WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-layer tbp oxidation

  1. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments. Three cases were investigated: (1) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of both the aqueous and TBP layers, (2) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of just the TBP layer, and (3) transfer of butanol into the aqueous layer with sparging of both layers. The TBP layer was comprised of 99% pure TBP (spiked with butanol for the butanol transfer experiments), and the aqueous layer was comprised of either water or an aluminum nitrate solution. The liquid layers were air sparged to simulate the mixing due to the evolution of gases generated by oxidation reactions. A plastic tube and a glass frit sparger were used to provide different size bubbles. Rates of mass transfer were measured using infrared spectrophotometers provided by SRTC/Analytical Development

  2. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the Canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. Bubbles containing reaction products enhance the rate of transfer of water from the aqueous layer to the organic layer. These bubbles are generated by the oxidation of TBP and its reaction products in the organic layer and by the oxidation of butanol in the aqueous layer. Butanol is formed by the hydrolysis of TBP in the organic layer. For aqueous-layer bubbling to occur, butanol must transfer into the aqueous layer. Consequently, the rate of oxidation and bubble generation in the aqueous layer strongly depends on the rate of transfer of butanol from the organic to the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments

  3. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction

  4. Dissolution of uranium oxide TBP-HNO3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Mineo; Kosaka, Yuji; Mori, Yukihide; Shimada, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    As a head end process for the pulverization of the spent fuel, the mechanical method (the shredder method) and the pyro-chemical method (oxidisation heat-treatment) have been examined. UO 2 is a main ingredient of Uranium oxide powder by the mechanical method, and U 3 O 8 is that by the pyro-chemical method. Moreover, the particle size of the pulverized powder depend on the conditions of the pulverizing process. As it was considered that the difference of dissolution rates of samples was caused by the difference of sample chemical forms and dissolution temperature, parametric surveys on chemical form and particle size of powder and dissolution temperature were carried out, and the following results were obtained. 1) The remarkable difference of dissolution rate between U 3 O 8 powder (average particle size 3.7 μm) and UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm) which have comparatively similar particle size was not observed. 2) It was confirmed that the dissolution rate became lower according to the particle size increase (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). And it was considered that dissolution rate had strong dependency on particle size, according to the results that the powder with 1 mm particle size did not dissolute completely after 5 hours test. 3) The temperature dependency of the dissolution rate was confirmed by dissolution test with UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). The higher dissolution rate was obtained in the higher dissolution temperature, and 11 kcal/mol was obtained as activation energy of dissolution. 4) In the dissolution test of UO 2 powder, the nitric acid concentration started to change earlier than that of U 3 O 8 powder and concentration change range became larger compared with that in the dissolution test of U 3 O 8 powder. It was considered that those differences were caused by difference in mole ratio of Uranium and nitric acid which are consumed in the dissolution reaction (3:7 for U 3 O 8 , 3:8 for UO 2 ). 5) In case

  5. Extraction-wet oxidation process using sulphuric acid for treatment of TBP-dodecane wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Kartha, P.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    In the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, 30% n-tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon diluent is used for extraction of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel by Purex process. When TBP-dodecane can no longer be purified from its degradation products, it is discarded as alpha bearing, intermediate level wastes containing plutonium and ruthenium-106. To overcome shortcomings of extraction-pyrolysis and saponification processes, studies were undertaken to find the suitability of H 2 SO 4 as an alternative extractant for TBP. Oxidation of TBP to H 3 PO 4 using H 2 O 2 was also explored as H 3 PO 4 can be treated by known procedures for removal of plutonium and ruthenium-106. The experiments were conducted with aged spent solvent wastes discharged from reprocessing plant at Trombay using H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 4 - H 3 PO 4 mixture. The decontamination factors (DFs) for alpha activity were found to be satisfactory. The DFs for ruthenium were lower as compared to those obtained in experiments with simulated degraded waste. The gas chromatographic analysis of separated diluent revealed high branched alkane content and low n-dodecane content of separated diluent. It is very much different from that of diluent currently in use. Hence incineration of separated diluent is recommended. (author)

  6. Direct extraction of uranium and plutonium from oxide fuel using TBP-HNO3 complex for super-DIREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, S.; Kamiya, M.; Nomura, K.; Koyama, T.; Ogum, S.; Shimada, T.; Mori, Y.; Enokida, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Super-DIREX is a new reprocessing method which has high economical efficiency. Experimental study of this process was started on the direct extraction of U and Pu from irradiated MOX fuel by the supercritical carbon dioxide (SFCO 2 ) containing TBP-HNO 3 complex. This report describes direct extraction of U and Pu with TBP-HNO 3 complex at atmospheric pressure, as the first test for irradiated fuel, in order to investigate the applicability of SFCO 2 containing TBP-HNO 3 complex. In this test, dependency on dissolution temperature, Pu content, fuel/ TBP-HNO 3 complex ratio and effect of voloxidation were investigated. From these results, TBP-HNO 3 complex was found to be effective in the respect of the recovery of U and Pu. The number of the process step in dissolution and co-extraction is small, and amount of waste can be reduced. It is applicable to the direct extraction in Super-DIREX. (authors)

  7. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  8. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C 12 -C 14 ). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO 3 , 0.3 M in H 2 C 2 O 4 and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10 4 (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude

  9. The Function of Thioredoxin-Binding Protein-2 (TBP-2 in Different Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2 has an important role in the redox system, but it plays a different role in many different diseases (e.g., various cancers, diabetes mellitus (DM, cardiovascular disease, and cataracts by influencing cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Distinct transcription factors (TFs stimulated by different factors combine with binding sites or proteins to upregulate or downregulate TBP-2 expression, in order to respond to the change in the internal environment. Most research disclosed that the main function of TBP-2 is associating with thioredoxin (Trx to inhibit the antioxidant capacity of Trx. Furthermore, the TBP-2 located in tissues, whether normal or abnormal, has the ability to cause the dysfunctioning of cells and even death through different pathways, such as shortening the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis or autophagy. Through these studies, we found that TBP-2 promoted the development of diseases which are involved in inflammatory and oxidative damage. To a certain extent, we believe that there is some hidden connection between the biological functions which TBP-2 participates in and some distinct diseases. This review presents only a summary of the roles that TBP-2 plays in cancer, DM, cataracts, and so on, as well as its universal mechanisms. Further investigations are needed for the cell signaling pathways of the effects caused by TBP-2. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of TBP-2 could produce potential new targets for the treatment of diseases, including cancer and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cataracts.

  10. Nonnuclear hydrometallurgical applications of TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritcey, G.M.; Pouskouleli, G.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the nonnuclear solvent extraction applications of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) has been assembled from information in the analytical, chemical, and metallurgical literature. There are actually few operating plants, or, in fact, process flowsheets designed for the use of TBP in the extraction of nonnuclear metals and other materials. Perhaps one of the main reasons for this is that TBP operates through a solvating mechanism of extraction, and, therefore, extraction is highly dependent upon, the ionic strength of the anion. Many developments in process metallurgy utilizing solvent extraction involve extraction from a sulfate medium. Very few plants have gone on-stream employing chloride or nitrate systems, even though TBP is an excellent extractant from aqueous chloride or nitrate media. It is very likely that in the future we shall see many hydrometallurgical processes developed and plants designed in which the aqueous medium is chloride. With this in mind, we have included analytical and chemical techniques as possible guides to future design trends. The chapter includes most of the elements in the Periodic Table and covers all the various groups in the table. The chemistry of metals within the same group is, of course, quite similar, and this is evident in the comparison of extraction properties. For the convenience of the reader we have put the various metals into groups found within the Periodic Table, or in other appropriate groups that show chemical relationships. The literature surveyed in this chapter covers the period 1966 to 1984

  11. Hydrothermal decomposition of TBP and fixation of its decomposed residue by HHP technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, N.; Fujiki, M.; Nishioka, M.; Ioku, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Kozai, N.; Muraoka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The tributyl phosphate (TBP) used for the fuel reprocessing by Purex process is discharged as spent solvent because of the chemical decomposition and the damage due to radiation. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment in oxygen which is the reaction in a closed system is effective for the decomposition of TBP as it can transform organic materials to stable inorganic ions. Hydrothermal hot pressing technique has been applied to the immobilization of various radioactive wastes. This work deals with the continuous treatment process for the decomposition of TBP waste and the immobilization of its decomposed residue under hydrothermal condition. These processes are outlined. The experiment and the results are reported. TBP was completely decomposed above 200degC, and COD value showed the maximum at 250degC. The reaction process consists of two steps of the hydrolysis of TBP and the oxidation of the formed organic material. (K.I.)

  12. TWO-LAYER PHASE COMPENSATING INTERFERENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy V. Nikandrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical interferential coatings, giving the possibility to form the wave front without the change of energy characteristics of the incident and reflected radiation. Correction is achieved due to the layer, which thickness is a function of coordinate of an optical element surface. Selection technique is suggested for refractive index materials, forming two-layer interference coating that creates a coating with a constant coefficient of reflection on the surface of the optical element. By this procedure the change of coefficient of reflection for the optical element surface, arising because of the variable thickness is eliminated. Magnesium oxide and zirconium dioxide were used as the film-forming materials. The paper presents experimentally obtained thickness distribution of the layer, which is a part of the phase compensating coating. A new class of optical coatings proposed in the paper can find its application for correcting the form of a wave front.

  13. Rapid quantification of TBP and TBP degradation product ratios by FTIR-ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillens, A.R.; Powell, B.A.; Clemson University, Clemson, SC

    2013-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is the key complexant within the plutonium and uranium reduction extraction process used to extract uranium and plutonium from used nuclear fuel. During reprocessing TBP degrades to dibutyl phosphate (DBP), butyl acid phosphate (MBP), butanol, and phosphoric acid over time. A method for rapidly monitoring TBP degradation is needed for the support of nuclear forensics. Therefore, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique was developed to determine approximate peak intensity ratios of TBP and its degradation products. The technique was developed by combining variable concentrations of TBP, DBP, and MBP to simulate TBP degradation. This method is achieved by analyzing selected peak positions and peak intensity ratios of TBP and DBP at different stages of degradation. The developed technique was tested on TBP samples degraded with nitric acid. In mock degradation samples, the 1,235 cm -1 peak position shifts to 1,220 cm -1 as the concentration of TBP decreases and DBP increases. Peak intensity ratios of TBP positions at 1,279 and 1,020 cm -1 relative to DBP positions at 909 and 1,003 cm -1 demonstrate an increasing trend as the concentration of DBP increases. The same peak intensity ratios were used to analyze DBP relative to MBP whereas a decreasing trend is seen with increasing DBP concentrations. The technique developed from this study may be used as a tool to determine TBP degradation in nuclear reprocessing via a rapid FTIR-ATR measurement without gas chromatography analysis. (author)

  14. Safe handling of TBP and nitrates in the nuclear process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    A laboratory and literature study was made of the reactions of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) with nitric acid and nitrates. Its goal was to establish safe conditions for solvent extraction processes involving these chemicals. The damaging explosions at the Tomsk-7 PUREX plant in Russia graphically illustrated the potential hazard involved in such operations. The study has involved a review of prior and contemporary experiments, and new experiments to answer particular questions about these reactions. TBP extracts nitric acid and some metal nitrates from aqueous solutions. The resulting liquid contains both oxidant and reductant, and can react exothermically if heated sufficiently. Safe handling of these potentially reactive materials involves not only limiting the heat generated by the chemical reaction, but also providing adequate heat removal and venting. Specifically, the following recommendations are made to ensure safety: (1) tanks in which TBP-nitrate complexes are or may be present should be adequately vented to avoid pressurization. Data are supplied as a basis for adequacy; (2) chemically degraded TBP, or TBP that has sat a long time in the presence of acids or radiation, should be purified before use in solvent extraction; (3) evaporators in which TBP might be introduced should be operated at a controlled temperature, and their TBP content should be limited; (4) evaporator bottoms that may contain TBP should be cooled under conditions that ensure heat removal. Finally, process design should consider the potential for such reactions, and operators should be made aware of this potential, so that it is considered during training and process operation

  15. Determination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) by precision densimetry : TBP-varsol-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1980-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for TBP direct determination is presented, based on precision densimetry, aiming to control solvent concentration in the TBP-Varsol system during the reprocessing of irradiated uranium. The method comprises the determination of the density of liquids or gases by electronic measurement of the variation in the frequency (f) or period (T = 1/f) of a glass oscillator containing the liquid or the gas. (C.L.B.) [pt

  16. Determination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) by precision densimetry : TBP-varsol-HNO/sub 3/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for TBP direct determination is presented, based on precision densimetry, aiming to control solvent concentration in the TBP-Varsol system during the reprocessing of irradiated uranium. The method comprises the determination of the density of liquids or gases by electronic measurement of the variation in the frequency (f) or period (T = 1/f) of a glass oscillator containing the liquid or the gas.

