of a single extraction and a single clean-up procedure. Food samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and the mixture of extract and food dregs were poured directly into the clean-up column. The clean-up column consisted of two layers of water-absorbent polymer (upper) and graphitized carbon (lower), which were packed in a reservoir (75 ml ) of a cartridge column. The polymer removed water in the extract while the carbon performed clean-up. In a recovery test, 110 pesticides were spiked and average recoveries were more than 95% from spinach and orange. Most pesticides were recovered in the range 70-115% with RSD usually < 10% for five experiments. The residue analyses were performed by the extraction of 12 pesticides from 13 samples. The two methods resulted in similar residue levels except chlorothalonil in celery, for which the result was lower with the proposed method. The results confirmed that the proposed method could be applied to monitoring of pesticide residue in foods.

  8. Thickness Determination for a Two-Layered Composite of a Film and a Plate by Low-Frequency Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jie; LI Ming-Xuan; WANG Xiao-Min

    2007-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic method for determining the thickness of a composite consisting of a soft thin film attached to a hard plate substrate, by resonance spectra in the low frequency region. The interrogating waves can be incident only to the two-layered composite from the substrate side. The reflection spectra are obtained by FFT analysis of the compressive pulsed echoes from the composite, and the thicknesses of the film and the substrate are simultaneously inversed by the simulated annealing method from the resonant frequencies knowing other acoustical parameters in prior. The sensitivity of the method to individual thickness, its convergence and stability against experimental noises are studied. Experiment with interrogating wavelength 4 times larger than the film thickness in a sample of a polymer film (0.054 mm) on an aluminium plate (6.24 mm) verifies the validity of the method. The average relative errors in the measurement of the thicknesses of the film and the substrate are found to be -4.1% and -0.62%, respectively.

  9. Diffraction of oblique water waves by small uneven channel-bed in a two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Smrutiranjan

    2014-09-01

    Obliquely incident water wave scattering by an uneven channel-bed in the form of a small bottom undulation in a two-layer fluid is investigated within the frame work of three-dimensional linear water wave theory. The upper fluid is assumed to be bounded above by a rigid lid, while the lower one is bounded below by a bottom surface having a small deformation and the channel is unbounded in the horizontal directions. Assuming irrotational motion, perturbation technique is employed to calculate the first-order corrections to the velocity potentials in the two fluids by using Fourier transform approximately, and also to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function representing the bottom deformation. Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples shows that the reflection coefficient is an oscillatory function of the ratio of twice the component of the wave number along x-axis and the ripple wave number. When this ratio approaches one, the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and interface, and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of ripples. High reflection of incident wave energy occurs if this number is large.

  10. Reflection of a plane wave from a two-layered seafloor with non-parallel interface between the layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Panagiotis I; Piperakis, George S; Kalogerakis, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    This work studies the reflection coefficient of a plane wave incident on a seafloor consisting of two layers (sediment and substrate), whose interface is linear but not parallel to the water-sediment interface. This is an extension of the well-established and studied reflection coefficient concept for seafloors with parallel layers. Moreover this study introduces the concept of the Coherent Reflection Coefficient (CRC) that extends the usual Rayleigh reflection coefficient definition not only at the water-sediment interface but inside the water column as well. The mathematical formulation of the CRC is derived and its numerical implementation is explained. Based on this implementation a numerical code is developed and incorporated-among other codes-in a user-friendly graphics toolbox that was built to facilitate CRC calculations. Numerical examples for realistic seafloors are presented and the derived results are compared to similar ones for parallel layers, indicating that even for small inclination angles the reflection coefficient difference between parallel and slanted interface layers is substantial, hence cannot be ignored. An imminent application of the extended seafloor model and the CRC introduced in this work is the enhancement of geophysics inversion schemes for the estimation of the seafloor parameters.

  11. Calculation of the outcomes of remodeling of arteries subjected to sustained hypertension using a 3D two-layered model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, Alexander; Taylor, W Robert; Vito, Raymond P

    2013-07-01

    Arteries manifest a remodeling response to long-term alterations in arterial pressure and blood flow by changing geometry, structure, and composition through processes driven by perturbations of the local stresses in the vascular wall from their baseline values. The objective of this study is twofold--to develop a general method for calculating the remodeling responses of an artery considered as a two-layered tube; and to provide results for adaptive and maladaptive remodeling of a coronary artery. By formulating an inverse problem of vascular mechanics, the geometrical dimensions and mechanical properties of an artery are calculated from a prescribed deformed configuration, stress field, structural stiffness, and applied load. As an illustrative example we consider a human LAD coronary artery in both a perfect and incomplete adaptive response to a sustained step-wise change in pressure and a maladaptive response due to impaired remodeling of adventitia. The results obtained show that adventitia plays an important role in vascular mechanics when an artery is subjected to high arterial pressure. In addition to its well-known short term function of preventing over-inflation of an artery, it seems reasonable to accept that the manner by which adventitia remodels in response to a chronic increase in pressure is essential for preserving normal arterial function or may lead to an increased risk of developing vascular disorders.

  12. Study of an unitised bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery comprising a two-layered cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a unitised bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) is described. It contains a two-layered cathode consisting of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) with Pt/C catalyst for discharging and of an IrO2 modified graphite felt for charging. A simple routine is shown for the modification of a graphite felt with IrO2. A maximum energy efficiency of 41.7% at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 as well as an average discharge power density of 34.6 mW cm-2 at 40 mA cm-2 were obtained for VARFB operation at room temperature with the novel cathode setup. A dynamic hydrogen electrode was used to monitor half cell potentials during operation allowing to quantify the contribution of the cathode to the overall performance of the VARFB. Four consecutive cycles revealed that crossover of vanadium ions took place and irreversible degradation processes within the reaction unit lead to a performance decrease.

  13. Physical simulation of urban rainfall infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZENG Bing; WANG Yan-xia; SHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    To meet the demand of urban rainwater integrated management, we designed and complemented a physical simulation experimental system of urban rainfall infiltration regulation parameters. We discuss the feasibility of quantitative regulations of urban underlying surface rainfall infiltration conditions and a practical application of a simulated experimental system. In a comprehensive analysis of the composition of an effective rainwater harvesting system and selection of water storage material, we simulated the major parameters of an experimental area rainfall, soil moisture and water storage capacity by providing an effective regulation of the experimental area runoff coefficient, obtained from basic data.

  14. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  15. Testing of evaluation methods applied to raw infiltration data measured at very heterogeneous mountain forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Lukas; Pavlasek, Jirka; Pech, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain infiltration parameters and analytical expressions of the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate, raw infiltration data are often evaluated using various infiltration equations. Knowledge about the evaluation variability of these equations in the specific case of extremely heterogeneous soils provides important information for many hydrological and engineering applications. This contribution presents an evaluation of measured data using five well-established physically-based equations and empirical equations, and makes a comparison of these procedures. Evaluation procedures were applied to datasets measured on three different sites of hydrologically important mountain podzols. A total of 47 single ring infiltration experiments were evaluated using these procedures. From the quality-of-fit perspective, all of the tested equations characterized most of the raw datasets properly. In a few cases, some of the physically-based equations led to poor fits of the datasets measured on the most heterogeneous site (characterized by the lowest depth of the organic horizon, and more bleached eluvial horizon than on the other tested sites). For the parameters evaluated on this site, the sorptivity estimates and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) estimates were distinctly different between the tested procedures.

  16. Linking structural and functional connectivity in a simple runoff-runon model over soils with heterogeneous infiltrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, M.; Mouche, E.

    2012-12-01

    Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed wherever R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability where runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon process), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max (Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect differently to each other depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. In order to characterize the runoff patterns and their connectivity, we use the connectivity function defined by Allard (1993) in Geostatistics. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D and 2D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential and bimodal distributions) by means of numerical simulations. Firstly, we show how runoff is produced and organized in patterns along a 2D slope according to the infiltrability distribution. We specifically illustrate and discuss the link between the statistical nature of the infiltrability and that of the flow-rate, with a special focus on the relations between the connectivities of both fields: the structural connectivity (infiltrability patterns

  17. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., & Iovino, M. (2014). Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and different heights of water pouring. Geoderma, 213, 492-501. Bagarello, V., Elrick, D. E., Iovino, M., & Sgroi, A. (2006). A laboratory analysis of falling head infiltration procedures for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of soils. Geoderma, 135, 322-334. Ben Slimane, A., Raclot, D., Evrard, O., Sanaa, M., Lefevre, I., & Le Bissonnais, Y. (2016). Relative contribution of Rill/Interrill and Gully/Channel erosion to small reservoir siltation in mediterranean environments. Land Degradation and Development, 27(3), 785-797. doi:10.1002/ldr.2387 Cerdà, A. (1996). Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast spain. Geoderma, 69(3-4), 217-232. Cerdà, A. (1999). Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35(1), 319-328. doi:10.1029/98WR01659 Cerdà, A. (2001). Effects of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science, 52(1), 59-68. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x Cerdà, A., Morera, A. G., & Bodí, M. B. (2009). Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34(13), 1822-1830. doi:10.1002/esp.1889 di Prima, S., Lassabatère, L., Bagarello, V., Iovino, M., & Angulo-Jaramillo, R. (2016). Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments. Geoderma, 262, 20-34. Iovino, M., Castellini, M., Bagarello, V., & Giordano, G. (2016). Using static and dynamic indicators to evaluate soil physical quality in a sicilian area. Land Degradation and Development, 27(2), 200-210. doi:10.1002/ldr.2263 Laudicina, V. A., Novara, A., Barbera, V., Egli, M., & Badalucco, L. (2015). Long-term tillage and cropping system effects on

  18. Synthesis of soil-hydraulic properties and infiltration timescales in wildfire-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.

    2017-01-01

    We collected soil-hydraulic property data from the literature for wildfire-affected soils, ash, and unburned soils. These data were used to calculate metrics and timescales of hydrologic response related to infiltration and surface runoff generation. Sorptivity (S) and wetting front potential (Ψf) were significantly different (lower) in burned soils compared with unburned soils, whereas field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) was not significantly different. The magnitude and duration of the influence of capillarity during infiltration was greatly reduced in burned soils, causing faster ponding times in response to rainfall. Ash had large values of S and Kfs but moderate values of Ψf, compared with unburned and burned soils, indicating ash has long ponding times in response to rainfall. The ratio of S2/Kfs was nearly constant (~100 mm) for unburned soils but more variable in burned soils, suggesting that unburned soils have a balance between gravity and capillarity contributions to infiltration that may depend on soil organic matter, whereas in burned soils the gravity contribution to infiltration is greater. Changes in S and Kfs in burned soils act synergistically to reduce infiltration and accelerate and amplify surface runoff generation. Synthesis of these findings identifies three key areas for future research. First, short timescales of capillary influences on infiltration indicate the need for better measurements of infiltration at times less than 1 min to accurately characterize S in burned soils. Second, using parameter values, such as Ψf, from unburned areas could produce substantial errors in hydrologic modeling when used without adjustment for wildfire effects, causing parameter compensation and resulting underestimation of Kfs. Third, more thorough measurement campaigns that capture soil-structural changes, organic matter impacts, quantitative water repellency trends, and soil-water content along with soil-hydraulic properties could drive the

  19. On the stability of discrete tripole, quadrupole, Thomson' vortex triangle and square in a two-layer/homogeneous rotating fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, Leonid G.; Ostrovskaya, Irina V.; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-05-01

    A two-layer quasigeostrophic model is considered in the f-plane approximation. The stability of a discrete axisymmetric vortex structure is analyzed for the case when the structure consists of a central vortex of arbitrary intensity Γ and two/three identical peripheral vortices. The identical vortices, each having a unit intensity, are uniformly distributed over a circle of radius R in a single layer. The central vortex lies either in the same or in another layer. The problem has three parameters ( R, Γ, α), where α is the difference between layer thicknesses. A limiting case of a homogeneous fluid is also considered. A limiting case of a homogeneous fluid is also considered. The theory of stability of steady-state motions of dynamic systems with a continuous symmetry group G is applied. The two definitions of stability used in the study are Routh stability and G-stability. The Routh stability is the stability of a one-parameter orbit of a steady-state rotation of a vortex multipole, and the G-stability is the stability of a three-parameter invariant set O G , formed by the orbits of a continuous family of steady-state rotations of a multipole. The problem of Routh stability is reduced to the problem of stability of a family of equilibria of a Hamiltonian system. The quadratic part of the Hamiltonian and the eigenvalues of the linearization matrix are studied analytically. The cases of zero total intensity of a tripole and a quadrupole are studied separately. Also, the Routh stability of a Thomson vortex triangle and square was proved at all possible values of problem parameters. The results of theoretical analysis are sustained by numerical calculations of vortex trajectories.

  20. Testing the two-layer model for correcting near-cloud reflectance enhancement using LES/SHDOM-simulated radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Várnai, Tamás.; Levy, Robert

    2016-08-01

    A transition zone exists between cloudy skies and clear sky; such that, clouds scatter solar radiation into clear-sky regions. From a satellite perspective, it appears that clouds enhance the radiation nearby. We seek a simple method to estimate this enhancement, since it is so computationally expensive to account for all three-dimensional (3-D) scattering processes. In previous studies, we developed a simple two-layer model (2LM) that estimated the radiation scattered via cloud-molecular interactions. Here we have developed a new model to account for cloud-surface interaction (CSI). We test the models by comparing to calculations provided by full 3-D radiative transfer simulations of realistic cloud scenes. For these scenes, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-like radiance fields were computed from the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM), based on a large number of cumulus fields simulated by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) large eddy simulation (LES) model. We find that the original 2LM model that estimates cloud-air molecule interactions accounts for 64% of the total reflectance enhancement and the new model (2LM + CSI) that also includes cloud-surface interactions accounts for nearly 80%. We discuss the possibility of accounting for cloud-aerosol radiative interactions in 3-D cloud-induced reflectance enhancement, which may explain the remaining 20% of enhancements. Because these are simple models, these corrections can be applied to global satellite observations (e.g., MODIS) and help to reduce biases in aerosol and other clear-sky retrievals.

  1. Oblique Water Wave Scattering by Bottom Undulation in a Two-layer Fluid Flowing Through a Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smrutiranjan Mohapatra; Swaroop Nandan Bora

    2012-01-01

    The problem of oblique wave (internal wave) propagation over a small deformation in a channel flow consisting of two layers was considered.The upper fluid was assumed to be bounded above by a rigid lid,which is an approximation for the free surface,and the lower one was bounded below by an impermeable bottom surface having a small deformation; the channel was unbounded in the horizontal directions.Assuming irrotational motion,the perturbation technique was employed to calculate the first-order corrections of the velocity potential in the two fluids by using Green's integral theorem suitably with the introduction of appropriate Green's functions.Those functions help in calculating the reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function c(x) representing the bottom deformation.Three-dimensional linear water wave theory was utilized for formulating the relevant boundary value problem.Two special examples of bottom deformation were considered to validate the results.Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples (having the same wave number) shows that the reflection coefficient is an oscillatory function of the ratio of twice the x-component of the wave number to the ripple wave number.When this ratio approaches one,the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and the interface,and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of tipples.High reflection of incident wave energy occurs if this number is large.Similar results were observed for a patch of sinusoidal tipples having different wave numbers.It was also observed that for small angles of incidence,the reflected energy is greater compared to other angles of incidence up to π / 4.These theoretical observations are supported by graphical results.