  17. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  18. Study of TBP stability limits in pyrolysis, radiolysis and hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Attou, M.

    1985-10-01

    The present investigations deal with the determination of the stability limits of different degradation phenomena during TBP process achievement, its purification, storage or in radioelements extraction. The results were obtained using a simple and quick analysis method based on TBP:HC104 complex formation. The TBP is considered stable (when its degradation rate is less than 0,5% Vol.) for temperature less than 100 0 C and time contact value of about 2 hours. It was depicted that TBP has an appreciable stability under the following conditions: NaOH 0,1 N/TBP=0,5 ml/ml and time contact <4 hours; POC13/TBP=0,02 ml/ml and time contact <1 hour; concentrated acid/TBP=0,025 ml/ml and time contact <1 h. Radiation cumulative effect seems to be the main precursor of TBP degradation. However, its stability remains appreciable under certain conditions. Practically, in all the cases, TBP decomposition is mainly tied to C-O bond breakdown

  19. Investigation into radiolysis of tbp labelled with 32P in the 30%tbp-diluent-HNO3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.; Novak, Z.; Rokhon', A.

    1975-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing compounds, prepared by radiolysis of the TBP-diluent-HNO 3 system, are determined quantitatively. Effects of the HNO 3 concentration and the diluent type upon the degree of the TBP decomposition in the system under investigation were determined as well. To separate the TBP decomposition products the thin layer chromatography method was used, and for the quantitative determination TBP, labelled with 32 P was used. As a result of TBP radiolysis except dibutyl phosphate and monobutylphosphate other compounds are prepared, which contain phosphorus in a molecule, besides, their quantity depends on the nitric acid concentration and the diluent type (n-dodecan, carbon tetrachloride, mesitylen), together with which TBP was irradiated. The prepared compounds are grouped in the aqueous and organic phases

  20. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  1. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  2. Dissolution of Used Nuclear Fuel Using a TBP/N-Paraffin Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DelCul, G. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The dissolution of unirradiated used nuclear fuel (UNF) pellets pretreated for tritium removal was demonstrated using a tributly phosphate (TBP) solvent. Dissolution of pretreated fuel in TBP could potentially combine dissolution with two cycle of solvent extraction required for separating the actinides and lanthanides from other fission products. Dissolutions were performed using UNF surrogates prepared from both uranyl nitrate and uranium trioxide produced from the pretreatment process by adding selected actinide and stable fission product elements. In laboratory-scale experiments, the U dissolution efficiency ranged from 80-99+% for both the nitrate and oxide surrogate fuels. On average, 80% of the Pu and 50% of the Np and Am in the nitrate surrogate dissolved; however, little of the transuranic elements dissolved in the oxide form. The majority of the 3+ lanthanide elements dissolved. Only small amounts of Sr (0-1.6%) and Mo (0.1-1.7%) and essentially no Cs, Ru, Zr, or Pd dissolved.

  3. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  4. Synchronization of coupled metronomes on two layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. By varying the initial conditions of the metronomes and adjusting the friction between the two layers, a variety of synchronous patterns are observed in experiment, including the splay synchronization (SS) state, the generalized splay synchronization (GSS) state, the anti-phase synchronization (APS) state, the in-phase delay synchronization (IPDS) state, and the in-phase synchronization (IPS) state. In particular, the IPDS state, in which the metronomes on each layer are synchronized in phase but are of a constant phase delay to metronomes on the other layer, is observed for the first time. In addition, a new technique based on audio signals is proposed for pattern detection, which is more convenient and easier to apply than the existing acquisition techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model is developed to explain the experimental observations, and is employed to explore the dynamical properties of the patterns, including the basin distributions and the pattern transitions. Our study sheds new lights on the collective behaviors of coupled metronomes, and the developed setup can be used in the classroom for demonstration purposes.

  5. Determination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) by precision densimetry in the TBP-Varsol-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1981-05-01

    A direct TBP determination by digital density measurements is presented. The method is based on the variation of the natural frequency of a hollow oscillator when filled with a solvent. For this purpose a digital densimeter DMA 02C, from PAAR was used. There is a simple relationship between the density of the sample and the frequency of the filled oscillator. (I.C.R.) [pt

  6. Isothermal heat measurements of TBP-nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Net heats of reaction were measured in an isothermal calorimeter for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO 3 reacting solutions at temperatures above 100 C. The oxidation rate constant was determined to be 5.4E-4 min -1 at 110 C for an open ''vented'' system as compared to 1.33 E-3 min -1 in the closed system. The heat released per unit material oxidized was also reduced. The oxidation in both phases was found to be first order in nitric acid and pseudo-zero order in butylnitrate and water. The hydrolysis (esterification) rate constant determined by Nichols' (1.33E-3 min -1 ) fit the experimental data from this work well. Forced evaporation of the volatile components by the product gases from oxidation resulted in a cooling mechanism which more than balanced the heat from the oxidation reaction in the two-phased systems. Rate expressions were derived and rate constants determined for both the single and two phase systems. An approximating mathematical model was developed to fit the experimental data and to extrapolate beyond the experimental conditions. This model shows that one foot of ''reacting'' 14.3M HNO 3 aqueous phase solution at 121 C will transport sufficient water to the organic phase to replace evaporative losses, maintaining endothermicity, for organic layers up to 12.2 + 6.0 feet deep. If the pressure in a reacting system is allowed to increase due to insufficient venting the temperature of the organic phase would increase in temperature to reach a new equilibrium. The rate of oxidation would increase not only due to the increase in temperature but also from the increased concentration of dissolved HNO 3 reduction products. Another important factor is that the cooling system described in this work becomes less effective as the total pressure increases. These factors probably contributed to the explosion at Tomsk

  7. Reaction of nitrous acid with U(IV) and nitric acid in 30% TBP-kerosene solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangrong; Hu Jingxin; Huang Huaian; Qiu Xiaoxi

    1990-01-01

    Reaction of nitrous acid with U(IV) and nitric acid in 30% TBP-kerosene solution is investigated, the rate equations of oxidation of U(IV) by nitrous acid and that of nitrous acid reacting with nitric acid are obtained

  8. A two-layer linear piezoelectric micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A first bending (B1) mode two-layer piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor has been developed for microoptics driving applications. The piezo-vibrator of the micromotor was composed of two small Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT-5) plates, with overall dimensions and mass of only 2.0 × 2.0 × 5.0 mm(3) and 0.2 g, respectively. The proposed micromotor could operate either in single-phase voltage (standing wave) mode or two-phase voltage (traveling wave) mode to drive a slider via friction force to provide bidirectional linear motion. A large thrust of up to 0.30 N, which corresponds to a high unit volume direct driving force of 15 mN/mm(3), and a linear movement velocity of up to 230 mm/s were obtained under an applied voltage of 80 Vpp at the B1 mode resonance frequency of 174 kHz.

  9. IR and UV spectroscopic analysis of TBP complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Berrak, A.; Seridi, L.; Attou, M.

    1985-06-01

    The complexity of TBP molecule and the limited number of references stimulated the elaboration of this report. The spectroscopic of TBP and its complexes in the IR and UV fields permitted to elucidate or to confirm certain aspects concerning the solvation phenomenum. In IR spectroscopy, the stretching band of the P→O bond only is characteristic of the complex formed. The position of this band gives sufficient information about the kind and the stability of a complex. The TBP electronic spectra are characterized by two bands (200-220 nm) 1 and (268-290 nm) 2 whose intensity ratio (2/1) is about 0,13. The solvent nature seems to influence the positions of these bands and that of the inflexion point. The band 2 disappears when the TBP is complexed and the position and the intensity of the band 1 depend upon the complex nature

  10. Determination of dibutylphosphate and monobutylphosphate in TBP by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Kumar, B.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sankaran, K.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is used as solvent in the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Refining by Extraction) process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. TBP undergoes chemical and radiological degradation to give DBP and MBP which in turn extracts the heavy metal such as U, Pu thereby affecting the performance of the extraction process. Analytical method using ion chromatography (IC) was developed for the determination of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and monobutyl phosphate (MBP) in TBP. In this method, DBP and MBP were extracted from tri-n-butyl phosphate using carbonate-bicarbonate mixture of eluent composition and the aqueous phase was analyzed using suppressed ion chromatography employing carbonate as eluent. Standardization of extraction was carried out by standard addition studies. The detection limits for both DBP and MBP are found to be in sub ppm level. This method was applied to the analysis of TBP supplied by different suppliers

  11. Molecular dynamics of TBP and DBP studied by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles Filho, J.B.V.; Refinetti, M.E.; Fulfaro, R.; Vinhas, L.A.

    1984-04-01

    Differences between the properties of TBP and DBP, concerning the uranium extraction processes, may be related to certain characteristics of the molecular dynamics of each compound. In order to investigate the dynamical behaviour of hydrogen in these molecules, neutron transmission of TBP and DBP has been measured as a function of neutron wavelenght in the range 4.0 - 6.0 A, at room temperature. Scattering cross sections per hydrogen atom have been obtained. From the comparison with results previously obtained for n-butanol, similar dynamical behaviour of butyl radicals in these compounds could be observed. This similarity indicates that the presence of two or three butyl radicals in butylphosphate molecules does not exert influence in the hydrogen motion of methyl and methylene groups. This suggests that the different chemical behaviour between TBP and DBP is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen directly bound to the DBP phosphate group.(Author) [pt

  12. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  13. The optimisation study of tbp synthesis process by phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amedjkouh, A.; Attou, M.; Azzouz, A.; Zaoui, B.

    1995-07-01

    The present work deals with the optimisation study of TBP synthesis process by phosphoric acid. This way of synthesis is more advantageous than POCL3 or P2O5 as phosphatant agents. these latters are toxic and dangerous for the environnement. The optimisation study is based on a series of 16 experiences taking into account the range of variation of the following parameters : temperature, pressure, reagents mole ratio, promoter content. the yield calculation is based on the randomisation of an equation including all parameters. the resolution of this equation gave a 30% TBP molar ratio. this value is in agreement with that of experimental data

  14. Determination of TBP in nitric solutions of process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C. de; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  15. Reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde from a loaded TBP phase containing Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lim, Jae Kwan; Chung, Dong Yong; Yang, Han Beom; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2008-01-01

    The reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde (NBA) from loaded organic solution containing Np, which was oxidative-extracted in a system of a 30 % TBP/NDD-2M HNO 3 and O/A=2 containing 0.005 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np, was studied. The stripping yields of Np was increased with an increasing the NBA concentration, with a decreasing the nitric acid concentration of stripping solution and with a decreasing the reaction temperature. The apparent reductive stripping rate equation was shown by the following equation : -d [Np]-O-r-g/dt = 1,524 exp(-2,906/T) [NBA] 0.92 [Np] Org . At 1.04 M NBA and 2 M HNO 3 , the stripping yield of Np and U was 70.1 %, and 7.1 %, respectively, and the separation factor of U over Np (=D U /D Np ) was about 30.4. Therefore, it was found that U and Np co-extracted in a system of TBP-NHO 3 could be effectively mutual-separated by the NBA.