  2. A two-layer ONIOM study of thiophene cracking catalyzed by proton- and cation-exchanged FAU zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingxin; Mao, Xinfeng; Pei, Supeng

    2016-02-01

    A two-layer ONIOM study on the hydrodesulfurization mechanism of thiophene in H-FAU and M-FAU (M = Li(+), Na(+), and K(+)) has been carried out. The calculated results reveal that in H-FAU, for a unimolecular mechanism, the rate-determining step is hydrogenation of alkoxide intermediate. The assistance of H2O and H2S molecules does not reduce the difficulty of the C-S bond cracking step more effectively. A bimolecular hydrodesulfurization mechanism is more favorable due to the lower activation barriers. The rate-determining step is the formation of 2-methylthiophene, not the C-S bond cracking of thiophene. Moreover, the ring opening of thiophene is much easier to occur than the desulfurization step. A careful analysis of energetics indicates that H2S, propene, and methyl thiophene are the major products for the hydrodesulfurization process of thiophene over H-FAU zeolite, in good agreement with experimental findings. In M-FAU zeolites, both unimolecular and bimolecular cracking processes are difficult to occur because of the high energy barriers. Compared to the case on H-FAU, the metal cations on M-FAU increase the difficulty of occurrence of bimolecular polymerization and subsequent C-S bond cracking steps. Graphical abstract Hydrodesulfurization process of thiophene can take place in H-FAU zeolite. Two different mechanisms, unimolecular and bimolecular ones, have been proposed and evaluated in detail. The bimolecular mechanism is more favorable due to lower activation barrier as described in the picture above. Our calculated data indicate that H2S, propene, and methylthiophene are the major products, in good agreement with experimental observations. The effect of metal cations on the reaction mechanism is also investigated in this work.

  3. Obesity, Intrapancreatic Fatty Infiltration, and Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Huamin

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and intrapancreatic fatty infiltration are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. The interplay among obesity, inflammation, and oncogenic Kras signaling promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis. Targeting the interaction between obesity-associated inflammation and Kras signaling may provide new strategies for prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  5. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  6. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  7. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  8. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Kinner, D.A.; Ubeda, X.

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(??i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, ??i, ranging from extremely dry conditions (??i capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(??i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds under these initial conditions.

  9. Plant species diversity affects infiltration capacity in an experimental grassland through changes in soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Tischer, J.; Roscher, C.; Eisenhauer, N.; Ravenek, J.; Gleixner, G.; Attinger, S.; Jensen, B.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.; Scheu, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soil hydraulic properties drive water distribution and availability in soil. There exists limited knowledge of how plant species diversity might influence soil hydraulic properties. Methods We quantified the change in infiltration capacity affected by soil structural variables (s

  10. Effect of infiltration modeling approach on operational solutions for furrow irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration in irrigated furrows depends on the variation of depth of flow and, thus, wetted perimeter along the field and in time. However, the magnitude of the wetted perimeter effect has not been clearly established due to soil variability, erosion and deposition, macropore flow, and other proc...

  11. Three-dimensional linear instability in pressure-driven two-layer channel flow of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K. C.; Matar, O. K.

    2010-11-01

    The three-dimensional linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel flow are considered, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. We focus on the parameter ranges for which Squire's theorem for the two-layer Newtonian problem does not exist. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layer are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilizing. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid non-Newtonian flows. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.

  12. Theoretical research on enhancement of gain for Ni-like Ag 13.9 nm x-ray laser using a new two-layer target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guo-Ping; Zhang Tan-Xin; Zheng Wu-Di; Qiao Xiu-Mei

    2007-01-01

    For experiments such as on Ni-like Ag x-ray laser, driven by 1ω laser, the gain region is only several nrn depth near the target surface, this paper proposes a new two-layer target, in which a thin layer (several nm depth) of silver is plated on the surface of some other materials. Furthermore, the Ni-like Ag 13.9 nm x-ray laser produced by three new kinds of two-layer target with CH, Al and Ge as foundation, was theoretically studied.

  13. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  14. A theoretical, two-layer, reduced-gravity model for descending dense water flow on continental shelves/slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Ikeda, Moto; Saucier, Francois J.

    2003-05-01

    A theoretical, two-layer, reduced-gravity model for descending dense water flow on continental shelves/slopes has been developed to investigate the dynamics of bottom dense water plumes. The model is nonsteady state and includes vertical viscosity, the Coriolis force, and bottom friction. An integral solution rather than a perfect analytical expression is derived and, thus, the Simpson's 1/3 rule to approximate the integral is applied. At the very bottom, the dense water plume moves about 45° to the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, looking downslope. From the bottom, the velocity vector rotates anticyclonically upward, indicating a bottom Ekman spiral that mimics the atmospheric Ekman boundary layer. The dense water within the bottom Ekman layer obeys a three-force balance, while the dense water above the bottom Ekman layer is governed by a two-force balance, which is a geostrophic flow with superimposed cycloidal inertial oscillations oriented from about 25° to 140° to the right (left) of the downslope direction in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. The transport within the bottom Ekman layer is directed about 60-70° to the right (left) of the downslope direction in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, forming an offshore (cross-isobath) transport in the absence of eddy flux and wind-forcing. The ratio of offshore transport to alongshore transport within the bottom Ekman layer is about 0.19 (19%), while the ratio above the bottom Ekman layer (i.e., geostrophic layer of the dense water) is only 3% (negligible compared to its alongshore transport), which, however, is equivalent in magnitude to its counterpart in the bottom Ekman layer if O(DE/h) ˜ 0.1 (where DE is the bottom Ekman layer thickness and h is the dense water layer thickness). In other words, the bottom Ekman layer and the geostrophic (dense) layer contribute equivalent dense water offshore (each contributes 50%). The magnitude of the descending dense water velocity depends

  15. Remediation of PCE-contaminated aquifer by an in situ two-layer biobarrier: laboratory batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Wang, J Y; Chen, Y L; Lee, S Z

    2003-01-01

    The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ two-layer biobarrier system consisting of an organic-releasing material layer followed by an oxygen-releasing material layer. The organic-releasing material, which contained sludge cakes from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, is able to release biodegradable organics continuously. The oxygen-releasing material, which contained calcium peroxide, is able to release oxygen continuously upon contact with water. The first organic-releasing material layer was to supply organics (primary substrates) to reductively dechlorinate PCE in situ. The second oxygen-releasing material layer was to release oxygen to aerobic biodegrade or cometabolize PCE degradation byproducts from the first anaerobic layer. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the organic and oxygen-releasing materials, and evaluate the organic substrate (presented as chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent) and oxygen release rates from the organic-releasing material and oxygen-releasing materials, respectively. The observed oxygen and COD release rates were approximately 0.0368 and 0.0416 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an organic-releasing material column, two consecutive soil columns, and an oxygen-releasing material column, followed by two other consecutive soil columns. Anaerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the first four columns, and aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the last three columns to provide microbial consortia for contaminant biodegradation. Simulated PCE-contaminated groundwater with a

  16. Independent prognostic value of eosinophil and mast cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hansen, Ulla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    Overall peritumoural inflammatory cell infiltration is a prognostic variable in solid tumours, but the survival-related impact of the individual cell types within the infiltrate has still not been fully evaluated and compared with the conventional disease classification. In the present study......-assisted microscope, which allowed semi-automated quantification of cells within a fixed area. Total white cells and individual counts of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were evaluated in every tumour specimen. Stratification into four groups with similar numbers of events was used...... should investigate the potential biological role of tumour tissue eosinophils and mast cells in the modulation of tumour growth....

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  18. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara

    2009-01-01

    A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....

  19. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2015-03-17

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  20. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  1. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  3. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  4. Invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma infiltrating trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, up to 20% of the patients are threatened by potential complications resulting from infiltrating tumor growth into surrounding tissues. Case report. A 66- year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic examination showed a 8 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a cold nodule. CT scan and tracheoscopy showed tracheal infiltration without tracheal obstruction. An extended total thyroidectomy was done, with the left jugular vein, strap muscles and tracheal 2 cm long circular resection. The pathologist confirmed invasive follicular thyroid cancer. After the surgery the patient was treated with radioiodine therapy and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of the thyroid hormone and serum thyroglobulin level every six months, as well as the further tests (chest xray, ultrasound of the neck and a whole body scintigraphy were done. After more than three years the patient had no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of the tracheal infiltrating thyroid cancer with circular tracheal resection and terminoterminal anastomosis followed by radioiodine therapy should be considered the treatment of choice.

  5. INCORRECT PROPOSAL OF RUNOFF DRAINAGE THROUGH INFILTRATION FACILITY - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MARKOVIC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are permeable paved areas, unpaved areas for infiltration, vegetated swales, vegetated buffer strips, bioretention, detention ponds, dry well, infiltration basins and infiltration gallery and many more. Rainwater drainage from the bridge object in Sarisske Luky in Presov district (Slovakia, using infiltration gallery is presented in the paper. Its capacity is not efficient now, so the reconstruction or other supplement solution is needed. From the wide possibilities of solutions, one of them which full fills all criterions about the rainwater infiltration in selected building object is presented and discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 35.2120 - Infiltration/Inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2120 Infiltration/Inflow. (a... portion of its sewer system is subject to excessive infiltration, the applicant may confirm its belief...

  7. Simulating infiltration tests in fractured basalt at the Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, Andre J.A.; Faybishenko, Boris; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Simmons, Ardyth M.

    2003-04-01

    The results of a series of ponded infiltration tests in variably saturated fractured basalt at Box Canyon, Idaho, were used to build confidence in conceptual and numerical modeling approaches used to simulate infiltration in fractured rock. Specifically, we constructed a dual-permeability model using TOUGH2 to represent both the matrix and fracture continua of the upper basalt flow at the Box Canyon site. A consistent set of hydrogeological parameters was obtained by calibrating the model to infiltration front arrival times in the fracture continuum as inferred from bromide samples collected from fracture/borehole intersections observed during the infiltrating tests. These parameters included the permeability of the fracture and matrix continua, the interfacial area between the fracture and matrix continua, and the porosity of the fracture continuum. To calibrate the model, we multiplied the fracture-matrix interfacial area by a factor between 0.1 and 0.01 to reduce imbibition of water from the fracture continuum into the matrix continuum during the infiltration tests. Furthermore, the porosity of the fracture continuum, as calculated using the fracture aperture inferred from pneumatic-test permeabilities, was increased by a factor of 50 yielding porosity values for the upper basalt flow in the range of 0.01 to 0.02. The fracture-continuum porosity was a highly sensitive parameter controlling the arrival times of the simulated infiltration fronts. Porosity values are consistent with those determined during the Large-Scale Aquifer Pumping and Infiltration Test at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  8. A two Layer Convecting Mantle With Exchange : A Unified Model Based on Geochemical, Seismic and Heat Flow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allègre, C. J.; Jaupart, C.; Nolet, G.

    2007-12-01

    -penetrating slabs as emphasized by Fukao and al.(2001) and the recent observation of the large energy spectrum differences at 670 km depth (Gu and al., 2006). We discuss the problem of return flow, which is crucial for both energy budget and convection regime. The recent work on plume by Montelli and al. (2004, 2006) shows the existence of broad plumes in the lower mantle and thin plumes in the upper mantle. d) The estimate of heat flow coming from the lower mantle of 35-32 TW. The work of Davies(1990) and Sleep(1992) shows clearly that this transfer is not the result of plumes reaching the surface, because they correspond at most to 3TW. At the reverse the estimated heat flow carried by the lower mantle plumes is much higher (Nolet and al., 2006). We also discuss the heat flow paradox to explain a Urey ratio of 0.4 with whole mantle convection. In conclusion, we propose mantle with two layers convecting separately but with some exchange of matter, this global exchange corresponding to 1.1024kg since 4.4 Gy. Plume genesis is a two-stage process. Lower mantle plumes heat the Mesosphere boundary layer generating second generation plumes which reach the surface (Allègre and Turcotte; 1983; Allègre, 1987). In the upper mantle itself, we have to distinguish between a vigorously convecting asthenosphere and a sluggish convecting transition zone, both convecting in same cells.

  9. Borehole environmental tracers for evaluating net infiltration and recharge through desert bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Gardner, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Permeable bedrock aquifers in arid regions are being increasingly developed as water supplies, yet little is generally known about recharge processes and spatial and temporal variability. Environmental tracers from boreholes were used in this study to investigate net infiltration and recharge to the fractured Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Vadose zone tracer profiles at the Sand Hollow study site in southwestern Utah look similar to those of desert soils at other sites, indicating the predominance of matrix flow. However, recharge rates are generally higher in the Navajo Sandstone than in unconsolidated soils in similar climates because the sandstone matrix allows water movement but not root penetration. Water enters the vadose zone either as direct infiltration of precipitation through exposed sandstone and sandy soils or as focused infiltration of runoff. Net infiltration and recharge exhibit extreme spatial variability. High-recharge borehole sites generally have large amounts of vadose zone tritium, low chloride concentrations, and small vadose zone oxygen-18 evaporative shifts. Annual net-infiltration and recharge rates at different locations range from about 1 to 60 mm as determined using vadose zone tritium, 0 to 15 mm using vadose zone chloride, and 3 to 60 mm using groundwater chloride. Environmental tracers indicate a cyclical net-infiltration and recharge pattern, with higher rates earlier in the Holocene and lower rates during the late Holocene, and a return to higher rates during recent decades associated with anomalously high precipitation during the latter part of the 20th century. The slightly enriched stable isotopic composition of modern groundwater indicates this recent increase in precipitation may be caused by a stronger summer monsoon or winter southern Pacific El Nin??o storm track. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  10. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  11. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. Field-scale investigation of infiltration into a compacted soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Samuel V.; Herzog, Beverly L.; Cartwright, Keros; Rehfeldt, Kenneth R.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Hensel, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey constructed and instrumented an experimental compacted soil liner. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years. The objectives of this investigation were to determine whether a soil liner could be constructed to meet the U.S. EPA's requirement for a saturated hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1.0 ?? 10-7 cm/s, to quantify the areal variability of the hydraulic properties of the liner, and to determine the transit time for water and tracers through the liner. The liner measures 8m ?? 15m ?? 0.9m and was designed and constructed to simulate compacted soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded to form a pond on April 12, 1988. Since flooding, infiltration has been monitored with four large-ring (LR) and 32 small-ring (SR) infiltrometers, and a water-balance (WB) method that accounted for total infiltration and evaporation. Ring-infiltrometer and WB data were analyzed using cumulative-infiltration curves to determine infiltration fluxes. The SR data are lognormally distributed, and the SR and LR data form two statistically distinct populations. Small-ring data are nearly identical with WB data; because there is evidence of leakage in the LRs, the SR and WB data are considered more reliable.