  16. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of CMPO and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Rizvi, G.H.; Iyer, R.H.; Badheka, L.P.; Banerji, A.; Michael, K.M.; Kapoor, S.C.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed to quantitatively recover Pu from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. Pu(IV) in the range of 6.9 to 34.6 mg/1 was quantitatively extracted into 0.2 M CMPO+ 1.2 M TBP in dodecane from an aqueous solution containing 3.0 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M H 2 C 2 O 4 . At such low concentrations of Pu, the distribution ratio (D) did not change but the increase in oxalic acid concentration drastically reduced these values. The variation in HNO 3 concentration at a fixed concentration of 0.2 M CMPO + 1.2 M TBP has shown a dramatic increase in the D values, being 0.3 at 1.0 M and > 10 4 at 7.5 M. The extraction was almost quantitative even at the aqueous to organic ratio of 10:1. Plutonium could be quantitatively recovered (i) by stripping with 0.5 M acetic acid and (ii) by coprecipitating it directly from the organic phase with 0.3 M oxalic acid + 0.3 M calcium nitrate + sodium nitrite. ∼ 92% of the Pu was found in the precipitate and ∼7% in the supernatant. Using this procedure Pu, in a concentrated form (∼50 times), could be recovered from the oxalate bearing solutions without recourse to the destruction of oxalate ion. The slope of 2 from the nitrate ion as well as CMPO variation experiments suggest the species in the organic phase to be PuC 2 O 4 (NO 3 ) 2 .2CMPO. The absorption spectral study of Pu(IV) confirmed the above species in the organic phase. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  17. A study on the safety of TBP(150A) with forming analysis and strength test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Hei Song

    2008-01-01

    For this study, the forming analyses and body strength tests of TBP were performed on the main pipe size 150A(KS D3507, KS D 3576 10S). The branched pipe sizes utilized were 25A, 32A, 40A, 50A, 65A, 80A, 100A and 125A. A general FEM program, ABAQUS, was used as the forming analyses method of TBP. Using the results, the strength of TBP was then tested in order to determine the safety of TBP when the working pressure was applied. The results indicate that TBP may be safely used in water-based fire protection pipe systems in terms of the strength

  18. Two-layer anti-reflection strategies for implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Smith, Tamara; Kato, Masakazu; Kimura, Shigeo; Enomoto, Tomoyuki

    2006-03-01

    A two-layer bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) concept in which a layer that develops slowly is coated on top of a bottom layer that develops more rapidly was demonstrated. Development rate control was achieved by selection of crosslinker amount and BARC curing conditions. A single-layer BARC was compared with the two-layer BARC concept. The single-layer BARC does not clear out of 200-nm deep vias. When the slower developing single-layer BARC was coated on top of the faster developing layer, the vias were cleared. Lithographic evaluation of the two-layer BARC concept shows the same resolution advantages as the single-layer system. Planarization properties of a two-layer BARC system are better than for a single-layer system, when comparing the same total nominal thicknesses.

  19. Interfacial tension in systems involving TBP in dodecane, nitric acid, uranyl nitrate and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.; Pipkin, N.

    1982-08-01

    The interfacial tension was measured at 25 0 C in the systems TBP - n-dodecane/nitric acid - water and TBP - n-dodecane/nitric acid - uranyl nitrate - water. Empirical equations describing the interfacial tension as a function of the concentration of TBP in the starting organic phase and of uranium-(VI) and nitric acid in the equilibrium aqueous phase were suggested. In the absence of uranium (VI), the interfacial tension can also be correlated with the concentration of water in the equilibrium organic phase. Free TBP, hydrated or nonhydrated, and hydrated TBP solvates of nitric acid are interfacially active. Anhydrous TBP solvates of nitric acid and the TBP solvate of uranyl nitrate, which neither is hydrated, do not exhibit any visible interfacial activity. (orig.) [de

  20. Solvent extraction of aurocyanide by extractant CTMAB and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wenfei; Zhang Tianxi; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    A novel extraction system using KAu(CN) 2 -CTMAB as aqueous phase and 30% TBP-dodecane as organic phase is studied by 198 Au radioactive tracer and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results show that the organic phase separates into two phases, when the gold concentration is bigger than 20 g/L. From the analysis of FT-IR it is seen that the most of gold is in the lower organic phase

  1. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  2. Influence of the diluent on the radiolytic degradation of TBP in TBP systems, 30% (V/V) - diluent-nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenich, M.N.

    1976-03-01

    The influence of the diluent on the degradation of TBP was studied by a gas chromatographic technique. The results obtained have shown that the aromatic diluents decrease markedly the HDBP production in the radiolysis of TBP, while n-dodecane, which is being used as diluent, promotes this radiolysis. However, the influence of the diluent become not too significant on the total (radiolysis + hydrolysis) solutions containing nitric acid. In view of foreseeing applications of aromatic diluents or their mixtures with aliphatic diluents on nuclear fuel reprocessing, it would be advisable to carry out more research on the system TBP/diluent, particularly on the kinetics of the hydrolysis of TBP and the influence of the diluent on the TBP degradation under conditions similar to those verified in the Purex Process [pt

  3. High-resolution structure of TBP with TAF1 reveals anchoring patterns in transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal; Andresen, Cecilia; Helander, Sara; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Siponen, Marina I; Lundström, Patrik; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Moche, Martin; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The general transcription factor TFIID provides a regulatory platform for transcription initiation. Here we present the crystal structure (1.97 Å) and NMR analysis of yeast TAF1 N-terminal domains TAND1 and TAND2 bound to yeast TBP, together with mutational data. We find that yeast TAF1-TAND1, which in itself acts as a transcriptional activator, binds TBP's concave DNA-binding surface by presenting similar anchor residues to TBP as does Mot1 but from a distinct structural scaffold. Furthermore, we show how TAF1-TAND2 uses an aromatic and acidic anchoring pattern to bind a conserved TBP surface groove traversing the basic helix region, and we find highly similar TBP-binding motifs also presented by the structurally distinct TFIIA, Mot1 and Brf1 proteins. Our identification of these anchoring patterns, which can be easily disrupted or enhanced, provides insight into the competitive multiprotein TBP interplay critical to transcriptional regulation.

  4. Numerical simulation of extraction behavior of major components in the CMPO-TBP-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, M.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.; Funasaka, H.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation code was developed in order to find the optimum condition for separation and the recovery of TRU (TRansUranium) elements in the octyl(phenyl)-N,N-di-isobutyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) - tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) - HNO 3 solvent extraction system. This code is able to predict the extraction behavior of americium and europium in the system containing many components. Calculations of concentration profiles of americium and lanthanides were carried out for a counter current experiment with laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The calculated profiles were in agreement with the experimental ones. The effect of oxalic acid was also included in the calculation and was discussed. (authors)

  5. Analytical resolution of the mixture TBP-HDBP-H2MBP-H3PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Several schemes for the separation of dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP), main degradation product of tributylphosphate (TBP), in TBP/diluent, TBP/diluent-uranyl nitrate and TBP/diluent-thorium nitrate mixture were studied. For the resolution of HDBP-TBP/diluent-heavy metal nitrates (U-VI,Th-IV) systems, techniques such as: in exchange chromatography, ion chromatography using common ion exchangers and chromatographic separation with alumina column were investigated. For the identification, determination and analytical resolution following up the several systems studied, techniques such as refraction index measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, molecular absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and ion chromatography, were applied. The separation of HDBP component was achieved using an alumina column where it was adsorbed from the TBP/diluent-uranyl nitrate and selectively eluted. Several modifications of this procedure for samples from the Uranium Purification Pilot Plant at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Sao Paulo, Brazil) were made. Special emphasis was given to the determination of HDBP using the ion chromatography technique. HDBP along with any monobutylphosphate acid (H 2 MBP) and phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) were stripped from the organic phase into dilute sodium hydroxide. HDBP is separated from H 2 MBP and H 3 PO 4 by ion chromatography and determined by its peak height. The determination of degradation products from TBP in TBP/diluent-uranyl nitrate and TBP/diluent-thorium nitrate systems was then performed. The detection limit for dibutylphosphate is 1.0μg HDBP/ml of analyte solution. (Author) [pt

  6. The complex reaction kinetics of neptunium including redox and extraction process in 30% TBP-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhang; Zhan-yuan Liu; Xian-ming Zhou; Li Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the complex and dynamic neptunium process chemistry in the TBP-HNO_3 system, the kinetics involved reversible redox reaction and extraction mass transfer was investigated. The results indicates that the mass transfer rate of Np(VI) is much faster than the redox reaction in aqueous solution. The concentrations of nitric acid and nitrous acid not only can change the Np(V) oxidation reaction and Np(VI) reduction reaction rate, but also can ultimately determine the distribution of neptunium extraction equilibrium. The variety of temperature can only influence the extraction equilibrium time, but cannot alter the equilibrium state of neptunium. (author)

  7. Enriched uranium processing with 7-1/2% TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, D.A.; Martin, W.H.; Pickett, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    The 7-1/2% TBP flowsheet gives adequate recovery of uranium and neptunium or plutonium, with reduced waste volume as compared to the prior aluminum-salted 3-1/2% TBP flowsheet. Decontamination from fission products is sensitive to numerous variables, including aluminum nitrate concentration in the feed, impeller speeds, and prior treatment of the fuel solution in head end operations. The impeller speed in the 1A bank also influences uranium losses as well as the fission product decontamination. The magnitudes of these effects suggest that stage efficiency is poor with this flowsheet in this mixer settler unit. The existing continuous solvent washers give evidence of low washing efficiency that limits permissible feed activity and that may be related to low contact time between the solvent and the carbonate wash solution. The most general conclusion is that satisfactory operation can be obtained with all projected domestic and foreign fuels under consideration for processing, by suitable adjustment of operating conditions. Also, possible flowsheet and equipment changes are known that could improve operations with these fuels further. 7 references

  8. Testing water pollution in a two layer aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    García León, Manuel; Lin Ye, Jue

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies around urban areas may be polluted with chemical elements from urban or industrial activities. We study the case of underground water pollution. This is a serious problem, since under- ground water is high qualified drinkable water in a world where this natural resource is increasingly reduced. This study is focused on a two-layer aquifer. If the superficial layer is contaminated, the deeper layer could be spoiled as well. This contribution checks the equality of the mean or c...

  9. Determination of the trace TBP in industrial feed liquid by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuehua; Jiang Junqing; Mu Ling; Yang Songtao

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the trace TBP in kerosene of the industrial feed liquid by gas chromatography is studied in the paper. It first takes the purification treatment for the kerosene containing trace TBP. The plutonium is removed by 0.2 mol/L ferrous sulfamate-1 mol/L nitric acid using the back-extraction. The uranium and the nitric acid in the organic phase are removed by the deionized water. The impurity which affect the measurement of the TBP and is harmful to the gas chromatograph are eliminated. Then the content of the TBP of the organic phase can be determined by gas chromatography. Results show that the measuring range of the content of the TBP is 0.02% ∼ 2%. The precision of the method is better than 5% and the recovery is between 95%∼106%. (authors)

  10. A study on enhancement of Np extraction by TBP through the electrochemical adjustment of Np valance by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Song, K. C.; Lee, I. H.; Choi, I. K.; Yoo, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Np valance state in nitric acid and the effect of nitrous acid on the Np valance composition were studied through ways of absorbance by spectrophotometer, extraction by TBP, and electrochemistry. Enhancement of Np extraction to 30 vol.% TBP was carried out through adjustment of Np valance state by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system. The Np solution used in this work consisted of only Np(V) and Np(VI) without Np(IV). The composition of Np(V) in the range of 0.5M ∼ 5.5 M nitric acid was 32% ∼ 19%. The electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) coexisting with Np(VI) in the solution enhanced Np extraction by 30 vol.% TBP about five times more than the one without the electrolytic oxidation. The facts were confirmed that the nitrous acid of less than about 10 -5 M acted as a catalyst to accelerate the chemical oxidation reaction of Np(V) to Np(VI) and the nitrous acid of more than 10 -3 M reduced Np(VI) to Np(V) reversely

  11. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoki, M

    1976-04-16

    The object is to provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air.