  13. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process of the hydrological cycle. Infiltration also controls the soil water resources, and the development of the vegetation, and moreover, in the Mediterranean, determines the runoff generation (Cerdà, 1996; 1997; 2001). In the Mediterranean, the infiltration in forest soils shows high spatial variability and seasonal and temporal changes (Cerdà, 1999; Bodí and Cerdà, 2009) and is being affected by forest fires (Cerdà, 1998), which introduce a new temporal change in the seasonality of the infiltration rates. Although the forest soils are well assessed, there is no information about the infiltration in urban areas in Mediterranean cities. The Mediterranean dense urban systems use to be treated as impermeable areas. However, the cities show areas covered by vegetation and with soils that allow the rainfall to infiltrate. Those areas are mainly the parks. In order to shed some light on the infiltration capacity of the soils of the urban area of Valencia city 30 rainfall simulations experiments (Cerdà, 1996) and 90 ring infiltrometer (10 cm diameter) measurements were carried out in January 2011, and they were repeated in July 2011, to compare wet (19.4 % of soil moisture) and dry (5.98 % of soil moisture) soils. The infiltration curves where fitted to the Horton (1933) equation and they lasted for 1 hour. The results show that the infiltration is 11 times higher when measured with ring infiltrometer than with the simulated rainfall at 55 mmh-1, and that the infiltration rates where higher in summer than in winter: 2.01 higher for the ring infiltrometer, and 1.45 higher when measured with the rainfall simulator. In comparison to the soils from the forest areas, the infiltration rate in the gardens were lower, with values of 10.23 and 21.65 mm h-1 in average for winter and summer when measured with the rainfall simulator. Similar results were found with the ring infiltrometer. It was also found a clear relationship between the vegetation

  14. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  16. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  17. Surface composites fabricated by vacuum infiltration casting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guirong Yang; Yuan Hao; Wenming Song; Jinjun Lü; Ying Ma

    2005-01-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) particles reinforced copper matrix surface composites were fabricated on the bronze substrate using the vacuum infiltration casting technique. Three cases were obtained in the vacuum infiltration casting technique: no infiltration, partial infiltration and full infiltration (the thickness of preforms do not exceed 3.5 mm). The reason of no infiltration is that the vacuum degree is not enough so that the force acting on the liquid metal is lower than the resistance due to the surface tension. Partial infiltration is because of somewhat lower vacuum degree and pouring temperature. Full desired infiltration is on account of suitable infiltration casting conditions, such as vacuum degree, pouring temperature, grain size and preheating temperature of the preform. The most important factor of affecting formation of surface composites is the vacuum degree, then pouring temperature and particle size.The infiltration mechanism was discussed on the bases of different processing conditions. The surface composite up to 3.5 mm in thickness with uniformly distributed Al2O3 particles could be fabricated via the vacuum infiltration casting technique.

  18. Method to measure soil matrix infiltration in forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lei, Tingwu; Qu, Liqin; Chen, Ping; Gao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lili; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu

    2017-09-01

    Infiltration of water into forest soil commonly involves infiltration through the matrix body and preferential passages. Determining the matrix infiltration process is important in partitioning water infiltrating into the soil through the soil body and macropores to evaluate the effects of soil and water conservation practices on hillslope hydrology and watershed sedimentation. A new method that employs a double-ring infiltrometer was applied in this study to determine the matrix infiltration process in forest soil. Field experiments were conducted in a forest field on the Loess Plateau at Tianshui Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Station. Nylon cloth was placed on the soil surface in the inner ring and between the inner and outer rings of infiltrometers. A thin layer of fine sands were placed onto the nylon cloth to shelter the macropores and ensure that water infiltrates the soil through the matrix only. Brilliant Blue tracers were applied to examine the exclusion of preferential flow occurrences in the measured soil body. The infiltration process was measured, computed, and recorded through procedures similar to those of conventional methods. Horizontal and vertical soil profiles were excavated to check the success of the experiment and ensure that preferential flow did not occur in the measured soil column and that infiltration was only through the soil matrix. The infiltration processes of the replicates of five plots were roughly the same, thereby indicating the feasibility of the methodology to measure soil matrix infiltration. The measured infiltration curves effectively explained the transient process of soil matrix infiltration. Philip and Kostiakov models fitted the measured data well, and all the coefficients of determination were greater than 0.9. The wetted soil bodies through excavations did not present evidence of preferential flow. Therefore, the proposed method can determine the infiltration process through the forest soil matrix. This

  19. Creating and controlling overlap in two-layer networks. Application to a mean-field SIS epidemic model with awareness dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Juher, David

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of the potential overlap between two networks $A,B$ sharing the same set of $N$ nodes (a two-layer network) whose respective degree distributions $p_A(k), p_B(k)$ are given. Defining the overlap coefficient $\\alpha$ as the Jaccard index, we derive upper bounds for the minimum and maximum overlap coefficient in terms of $p_A(k)$, $p_B(k)$ and $N$. We also present an algorithm based on cross-rewiring of links to obtain a two-layer network with any prescribed $\\alpha$ inside the permitted range. Finally, to illustrate the importance of the overlap for the dynamics of interacting contagious processes, we derive a mean-field model for the spread of an SIS epidemic with awareness against infection over a two-layer network, containing $\\alpha$ as a parameter. A simple analytical relationship between $\\alpha$ and the basic reproduction number follows. Stochastic simulations are presented to assess the accuracy of the upper bounds of $\\alpha$ and the predictions of the mean-field epidemic model...

  20. Unconventional but tunable phase transition above the percolation threshold by two-layer conduction in electroless-deposited Au nanofeatures on silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Muncheol; Hwang, Seongpil; Jang, Jae-Won

    2015-12-18

    Previous research has shown that disorder, dislocation, and carrier concentration are the main factors impacting transitions in the traditional metal-insulator transition (MIT) and metal-semiconductor transition (MST). In this study, it is demonstrated that a non-traditional metal-semiconductor transition governed by two-layer conduction is possible by tuning the conducting channel of one layer of the two-layer conduction system. By means of the electroless deposition method we produced Au nanofeatures (AuNFs) on p-type silicon (p-Si) as the two-layer conduction system, controlling AuNF coverage (Au%) below and above the percolation threshold (p c). Even when the AuNF coverage percentage is larger than p c, the resistivities of the AuNFs on p-Si show MST as the temperature increases. To demonstrate this finding, we present a conduction model based upon two predominant parallel conductions by AuNFs and p-Si in the present paper. In the results, we show how the temperature of the MST (T MST) is tuned from 145 to 232 K as Au% is changed from 82.7 to 54.3%.

  1. Optimisation on the two-layer stack gamma detectors of CsI(Tl) coupled with a pin photodiode for non-destructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jin Hyoung; Whang, Joo Ho

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposed the two-layer stack scintillator-coupled photodiode detector to improve the measurement accuracy of the gamma-ray scanning. Both MCNPX and DETECT97 code were used to design the detector. The two manufactured two-layer stack gamma detectors were used to measure the density profile of the distillation column of the radiographic non-intrusive process diagnostic area. To compare the measurement accuracy of the density profile through the non-destructive transmission test, the relative error of the four fluids used for the process diagnostics was analysed. To summarise the measurement results with regard to the relative error of the NaI(Tl) detector and the manufactured detector by material as well as the total relative error, the total relative error of the NaI(Tl) detector was about 15.7 %, whereas that of the two-layer stack CsI(Tl) with photodiode detectors were about 5 %. This paper confirmed that the measurement accuracy of the detector proposed was improved by about three times as compared with the NaI(Tl) detector mostly used for non-destructive testing.

  2. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  3. Temporal and soil management effects on soil infiltration and water content in a hillslope vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Ferraris, Stefano; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    The maintenance of bare soil in the vineyard's inter-rows with tillage, as well as other mechanized operations which increase the vehicle traffic, expose the soil to degradation, favoring overland flow and further threats as compaction, reduction of soil water holding capacity and water infiltration. Water infiltration is strongly controlled by field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, which depends primarily on soil texture and structure, and it is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Beyond the currently adopted soil management, some major causes in variability of infiltration rates are the history of cultivation and the structure of the first centimeters of the vineyard's soil. A study was carried out in two experimental vineyard plots included in the 'Tenuta Cannona Experimental Vine and Wine Centre of Regione Piemonte', located in NW Italy. The study was addressed to evaluate the temporal variations of the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, in relation to the soil management adopted in the inter-rows of a hillslope vineyard. The investigation was carried out in a vineyard comparing the adoption of two different soil managements in the inter-rows: 1) conventional tillage and 2) controlled grass cover. Several series of double-ring of infiltration tests were carried out during a 2-years period of observation, using the simplified falling head technique (SFH). In order to take into account the effect of tractor traffic, the tests were done both inside the the track, the portion of soil affected by the transit of tractor wheels or tracks, and outside the track. Before the execution of each test, bulk density and initial soil water content close to the investigated area were determined. Relations among infiltration behavior and these parameters were analyzed. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) at different sampling dates showed high variability, especially in the vineyard with cultivated soil. Indeed, highest infiltration rates were

  4. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  5. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  6. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  7. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mika Hori; Michihiro Mutoh; Toshio Imai; Hitoshi Nakagama; Mami Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mell...

  8. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C

    1997-01-01

    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  9. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  10. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  11. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  12. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  13. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  14. Approach to cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates: When to consider lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Vincent Charli-Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1 Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2 superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3 pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4 panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5 small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6 large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs.

  15. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs.

  16. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  17. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rodríguez-Castelán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control n=6 and hypothyroid groups (n=6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days. After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS or Masson’s Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis.

  18. Measuring and modeling two-dimensional irrigation infiltration under film-mulched furrows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongYong Zhang; PuTe Wu; XiNing Zhao; WenZhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Furrow irrigation with film-mulched agricultural beds is being promoted in the arid region of northwest China because it improves water utilization. Two-dimensional infiltration patterns under film-mulched furrows can provide guidelines and criteria for irrigation design and operation. Our objective was to investigate soil water dynamics during ponding irrigation infiltration of mulched furrows in a cross-sectional ridge-furrow configuration, using laboratory experiments and math-ematical simulations. Six experimental treatments, with two soil types (silt loam and sandy loam), were investigated to monitor the wetting patterns and soil water distribution in a cuboid soil chamber. Irrigation of mulched furrows clearly increased water lateral infiltration on ridge shoulders and ridges, due to enhancement of capillary driving force. Increases to both initial soil water content (SWC) and irrigation water level resulted in increased wetted soil volume. Empirical regression equations accurately estimated the wetted lateral distance (Rl) and downward distance (Rd) with elapsed time in a variably wetted soil medium. Optimization of model parameters followed by the Inverse approach resulted in satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted cumulative infiltration and SWC. On the basis of model calibration, HYDRUS-2D model can accurately simulate two-dimensional soil water dynamics under irrigation of mulched furrows. There were significant differences in wetting patterns between unmulched and mulched furrow irrigation using HYDRUS-2D simulation. The Rd under the mulched furrows was 32.14%less than the unmulched furrows. Therefore, film-mulched furrows are recommended in a furrow irrigation system.

  19. Hierarchical Process Control of Chemical Vapor Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-31

    in these variables with reference to Figure 8. Conventional PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level in order to retain industry...to achieve minimum controlled-variable variations. PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level to retain industry standard functions useful

  20. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  1. A field-scale infiltration model accounting for spatial heterogeneity of rainfall and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Corradini, Corrado; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2006-04-01

    This study first explores the role of spatial heterogeneity, in both the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and rainfall intensity r, on the integrated hydrological response of a natural slope. On this basis, a mathematical model for estimating the expected areal-average infiltration is then formulated. Both Ks and r are considered as random variables with assessed probability density functions. The model relies upon a semi-analytical component, which describes the directly infiltrated rainfall, and an empirical component, which accounts further for the infiltration of surface water running downslope into pervious soils (the run-on effect). Monte Carlo simulations over a clay loam soil and a sandy loam soil were performed for constructing the ensemble averages of field-scale infiltration used for model validation. The model produced very accurate estimates of the expected field-scale infiltration rate, as well as of the outflow generated by significant rainfall events. Furthermore, the two model components were found to interact appropriately for different weights of the two infiltration mechanisms involved.

  2. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  3. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  4. A replication study for genome-wide gene expression levels in two layer lines elucidates differentially expressed genes of pathways involved in bone remodeling and immune responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The current replication study confirmed significant differences in gene expression profiles of the cerebrum among the two commercial layer lines Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB. Microarray analyses were performed for 30 LSL and another 30 LB laying hens kept in the small group housing system Eurovent German. A total of 14,103 microarray probe sets using customized Affymetrix ChiGene-1_0-st Arrays with 20,399 probe sets were differentially expressed among the two layer lines LSL and LB (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05. An at least 2-fold change in expression levels could be observed for 388 of these probe sets. In LSL, 214 of the 388 probe sets were down- and 174 were up-regulated and vice versa for the LB layer line. Among the 174 up-regulated probe sets in LSL, we identified 51 significantly enriched Gene ontology (GO terms of the biological process category. A total of 63 enriched GO-terms could be identified for the 214 down-regulated probe sets of the layer line LSL. We identified nine genes significantly differentially expressed between the two layer lines in both microarray experiments. These genes play a crucial role in protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, bone mineral density and immune response among the two layer lines LSL and LB. Thus, the different regulation of these genes may significantly contribute to phenotypic trait differences among these layer lines. In conclusion, these novel findings provide a basis for further research to improve animal welfare in laying hens and these layer lines may be of general interest as an animal model.

  5. Heat absorbtion by earth coil systems placed in two layers in one trench. [Heat pumps]. Varmeoptagelse fra jordslanger i to lag i samme grav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, O.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the performance of a new technique of installing earth coil systems for heat pumps. In order to reduce the costs of an efficient heat absorber, two coils were placed in the same trench in two different levels, generally in a depth of 0.7 and 1.1 metres. Usually the total pipe length was increased with 20 - 30% compared to the one-layer design. The digging expences, however, were still smaller than those of the one-layer design. The evaluation is based on measurements on 4 heat pump installations using the two-layer concept, where the extracted heat energy from the higher and lower earth coils were metered individually on a monthly basis. Furthermore, the in- and outlet temperature of the coils and the energy comsumption of the heat pump was measured. The main conclusions of the project are: - A two-layer design leads to a slightly cheaper earth coil. The performance of the earth coil is not negatively affected by this technique, provided that the vertical distance between the coils is at least 0.4 metres at any place. - Two-layer coils may be designed with the same total length as used in one-layer coils - which means half the trench length. This design gives a more intensive exploitation of the available soil area, without decreasing the performance of the heat pump. - The disadvantage of the technique is an increasing risk of earth elevation due to freezing. This risk should be minimized by keeping a minimum distance of 0.40 meters between the individual pipes and thermal insulation if more than two pipes are placed near to each other. (AB).