  12. Two-Layer Feedback Neural Networks with Associative Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Kun, Wu; Hong, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We construct a two-layer feedback neural network by a Monte Carlo based algorithm to store memories as fixed-point attractors or as limit-cycle attractors. Special attention is focused on comparing the dynamics of the network with limit-cycle attractors and with fixed-point attractors. It is found that the former has better retrieval property than the latter. Particularly, spurious memories may be suppressed completely when the memories are stored as a long-limit cycle. Potential application of limit-cycle-attractor networks is discussed briefly. (general)

  13. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoki, Masafumi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. Structure: The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic modelling of TBP synthesis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Attou, M.

    1989-02-01

    The present paper deals with kinetic and thermodynamic modellisation of tributylphosphate (TBP) synthesis processes. Its aim consists in a purely comparative study of two different synthesis ways i.e. direct and indirect estirification of butanol. The methodology involves two steps. The first step consists in approximating curves which describe the process evolution and their dependence on the main parameters. The results gave a kinetic model of the process rate yielding in TBP. Further, on the basis of thermodynamic data concerning the various involved compounds a theoretical model was achieved. The calculations were carried out in Basic language and an interpolation mathematical method was applied to approximate the kinetic curves. The thermodynamic calculations were achieved on the basis of GIBBS' free energy using a VAX type computer and a VT240 terminal. The calculations accuracy was reasonable and within the norms. For each process, the confrontation of both models leads to an appreciable accord. In the two processes, the thermodynamic models were similar although the kinetic equations present different reaction orders. Hence the reaction orders were determined by a mathematical method which conists in searching the minimal difference between an empiric relation and a kinetic model with fixed order. This corresponds in fact in testing the model proposed at various reaction order around the suspected value. The main idea which results from such a work is that this kind of processes is well fitting with the model without taking into account the side chain reactions. The process behaviour is like that of a single reaction having a quasi linear dependence of the rate yielding and the reaction time for both processes

  15. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  16. Solvent extraction of thorium from nitrate medium by TBP, Cyanex272 and their mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaan Shaeri; Ahmad Rahbar Kelishami; Meisam Torab-Mostaedi

    2015-01-01

    The extraction behavior of thorium(IV) has been investigated with tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex272) in kerosene from nitrate medium. The effect of operating variables including time, aqueous phase acidity (pH), extractant concentration and temperature were investigated. This study also examined the synergistic enhancement of the extraction of thorium(IV) from nitrate medium by mixtures of TBP and Cyanex272 for the first time. The optimum synergistic enhancement factor of 3.86 was obtained at a Cyanex272/TBP molar ratio of 1:4. (author)

  17. Study of the extraction mechanisms by TBP saturated by uranyl nitrate; Etude des mecanismes d'extraction du TBP sature par le nitrate d'uranyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meze, F

    2004-02-15

    This work deals with a particular phenomenon likely to occur in the nuclear waste reprocessing process PUREX. It was shown earlier by Russian works that the extractant molecule, tributyl phosphate (TBP), saturated by uranyl nitrate keeps its extraction capacities for nitric acid and tetravalent actinides. This study is composed of three parts. Firstly, some liquid-liquid extraction experiments were conducted to verify the ability of TBP saturated by uranyl nitrate to conserve its extraction capacities for nitric acid. Then, during these experiments, the UV and infrared spectra of both phases were recorded to obtain the organic phase speciation. At last, the informations gathered during the experimental part were used to build a general species distribution model of the H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3}/UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/TBP system. (author)

  18. Extraction of uranium with TBP in an electrostatic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbasi, M.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the utilization of electrostatic energy for solvent extraction of metallic species has been made. Drops were formed at a single nozzle and charged electrically by applying a high d.c. voltage to the nozzle which was arranged to form part of a parallel disc electrode system. After the drops left this electrode zone they travelled through a metallic pipe the purpose of which was to screen the drops from the external electrostatic forces. The liquid system employed in the present work was aqueous uranyl nitrate solution as a dispersed phase and organic tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-diluent as a continuous phase. Uncharged drops were studied in the presence and absence of nitric acid salting agent and in addition both discrete and spray regimes were examined with charged drops. Size, velocity, oscillation motion, charge leakage, actual potential gradient and mass transfer coefficients (reaction rate constants) were studied. A cine camera was used to study the velocity and oscillatory motion of the charged drops moving in the continuous phase in the presence and absence of an electric field. The results of this work suggest that both hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces are responsible for the liquid-liquid extraction rate increase. (author)

  19. Thermodynamics of uranium and nitric acid extraction from aqueous solution of TBP/diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Freitas, R.F. de.

    1982-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent procedure for predicting distribution equilibria for uranyl nitrate and nitric acid between an aqueous solution and 30 vol % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent is studied. Experimental work is developed in order to obtain equilibrium data for the system uranyl nitrate, nitric acid, water and 30 vol % TBP in n-dodecane, at 25 0 C and 40 0 C. The theoretical equilibrium data, obtained with the aid of a computer, are compared with the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  20. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  1. Migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Takagi, Ikuji; Nakai, Kunihiro; Higashi, Kunio

    1984-01-01

    For the safety assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, an analytical solution was obtained for one-dimensional migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media without dispersion. By applying it to geologic media composed of granite and soil layers, the effect of interlayer boundary on the discharge profile of radionuclides in decay chains into biological environment is examined. The time-space profiles of radionuclides in the vicinity of interlayer boundary are much complicated as shown in the results of calculation. Those profiles in case that the groundwater flows through granite followed by soil are quite different from those in case that the groundwater flows through soil followed by granite. Each of complicated dependence of profiles on time and space can be physically explained. The characteristic profiles in the vicinity of interlayer boundary have not been discussed previously. Recently, numerical computer codes has been developed to apply to much more realistic geologic situations. However, the numerical accuracies of the codes are necessary to be confirmed. This is achieved by comparing computational results with results from analytical solutions. The analytical solution presented will serve as a bench-mark for numerical accuracy. (author)

  2. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  3. First passage time in a two-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Koplik, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a first step in the first passage problem for passive tracer in stratified porous media, we consider the case of a two-dimensional system consisting of two layers with different convection velocities. Using a lattice generating function formalism and a variety of analytic and numerical techniques, we calculate the asymptotic behavior of the first passage time probability distribution. We show analytically that the asymptotic distribution is a simple exponential in time for any choice of the velocities. The decay constant is given in terms of the largest eigenvalue of an operator related to a half-space Green's function. For the anti-symmetric case of opposite velocities in the layers, we show that the decay constant for system length L crosses over from L -2 behavior in the diffusive limit to L -1 behavior in the convective regime, where the crossover length L* is given in terms of the velocities. We also have formulated a general self-consistency relation, from which we have developed a recursive approach which is useful for studying the short-time behavior

  4. Generalization and capacity of extensively large two-layered perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Kanter, Ido; Engel, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The generalization ability and storage capacity of a treelike two-layered neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension is examined. The mapping from the input to the hidden layer is via Boolean functions; the mapping from the hidden layer to the output is done by a perceptron. The analysis is within the replica framework where an order parameter characterizing the overlap between two networks in the combined space of Boolean functions and hidden-to-output couplings is introduced. The maximal capacity of such networks is found to scale linearly with the logarithm of the number of Boolean functions per hidden unit. The generalization process exhibits a first-order phase transition from poor to perfect learning for the case of discrete hidden-to-output couplings. The critical number of examples per input dimension, α c , at which the transition occurs, again scales linearly with the logarithm of the number of Boolean functions. In the case of continuous hidden-to-output couplings, the generalization error decreases according to the same power law as for the perceptron, with the prefactor being different

  5. Targeting TBP-associated factors in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As ovarian tumors progress, they undergo a process of dedifferentiation, allowing adaptive changes in growth and morphology that promote metastasis and chemoresistance. Herein, we outline a hypothesis that TATA-box binding protein (TBP associated factors (TAFs, which compose the RNA Polymerase II initiation factor, TFIID, contribute to regulation of dedifferentiation states in ovarian cancer. Numerous studies demonstrate that TAFs regulate differentiation and proliferation states; their expression is typically high in pluripotent cells and reduced upon differentiation. Strikingly, TAF2 exhibits copy number increases or mRNA overexpression in 73% of high grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC. At the biochemical level, TAF2 directs TFIID to TATA-less promoters by contact with an Initiator element, which may lead to the deregulation of the transcriptional output of these tumor cells. TAF4, which is altered in 66% of HGSC, is crucial for the stability of the TFIID complex and helps drive dedifferentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Its ovary-enriched paralog, TAF4B, is altered in 26% of HGSC. Here, we show that Taf4b mRNA correlates with Cyclin D2 mRNA expression in human granulosa cell tumors. TAF4B may also contribute to regulation of tumor microenvironment due to its estrogen-responsiveness and ability to act as a cofactor for NFκB. Conversely, TAF9, a cofactor for p53 in regulating apoptosis, may act as a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, since it is downregulated or deleted in 98% of HGSC. We conclude that a greater understanding of mechanisms of transcriptional regulation that execute signals from oncogenic signaling cascades is needed in order to expand our understanding of the etiology and progression of ovarian cancer, and most importantly to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Investigation on leaching of actinide oxides into supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafikov, D.N.; Kamachev, V.A.; Babain, V.A.; Murzin, A.A.; Shadrin, A.Yu.; Podojnitsin, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of actinide oxides into solutions of the TBP-HNO 3 complex in supercritical (SC) CO 2 was investigated. Experiments on the extraction of the TBP-HNO 3 complex into SC CO 2 were first conducted. It was found that a constant concentration of TBP in SC CO 2 of 13.5-14.8 % vol. can be attained using a constant molar ratio of [HNO 3 ]:[TBP] about 2.5 : 1. Joint leaching of uranium, plutonium and neptunium from mixtures of actinide oxides with solutions of TBP-HNO 3 in SC CO 2 was found feasible. If the leaching of uranium is about 95 %, its purification coefficients from major gamma-emitting radionuclides (Cs and Sr) exceed 100, while the purification coefficients of uranium from rare earth elements are 10-20

  7. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elution of Uranium and Calculation of Plate Number on the Column of Silica-TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endang Susiantini; Indra Suryawan

    2007-01-01

    Separation process of 99 Mo resulted of irradiated uranyl nitrate with an accelerator as the neutron source by the chromatographic extraction using column containing kiesel gel-TBP will be developed. Kiesel gel (silica) was used as an inert subpart, TBP as a phase stationary and simulated used natural uranyl nitrate of 200-300 g/l with the acidity of 2 N as the mobile phase. The inert support was made by means of kiesel-gel (silica) hydrophobization to change hydrophilic silica to hydrophobic silica, so that it could be impregnated by TBP. Uranium which has been attached to TBP would be eluted by dilute acid at acidity of 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 N HNO 3 ; Warm DW and cool DW. By using 0.1 N HNO 3 eluent and warm DW the uranium attached to silica-TBP could be eluted perfectly and more quickly than the three others eluent. Uranium concentration which were absorbed and eluted were analysed titrimetrically by using titan method and it was used to calculate Plate Number (N). The value of N obtained for the column which the inert support of 8 cm in height, 1 cm in diameter, 10 drops per minute by using of 0.1 N HNO 3 eluent was 300.6. (author)

  9. Effect of diluent wash over the removal of aqueous dissolved TBP and DBP in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjula, R.; Dasi, Mahesh; Mohandas, Jaya; Vijaya Kumar, N.; Kumar, T.