  6. 双层界面重磁联合反演方法研究%Joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data for a two-layer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凡; 吴健生; 王家林

    2008-01-01

    Based on the synchronous joint gravity and magnetic inversion of single interface by Pilkington and the need of revealing Cenozoic and crystalline basement thickness in the new round of oil-gas exploration, we propose a joint gravity and magnetic inversion method for two-layer models by concentrating on the relationship between the change of thickness and position of the middle layer and anomaly and discuss the effects of the key parameters. Model tests and application to field data show the validity of this method.

  7. Protein fold recognition with a two-layer method based on SVM-SA, WP-NN and C4.5 (TLM-SNC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Jalili, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The structural knowledge of protein is crucial in understanding its biological role. An effort is made to assign a fold to a given protein in a protein fold recognition problem. A computational Two-Layer Method (TLM) based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM), the Neural Network (NN) and the Decision Tree (C4.5) has been developed in this study for the assignment of a protein sequence to a folding class in SCOP. Prediction accuracy is measured on a dataset and the accuracy of the proposed method is very promising in comparison with other classification methods.

  8. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  9. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Hori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in the pancreas, develop fatty infiltration of the pancreas with age. The combination of a high-fat diet and a chemical carcinogen that induces a K-ras mutation increases the severity of fatty infiltration of the pancreas. Thus, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is suggested to promote pancreatic carcinogenesis via a K-ras activating mutation. It is assumed that increased expression of adipokines and of inflammatory and proliferation-associated factors elicited by fatty infiltration of the pancreas may contribute to pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to suppression of Ras activation, methods to modulate fatty infiltration in the pancreas can be considered as a strategy for preventing pancreatic cancer.

  10. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M.; Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y.; Akabane, H. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. 两层损耗土壤媒质附近HEMP环境%HEMP Environment Over Two-layer Lossy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓云; 周辉

    2013-01-01

    To understand the HEMP environment near ground is important for HEMP effects research of ground -base electrical system.The methods to calculate the reflection wave of plane wave and electromagnetic environment over two-layer lossy media are presented.The reflection wave and electromagnetic environment of HEMP over two-layered soil are calculated.The results indicate that there are two peaks in the reflection wave and the time of the second peak is determined by the thickness of the first layer soil.The tail-wave amplitude of x-direction HEMP environment is reduced than one layer's,and the tail-wave amplitude of z-direction is increased.%介绍了分层损耗媒质反射波的计算方法,计算了大地由一定厚度的干土和湿土构成时,x方向和z方向的HEMP反射波及地面附近电磁环境.计算结果表明x方向和z方向的反射波都有双峰,第2个峰出现的时间与第1层土壤的厚度有关;地面附近x方向HEMP环境场波尾的幅度较单层的会有下降,而z方向较单层的会有增加.

  12. On the Transformation Mechanism for Formulating a Multiproduct Two-Layer Supply Chain Network Design Problem as a Network Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiproduct two-layer supply chain is very common in various industries. In this paper, we introduce a possible modeling and algorithms to solve a multiproduct two-layer supply chain network design problem. The decisions involved are the DCs location and capacity design decision and the initial distribution planning decision. First we describe the problem and give a mixed integer programming (MIP model; such problem is NP-hard and it is not easy to reduce the complexity. Inspired by it, we develop a transformation mechanism of relaxing the fixed cost and adding some virtual nodes and arcs to the original network. Thus, a network flow problem (NFP corresponding to the original problem has been formulated. Given that we could solve the NFP as a minimal cost flow problem. The solution procedures and network simplex algorithm (INS are discussed. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the model and algorithms, the performance measure experimental has been conducted. The experiments and result showed that comparing with MIP model solved by genetic algorithm (GA and Benders, decomposition algorithm (BD the NFP model and INS are also effective and even more efficient for both small-scale and large-scale problems.

  13. A Two-Layered Diffusion Model Traces the Dynamics of Information Processing in the Valuation-and-Choice Circuit of Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Piu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A circuit of evaluation and selection of the alternatives is considered a reliable model in neurobiology. The prominent contributions of the literature to this topic are reported. In this study, valuation and choice of a decisional process during Two-Alternative Forced-Choice (TAFC task are represented as a two-layered network of computational cells, where information accrual and processing progress in nonlinear diffusion dynamics. The evolution of the response-to-stimulus map is thus modeled by two linked diffusive modules (2LDM representing the neuronal populations involved in the valuation-and-decision circuit of decision making. Diffusion models are naturally appropriate for describing accumulation of evidence over the time. This allows the computation of the response times (RTs in valuation and choice, under the hypothesis of ex-Wald distribution. A nonlinear transfer function integrates the activities of the two layers. The input-output map based on the infomax principle makes the 2LDM consistent with the reinforcement learning approach. Results from simulated likelihood time series indicate that 2LDM may account for the activity-dependent modulatory component of effective connectivity between the neuronal populations. Rhythmic fluctuations of the estimate gain functions in the delta-beta bands also support the compatibility of 2LDM with the neurobiology of DM.

  14. Mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites by infiltration processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, M.P.; Scian, A.N. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-01-01

    The formation of mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites was studied by infiltrating a SiAlON/alumina-base composite with two different solutions, followed by thermal treatment. The base composite was prepared from a mixture of tabular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains, fume SiO{sub 2}, and aluminum powders. The mixture was pressed into test bars and nitrided in a nitrogen-gas (N{sub 2}) atmosphere at 1,480 C. The infiltrants were prehydrolyzed ethyl polysilicate solution and ethyl polysilicate-aluminum nitrate solution. The composites were infiltrated under vacuum, cured at 100 C, and precalcined in air at 700 C. This infiltration process was repeated several times to produce bars that had been subjected to multiple infiltrations, then the bars were calcined in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at 1,480 C to obtain mullite/SiAlON/alumina composites. The infiltration process increased the percentage of nitrogenous crystalline and mullite phases in the matrix; therefore, a decrease of the composite microporosity was observed. The infiltration increased the mechanical strength of the composites. Of the two composites, the one produced using prehydrolyzed ethyl polysilicate as the infiltrant had a higher mechanical strength, before and after being subjected to a severe thermal shock.

  15. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  16. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  17. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  18. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  19. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  20. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  1. Determination of Watershed Infiltration and Erosion Parameters from Field Rainfall Simulation Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Grismer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Realistic modeling of infiltration, runoff and erosion processes from watersheds requires estimation of the effective hydraulic conductivity (Km of the hillslope soils and how it varies with soil tilth, depth and cover conditions. Field rainfall simulation (RS plot studies provide an opportunity to assess the surface soil hydraulic and erodibility conditions, but a standardized interpretation and comparison of results of this kind from a wide variety of test conditions has been difficult. Here, we develop solutions to the combined set of time-to-ponding/runoff and Green– Ampt infiltration equations to determine Km values from RS test plot results and compare them to the simpler calculation of steady rain minus runoff rates. Relating soil detachment rates to stream power, we also examine the determination of “erodibility” as the ratio thereof. Using data from over 400 RS plot studies across the Lake Tahoe Basin area that employ a wide range of rain rates across a range of soil slopes and conditions, we find that the Km values can be determined from the combined infiltration equation for ~80% of the plot data and that the laminar flow form of stream power best described a constant “erodibility” across a range of volcanic skirun soil conditions. Moreover, definition of stream power based on laminar flows obviates the need for assumption of an arbitrary Mannings “n” value and the restriction to mild slopes (<10%. The infiltration equation based Km values, though more variable, were on average equivalent to that determined from the simpler calculation of steady rain minus steady runoff rates from the RS plots. However, these Km values were much smaller than those determined from other field test methods. Finally, we compare RS plot results from use of different rainfall simulators in the basin and demonstrate that despite the varying configurations and rain intensities, similar erodibilities were determined across a range of

  2. Cyclic biogeochemical processes and nitrogen fate beneath a subtropical stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    A stormwater infiltration basin in north–central Florida, USA, was monitored from 2007 through 2008 to identify subsurface biogeochemical processes, with emphasis on N cycling, under the highly variable hydrologic conditions common in humid, subtropical climates. Cyclic variations in biogeochemical processes generally coincided with wet and dry hydrologic conditions. Oxidizing conditions in the subsurface persisted for about one month or less at the beginning of wet periods with dissolved O2 and NO3- showing similar temporal patterns. Reducing conditions in the subsurface evolved during prolonged flooding of the basin. At about the same time O2 and NO3- reduction concluded, Mn, Fe and SO42- reduction began, with the onset of methanogenesis one month later. Reducing conditions persisted up to six months, continuing into subsequent dry periods until the next major oxidizing infiltration event. Evidence of denitrification in shallow groundwater at the site is supported by median NO3-–N less than 0.016 mg L-1, excess N2 up to 3 mg L-1 progressively enriched in δ15N during prolonged basin flooding, and isotopically heavy δ15N and δ18O of NO3- (up to 25‰ and 15‰, respectively). Isotopic enrichment of newly infiltrated stormwater suggests denitrification was partially completed within two days. Soil and water chemistry data suggest that a biogeochemically active zone exists in the upper 1.4 m of soil, where organic carbon was the likely electron donor supplied by organic matter in soil solids or dissolved in infiltrating stormwater. The cyclic nature of reducing conditions effectively controlled the N cycle, switching N fate beneath the basin from NO3- leaching to reduction in the shallow saturated zone. Results can inform design of functionalized soil amendments that could replace the native soil in a stormwater infiltration basin and mitigate potential NO3- leaching to groundwater by replicating the biogeochemical conditions under the observed basin.

  3. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  4. Muscle biopsy findings predictive of malignancy in rare infiltrative dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Makoto; Yamashita, Satoshi; Uchino, Katsuhisa; Mori, Akira; Hara, Akio; Suga, Tomohiro; Hirahara, Tomoo; Koide, Tatsuya; Kimura, En; Yamashita, Taro; Ueda, Akihiko; Kurisaki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Junko; Honda, Shoji; Maeda, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ando, Yukio

    2013-05-01

    The characteristic pathological muscular findings of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) have been shown to reflect their different pathogeneses. Here, we characterized the muscle biopsy findings of PM and DM patients with or without malignancy. We evaluated the muscle biopsy findings of 215 consecutive PM and DM patients admitted to our hospital between 1970 and 2009. Pathology of the lesion biopsy sections was classified into 3 types: endomysial infiltration-type, perivascular infiltration-type, and rare-infiltrative-type. There was no difference between the muscle pathology of PM patients with and without malignancy. However, the incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology in DM patients with malignancy was significantly higher than in those without such tumors (p=0.0345). The incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology may be a predictive marker of DM with malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Late infiltration of post-orthodontic white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Graf, Martina; Lussi, Adrian; Katsaros, Christos

    2010-11-01

    White spot lesion (WSL) infiltration has been recommended immediately after debonding of orthodontic brackets. It is however not clear if established inactive WSLs can also be masked through infiltration. Orthodontic treatment of a 19-year-old patient had to be terminated prematurely due to development of multiple WSLs of varying severity. Three months after debonding, the patient presented for lesion infiltration. After etching with 15% HCl gel and re-wetting of the dried surfaces it seemed that a good outcome could be expected. Lesion infiltration led to complete masking of less severe WSLs. The visual appearance of moderate and severe WSLs was improved but they were still visible after treatment. Inactive WSLs may not represent an increased caries risk, but patients are often bothered esthetically. Infiltration by repeated etching might be a viable approach even for inactive WSLs. Controlled clinical trials are needed to investigate the long-term performance of this technique.

  6. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  7. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF KINEMATIC WAVE EQUATIONS FOR OVERLAND FLOW UNDER GREEN-AMPT INFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baiamonte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical solution of kinematic wave equations for overland flow occurring in an infiltrating hillslope. The infiltration process is described by the Green-Ampt model. The solution is derived only for the case of an intermediate flow regime between laminar and turbulent ones. A transitional regime can be considered a reliable flow condition when, to the laminar overland flow, is also associated the effect of the additional resistance due to raindrop impact. With reference to the simple case of an impervious hillslope, a comparison was carried out between the present solution and the non-linear storage model. Some applications of the present solution were performed to investigate the effect of main parameter variability on the hillslope response. Particularly, the effect of hillslope geometry and rainfall intensity on the time to equilibrium is shown.

  8. Presence of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is significantly associated with good prognosis in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of CD3+ TILs in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast. Materials and Methods: Immuno-histochemistry was done with CD3 antibodies in tissue sections of 127 breast cancer patients, and CD3+ intra-tumoral and stromal TILs were counted in relation to clinico-pathological variables. Results: Intra-tumoral and stromal CD3+ TILs were significantly associated with positive lymph node status (P = 0.006, P = 0.043, respectively without significant association with age, menopausal status, family history, and hormonal status. The higher CD3 intra-tumoral and stromal counts both showed significant association with good prognosis (P = 0.039, P = 0.044, respectively. The intra-tumoral count was higher than stromal count and was independently associated with disease-free survival in stage I and II cancer (P = 0.021. Conclusions: CD3+ TILs may serve as independent marker of good prognosis in IDC breast. The findings of this study need further validation on a larger sample size.

  9. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  10. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, V. D., E-mail: vdborman@mephi.ru; Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Lisichkin, G. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  11. A Bio-Inspired Two-Layer Sensing Structure of Polypeptide and Multiple-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Sense Small Molecular Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine.

  12. Convergence Improved Lax-Friedrichs Scheme Based Numerical Schemes and Their Applications in Solving the One-Layer and Two-Layer Shallow-Water Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order Lax-Friedrichs (LF scheme is commonly used in conjunction with other schemes to achieve monotone and stable properties with lower numerical diffusion. Nevertheless, the LF scheme and the schemes devised based on it, for example, the first-order centered (FORCE and the slope-limited centered (SLIC schemes, cannot achieve a time-step-independence solution due to the excessive numerical diffusion at a small time step. In this work, two time-step-convergence improved schemes, the C-FORCE and C-SLIC schemes, are proposed to resolve this problem. The performance of the proposed schemes is validated in solving the one-layer and two-layer shallow-water equations, verifying their capabilities in attaining time-step-independence solutions and showing robustness of them in resolving discontinuities with high-resolution.