    2015-01-01

    In reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by PUREX process Tri-n-Butyl phosphate diluted with n-Dodecane (nDD) is used as solvent. This solvent undergoes degradation due to radiation yielding degradation products, mainly Di-n-butyl phosphate (HDBP). During extraction steps some amount of these organic gets dissolved in aqueous phase owing to its mutual solubility. Removal of dissolved organic from aqueous streams before evaporation is essential to prevent red oil related disasters. Diluent wash technique employing nDD as diluent is one of the commonly used method for the same. During the continuous operation of this process, the diluent will get loaded with dissolved organic and subsequently the performance of diluent will not remain same as pure diluent. While some reports are available in literature for the efficiency of removal of TBP by nDD, so far no work has been reported for the removal of DBP. The scope of the present work is to ascertain the efficiency of diluent wash technique on the removal of dissolved TBP as well as DBP. The results obtained indicate that the removal of dissolved TBP by nDD decreases with increase in percentage of TBP in nDD. In the case of DBP it is just reverse and the removal becomes more effective when the TBP percentage in the diluent increases. A/O ratio of 6:1 is found to be more suitable. As the DBP is getting extracted very effectively into nDD containing TBP, diluent wash solution should be treated as spent organic and managed accordingly for further utilization

  10. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Balarama Krishna, M.V.; Iyer, R.H.; Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    237 Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO 3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H 2 O 2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  11. Singlet Ground State Magnetism: III Magnetic Excitons in Antiferromagnetic TbP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, K.; Loidl, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1981-01-01

    The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined.......The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined....

  12. The development of 126Sn separation procedure by means of TBP resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andris, Boris; Bena, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Separation possibilities of 126 Sn with a new extraction-chromatographic material TBP Resin were studied. Suitable conditions for tin separation were determined in hydrochloric acid medium. 126 Sn was concentrated on TBP resin from 6 mol L -1 HCl and was eluted with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl. A purification step to remove 137 Cs with AMP-PAN column was necessary to obtain sufficiently purified samples which were directly measured with gamma spectrometry for 126 Sn activity. Separation of 126 Sn from a raw sludge sample was done according to proposed procedure, 126 Sn was detected and its activity was determined. (author)

  13. Hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation of TBP in TBP.30% V/V-dodecane/UO2(NO3)2.HNO3.H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreta, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation of TBP is investigated in systems of TBP 30% V/V-dodecane/H 2 O . HNO 3 . UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 by gas chromatographic determination of HDBP. No direct relation between the concentration of HDBP formed and the quantity of HNO 3 extracted by the organic phase is observed in the studies of hydrolysis of TBP. The HDBP concentration is seen to increase non-linearly with the concentration of HNO 3 extracted by the organic phase. Radiolytic studies show that for doses greater than 1 Wh/l, the concentration of HDBP formed increases with the dose absorbed by the system. Whith doses smaller than 1 Wh/l and acid concentration greater than 2 M, two distinct patterns of behavior are observed. The concentration of HDBP as a function of the radiation dose absorbed by the system presents a minimum for uranyl nitrate concentrations smaller than 0.9 M; for uranyl nitrate concentrations greater than 1.3 M the concentration of radiolytic HDBP cannot be calculated because the concentration of the hydrolytic HDBP determined is greater than the sum of the experimental concentrations of hydrolytic and radiolytic HDBP. It is known that the dose absorbed by the process solutions during the reprocessing of light water reactor fuel elements is smaller than one Wh/l. Thus, dose rates between zero and one Wh/l should be studied for this system. (Author) [pt

  14. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO2 and TBP Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung

    2014-01-01

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO 3 Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO 3 Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO 3 Complex

  16. Third phase formation revisited: the U(VI), HNO3 - TBP, n-dodecane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Jensen, M.P.; Borkowski, M.; Ferraro, J.R.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the system U(VI), HNO 3 -tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), n-dodecane has been revisited with the objective of gaining information on the coordination chemistry and structural evolution of the species formed in the organic phase before and after third phase formation. Chemical analyses, spectroscopic and EXAFS data indicate that U(VI) is extracted as the UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2TBP adduct, while the third phase species have the average composition UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2TBP·HNO 3 . Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on TBP solutions loaded with only HNO 3 or with increasing amounts of U(VI) have revealed the presence, before phase splitting, of ellipsoidal aggregates with the major and minor axes up to about 64 and 15 A, respectively. The formation of these aggregates, very likely of the reverse micelle-type, is observed in all cases, that is, when only HNO 3 , only UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , or both HNO 3 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 are extracted by the TBP solution. Upon third phase formation, the SANS data reveal the presence of smaller aggregates in the light organic phase, while the heavy organic phase contains pockets of diluent, each with an average of about two molecules of n-dodecane.

  17. A TBP/BTBP-based GANEX Separation ProcessPart 2: Ageing, Hydrolytic, and Radiolytic Stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Fermvik, A.; Foreman, M.R.S.J.; Grüner, Bohumír; Hájková, Zuzana; Kvíčalová, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2011), s. 157-175 ISSN 0736-6299 Grant - others:EUROPEAN COMMISSION(XE) FP7-CP-2007-211267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : GANEX * BTBP * TBP * radiolysis * hydrolysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2011

  18. Resolution of TBP-H/sub 2/MBP-HDBP-H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Application to UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-TBP, Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/-TBP, and ZrO(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-TBP systems. [Separation of dibutyl phosphoric acid, monobutylphosphoric acid and orthophosphoric acid from tri-butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, M A.F.; Abrao, A

    1981-04-01

    Several schemes for the separation of dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP), monobutylphosphoric acid (H/sub 2/MBP) and orthophosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) as hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation products from tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) were studied. For the resolution of a HDBP, H/sub 2/MPB and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ mixture in TBP-diluent, or in TBP-diluent-heavy metal nitrate (U-VI, Th-IV or Zr-IV), techniques such as ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography and separation onto a chromatographic alumina column were investigated. For the identification, determination and analytical resolution following up for the several systems studied, techniques such as refraction index measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, molecular spectrophotometry and gas chromatography were applied. Special emphasis was given to the separation using alumina column where the HDBP acid was retained and eluted selectively for its separation from TBP-varsol-uranyl nitrate mixtures. This analytical procedure was applied to the samples coming from the Uranium Purification Pilot Plant in operation at the Centro de Engenharia Quimica (IPEN).

  19. Influence of zirconium ion concentration in model extraction systems TBP - diluents - Zr+4 - nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoz, F.; Tlalka, M.

    1987-07-01

    In systems containing TBP, MBP, DBP and 1-butanol stable emulsions and precipitates are formed which separation is difficult in certain domain of concentration in zirconium ions. MPB and DBP increase stability of primary emulsion in kerosen and carbon tetrachloride but for different concentrations of nitric acid. Addition of 1-butanol decreases slightly the stability of primary emulsion [fr

  20. Cisplatin- and UV-damaged DNA lure the basal transcription factor TFIID/TBP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vichi; F. Coin (Frédéric); J-P. Renaud (Jean-Paul); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Moras; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA connection between transcription and DNA repair was demonstrated previously through the characterization of TFIIH. Using filter binding as well as in vitro transcription challenge competition assays, we now show that the promoter recognition factor TATA box-binding protein (TBP)/TFIID

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement, J.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-01-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs

  2. Identification of a domain within human TAF(I)48, a subunit of Selectivity Factor 1, that interacts with helix 2 of TBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuping; Hori, Roderick T

    2004-09-01

    RNA polymerase I transcription in human cells requires Selectivity Factor 1, a multisubunit complex composed of the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) and three TBP-associated factors (TAFs) called TAF(I)48, TAF(I)63 and TAF(I)110. Each of the Selectivity Factor 1 subunits binds directly to the other three components, but these interactions have not been characterized. This study is the initial identification and analysis of a TBP-binding domain within a Selectivity Factor 1 TAF. The interaction between human TBP and human TAF(I)48 was initially examined using the yeast two-hybrid assay, and a TBP-binding domain was identified in the carboxyl-terminus of human (h)TAF(I)48. Consistent with this result, the hTAF(I)48 carboxyl-terminus was able to bind directly to TBP in protein-protein interaction assays. When mutations were introduced into the hTAF(I)48 carboxyl-terminus, we identified changes in uncharged and positive residues that affect its interaction with TBP. By examining TBP mutants, residues within and adjacent to helix 2 of TBP, previously demonstrated to interact with subunits of other TBP-containing complexes [Transcription Factor IID (TFIID) and TFIIIB] were also found to diminish its affinity for the carboxyl-terminus of hTAF(I)48. The regions of hTAF(I)48 and TBP that interact are compared to those identified within other complexes containing TBP.

  3. Quantify Water Extraction by TBP/Dodecane via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomami, Bamin; Cui, Shengting; De Almeida, Valmor F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the interfacial transport of water into the most prevalent nuclear reprocessing solvent extractant mixture, namely tri-butyl- phosphate (TBP) and dodecane, via massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations on the most powerful machines available for open research. Specifically, we will accomplish this objective by evolving the water/TBP/dodecane system up to 1 ms elapsed time, and validate the simulation results by direct comparison with experimentally measured water solubility in the organic phase. The significance of this effort is to demonstrate for the first time that the combination of emerging simulation tools and state-of-the-art supercomputers can provide quantitative information on par to experimental measurements for solvent extraction systems of relevance to the nuclear fuel cycle. Results: Initially, the isolated single component, and single phase systems were studied followed by the two-phase, multicomponent counterpart. Specifically, the systems we studied were: pure TBP; pure n-dodecane; TBP/n-dodecane mixture; and the complete extraction system: water-TBP/n-dodecane two phase system to gain deep insight into the water extraction process. We have completely achieved our goal of simulating the molecular extraction of water molecules into the TBP/n-dodecane mixture up to the saturation point, and obtained favorable comparison with experimental data. Many insights into fundamental molecular level processes and physics were obtained from the process. Most importantly, we found that the dipole moment of the extracting agent is crucially important in affecting the interface roughness and the extraction rate of water molecules into the organic phase. In addition, we have identified shortcomings in the existing OPLS-AA force field potential for long-chain alkanes. The significance of this force field is that it is supposed to be optimized for molecular liquid simulations. We found that it failed for dodecane and

  4. Zirconium distribution in the system HNO3-H2O-TBP-diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, J.; Araujo, B.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of zirconium in TBP/diluent-HNO 3 -H 2 O systems is studied in order to increase the uranium decontamination factor by adjusting the extraction conditions so that zirconium extraction is kept at a minimum. Equilibrium diagram, TBP concentration, aqueous: organic phases ratio, salting-out effects and uranium loading in the organic phase were the main factors studied. All the experiments have been carried out with zirconium in the 10 -2 - 10 -3 M concentration range. The extractant degradation products influence upon zirconium behaviour was also verified. With the data obtained it was possible to introduce some modifications in the standard Purex flowsheet with the increase of the decontamination of uranium product from zirconium. (Author) [pt

  5. TBP and diluent mass balances in the PUREX Plant at Hanford, 1955--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.; Reddick, J.A.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop an estimate of the quantities of tributyl phosphate and diluent discharged in aqueous waste streams to the tank farms from the Hanford Purex Plant over its operating life. Purex was not the sole source of organics in the tank farms, but was a major contributor. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) and diluent, which changed from Shell E-2342 reg-sign to Soltrol-170 reg-sign and then to normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH), were organic chemicals used in the Purex solvent extraction process at Hanford to separate plutonium and uranium from spent nuclear fuels. This report is an estimate of the material balances for these chemicals in the Purex Plant at Hanford over its entire operating life. The Purex Plant had cold start up in November 1955 and shut down in 1990. It's process used a solution of 30 vol% TBP in diluent

  6. Stability constants and solubility of neptunium and plutonium complexes with alkylphosphoric acids in TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoseev, D.A.; Romanovskaya, I.A.; Artemova, L.A.; Gubina, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Stability concetration constants K and solubility of neptunium and plutonium complexes with di- and monobuthylphosphoric acids (APC) and with orthophosphoric and di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acids in 30% TBP solution-n-dodecane system are determined by spectrophotometric titration and radiometry methods. Posibility of forecasting radiation-chemical behaviour of actinids according to data on K and APC radiation-chemical yield values is demonstrated

  7. Stability constants and solubility of neptunium and plutonium complexes with alkylphosphoric acids in TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoseev, D.A.; Romanovskaya, I.A.; Artemova, L.A.; Gibina, M.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration stability constants (K s ) and solubility of neptunium and plutonium complexes with di- and monobutylphosphoric acids (APA), as well as with orthophosphoric acid in the system composed of 30% TBP + n-dodecane, have been determined by spectrophotometric titration and radiometry. The feasibility of predicting the radiative chemical behavior of actinides based on their K s values and the radiative chemical yield of APA has been demonstrated

  8. On nonlinear dynamics of a dipolar exciton BEC in two-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, O.L.; Kezerashvili, R.Ya.; Kolmakov, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of dipolar excitons in two-layer graphene is studied. It is demonstrated that a steady turbulent state is formed in this system. A comparison between the dynamics of the exciton BEC in two-layer graphene and those in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells shows that turbulence is a general effect in a BEC.

  9. Investigations of foam formation and its stabilization in the extraction systems: TBP in kerosene-nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studies of foam formation and its stabilization in TBP - kerosene - nitric acid solutions extracting systems. It was experimentally found, that TBP acts as a stabilizator of thin, liquid foam films as well as an emulgator in forming dispersions. The stabilizing effect of fine emulsions w/o on formed foams column was observed. Relevant references on the subject are also reviewed. (author)

  10. Promotion of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium (Ti surface.METHODS:The chimeric peptide RKLPDAPRGDN (minTBP-1-PRGDN was synthesized by connecting RKLPDA (minTBP-1 to the N-terminal of PRGDN , the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on Ti surface were tested using PRGDN and minTBP-1as controls. The keratocytes attached to the surface of Ti were either stained with FITC-labeled phalloidin and viewed with fluorescence microscope or quantified with alamar Blue method. The proliferation of keratocytes on Ti were quantified with 3-(4,5-dim- ethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide up-taking methods. The secretion of type I collagen were determined using an ELISA kit.RESULTS:The results showed that minTBP-1-PRGDN at a concentration of 100ng/mL was the most potent peptide to enhance the attachment of human keratocytes to the surface of Ti (1.40±0.03 folds, P=0.003, to promote the proliferation (1.26±0.05 folds, P=0.014 and the synthesis of type I collagen (1.530±0.128, P=0.008. MinTBP-1 at the same concentration could only promote the attachment (1.13±0.04 folds, P=0.020 and proliferation(1.15±0.06 folds, P=0.021, while PRGDN had no significant influence (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:Our data shows that the novel chimeric peptide minTBP-1-PRGDN could promote the attachment, proliferation and type I collagen synthesis of human keratocytes on the surface of Ti.

  11. Study of Soil Decontamination Method Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung

    2014-01-01

    The result of this study means that we have a possible new method for cheap and less wasteful nuclear waste decontamination. When severe accidents such as the incident at the Fukushima nuclear site occur, the soil near the power plant is contaminated with fission products or the activation metal structure of the power plant. The soil pollution form depends on the environment and soil characteristics of the contaminated areas. Thus, a- single-decontamination method is not effective for site cleanup. In addition, some soil decontamination methods are expensive and large amounts of secondary waste are generated. Therefore, we need new soil decontamination methods. In this study, instead of using a conventional solvent method that generates secondary waste, supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove metal ions from the soil. Supercritical carbon dioxide is known for good permeation characteristics. We expect that we will reduce the cost of soil pollution management. Supercritical carbon dioxide can decontaminate soil easily, as it has the ability to penetrate even narrow gaps with very good moisture permeability. We used TBP, which is a known for extractant of actinium metal. TBP is usually used for uranium and strontium extraction. Using TBP-HNO 3 complex and supercritical carbon dioxide, we did extraction experiments for several heavy metals in contaminated soil

  12. Study of Soil Decontamination Method Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and TBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The result of this study means that we have a possible new method for cheap and less wasteful nuclear waste decontamination. When severe accidents such as the incident at the Fukushima nuclear site occur, the soil near the power plant is contaminated with fission products or the activation metal structure of the power plant. The soil pollution form depends on the environment and soil characteristics of the contaminated areas. Thus, a- single-decontamination method is not effective for site cleanup. In addition, some soil decontamination methods are expensive and large amounts of secondary waste are generated. Therefore, we need new soil decontamination methods. In this study, instead of using a conventional solvent method that generates secondary waste, supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove metal ions from the soil. Supercritical carbon dioxide is known for good permeation characteristics. We expect that we will reduce the cost of soil pollution management. Supercritical carbon dioxide can decontaminate soil easily, as it has the ability to penetrate even narrow gaps with very good moisture permeability. We used TBP, which is a known for extractant of actinium metal. TBP is usually used for uranium and strontium extraction. Using TBP-HNO{sub 3} complex and supercritical carbon dioxide, we did extraction experiments for several heavy metals in contaminated soil.

  13. MOCVD growth of InP-related materials using TBA and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czub, M.; Strupinski, W.

    1995-01-01

    High quality epitaxial layers of GaAs, InP, AlAs, InGaAs, InGaP, InGaAlP have been grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMIn, TMGa, TMAl and the less hazardous group V precursors, temperature ranges of 570-650 C and 520-650 C, respectively. The V/III ratio as low as 1.5 was used to grow epilayers of InP. The 77 K mobility of InGaAs lattice matched to InP (grown with TBA) was 72360 cm 2 /(Vs) for n = 1.5 x 10 1 5/cm 3 and the thickness of 2 μm. Comparable photoluminescence parameters of InGaAlP between layers grown with TBP and PH 3 were achieved, but for InGaAlP (TBP) photoluminescence intensity was significantly lower than for InGaAlP (PH 3 ). The promising results allow one to apply of TBA and TBP for developing of device structures. (author)

  14. Resolution of the mixture TBP-H2 MPB-HDB-PH3PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Tributylphosphate (TBP) is presently the most used extractant for uranium, thorium and zirconium technologies, both for the purification of these elements from their concentrates and for the recovery of heavy metals in the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Nevertheless, in the presence of phosphoric acid, some degradation products are formed, such as: di-n-butylphosphoric acid (HDBP), monobutylphosphoric ancd (H 2 MBP) and ortophosphoric acid. The accumulation of these degradation products in the organic phase of the liquid-liquid extraction processes is highly undesirable. In order to avoid this problem, the separation of the mixture HDBP, H 2 MBP and H 3 PO 4 in TBP-dilutent or TBP-diluent-uranyl, thorium of zirconyl nitrate was then studied. Several separation techniques were investigated: adsorption using a cationic resin saturated with U(VI), chromatogtraphy in macroporous polymers, chromatography in alumina columns. Refractive index and condutimetric measurements were carried out to follow up the separation processes. The best results were obtained in an alumina column. (C.L.B.) [pt

  15. Resolution of the mixture TBP-H/sub 2/ MPB-HDB-PH/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Application to the systems UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-TBP, Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/-TBP and ZrO(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-TBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, M A.F.; Abrao, A [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    Tributylphosphate (TBP) is presently the most used extractant for uranium, thorium and zirconium technologies, both for the purification of these elements from their concentrates and for the recovery of heavy metals in the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Nevertheless, in the presence of phosphoric acid, some degradation products are formed, such as: di-n-butylphosphoric acid (HDBP), monobutylphosphoric ancd (H/sub 2/MBP) and ortophosphoric acid. The accumulation of these degradation products in the organic phase of the liquid-liquid extraction processes is highly undesirable. In order to avoid this problem, the separation of the mixture HDBP, H/sub 2/MBP and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in TBP-dilutent or TBP-diluent-uranyl, thorium of zirconyl nitrate was then studied. Several separation techniques were investigated: adsorption using a cationic resin saturated with U(VI), chromatography in macroporous polymers, chromatography in alumina columns. Refractive index and condutimetric measurements were carried out to follow up the separation processes. The best results were obtained in an alumina column.

  16. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-11-01

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bibliographic report on the synthesis, the chemical and physical properties and the applications of the TBP phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Attou, M.

    1985-02-01

    This work consists of a bibliographic synthesis concerning the tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) technology. It gathers briefly in 56 references on a table, the multiple applications of TBP such as extraction, spectroscopy and various other uses. Then, it deals with chemical instability different causes of this substance as well as its physical and chemical properties. In this way, for instance, the thermal degradation occurs well before the TBP boiling point. It comes out of this, several decomposition products such as the mono-n-butyl-phosphate (MBP), the di-n-butylphosphate (DBP) and some olefins. The acids and some impurities are known to have effects on TBP degradation. Later on, some processes of the TBP synthesis and their principles are stated. In the major cases, the POCl 3 process seems to be the best way, probably because of convenient efficiencies and moderate conditions of its making. Some purification processes according to the TBP use are also invoqued. In this case as well, Alcock et al. method is often stated in the literature. Moreover, five analysis methods corresponding to the most common situations are described

  18. Deficiency of thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2 enhances TGF-β signaling and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Masaki

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β has critical roles in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of various cancer cells. TGF-β-induced EMT is an important step during carcinoma progression to invasion state. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also called Txnip or VDUP1 is downregulated in various types of human cancer, and its deficiency results in the earlier onset of cancer. However, it remains unclear how TBP-2 suppresses the invasion and metastasis of cancer.In this study, we demonstrated that TBP-2 deficiency increases the transcriptional activity in response to TGF-β and also enhances TGF-β-induced Smad2 phosphorylation levels. Knockdown of TBP-2 augmented the TGF-β-responsive expression of Snail and Slug, transcriptional factors related to TGF-β-mediated induction of EMT, and promoted TGF-β-induced spindle-like morphology consistent with the depletion of E-Cadherin in A549 cells.Our results indicate that TBP-2 deficiency enhances TGF-β signaling and promotes TGF-β-induced EMT. The control of TGF-β-induced EMT is critical for the inhibition of the invasion and metastasis. Thus TBP-2, as a novel regulatory molecule of TGF-β signaling, is likely to be a prognostic indicator or a potential therapeutic target for preventing tumor progression.

  19. Dislocation Coupling-Induced Transition of Synchronization in Two-Layer Neuronal Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hui-Xin; Ma Jun; Wang Chun-Ni; Jin Wu-Yin

    2014-01-01

    The mutual coupling between neurons in a realistic neuronal system is much complex, and a two-layer neuronal network is designed to investigate the transition of electric activities of neurons. The Hindmarsh—Rose neuron model is used to describe the local dynamics of each neuron, and neurons in the two-layer networks are coupled in dislocated type. The coupling intensity between two-layer networks, and the coupling ratio (Pro), which defines the percentage involved in the coupling in each layer, are changed to observe the synchronization transition of collective behaviors in the two-layer networks. It is found that the two-layer networks of neurons becomes synchronized with increasing the coupling intensity and coupling ratio (Pro) beyond certain thresholds. An ordered wave in the first layer is useful to wake up the rest state in the second layer, or suppress the spatiotemporal state in the second layer under coupling by generating target wave or spiral waves. And the scheme of dislocation coupling can be used to suppress spatiotemporal chaos and excite quiescent neurons. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Biometrics encryption combining palmprint with two-layer error correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hengjian; Qiu, Jian; Dong, Jiwen; Feng, Guang

    2017-07-01

    To bridge the gap between the fuzziness of biometrics and the exactitude of cryptography, based on combining palmprint with two-layer error correction codes, a novel biometrics encryption method is proposed. Firstly, the randomly generated original keys are encoded by convolutional and cyclic two-layer coding. The first layer uses a convolution code to correct burst errors. The second layer uses cyclic code to correct random errors. Then, the palmprint features are extracted from the palmprint images. Next, they are fused together by XORing operation. The information is stored in a smart card. Finally, the original keys extraction process is the information in the smart card XOR the user's palmprint features and then decoded with convolutional and cyclic two-layer code. The experimental results and security analysis show that it can recover the original keys completely. The proposed method is more secure than a single password factor, and has higher accuracy than a single biometric factor.