  13. Label-free logic modules and two-layer cascade based on stem-loop probes containing a G-quadruplex domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Junjie; Wang, Jine; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hu, Jiming; Pei, Renjun

    2014-09-01

    A simple, versatile, and label-free DNA computing strategy was designed by using toehold-mediated strand displacement and stem-loop probes. A full set of logic gates (YES, NOT, OR, NAND, AND, INHIBIT, NOR, XOR, XNOR) and a two-layer logic cascade were constructed. The probes contain a G-quadruplex domain, which was blocked or unfolded through inputs initiating strand displacement and the obviously distinguishable light-up fluorescent signal of G-quadruplex/NMM complex was used as the output readout. The inputs are the disease-specific nucleotide sequences with potential for clinic diagnosis. The developed versatile computing system based on our label-free and modular strategy might be adapted in multi-target diagnosis through DNA hybridization and aptamer-target interaction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  15. Two-layer hierarchical control solutions for traffic signal%面向交通信号的两层递阶控制解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 周莲英

    2015-01-01

    针对现有交通信号控制系统的诸多不足,提出了一种用于交通信号控制的两层递阶多Agent系统解决方案。通过将交通网络进行区域划分,利用底层Agent控制各交叉口,顶层Agent控制区域,从而实现两层递阶控制。底层Agent采用经典Q学习同步学习最优策略,顶层Agent利用Tile Coding非凡的连续空间处理能力,实现Q学习的动作值函数逼近方法。仿真实验结果表明,该分层递阶控制不但提高了交通信号控制系统效率,而且也为大规模应用提供了很好的可伸缩解决方案。%In view of the existing deficiencies of traffic signal control system, this paper proposes two-layer hierarchical multi-Agent system solution for traffic signal control. Through regional division of the traffic network, it uses the bottom level Agent to control the intersection, the top level Agent to control areas, so as to achieve the two-layer hierarchical con-trol. The bottom level Agent uses the classical Q-learning to synchronize the optimal strategy, the top level Agent utilizes the special continuous space processing ability of Tile Coding to achieve Q learning of action value function approxima-tion method. The simulation test results show that, the hierarchical control not only improves the efficiency of traffic signal control system, but also provides a good scalable solution for large-scale applications.

  16. Seasonal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil after a forest fire in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Alleres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze, after a wildfire of moderate severity, the temporal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil under a mixed plantation of pine and eucalyptus and the comparison with an adjacent area not affected by the fire. In the burnt area and in a neighboring area not affected by the fire were collected during one year (1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 months after the fire 10 soil samples along a transect of 18 m at four depths: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. Soil water repellency was determined using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT test and the infiltration was measured with a mini-disc infiltrometer (pressure head h0 = -2 cm.The results show a temporal pattern of soil water repellency in the burnt and unburnt areas. Significant correlations between water repellency and soil moisture were observed, with higher correlation coefficients in the unburned area and in the surface soil layer.Soil water infiltration was significantly lower than would be expected by the coarse texture of the soil in both burnt and unburnt areas. Temporal fluctuations in unburnt soil infiltration seem to be clearly related to the transient nature of the soil water repellency, with no infiltration in samples extremely repellent. In the burned area, the soil infiltration showed much more variability and temporal fluctuations appear to be less dependent on the persistence of water repellency and more dependent on environmental conditions.The unburnt area show significant and negative correlations of soil water repellency with hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity and positive of these two parameters with soil moisture. These relationships were not observed in the burnt area. The temporal fluctuations of soil water repellency have an evident impact on soil infiltration and seem to be more influent than the effects of fire.

  17. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flow...... and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...

  18. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  19. Acoustic location of infiltration openings in buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-10-01

    Unnecessary air infiltration (''draftiness'') in buildings can be a major cause for excessive energy consumption. A method for using sound to locate, for subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltration leakage paths in buildings has been investigated. The results of pertinent analytical studies, laboratory experiments, and field applications of this acoustic-location method are reported; and a plan is provided to encourage national implementation of the method. Low-cost, readily available equipment and procedures are described whereby the average building contractor or homeowner can use acoustic leak location to pinpoint many of the air infiltration openings in a building.

  20. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  1. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  2. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  3. Tunable nonlinear beam defocusing in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel experimental platform for discrete nonlinear optics based on infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We observe tunable discrete diffraction and nonlinear self-defocusing, and apply the effects to realize a compact all-optical power limiter....

  4. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater ... Correlation analysis between rainfall and observed WLF data at daily scale and ... data are more realistic than those for daily data, when using long time series.

  5. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by monitoring......Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio......-sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full scientific...

  6. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  7. Trajectory Networks and Their Topological Changes Induced by Geographical Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate the topological changes undergone by trajectory networks as a consequence of progressive geographical infiltration. Trajectory networks, a type of knitted network, are obtained by establishing paths between geographically distributed nodes while following an associated vector field. For instance, the nodes could correspond to neurons along the cortical surface and the vector field could correspond to the gradient of neurotrophic factors, or the nodes could represent towns while the vector fields would be given by economical and/or geographical gradients. Therefore trajectory networks are natural models of a large number of geographical structures. The geographical infiltrations correspond to the addition of new local connections between nearby existing nodes. As such, these infiltrations could be related to several real-world processes such as contaminations, diseases, attacks, parasites, etc. The way in which progressive geographical infiltrations affect trajectory networks is ...

  8. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... sustainable cropping practices that reduce soil and water loss and increase water use ..... can have immediate benefits of increasing infiltration rates ..... Impact of tillage and crop rotation on aggregate-associated carbon.

  9. MEAN INFILTRATION SPEED IN A VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez Villanueva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  10. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  11. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been established for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  12. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JianPing; LIU QingQuan; LI JiaChun; AN Yi

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been estab-lished for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  13. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  14. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion sprinkler irrigated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio; Reis, João; Martins, Olga; Castanheira, Nádia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The impacts of sprinkler irrigation on infiltration, runoff and sediment loss of ten representative soils of Southern Portugal were assessed by laboratory sprinkler irrigation simulation tests. All soils showed very low permeability to applied water. The mechanical impact of water droplets enhanced soil dispersion and further lowered their infiltration capacity, particularly for high clay plus silt content soils that showed the poorest results. As a consequence, high runoff and se...

  15. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  16. Optimal parameters for the Green-Ampt infiltration model under rainfall conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Green-Ampt (GA model is widely used in hydrologic studies as a simple, physically-based method to estimate infiltration processes. The accuracy of the model for applications under rainfall conditions (as opposed to initially ponded situations has not been studied extensively. We compared calculated rainfall infiltration results for various soils obtained using existing GA parameterizations with those obtained by solving the Richards equation for variably saturated flow. Results provided an overview of GA model performance evaluated by means of a root-meansquare- error-based objective function across a large region in GA parameter space as compared to the Richards equation, which showed a need for seeking optimal GA parameters. Subsequent analysis enabled the identification of optimal GA parameters that provided a close fit with the Richards equation. The optimal parameters were found to substantially outperform the standard theoretical parameters, thus improving the utility and accuracy of the GA model for infiltration simulations under rainfall conditions. A sensitivity analyses indicated that the optimal parameters may change for some rainfall scenarios, but are relatively stable for high-intensity rainfall events.

  17. Implementation of a monitoring system to measure impact of stormwater runoff infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, S; Gibert, J; Winiarski, T; Bertrand Krajewski, J L

    2002-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration is a drainage mode, which is more and more used in urban areas in France. Given the characteristics of urban surfaces, and especially the loads of various pollutants contained in stormwater, it is important to assess the impact of stormwater infiltration systems on soil and groundwater by carrying out field experiments. The main difficulty is due to the complexity of the system observed and the need of multidisciplinary approaches. Another difficulty is that measurements are carried out in situ, in an uncontrolled environment submitted to quantitatively and qualitatively highly variable interferences. Very long term monitoring is needed to get representative results. In order to contribute to solve these problems, the OTHU project has recently been launched in Lyon (France). One of its key action concerns a long-term (10 years) experiment on an infiltration basin specifically rehabilitated for measurements and operational drainage issues. This paper presents the experimental site, the objectives of the project and the way the monitoring process has been built according to the various disciplines involved (biology, ecology, hydrology, chemistry and soil sciences) and to the will of assessing all the uncertainties in the measurement process.

  18. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lange

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the influence of tree roots from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectrometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to fine root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on fine root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots improve soil structure and thus infiltration.

  19. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  20. Determination of infiltration and percolation rates along a reach of the Santa Fe River near La Bajada, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole L.; Stewart, Amy E.; Constantz, Jim E.

    2000-01-01

    -28, 1997. Percolation rates were not calculated for the September 27-October 6, 1997, period because a late summer flood removed the temperature sensors from the streambed. Investigators used a heat-and-water flow model, VS2DH (variably saturated, two- dimensional heat), to calculate near-surface streambed infiltration and percolation rates from temperatures measured in the stream and streambed. Near the stream-sediment interface, infiltration and percolation rates are comparable. Comparison of infiltration and percolation rates showed that infiltration rates were greater than percolation rates. The method used to calculate infiltration rates accounted for net loss or gain over the entire stream reach, whereas the method used to calculate percolation was dependent on point measurements and, as applied in this study, neglected the nonvertical component of heat and water fluxes. In general, using the ground-water method was less labor intensive than making a series of streamflow measurements and relied on temperature, an easily measured property. The ground-water method also eliminated the difficulty of measuring or estimating evaporation from the water surface and was therefore more direct. Both methods are difficult to use during periods of flood flow. The ground-water method has problems with the thermocouple-wire temperature sensors washing out during flood events. The surface- water method often cannot be used because of safety concerns for personnel making wading streamflow measurements.

  1. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  2. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; David Kinner,; Xavier Úbeda,

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(θi), as a function of initial soil moisture content, θi, ranging from extremely dry conditions (θi water repellency that influences Kf and S(θi).Values of Kf ranged from 4.5 × 10−3 to 53 × 10−3 cm s−1 for ash; from 0.93 × 10−3 to 130 × 10−3 cm s−1 for reference soils; and from 0.86 × 10−3 to 3.0 × 10−3 cm s−1, for soil unaffected by fire, which had the lowest values of Kf. Measurements indicated that S(θi) could be represented by an empirical non-linear function of θi with a sorptivity maximum of 0.18–0.20 cm s−0.5, between 0.03 and 0.08 cm3 cm−3. This functional form differs from the monotonically decreasing non-linear functions often used to represent S(θi) for rainfall–runoff modeling. The sorptivity maximum may represent the combined effects of gravity, capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(θi) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall–runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds

  3. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagouri Flora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas, whereas decreased Hsp90 expression has been reported in precursor lobular lesions. This study aims to assess Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinomas of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 32 patients with infiltrative lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90 was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. Concerning Hsp90 assessment: i the percentage of positive cells and ii the intensity were separately analyzed. Subsequently, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results All infiltrative lobular carcinoma foci mainly presented with a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. Compared to the adjacent normal ducts and lobules, infiltrative lobular carcinoma exhibited a statistically significant decrease in Hsp90 expression, both in terms of Hsp90 positive cells (% and Allred score (74.2 ± 11.2 vs. 59.1 ± 14.2 p = 0.0001; 7.00 ± 0.95 vs. 6.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Concerning the intensity of Hsp90 immunostaining only a marginal decrease was noted (2.16 ± 0.68 vs. 1.84 ± 0.63, p = 0.087, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Conclusion ILC lesions seem to exhibit decreased Hsp90 expression, a finding contrary to what might have been expected, given that high Hsp90 expression is a trait of invasive ductal carcinomas.

  4. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  5. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Deletic, Ana; Roldin, Maria; Binning, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration is not widely available, and is important because many municipalities are considering infiltration as an alternative to traditional stormwater systems. This study analyzes groundwater level observations from an urban catchment located in Perth, Western Australia. The groundwater observation data cover approximately a 40-year-long period where land use changes (particularly due to urbanization) occurred; moreover, the monitored area contains both undeveloped and urbanized areas where stormwater infiltration is common practice via soakwells (shallow vertical infiltration wells). The data is analyzed using a distributed and dynamic hydrological model to simulate the groundwater response. The model explicitly couples a soakwell model with a groundwater model so that the performance of the soakwells is reduced by the increase of groundwater levels. The groundwater observation data is used to setup, calibrate and validate a coupled MIKE SHE-MIKE URBAN groundwater model and the model is used to quantify the extent of groundwater rise as a result of the urbanization process. The modeled urbanization processes included the irrigation of new established private and public gardens, the reduction of evapotranspiration due to a decrease in green areas, and the development of artificial stormwater infiltration. The study demonstrates that urbanization with stormwater infiltration affects the whole catchment water balance, increasing recharge and decreasing evapotranspiration. These changes lead to a rise in the groundwater table and an increase in the probability of groundwater seepage above terrain.

  6. Optimal estimation reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Del Bianco, Samuele; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cavalieri, Stefano; Di Ninni, Paola; Binzoni, Tiziano; Jelzow, Alexander; Macdonald, Rainer; Wabnitz, Heidrun

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we have tested the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm for the reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered liquid tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements. The OE allows a priori information, in particular on the range of variation of fit parameters, to be included. The purpose of the present investigations was to compare the performance of OE with the Levenberg-Marquardt method for a geometry and real experimental conditions typically used to reconstruct the optical properties of biological tissues such as muscle and brain. The absorption coefficient of the layers was varied in a range of values typical for biological tissues. The reconstructions performed demonstrate the substantial improvements achievable with the OE provided a priori information is available. We note the extreme reliability, robustness, and accuracy of the retrieved absorption coefficient of the second layer obtained with the OE that was found for up to six fit parameters, with an error in the retrieved values of less than 10%. A priori information on fit parameters and fixed forward model parameters clearly improves robustness and accuracy of the inversion procedure.

  7. Improving the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins by guided-learning through a two-layer neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2009-03-01

    This article attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins through improved learning. Most methods developed for improving the backpropagation algorithm of artificial neural networks are limited to small neural networks. Here, we introduce a guided-learning method suitable for networks of any size. The method employs a part of the weights for guiding and the other part for training and optimization. We demonstrate this technique by predicting residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins. In this application, the guiding factor is designed to satisfy the intuitive condition that for most residues, the contribution of a residue to the structural properties of another residue is smaller for greater separation in the protein-sequence distance between the two residues. We show that the guided-learning method makes a 2-4% reduction in 10-fold cross-validated mean absolute errors (MAE) for predicting residue solvent accessibility and backbone torsion angles, regardless of the size of database, the number of hidden layers and the size of input windows. This together with introduction of two-layer neural network with a bipolar activation function leads to a new method that has a MAE of 0.11 for residue solvent accessibility, 36 degrees for psi, and 22 degrees for phi. The method is available as a Real-SPINE 3.0 server in http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

  8. Integration of Ground and Multi-Resolution Satellite Data for Predicting the Water Balance of a Mediterranean Two-Layer Agro-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Battista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of site water budget is important in Mediterranean areas, where it represents a crucial factor affecting the quantity and quality of traditional crop production. This is particularly the case for spatially fragmented, multi-layer agricultural ecosystems such as olive groves, which are traditional cultivations of the Mediterranean basin. The current paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of spatialized meteorological data and remote sensing techniques to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETA and the soil water content (SWC of an olive orchard in Central Italy. The relatively small size of this orchard (about 0.1 ha and its two-layer structure (i.e., olive trees and grasses require the integration of remotely sensed data with different spatial and temporal resolutions (Terra-MODIS, Landsat 8-OLI and Ikonos. These data are used to drive a recently proposed water balance method (NDVI-Cws and predict ETA and then site SWC, which are assessed through comparison with sap flow and soil wetness measurements taken in 2013. The results obtained indicate the importance of integrating satellite imageries having different spatio-temporal properties in order to properly characterize the examined olive orchard. More generally, the experimental evidences support the possibility of using widely available remotely sensed and ancillary datasets for the operational estimation of ETA and SWC in olive tree cultivation systems.

  9. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  10. Physicochemical properties of hull-less barley fibre-rich fractions varying in particle size and their potential as functional ingredients in two-layer flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, M S; Chornick, T L; Paulley, F G; Edwards, N M; Dexter, J E

    2008-05-15

    The performance of barley fibre-rich fractions (FRF), as high dietary fibre ingredients, in two-layer flat bread was investigated. In addition, the effects of particle size reduction by pin milling on functional properties of FRF were studied. FRF enriched in non-starch polysaccharides (β-glucans and arabinoxylans) were obtained by roller milling of hull-less barley. Pin milling (PM) of FRF significantly reduced their particle size, slightly increased the solubility of β-glucans and arabinoxylans, and increased the viscosity of water slurries containing FRF. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour significantly increased dough water absorption and weakened the dough properties, as indicated by farinograph mixing curves, but the FRF-enriched doughs exhibited good handling characteristics at the dividing and sheeting stages. The appearance, diameter, layer separation, crumb, and aroma of the FRF-enriched flat breads were comparable to that of the control. The PM of FRF did not significantly affect the dough handling or the quality characteristics of flat breads. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour flat bread provided substantial health benefits by significantly increasing the total and soluble dietary fibre contents and by decreasing starch digestibility.

  11. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  13. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale ( 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  14. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan DF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dennis F Flanagan Windham Dental Group, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. Keywords: articaine, local anesthesia, infiltration, dental implant, dental restoration

  15. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  16. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  17. Infiltration Behaviour of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete and Porous Asphalt Surfaces Used in SuDS Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo Fontaneda, Luis Ángel; Rodríguez Hernández, Jorge; Calzada Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Castro Fresno, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are one of the world’s most widely applied techniques for source control in sustainable drainage systems. Porous concrete (PC) and porous asphalt (PA) are two of the most studied surfaces in terms of runoff reduction. Nevertheless, previous research has highlighted a lack of a comprehensive laboratory methodology for the analysis of the topographical variables, runoff surface length (RSL) and surface slope (SS), and their impact on the infiltration behaviour of these porou...

  18. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  19. Piperacillin-Associated Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Ling-I Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia attributed to piperacillin/tazobactam therapy is described. A 54-year-old woman was treated for a suspected severe urinary tract infection with piperacillin/tazobactam. Four days later, she developed fever, chills, shortness of breath and intermittent chest pains. Eosinophilia was noted in peripheral blood and, subsequently, on bronchoalveolar lavage. Transbronchial biopsy showed tissue infiltrates with eosinophilia. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, or vasculitis was observed. Her symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia subsided after drug discontinuation and oral prednisone treatment. Piperacillin is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic prescribed for moderate to severe infections. The common adverse reactions to piperacillin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash. Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia is a rare adverse reaction, but one that may result in significant morbidity. Physicians should be aware of this rare but important adverse reaction to piperacillin.

  20. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  1. On chemiluminescent emission from an infiltrated chiral sculptured thin film

    CERN Document Server

    Jamaian, Siti S

    2010-01-01

    The theory describing the far-field emission from a dipole source embedded inside a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF), based on a spectral Green function formalism, was further developed to allow for infiltration of the void regions of the CSTF by a fluid. In doing so, the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism--which accommodates constituent particles that are small compared to wavelength but not vanishingly small--was used to estimate the relative permittivity parameters of the infiltrated CSTF. For a numerical example, we found that left circularly polarized (LCP) light was preferentially emitted through one face of the CSTF while right circularly polarized (RCP) light was preferentially emitted through the opposite face, at wavelengths within the Bragg regime. The centre wavelength for the preferential emission of LCP/RCP light was red shifted as the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid increased from unity, and this red shift was accentuated when the size of the constituent particles in our h...

  2. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading...... performance of the electrodes. The electrochemical results revealed that the polarization resistance of the cathodes significantly was decreased by infiltration from 2.59 to 0.034 Ω cm2 measured at 670 °C. The best electrode performance was achieved at a calcination temperature of 770 °C. It was also found...

  3. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......-supported SOFC. The cathodes are obtained by infiltrating LSM into a sintered either thick (300 μm) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone or a thin YSZ backbone (10-15 μm) integrated onto a thick (300 μm) porous strontium substituted lanthanum manganite (LSM) and YSZ composite. Fabrication challenges...... printed symmetrical cells. Samples with LSM/YSZ composite and YSZ backbones made with graphite+PMMA as pore formers exhibited comparable Rp values to the screen printed LSM/YSZ cathode. This route was chosen as the best to fabricate the cathode supported cells. SEM micrograph of a cathode supported cell...

  4. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  5. Construction of Wave-free Potentials and Multipoles in a Two-layer Fluid Having Free-surface Boundary Condition with Higher-order Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Das

    2015-01-01

    There is a large class of problems in the field of fluid structure interaction where higher-order boundary conditions arise for a second-order partial differential equation. Various methods are being used to tackle these kind of mixed boundary-value problems associated with the Laplace’s equation (or Helmholtz equation) arising in the study of waves propagating through solids or fluids. One of the widely used methods in wave structure interaction is the multipole expansion method. This expansion involves a general combination of a regular wave, a wave source, a wave dipole and a regular wave-free part. The wave-free part can be further expanded in terms of wave-free multipoles which are termed as wave-free potentials. These are singular solutions of Laplace’s equation or two-dimensional Helmholz equation. Construction of these wave-free potentials and multipoles are presented here in a systematic manner for a number of situations such as two-dimensional non-oblique and oblique waves, three dimensional waves in two-layer fluid with free surface condition with higher order partial derivative are considered. In particular, these are obtained taking into account of the effect of the presence of surface tension at the free surface and also in the presence of an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. Also for limiting case, it can be shown that the multipoles and wave-free potential functions go over to the single layer multipoles and wave-free potential.

  6. A Two Layers Novel Low-Cost and Optimized Embedded Board Based on TMS320C6713 DSP and Spartan-3 FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Rashidi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a new low-cost and minimum embedded board based on TMS320C6713 (PYP 208-PIN (PQFP DSP and Spartan-3 (XCS400-4PQG208C FPGA in two layers with mount elements on two sides of the board. The proposed embedded board was developed satisfactorily for different applications such as data acquisition of sensor’s with serial port, control units, finite state machines, signal processing algorithms, navigation computing, Kalman filtering etc. Goal of the design was to implement as many as possible low-cost and minimum sizes of the board, also to receive input signals in a short time period and as real time. The board features are include: mount elements in two side of the board for minimization of the proposed board and also placed decoupling capacitors (by pass for the DSP and FPGA in bottom layer of board strictly below these two ICs because should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pins DSP and FPGA, GND polygon layer is used in total top layer and microcomputer ground for DSP & FPGA in bottom layer, use FPGA for two aim ones for implementation of glue logic total of board and interface between serial connectors, use three RS-232 serial port, one RS-422, and SPI serial port on FPGA, use MT48LC16M16A SDRAM-256MB(4*4MB*16, Am29LV400B Flash memory 4 Megabit (512 K x 8-Bit/256 K x 16-Bit and XCF02S configuration PROM. The size of the proposed embedded board is 11.1cm*17. 7cm so this board is optimized of aspect cost, performance, power, weight, and size.

  7. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  8. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  9. Unsteady two-layered fluid flow of conducting fluids in a channel between parallel porous plates under transverse magnetic field in a rotating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linga Raju T.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady MHD two-layered fluid flow of electrically conducting fluids in a horizontal channel bounded by two parallel porous plates under the influence of a transversely applied uniform strong magnetic field in a rotating system is analyzed. The flow is driven by a common constant pressure gradient in a channel bounded by two parallel porous plates, one being stationary and the other oscillatory. The two fluids are assumed to be incompressible, electrically conducting with different viscosities and electrical conductivities. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the linear ordinary differential equations using two-term series. The resulting equations are solved analytically to obtain exact solutions for the velocity distributions (primary and secondary in the two regions respectively, by assuming their solutions as a combination of both the steady state and time dependent components of the solutions. Numerical values of the velocity distributions are computed for different sets of values of the governing parameters involved in the study and their corresponding profiles are also plotted. The details of the flow characteristics and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, Taylor number, porous parameter, ratio of the viscosities, electrical conductivities and heights are discussed. Also an observation is made how the velocity distributions vary with the rotating hydromagnetic interaction in the case of steady and unsteady flow motions. The primary velocity distributions in the two regions are seen to decrease with an increase in the Taylor number, but an increase in the Taylor number causes a rise in secondary velocity distributions. It is found that an increase in the porous parameter decreases both the primary and secondary velocity distributions in the two regions.

  10. INFLUENCE OF VARIATIONS OF THE CONDUCTIVITY OF UPPER LAYER OF TWO-LAYER SAMPLE ON OF PHASE INTRODUCED ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF SUPERIMPOSED TRANSDUCER OF EDDY CURRENT THICKNESS METER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chernyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In carrying out eddy current thickness measurement of two-layer conductive objects one from the interfering factors is the presence of variations in the value of the electrical conductivity of the material of the upper layer (coating when moving from point to point on the surface of object of control or when passing from one object of control to another. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of determining the thickness of the conductive coating disposed on a conducting ferromagnetic basis, using the phase method of eddy current testing. The reason of the error is variation of the electrical conductivity of the material of coating.Determination of the error is based on calculations using known analytical expressions for the loop with current of sinusoidal form arranged over the infinite half space with a covering as a thin layer. Selected in calculating electromagnetic parameters of coating and substrate approximately correspond to the case -chromium layer on a nickel base. Calculations are performed for different frequencies of current passed through coil.It is shown that at reduction of frequency of the current passes through the coil the error is reduced. The value of the lowest possible operating frequency of the excitation current is determined by the condition of absence influence on the phase introduced into the superimposed transducer emf variations in the thickness of the basis.To reduce the indicated error it is proposed to determine, on the basis of phase method at a relatively high frequency transducer current excitation, conductivity of the material of coating. After this, at a low frequency excitation current and using phase method, the coating thickness is determined, taking into consideration the previously determined value of the conductivity of coating. Also discussed ways to improve the accuracy of phase measurements in the MHz region of the excitation current frequency. 

  11. Using stable water isotopes in a two-layer soil moisture conceptual framework to understand transpiration dynamics in a semiarid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutu, D. J.; Papuga, S. A.; Wehr, R.

    2014-12-01

    Semiarid shrublands and other dryland ecosystems are highly sensitive to precipitation pulses. Because the frequency and magnitude of precipitation events have been projected to change for these ecosystems, the nature of these pulses and how they are distributed as moisture in the soil profile are also expected to change. Previous research has suggested that transpiration dynamics in drylands are associated with deep soil moisture, which accumulates after large rainfall events. Because transpiration is the productive component of evapotranspiration in that it is water used toward biomass accumulation, a hypothetical decrease in large rainfall events would have major consequences for the health and functioning of dryland ecosystems. Furthermore, as drylands account for nearly 40% of terrestrial biomes, these cascading changes have the potential to impact global water and carbon budgets. Still, in pulse-dependent dryland ecosystems, the relative contribution of transpiration to evapotranspiration and the temporal dynamics of this contribution are not well understood. The objective of this research is to better characterize the temporal dynamics of transpiration in dryland ecosystems. We present the relative contribution of transpiration to evapotranspiration over the course of a year from eddy covariance and sap flow measurements taken at a creosotebush-dominated shrubland ecosystem in southern Arizona. We analyze soil moisture and stable water isotopes within the context of a two-layer soil moisture conceptual framework in an attempt to identify the source water for transpiration. We use these results to explain the temporal dynamics of transpiration in this semiarid shrubland. Finally, we put our results in the context of regional climate projections to suggest how this dryland ecosystem might be impacted in the future. We expect our study will contribute to understanding where precipitation pulses are distributed in the soil moisture profile and when these pulses

  12. 异经多纬双层织物的生产%Production of Two-layer Fabric with Different Warp and Multiple Weft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯军; 刘渊民; 邓红卫

    2012-01-01

    Design and key points in producing two-layer fabric with different warp and multiple wefts were discussed. The differences between warp and weft were larger,the production difficulties were larger than that of traditional fabric,two kinds of warp tension should be controlled well in warping. Slub yarn was dyed in sizing process to ensure correct reed-in. In weaving process, weft-inserting pressure of main nozzle was adjusted properly, loom tension was increased properly, loom processing was optimized rationally to prevent weft movement in back and weft shrinkage et al After adjusting processing, loom efficiency can be reached above 87% , storage rate of first-class product can be reached above 99. 8% , design and production demands can be reached.%探讨异经多纬双层织物的设计与生产技术要点.针对织物经纬纱差异、生产难度比传统织物大的特点,整经工序要控制好两种经纱的张力;浆纱时对其中的竹节纱进行上色,确保穿筘工序按工艺排列正确穿筘;织造工序合理调节主喷嘴引纬气压,适当增加上机张力,合理调试上机工艺,防止反面纬纱游移、纬缩等疵点造成染整后布面风格与质量变差.通过对工艺进行调整后,织机效率达到87%以上,产品入库一等品率达99.8%以上,满足了设计及生产要求.

  13. Sandbox modelling of sequential thrusting in a mechanically two-layered system and its implications in fold-and-thrust belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Puspendu; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir

    2016-10-01

    Many fold-and-thrust belts display multi-storied thrust sequences, characterizing a composite architecture of the thrust wedges. Despite dramatic progress in sandbox modelling over the last three decades, our understanding of such composite thrust-wedge mechanics is limited and demands a re-visit to the problem of sequential thrusting in mechanically layered systems. This study offers a new approach to sandbox modelling, designed with a two-layered sandpack simulating a mechanically weak Coulomb layer, resting coherently upon a stronger Coulomb layer. Our experimental models reproduce strikingly similar styles of the multi-storied frontal thrust sequences observed in natural fold-and- thrust belts. The upper weak horizon undergoes sequential thrusting at a high spatial frequency, forming numerous, closely spaced frontal thrusts, whereas the lower strong horizon produces widely spaced thrusts with progressive horizontal shortening. This contrasting thrust progression behaviour gives rise to composite thrust architecture in the layered sandpack. We show the evolution of such composite thrust sequences as a function of frictional strength (μb) at the basal detachment and thickness ratio (Tr) between the weak and strong layers. For any given values of Tr and μb, the two thrust sequences progress at different rates; the closely-spaced, upper thrust sequence advances forelandward at a faster rate than the widely-spaced, lower thrust sequence. Basal friction (μb) has little effects on the vergence of thrusts in the upper weak layer; they verge always towards foreland, irrespective of Tr values. But, the lower strong layer develops back-vergent thrusts when μb is low (∼0.36). In our experiments, closely spaced thrusts in the upper sequence experience intense reactivation due to their interaction with widely spaced thrusts in the lower sequence. The interaction eventually affects the wedge topography, leading to two distinct parts: inner and outer wedges

  14. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate

  15. A METHOD AND AN ELECTRODE PRODUCED BY INFILTRATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    firing. The high temperature firing allows the Pr ions to diffuse into the CGO backbone. The resulting backbone would then have a co-doped subsurface exhibiting electronic conductivity having improved performance when used as electrode in, e.g. a fuel cell. Remaining particles of praseodymium oxide......The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperature...