  1. Band splitting and relative spin alignment in two-layer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the single-particle spectra of the low Hubbard zone in the two-layer correlated 2D-systems sharply differ in the case of different relative alignment of the layers spin systems. The behavior of the two-layer splitting in the Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta gives all reasons for the hypothesis on the possible rearrangement of the F sub z -> AF sub z alignment configuration, occurring simultaneously with the superconducting transition. The effects of the spin alignment on the magnetic excitations spectrum, as the way for studying the spin structure of the two-layer systems, are discussed by the example of homogenous solutions for the effective spin models

  2. Process analysis of two-layered tube hydroforming with analytical and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedkashi, S. M. Hossein; Panahizadeh R, Valiollah; Xu, Haibin; Kim, Sang Yun; Moon, Young Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Two-layered tubular joints are suitable for special applications. Designing and manufacturing of two layered components require enough knowledge about the tube material behavior during the hydroforming process. In this paper, hydroforming of two-layered tubes is investigated analytically, and the results are verified experimentally. The aim of this study is to derive an analytical model which can be used in the process design. Fundamental equations are written for both of the outer and inner tubes, and the total forming pressure is obtained from these equations. Hydroforming experiments are carried out on two different combinations of materials for inner and outer tubes; case 1: copper/aluminum and case 2: carbon steel/stainless steel. It is observed that experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical model obtained for estimation of forming pressure able to avoid wrinkling.

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of the cesarean scar: comparison between one- and two layer uterotomy closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch; Uldbjerg, Niels

    Objectives: To compare the residual myometrial thickness and the size of the cesarean scar defect after one- and two layer uterotomy closure. Methods: From July 2010 a continuous two-layer uterotomy closure technique replaced a continuous one-layer technique after cesarean delivery...... at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Aarhus University Hospital. A total of 149 consecutively invited women (68 women with one-layer and 81 women with two-layer closure) had their cesarean scar examined with 2D transvaginal sonography (TVS) 6-16 months post partum. Inclusion criteria were non......-pregnant women with one previous elective cesarean, no post-partum uterine infection or uterine re-operation, and no type 1 diabetes. Scar defect width, depth, and residual myometrial thickness were measured on the sagittal plane, and scar defect length was measured on the transverse plane. Results: The median...

  4. Extraction of Eu(III) and Th(IV) with TBP in n-dodecane in the presence of nitric acid and the thermodynamic activity of the TBP in the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.S.M. dos.

    1983-02-01

    A qualitative description of the behavior of distribution coefficients of nitric acid, Th(IV) and Eu(III) separately in the system HNO 3 -H 2 O-TBP-n-dodecane and the effect of the temperature in the distribution coefficient of Th(IV) are presented. The distribution coefficient of Eu(III) between aqueous solutions nitric acid and solutions of TBP in n-dodecane are measured. Since the composition of the extracted Eu(III) complex is known, the theoretical course of the dependency of the distribution coefficient on the TBP concentration can be predicted. Deviations of experimental dependencies from theoretical ones give them information about the thermodynamic activity of TBP in the organic phase. A mathematical description for the distribution coefficients of Eu(III) and HNO 3 in the mentioned system was sugested. This description will make possible an avaliation of the behavior of the activity coefficients of TBP in the organic phase. (A.R.H.) [pt

  5. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  6. Three-dimensional flow in electromagnetically driven shallow two-layer fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, R.A.D.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on a freely evolving dipolar vortex in a homogeneous shallow fluid layer have clearly shown the existence and evolution of complex three-dimensional 3D flow structures. The present contribution focuses on the 3D structures of a dipolar vortex evolving in a stable shallow two-layer

  7. Learning behavior and temporary minima of two-layer neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the occurrence of temporary minima during training of a single-output, two-layer neural network, with learning according to the back-propagation algorithm. A new vector decomposition method is introduced, which simplifies the mathematical analysis of

  8. Spin transport in two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Li, Q. C.; Zhang, Y. F.; Schönenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    We study room-temperature spin transport in graphene devices encapsulated between a layer-by-layer-stacked two-layer-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) tunnel barrier, and a few-layer-thick exfoliated-hBN substrate. We find mobilities and spin-relaxation times comparable to that of SiO2 substrate-based graphene devices, and we obtain a similar order of magnitude of spin relaxation rates for both the Elliott-Yafet and D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanisms. The behavior of ferromagnet/two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN contacts ranges from transparent to tunneling due to inhomogeneities in the CVD-hBN barriers. Surprisingly, we find both positive and negative spin polarizations for high-resistance two-layer-CVD-hBN barrier contacts with respect to the low-resistance contacts. Furthermore, we find that the differential spin-injection polarization of the high-resistance contacts can be modulated by dc bias from -0.3 to +0.3 V with no change in its sign, while its magnitude increases at higher negative bias. These features point to the distinctive spin-injection nature of the two-layer-CVD-hBN compared to the bilayer-exfoliated-hBN tunnel barriers.

  9. Direct force-reflecting two-layer approach for passive bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.; Saccon, A.; Beerens, R.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (inner) performance layer and an (outer) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. The

  10. A two-layer architecture for force-reflecting bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Saccon, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (outer) performance layer and an (inner) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. In

  11. Central-Upwind Schemes for Two-Layer Shallow Water Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Kurganov, Alexander; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We derive a second-order semidiscrete central-upwind scheme for one- and two-dimensional systems of two-layer shallow water equations. We prove that the presented scheme is well-balanced in the sense that stationary steady-state solutions

  12. Studies of U(4) oxidation kinetics in nitric acid and TBP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.J.; Denniss, I.S.; Koltunov, V.S.; Marchenko, V.I.; Dvoeglazov, K.N.; Savilova, O.A.; Broan, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    U(IV) is an important reagent in current reprocessing plants since it is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), therefore, allowing the efficient separation of U and Pu in multi-stage counter-current solvent extraction contactors. The benefits of U(IV) are that it is a kinetically fast reductant and it is a salt free reagent, since U(IV) is oxidised to U(VI) and so does not add to the aqueous waste volumes. Many kinetic reactions of U(IV) have been studied in the past and these are used by BNFL to model the behaviour of U(IV) in process flowsheets. However, some reactions have either not been studied or have been studied many times without conclusive resolution. Therefore, to expand our understanding of U(IV) in the process and to generate data that underpins process models, we are studying a series of U(IV) reactions, and this paper will summarize the results of our kinetic and mechanistic studies. (authors)

  13. New insights in third phase formation in the U(VI)-HNO3, TBP-alkane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M. P.; Chiarizia, R.; Ferraro, J. R.; Borkowski, M.; Nash, K. L.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the system U(VI)-HNO 3 -tributylphosphate (TBP)-n-dodecane has been revisited with the objective of gaining coordination chemistry and structural information on the species that are formed in the organic phase before and after third phase formation. Chemical analyses, spectroscopic and EXAFS data indicate that U(VI) is extracted as the UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 · 2TBP adduct, while the third phase species has the composition UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 · 2TBP · HNO 3 . Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data reveal the presence in the organic phase, both before and after phase splitting, of ellipsoidal aggregates whose formation seems to depend more on the extraction of HNO 3 than that of U(VI)

  14. The uranium separation from Ru using Tbp solvent by membrane emulsion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, A. N.; Bambang, EHB. J.; Pramono, J.

    1998-01-01

    An extraction process for uranium (U) separation from ruthenium (Ru) by tributyl phosphate (Tbp) as a solvent with kerosene as a diluent and surfactant the Span-80 as emulator has been performed. A sodium carbonate solution having ph 10-11 was used as the internal phase. the feed contained U and Ru in HNO 3 solution, while butanol was used as the membrane sp liter. the membrane used for extraction had a composition of 5% vol surfactant, 10% vol Tbp, 35% vol kerosene and 50% vol Na 2 CO 3 solution. The mixing time and speed were varied in value, so were the acidity levels, ranging from 0.5 M, 0.75 M up to 1 M. The result of the experimental separation of a mixture containing 5000 ppm U and 325 ppm Ru showed that a molarity of 0.5 M HNO 3 in the feed, 15 minutes mixing time, and 800 rpm mixing speed were found to be the best conditions for the extraction. Such condition had resulted in achieving the value of stripping distribution coefficient K d for U= 0.5660 with 49.73% U recovery efficiency and a practically zero separation factor from Ru

  15. The sequential-separation of Tc, Np and residual U from metal ions -30% TBP/0.5% TOA/n-dodecane extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. K.; Kim, K. W.; Kwon, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study on the enhancement of Tc extraction and the selective separation of Tc, Np and residual U by means of adding a small amount of tri-n-octylamine(TOA) in the 30% vol. tributyl phosphate(TBP)/n-dodecane was performed. Co-extraction of Tc, Np and U from the 10 components simulated radwaste solution containing the 0.005M-K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np by 30% TBP/0.5% TOA, and selective stripping of Tc, Np and U from the loaded organic phase were investigated, and their operation conditions were evaluated. Tc, Np and U was effectively co-extracted at O/A=1 and 1M HNO 3 . In this condition, the co-extraction yields of Tc, Np and U were 81.9%, 86%, 89.2%, respectively and those of Am, Eu, Nd, Mo and Fe were below 5%. For the selective stripping of extracted Tc, Np and U, however, sequentially 5M HNO 3 and O/A=1 for Tc, reduction of Np(VI) to Np(V) with 0.175M n-butyraldehyde (NBA) and O/A=2 for Np, and 0.15M Na 2 CO 3 and O/A=1 for U were used, respectively. In this case, 79% of Tc(co-stripping of less than 4% Np and U), 84% of Np(co-stripping of about 6% U), above 99% of U could be recovered, respectively

  16. Study on the effect of free acidity and entrained TBP in UNPS on the quality of ADU powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhvi Raju, P.V.S.N.; Mandal, D.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: From the experimental study it was found that mean particle size of precipitated Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) depends on the free acidity content and entrained TBP in Uranyl Nitrate Pure Solution (UNPS). It was found that as the free acidity as well as the entrained TBP content in UNPS increases, mean particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed as shown in below figures. - Highlights: • The mean particle size of precipitated ADU depends on the free acidity in UNPS. • The mean particle size of precipitated ADU also depends on the entrained TBP in UNPS. • As free acidity in UNPS increases, mean particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. • As entrained TBP in UNPS increases, particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. • Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed to find d p of ADU. - Abstract: The mean particle size and size distribution of Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) particles, precipitated during the precipitation reaction of Uranyl Nitrate Pure Solution (UNPS) with ammonia play an important role on the sintered density of UO 2 pellets. The quality of precipitated ADU depends on number of process parameters viz., pH of UNPS, concentration of uranium in UNPS, flow rate of ammonium hydroxide, temperature etc. However, the effects of the presence of free acid and entrained Tri-Butyl-Phosphate (TBP) in UNPS on the quality of ADU powder were not studied till date. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of free acidity and the presence of entrained TBP on the quality of precipitated ADU particles. It was found that as the concentration of free acid as well as the concentration of entrained TBP in UNPS increases, the particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed to determine the mean particle size of ADU; one is based on the free acid content of UNPS and the other is based on the