  16. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  17. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid layer consisting of dug sand (76 cm) was used for the trial. Over a period of 18 h 3.9 x 1010 TCID50 VHSV was supplied to the column, where after normal tap water was supplied for the rest of the tri...

  18. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  19. Asymptomatic leukemic-cell infiltration of the pancreas: US findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Dardanelli, Esteban; Sierre, Sergio; Moguillansky, Silvia; Lipsich, José

    2011-06-01

    Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. Pancreatic enlargement in this situation is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis. We report a 3-month-old girl who presented with asymptomatic leukemic infiltration of the pancreas, demonstrated by US with heterogeneous pancreatic enlargement associated with multiple hypoechogenic lesions, without cholestasis. Although these manifestations are rare, ALL should be considered a cause of pancreatic enlargement.

  20. Infiltrating lipoma of the chin: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoma, also known as universal tumor or ubiquitous tumor, can occur anywhere in the body, its incidence being 0.1-5% of all head and neck neoplasms. They are benign neoplasms composed of mature adipocytes. There are various types of lipoma based on the constituent tissue type and location of the lipoma. Though lipomas are slow growing and seldom invade adjacent tissue, some variants do exhibit infiltrative behavior. Here, a case of infiltrating type of lipoma of the chin region is presented, which had suddenly increased size in the last 1 year, which led the patient to seek surgical treatment.

  1. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  2. Oxidation processes and clogging in intermittent unsaturated infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancolé, A; Brissaud, F; Gnagne, T

    2003-01-01

    Intermittent infiltration of wastewater through a non saturated sand bed is an extensive treatment process aimed at eliminating organic pollution, oxidizing ammonia and removing pathogens. A 1D numerical model, IPOX, has been worked out to simulate the transfer and oxidation of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen in unsaturated sand beds. IPOX was calibrated after real scale tests performed in Spain and Burkina Faso. Simulations allowed us to point out the influence of (i) kinetics on oxidation performances and (ii) biomass development on the process sustainability. These results brought a new light on the sizing and operation of infiltration percolation and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) plants.

  3. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface soil of source-control stormwater infiltration devices - Inter-site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Branchu, Philippe; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Stormwater runoff infiltration brings about some concerns regarding its potential impact on both soil and groundwater quality; besides, the fate of contaminants in source-control devices somewhat suffers from a lack of documentation. The present study was dedicated to assessing the spatial distribution of three heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc) in the surface soil of ten small-scale infiltration facilities, along with several physical parameters (soil moisture, volatile matter, variable thickness of the upper horizon). High-resolution samplings and in-situ measurements were undertaken, followed by X-ray fluorescence analyses and spatial interpolation. Highest metal accumulation was found in a relatively narrow area near the water inflow zone, from which concentrations markedly decreased with increasing distance. Maximum enrichment ratios amounted to >20 in the most contaminated sites. Heavy metal patterns give a time-integrated vision of the non-uniform infiltration fluxes, sedimentation processes and surface flow pathways within the devices. This element indicates that the lateral extent of contamination is mainly controlled by hydraulics. The evidenced spatial structure of soil concentrations restricts the area where remediation measures would be necessary in these systems, and suggests possible optimization of their hydraulic functioning towards an easier maintenance. Heterogeneous upper boundary conditions should be taken into account when studying the fate of micropollutants in infiltration facilities with either mathematical modeling or soil coring field surveys.

  4. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  5. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  6. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus;

    2001-01-01

    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  7. The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide...

  8. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We pr

  9. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  10. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective of this st......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...... of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation...... from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...

  11. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Dennis F

    2016-01-01

    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. PMID:26730209

  12. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  13. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Uestuen; Karli-Oguz, Kader [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Emir, Suna; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver [Department of Paediatrics, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Koese, Guelsen [Paediatric Clinic, SSK Ankara Training Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    An extremely rare case of congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) associated with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly is reported in a 3-month-old boy. MRI not only thoroughly evaluated the extent of the lesion, but also demonstrated the cerebral anomaly. MRI is indispensable in the evaluation of patients suspected of having CILF. (orig.)

  14. Diffuse Infiltrative Lesion of the Breast: Clinical and Radiologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yeong Yi; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Yoon, Soo Kyung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Eun Suk [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Sook [St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Suk [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, In Yong [Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to show the clinical and radiologic features of a variety of diffuse, infiltrative breast lesions, as well to review the relevant literature. Radiologists must be familiar with the various conditions that can diffusely involve the breast, including normal physiologic changes, benign disease and malignant neoplasm

  15. Gene Rearrangement Analysis of Orbital Lymphoid Infiltrating Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu; Shuqi Huang; Yongping Li

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the use of polymerase chain reaction for B-cell gene rearrangement in patients with orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders could be useful in the diagnosis of lymphoma, especially, in differentiating benign lesion from malignant one. Methods: In addition to clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical evaluations,48 cases of orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders were examined for immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) gene rearrangement by means of PCR to amplify the FR3 region with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Results: Gene rearrangement in the third frame-work of the IgH region was detected in specimens obtained from 15 cases of malignant lymphoma, 4 of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 3 of orbital pseudotumor. All of these patients showed a discrete band (100bp) which reflected monoclonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. 5 cases of malignant lymphoma, 6 of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 15 of orbital pseudotumor did not show a discrete band on PCR. Conclusions: The FR3 region gene rearrangement of Ig heavy in patients with orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders may be an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating benign from malignant lymphoid diseases and in offering a useful adjunct for diagnosis in difficult or unclear cases. It is a reliable and practical method of gene diagnosis in orbital lymphoid infiltrate disorders and helps to identify the molecular mechanism of malignant lymphoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:15 ~ 21.

  16. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  17. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  18. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  19. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus

    2001-01-01

    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  20. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1 leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2 the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN, MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the

  1. Influence of soil water repellency on infiltration into fine- to coarse-textured soils of burned and unburned rangeland ecosystems in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water repellency and its spatial and temporal variability have been documented for a range of soil types and plant communities. The magnitude of its influence on infiltration of rainfall however remains uncertain, particularly for rangeland landscapes in the western United States. Very little i...

  2. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bunsri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various combinations of water balance concepts, Richards’ equation, soil-physics theory and capillary height concepts were applied to mathematically model the movement of water through infiltration-redistribution system. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the developed model were evaluated for the case study. Besides the laboratory scale sand/soil columns with the inner diameter of 10.4 cm were investigated in order to provide the supporting data for model calibration. Sand/soil layers were packed with a bulk density of 1.80 and 1.25 g/cm3, respectively. The infiltration was sprayed uniformly at the soil surface with the constant rate of 66.1 and 7.18 cm3/h for sand and soil columns, respectively. The redistribution process was developed by which water arriving at the column base enter to the sand/soil column due to capillary rise. The laboratory observations were simulated using the developed model. The results indicate that the developed model could well estimate the movement of water in the infiltration-redistribution system that observed in the case study and the experiments.

  3. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  4. Dentin infiltration ability of different classes of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Alina; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the dentin infiltration ability of various types of adhesives and compares four classes of adhesive systems with regard to this property. The infiltration is determined quantitatively, characterized as tag length and ratio of infiltration, and qualitatively, characterized as homogeneity, regularity, and continuity of the resin tags. Flat dentin surfaces from 140 halves of caries-free molars were bonded with four classes of adhesive systems. The adhesives (n = 20) were labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate and applied on the occlusal dentin following the manufacturer's recommendations and were subsequently light cured, 20 s. Then a 2-mm thick composite layer was applied and light cured, 20 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C, 24 h. Two slices were sectioned mesio-distally from each sample and were investigated with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The measurements were done at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm from the enamel-dentin junction. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the general linear model. The class of adhesive, the composition, and the dentin position were significant factors affecting the investigated parameters. The use of etch and rinse adhesives in comparison to self-etch adhesives provided the formation of longer, more homogeneous, very regularly distributed but mostly fractured tags. A comparison of adhesives confirmed that etch and rinse systems remain better in bond infiltration. While the importance of tags formation on bonding is still controversially discussed, adhesive systems with a high ratio of infiltration might better protect the tooth against microorganism contamination.

  5. Optimized analysis and experimental study for two-layer contact of crystalline silicon solar cells%晶体硅太阳电池双层电极优化分析与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 周春兰; 刘振刚; 赵雷; 李海玲; 刁宏伟; 王文静

    2012-01-01

    相对于单层电极结构,优化的前表面双层电极能够明显减小功率损失,改善晶体硅太阳电池的电学特性.本文对晶体硅太阳电池的双层电极进行了优化分析和实验研究.通过扫描电子显微镜观测将双层电极的截面抽象为更接近于实际的半椭圆型,建立了太阳电池前表面的双层电极模型,理论分析了双层电极的电学损失和光学损失.结合丝网印刷后光诱导电镀太阳电池的实验,得到了理论和实验上的最优化光诱导电镀增厚电极厚度与丝网印刷电极宽度的关系.所得到的理论和实验结果符合良好.由于并不涉及电极制备的具体技术,双层电极理论模型普遍适用于多种类型的双层电极结构.%Compared with single-layer contact,optimized two-layer contact of front side could diminish power losses distinctly and improve the electrical performance of crystalline silicon solar cell.In this paper,the optimized analysis and experimental study for two-layer contact of crystalline silicon solar cell are carried out.The model of two-layer contact is established by abstracting the crosssection of two-layer contact into semi-elliptical shape closer to the realistic situation according to the SEM observation.The electrical losses and the optical losses of two-layer contact are analyzed in theory.In combination with experimental screen-printed contact thickened by light-induced electroplating solar cell,the relationship between the optimum thickening contact thickness by light-induced electroplating and the screen-printed contact width is achieved in theory and experiment.The corresponding theory and experimental results are in good agreement with each other.Due to involving no concrete technology of contact preparation,the theoretical model of two-layer contact is generally appticable for many types of two-layer contact structures in consequence.

  6. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  7. 面向个性化推荐的两层混合图模型%Hybrid Graph Model with Two Layers for Personalized Recommendation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少中; 陈德人

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid graph model for personalized recom-mendation,which is based on small world network and Bayesian network,is presented.The hybrid graph model has two-layers.The bottom level means user's layer and the upper one means merchandise's layer.The user's layer is an undirected arcs graph,which describes the relation of the user's nodes by small world network.The undirected arcs inside the connected nodes of user's layer mean the similarity of the preference of users.These arcs are weighted by relational strength.The weight represents node's similarity or link's strength and intensity.Nodes in the same group are more similar to each other or more strongly connected.Users in a produce to others.It is connected by directed links,which means an implicated definition among merchandises,a user that purchase certain merchandise also tends to purchase another.The properties and content of merchandise can be used to show the similarity of the merchandise.The relations between user's layer and merchandise's layer are connected by directed links.The start nede of the directed links is a user node in user's layer belonging to some node group,which is gained by small world network.The end node of links is the node of some merchandise of the merchandise's layer.The directed links between the user's layer and the merchandise's layer are connected based on trade information of users.The strength of the relation between users and merchandises can be denoted by the probability parameter.The probability parameter shows a possibility of some users selecting for some merchandises. Firstly,algorithms for users clustering and for analysis of new user interest are presented to construct a hybrid graph model.Two important characteristic parameters,which are in small-world network,are introduced.These are characteristic path length and clustering coefficient.New user interest analysis is to judge which clustering group is the best match by calculating the distance of the new user node to

  8. Analysis of hydrological and geotechnical aspects related to landslides caused by rainfall infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; La Sala, Gabriella; Vena, Mirko; Donato, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A landslide is defined as a perceptible downward and outward movement of slope-forming soil, rock, and vegetation under the influence of gravity. Landslides can be triggered by both natural and human-induced changes in the environment. However rainfall is recognized as a major precursor for many types of slope movements. As a result of rainfall events and subsequent infiltration into the subsoil, the soil moisture can be significantly changed with a decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil layers and/or increase in pore-water pressure in saturated layers. As a consequence, in these cases, the shear strength can be reduced enough to trigger the failure. An effective way to develop such an understanding is by means of computer simulation using numerical model. As part of the project PON "Integrated Early Warning System" our main objective was just to develop a numerical models that was able to consider the relation between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability taking into account several components, including specific site conditions, mechanical, hydraulic and physical soil properties, local seepage conditions, and the contribution of these to soil strength. In this work the mechanism behind rainfall-triggered landslides is modeled by using combined infiltration, seepage and stability analyses. This method allows the evaluation of the terrain and its response based on geological, physical, hydrogeological and mechanical characteristics. The model is based on the combined use of two modules: an hydraulic module, to analyze the subsoil water circulation due to the rainfall infiltration under transient conditions and a geotechnical module, which provides indications regarding the slope stability. With regard to hydraulic module, variably saturated porous media flows have been modeled by the classical nonlinear Richards equation; in the geotechnical module the differential equilibrium equations have been solved taking into account the linear constitutive

  9. Water Repellency, Infiltration and Water Retention Properties of Forest Soils Under Different Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Bens, O.; Schäfer, B.; Hüttl, R. F.

    For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice can have significant influence on the hydraulic properties. It is therefore supposed, that management practices are capable of altering surface runoff, water retention and flood- ing risk for river catchments. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) can adversely affect soil hydrological properties, e.g. reduce infiltration capacity and induce pref- erential flow, thus enhancing the overall risk of flooding in river catchment areas. Hydrophobic effects are especially pronounced in coniferous forest soils. Investigations were carried out on several study plots in the German Northeastern Lowlands, located app. 50 km NE of Berlin in Brandenburg. Soils found in the area are mainly of glacifluvial origin with a pronounced sandy texture (with medium sized sand dominating). The four stands investigated represent different stages of forest transfor- mation, in a sense of a SfalseT chronosequence and are made up of populations of & cedil;Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica of different ages. Infiltration was measured with hood infiltrometers, and single infiltration rings at soil surface. Water retention capacity and the influence of soil organic matter on water storage were evaluated with laboratory methods. Water repellency was quantified with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, for determining the persistence of water repellency, and the ethanol percentage (EP) test, for measuring the severity/degree of water repellency. Soil samples from the four forest plots and different soil depths (0U160 cm) were used for the measurements. SPotentialT water repellencies were & cedil;determined after 3-day oven-drying at 45 C. The results indicate that for sandy forest soils, the overall infiltration capacity of the plots is low due to the effects of water repellency. The inter-variability of the plots is mainly caused by changes in the textural composition of the soils. For all plots a

  10. Hepatic failure caused by plasma cell infiltration in multiple Myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadi E Rahhal; Robert R Schade; Asha Nayak; Teresa A Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Although plasma cell infiltration is not rare in autopsy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), it is very rarely detected in living patients. This is because MM rarely causes significant liver dysfunction that requires further evaluation. A 49-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and was diagnosed with kappa light chain MM stage ?B. Thalidomide and dexamethasone were initiated. The patient developed a continuous increase in bilirubin that led to severe cholestasis. A liver biopsy revealed plasma cell infiltration. He then rapidly progressed to liver failure and died. Treatment options are limited in MM with significant liver dysfunction.Despite new drug therapies in MM, those patients with rapidly progressive liver failure appear to have a dismal outcome.

  11. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  12. Numerical study on rainfall infiltration in rock-soil slop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yuewu; LIU; Qingquan; CHEN; Huixin; GONG; Xin; ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for the rain infiltration in the rock-soil slop has been established and solved by using the finite element method. The unsteady water infiltrating process has been simulated to get water content both in the homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The simulated results show that the rock blocks in the rock-soil slop can cause the wetting front moving fast. If the rain intensity is increased, the saturated region will be formed quickly while other conditions are the same. If the rain intensity keeps a constant, it is possible to accelerate the generation of the saturated region by properly increasing the vertical filtration rate of the rock-soil slop. However, if the vertical filtration rate is so far greater than the rain intensity, it will be difficult to form the saturated region in the rock-soil slop. The numerical method was verified by comparing the calculation results with the field test data.

  13. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Ramirez, Adrián; Farias-Serratos, Felipe; Sanchez-Corona, José; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Farias-Serratos, Nadia M

    2014-12-01

    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five-month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies.

  14. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... parameter variations are presented and discussed with the aim of presenting specific guidelines for optimizing the microstructure of cathodes prepared by infiltration....

  15. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  16. Ordered nanoscale domains by infiltration of block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2016-11-08

    A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic/inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic features with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

  17. Influence of spontaneous vegetation in stormwater infiltration system clogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Barraud, Sylvie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents the role of spontaneous vegetation on the hydraulic performance of an infiltration basin. The objective of the research was more particularly to study this role of different types of spontaneous vegetation found in situ in an infiltration basin near Lyon. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of three areas covered by Phalaris arundinacea, Polygonum mite, Rumex crispus and similar non-vegetated zones was compared. Eight field campaigns were carried out from July 2010 to May 2011 in order to compare the performance of each type of vegetation and its evolution over time. The results suggest a positive impact of vegetation on hydraulic performance in particular in summer during the growth of the plants. The hydraulic conductivity in this period was twice to four times higher than in bare areas or in vegetated zones during the plant rest periods. Some species were also found more appropriate to limit clogging (Phalaris arundinacea) likely due to its specific structure and growth process.

  18. Pirfenidone inhibits macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Ni, Hai-Feng; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Hong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2013-03-15

    Tubulointerstitial macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease involved in the progression of renal fibrosis. Pirfenidone is a newly identified antifibrotic drug, the potential mechanism of which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pirfenidone on M1/M2 macrophage infiltration in nephrectomized rats. Nephrectomized rats were treated with pirfenidone by gavage for 12 wk. Twenty-four hour urinary protein, N-acetyl-β-D-glycosaminidase (NAG) activity, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were determined. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained for CD68, CCR7, and CD163 macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), as well as M1 and M2 macrophages secretory markers, were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Pirfenidone significantly improved the elevated proteinuria and NAG activity from week 2 onward after surgery. Pirfenidone attenuated interstitial fibrosis and decreased expression of fibrotic markers including transforming growth factor-β(1), connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and fibroblast-specific protein-1. Pirfenidone significantly decreased the infiltrating macrophages. The number of M1 and M2 macrophages was significantly lower after pirfenidone treatment. MCP-1 and MIP-1α were increased in nephrectomized rats at mRNA and protein levels. Pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expression. The TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide synthases-2 expressed by M1 macrophages were increased in nephrectomized rats, and pirfenidone significantly attenuated their expression. Pirfenidone treatment also significantly decreased arginase-1, dectin-1, CD206, and CD86 expressed by M2 macrophages. Thus pirfenidone inhibits M1 and M2 macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, which suggests its efficacy in the early and late periods of renal fibrosis.

  19. The Western Cultural Infiltration of Hollywood Movies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, Hol ywood movies become more and more popular among Chinese audience; it is undoubted that movie has become a cultural carrier that spreads different culture in the world. This paper aims at analyzing some typical features of Hol ywood Movies in China, and then focuses on discussing the positive effect and the negative influence embodied in Hol ywood Movies; final y, the author puts forward corresponding suggestions and countermeasures when we are faced with the cultural infiltration.

  20. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  1. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  2. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, O; Yildirim, T; Seyhan, T; Erbay, G; Erol, I

    2009-06-01

    Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) is a rare disorder, causing unilateral facial asymmetry characterized by enlargement of the cheek or chin. Hemimegalencephaly is a unique malformation characterized by enlargement of a cerebral hemisphere. The association of CILF and hemimegalencephaly has rarely been reported. We present a case of unilateral facial swelling in a 1.5-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed CILF associated with unilateral megalencephaly.

  3. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  4. On chemiluminescent emission from an infiltrated chiral sculptured thin film

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaian, Siti S.; Mackay, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The theory describing the far-field emission from a dipole source embedded inside a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF), based on a spectral Green function formalism, was further developed to allow for infiltration of the void regions of the CSTF by a fluid. In doing so, the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism--which accommodates constituent particles that are small compared to wavelength but not vanishingly small--was used to estimate the relative permittivity parameters of the infilt...

  5. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  6. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  7. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Giannakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies.

  8. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    . In order to answer this question a small trial was set up. VHSV and NaCl was added to cell culture medium with 10% foetal bovine serum, in order to mimic a “dirty” environment, to obtain from 1.9% to 20.9% NaCl and kept in the dark at 4°C. Samples were titrated after 5 min, 1 h and 20 h. No reduction......At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  9. Reducing chemical vapour infiltration time for ceramic matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, L. A.; Westby, W.; Prentice, C.; Jaglin, D.; Shatwell, R. A.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2001-02-01

    Conventional routes to producing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require the use of high temperatures to sinter the individual ceramic particles of the matrix together. Sintering temperatures are typically much higher than the upper temperature limits of the fibres. This paper details preliminary work carried out on producing a CMC via chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), a process that involves lower processing temperatures, thus avoiding fibre degradation. The CVI process has been modified and supplemented in an attempt to reduce the CVI process time and to lower the cost of this typically expensive process. To this end microwave-enhanced CVI (MECVI) has been chosen, along with two alternative pre-infiltration steps: electrophoretic infiltration and vacuum bagging. The system under investigation is based on silicon carbide fibres within a silicon carbide matrix (SiCf/SiC). The results demonstrate that both approaches result in an enhanced initial density and a consequent significant reduction in the time required for the MECVI processing step. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as a non-destructive, density evaluation technique. Initial results indicate that the presence of the SiC powder in the pre-form changes the deposition profile during the MECVI process.

  10. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  11. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  12. Autoimmune pancreatitis characterized by predominant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Yu Li; Xiang-Yang Huang; Yong-Tao Chen; Yi Liu; Sha Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of pancreatitis characterized by prominent lymphocyte infiltration and pancreatic fibrosis resulting in organ dysfunction.The pathogenesis and pathology of AIP remain unknown. A 64-year-old Chinese man presented with symptoms and signs of bile duct obstruction diffuse enlargement of the head of pancreas, elevated IgG levels, and negative autoimmune antibody responses. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and a pancreatic tumor was suspected. However,periductal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis were found in the head of pancreas and nearby organs instead of tumor cells. Four months after surgery, the patient was readmitted because of reoccurrence of severe jaundice and sustained abdominal distension. Prednisone 30 mg/d was administered orally as an AIP was suspected. One and a half months later, the symptoms of the patient disappeared, and globulin, aminotransferase and bilirubin levels decreased significantly. Over a 9-mo follow-up period, the dose of prednisone was gradually decreased to 10 mg/d and the patient remained in good condition. We further demonstrated dominant CD3+/CD8+ populations, CD20+ cells and a few CD4+ cells in the pancreatic parenchyma, duodenum and gallbladder wall by immunohistochemical assay. This AIP case presented with significant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration in the pancreas and extra-pancreatic lesions, indicating that this cell population may be more important in mediating AIP pathogenesis than previously known and that AIP might be a poorly defined autoimmune disease with heterogeneous pathogenesis.

  13. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk;

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  14. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  15. Graves' Disease Patients with Persistent Hyperthyroidism and Diffuse Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration in the Thyroid Show No Histopathological Compatibility with IgG4-Related Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijun Nishihara

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a novel disease entity characterized by diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis into multiple organs. There is still controversy over whether some thyroid diseases are actually IgG4-related disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of Graves' disease with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the thyroid.Among 1,484 Graves' disease patients who underwent thyroidectomy, we examined their histopathological findings including the degree of lymphoplasmacytic and fibrotic infiltration and levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Their clinical pictures were defined by laboratory and ultrasonographic evaluation.A total of 11 patients (0.74% showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, other patients showed variable lymphoid infiltration ranging from absent to focally dense but no aggregation of plasma cells in the thyroid gland. Based on the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease, 5 of the 11 subjects had specifically increased levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Fibrotic infiltration was present in only 1 patient developing hypothyroidism after anti-thyroid drug treatment for 4 years, but not in the other 10 patients with persistent hyperthyroidism. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified in any of the 11 subjects. Thyroid ultrasound examination showed 1 patient developing hypothyroidism who had diffuse hypoechogenicity, but the other hyperthyroid patients had a coarse echo texture.In our study, Graves' disease patients with persistent hyperthyroidism who had diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid showed no concomitant fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis.

  16. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to evaluate the results for a 60.5 h ponded infiltration experiment done around a 24 m deep, 0.15 m diameter, cased borehole at Yucca Mountain, NV. Nine distinct morphological horizons in the soil profile has been identified; physical and hydraulic properties had been measured for each horizon; and a porosity profile at the borehole had been measured. During the infiltration experiment, 10 cm of water was ponded in a 3.5 m diameter infiltrometer around the borehole, the volume of water applied was measured, and water content profiles were measured with a neutron moisture meter. The infiltrometer applied 86.9 cm of water during the first 60.5 h of infiltration, but only 52.8 cm of additional water was measured in the borehole profiles. Assuming a linear relationship between cumulative infiltration (I) and the square root of time (t{sup 0.5}), an experimental sorptivity of 11.5 cm h{sup {minus}1} was estimated for the first 4.5 h of infiltration. An assumed washout zone around the borehole casing accounted for the discrepancy between the measured water content profiles and the applied water. A uniform property, 1-D model with an applied flux upper boundary described by the sorptivity confirmed the probable washout zone, and indicated that significant lateral flow into the dry soil around the infiltrometer could occur. A 2-D radial flow model with the same properties and upper boundary demonstrated that significant lateral flow occurred. The upper boundary in this model caused the upper portion of the profile to drain. This suggested using a saturated upper boundary to keep the upper portion of the profile saturated. When the saturated upper boundary was used, the permeability of the soil was decreased from the measured value of 3.28 E-11 m{sup 2} to 1.5E-12 m{sup 2} so that the simulated wetting front at a similar depth as the observed wetting front after 60.5 h.

  17. Co-evolution of Vegetation, Sediment Transport and Infiltration on semi-arid hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A.; Lohse, K. A.; Sivapalan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Soils in semi-arid landscapes can vary over very small distances, with a great deal of variation associated with 'resource islands' created and maintained by woody vegetation. The distinct physical and hydraulic properties that arise in these islands can lead to spatial patterns of infiltration that have been implicated in the maintenance of the vegetation populating the island. Less well understood are the roles that the small-scale variability in soils plays in determining the transport of sediments, water and sediment-bound carbon and nitrogen across hillslopes. Here we explore these relationships using a coupled field and modeling approach. Detailed field data from hillslopes underlain by both granite and schist parent materials in the Santa Catalina mountains (part of the JSC Critical Zone Observatory) suggest that soils under individual velvet mesquite (latin name) contain higher concentration of soil organic matter and have higher hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity. Greater infiltration and increased roughness under the canopy appears to lead to the formation of mounds that alter overland flow lines around the area under the canopy, particularly in the finer schist soils. This diversion leads to a complex distribution of shear stresses across the hillslope, creating systematic patterns in the transport of carbon and nitrogen rich soils under the canopies. The relationship between the small scale mechanism and the emergent pattern dynamics in the temporal variability of materials delivered to the stream from the hillslope are also examined, and the implications of these results for the modeling of water, sediment and nutrient fluxes at hillslope scales will be discussed.

  18. Spinal cord injury caused by direct damage by local anaesthetic infiltration needle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absalom, AR; Martinelli, G; Scott, NB

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of spinal cord injury caused by direct trauma from a local anaesthetic infiltration needle. During local anaesthetic infiltration before placement of an epidural catheter, the patient suddenly rolled over onto her back, causing the infiltrating needle to advance all the way to its

  19. Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Simone, M.; Arrigoni, A.; Rossetti, G.; Gruarin, P.; Ranzani, V.; Politano, C.; Bonnal, R.J.; Provasi, E.; Sarnicola, M.L.; Panzeri, I.; Moro, M.; Crosti, M.; Mazzara, S.; Vaira, V.; Bosari, S.; Palleschi, A.; Santambrogio, L.; Bovo, G.; Zucchini, N.; Totis, M.; Gianotti, L.; Cesana, G.; Perego, R.A.; Maroni, N.; Pisani Ceretti, A.; Opocher, E.; De Francesco, R.; Geginat, J.; Stunnenberg, H.; Abrignani, S.; Pagani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and Treg cells infiltrating colorectal or

  20. Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Simone, M.; Arrigoni, A.; Rossetti, G.; Gruarin, P.; Ranzani, V.; Politano, C.; Bonnal, R.J.; Provasi, E.; Sarnicola, M.L.; Panzeri, I.; Moro, M.; Crosti, M.; Mazzara, S.; Vaira, V.; Bosari, S.; Palleschi, A.; Santambrogio, L.; Bovo, G.; Zucchini, N.; Totis, M.; Gianotti, L.; Cesana, G.; Perego, R.A.; Maroni, N.; Pisani Ceretti, A.; Opocher, E.; De Francesco, R.; Geginat, J.; Stunnenberg, H.; Abrignani, S.; Pagani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and Treg cells infiltrating colorectal or