  17. Study on the effect of free acidity and entrained TBP in UNPS on the quality of ADU powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudhvi Raju, P.V.S.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal@barc.gov.in [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: From the experimental study it was found that mean particle size of precipitated Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) depends on the free acidity content and entrained TBP in Uranyl Nitrate Pure Solution (UNPS). It was found that as the free acidity as well as the entrained TBP content in UNPS increases, mean particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed as shown in below figures. - Highlights: • The mean particle size of precipitated ADU depends on the free acidity in UNPS. • The mean particle size of precipitated ADU also depends on the entrained TBP in UNPS. • As free acidity in UNPS increases, mean particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. • As entrained TBP in UNPS increases, particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. • Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed to find d{sub p} of ADU. - Abstract: The mean particle size and size distribution of Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) particles, precipitated during the precipitation reaction of Uranyl Nitrate Pure Solution (UNPS) with ammonia play an important role on the sintered density of UO{sub 2} pellets. The quality of precipitated ADU depends on number of process parameters viz., pH of UNPS, concentration of uranium in UNPS, flow rate of ammonium hydroxide, temperature etc. However, the effects of the presence of free acid and entrained Tri-Butyl-Phosphate (TBP) in UNPS on the quality of ADU powder were not studied till date. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of free acidity and the presence of entrained TBP on the quality of precipitated ADU particles. It was found that as the concentration of free acid as well as the concentration of entrained TBP in UNPS increases, the particle size of precipitated ADU decreases. Based on the experimental results two correlations were developed to determine the mean particle size of ADU; one is based on the free acid content of UNPS and the other is based on

  18. Synergistic extraction of Am(III) using HTTA and bi-functional (DHDECMP) and mono-functional (TBP) donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.A.; Lohithakshan, K.V.; Mithapara, P.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium constant (log Ks) for the organic phase synergistic reaction for Am(III)-HTTA system with bi-functional neutral donor di-hexyl di-ethyl carbamoylmethyl phosphonate (DHDECMP) was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher than that of the mono-functional neutral donor (TBP) with comparable basicity values. This log Ks value along with a large positive entropy change with DHDECMP compared to that with TBP confirms that the neutral donors like DHDECMP behave as bi-functional, in sharp contrast to its mono-functional behaviour in Pu(VI). (author)

  19. Radiolysis of dodecane--tributylphosphate and nitrous oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation on the nuclear fuel reprocessing solvents tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane were studied. Nitrous oxide, with concentrations in the range 20 mM to 140 mM, was used as the standard for competition kinetics. Solutions of TBP (with electron fractions of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3) in dodecane were irradiated. Primary gaseous products (non-condensible at 77K) in the radiolysis were nitrogen and hydrogen. Liquid products observed were the dimer, dodecanone, dodecanol, and fragmentation products C 5 -C 11 and C 17 -C 20 . Acid products from TBP were dibutylphosphate (DBP) and monobutylphosphate (MBP). All yields were determined both as a function of TBP and nitrous oxide concentrations. Kinetic analysis of nitrogen yields from dodecane--N 2 O radiolysis gave, G(total scavengable primary species) = 6.7 molecules/100 eV. Yields of dodecane liquid products could not be analyzed quantitatively due to the complex spectrum of products. In dodecane--N 2 O solutions, the dimer showed insignificant changes in yields and product distributions, indicating formation of additional dodecyl radicals in the presence of nitrous oxide. In dodecane--TBP mixtures, dimer yields reduced significantly as did the products from carbon--carbon bond cleavage. The addition of nitrous oxide to the binary mixture caused the dimer yield to increase, confirming formation of C 12 H 25 radicals by nitrous oxide reactions

  20. Effect of anisotropy on the magnon energy gap in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Rongke; Liang Jing; Li Qingfeng; Zhang Zhidong; Song Panpan; Hong Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    The magnon energy bands or spectra in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are studied. It is found that a modulated energy gap exists in the magnon energy band along K x direction perpendicular to the superlattice plane, which is different from the optical magnon gap at K x =0. The anisotropy, the spin quantum numbers and the interlayer exchange couplings all affect the magnon energy gap. If the anisotropy exists, there will be no acoustic energy branch in the system. There is a competition effect of the anisotropy and the spin quantum number on the magnon energy gap. The competition achieves a balance at the zero energy gap, at which the symmetry of the system is higher. The two energy spectra of the two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are lowered with increasing temperature.

  1. Two layers LSTM with attention for multi-choice question answering in exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin

    2018-03-01

    Question Answering in Exams is typical question answering task that aims to test how accurately the model could answer the questions in exams. In this paper, we use general deep learning model to solve the multi-choice question answering task. Our approach is to build distributed word embedding of question and answers instead of manually extracting features or linguistic tools, meanwhile, for improving the accuracy, the external corpus is introduced. The framework uses a two layers LSTM with attention which get a significant result. By contrast, we introduce the simple long short-term memory (QA-LSTM) model and QA-LSTM-CNN model and QA-LSTM with attention model as the reference. Experiment demonstrate superior performance of two layers LSTM with attention compared to other models in question answering task.

  2. Steady ablation on the surface of a two-layer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Shan [Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 90008-15-3, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan, 32526 Taiwan (China)

    2005-12-01

    Discovered is a quasi-steady ablation phenomenon on the surface of a two-layer composite which is formed by a layer of ablative material and another layer of non-ablative substrate. Theoretical exact solutions of quasi-steady ablation rate, the associated temperature distribution and end-of-ablation time of this two-layer composite are derived. A criterion for the occurrence of quasi-steady ablation is presented also. A one-dimensional transient numerical model is developed to perform a number of numerical experiments and hence to verify the correctness of the above theoretical solutions for the current quasi-steady ablation phenomenon. Based on the current results, a new method of measuring the ablation (or sublimation) heat is also proposed. (author)

  3. FDTD Investigation on Electromagnetic Scattering from Two-Layered Rough Surfaces under UPML Absorbing Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Li; Li-Xin, Guo; Hao, Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from one-dimensional two-layered rough surfaces is investigated by using finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FDTD). The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. The rough surfaces are characterized with Gaussian statistics for the height and the autocorrelation function. The angular distribution of bistatic scattering coefficient from single-layered perfect electric conducting and dielectric rough surface is calculated and it is in good agreement with the numerical result with the conventional method of moments. The influence of the relative permittivity, the incident angle, and the correlative length of two-layered rough surfaces on the bistatic scattering coefficient with different polarizations are presented and discussed in detail. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  5. Using nanofluids in enhancing the performance of a novel two-layer solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimr, Moh'd A.; Al-Dafaie, Ameer Mohammed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    A novel two-layer nanofluid solar pond is introduced. A mathematical model that describes the thermal performance of the pond has been developed and solved. The upper layer of the pond is made of mineral oil and the lower layer is made of nanofluid. Nanofluid is known to be an excellent solar radiation absorber, and this has been tested and verified using the mathematical model. Using nanofluid will increase the extinction coefficient of the lower layer and consequently will improve the thermal efficiency and the storage capacity of the pond. The effects of other parameters have been also investigated. - Highlights: • A novel two-layer solar pond is discussed. • Nanofluid as thermal energy storage is used in this pond. • A mathematical model is developed to predict the performance of the pond. • The mathematical model is solved using Green's function. • The pond is simulated for different values of governing parameter

  6. Distributed Coordination of Islanded Microgrid Clusters Using a Two-layer Intermittent Communication Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Lai, Jingang; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-01-01

    information with its neighbors intermittently in a low-bandwidth communication manner. A two-layer sparse communication network is modeled by pinning one or some DGs (pinned DGs) from the lower network of each MG to constitute an upper network. Under this control framework, the tertiary level generates...... the frequency/voltage references based on the active/reactive power mismatch among MGs while the pinned DGs propagate these references to their neighbors in the secondary level, and the frequency/voltage nominal set-points for each DG in the primary level can be finally adjusted based on the frequency....../voltage errors. Stability analysis of the two-layer control system is given, and sufficient conditions on the upper bound of the sampling period ratio of the tertiary layer to the secondary layer are also derived. The proposed controllers are distributed, and thus allow different numbers of heterogeneous DGs...

  7. Estimation of apparent soil resistivity for two-layer soil structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    High voltage (HV) earthing design is one of the key elements when it comes to safety compliance of a system. High voltage infrastructure exposes workers and people to unsafe conditions. The soil structure plays a vital role in determining the allowable and actual step/touch voltage. This paper presents vital information when working with two-layer soil structure. It shows the process as to when it is acceptable to use a single layer instead of a two-layer structure. It also discusses the simplification of the soil structure approach depending on the reflection coefficient. It introduces the reflection coefficient K interval which determines if single layer approach is acceptable. Multiple case studies are presented to address the new approach and its accuracy.

  8. Forced Vibrations of a Two-Layer Orthotropic Shell with an Incomplete Contact Between Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulghazaryan, L. G.; Khachatryan, L. V.

    2018-01-01

    Forced vibrations of a two-layer orthotropic shell, with incomplete contact conditions between layers, when the upper face of the shell is free and the lower one is subjected to a dynamic action are considered. By an asymptotic method, the solution of the corresponding dynamic equations and correlations of a 3D problem of elasticity theory is obtained. The amplitudes of forced vibrations are determined, and resonance conditions are established.

  9. TWO-LAYER SECURE PREVENTION MECHANISM FOR REDUCING E-COMMERCE SECURITY RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sen-Tarng Lai

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce is an important information system in the network and digital age. However, the network intrusion, malicious users, virus attack and system security vulnerabilities have continued to threaten the operation of the e-commerce, making e-commerce security encounter serious test. How to improve ecommerce security has become a topic worthy of further exploration. Combining routine security test and security event detection procedures, this paper proposes the Two-Layer Secure ...

  10. Particle-bearing currents in uniform density and two-layer fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Bruce R.; Gingras, Murray K.; Knudson, Calla; Steverango, Luke; Surma, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Lock-release gravity current experiments are performed to examine the evolution of a particle bearing flow that propagates either in a uniform-density fluid or in a two-layer fluid. In all cases, the current is composed of fresh water plus micrometer-scale particles, the ambient fluid is saline, and the current advances initially either over the surface as a hypopycnal current or at the interface of the two-layer fluid as a mesopycnal current. In most cases the tank is tilted so that the ambient fluid becomes deeper with distance from the lock. For hypopycnal currents advancing in a uniform density fluid, the current typically slows as particles rain out of the current. While the loss of particles alone from the current should increase the current's buoyancy and speed, in practice the current's speed decreases because the particles carry with them interstitial fluid from the current. Meanwhile, rather than settling on the sloping bottom of the tank, the particles form a hyperpycnal (turbidity) current that advances until enough particles rain out that the relatively less dense interstitial fluid returns to the surface, carrying some particles back upward. When a hypopycnal current runs over the surface of a two-layer fluid, the particles that rain out temporarily halt their descent as they reach the interface, eventually passing through it and again forming a hyperpycnal current. Dramatically, a mesopycnal current in a two-layer fluid first advances along the interface and then reverses direction as particles rain out below and fresh interstitial fluid rises above.

  11. Four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer at a planar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labusov, A.N.; Lapin, Yu.V.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer on a plane plate, based on generalization of one-parametric algebraic Prandtl-Loitsjansky-Klauzer-3 model. The algebraic model uses Prandtl formulas for mixing path with Loitsjansky damping multiplier in the internal region and the relation for turbulent viscosity, based on universal scales of external region and named the Klauzer-3 formula. 12 refs., 10 figs

  12. Photobleachable Diazonium Salt-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Hashimoto, Michiaki

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a new negative two-layer photoresist system formed by a simple, successive spin-coating method. An aqueous acetic acid solution of diazonium salt and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) is deposited so as to contact a phenolic resin film spin-coated on a silicon wafer. The diazonium salt diffuses into the phenolic resin layer after standing for several minutes. The residual solution on the phenolic resin film doped with diazonium salt is spun to form the diazonium salt-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) top layer. This forms a uniform two-layer resist without phase separation or striation. Upon UV exposure, the diazonium salt in the top layer bleaches to act as a CEL dye, while the diazonium salt in the bottom layer decomposes to cause insolubilization. Half μm line-and-space patterns are obtained with an i-line stepper using 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride double salt as the diazonium salt and a cresol novolac resin for the bottom polymer layer. The resist formation processes, insolubilization mechanism, and the resolution capability of the new two-layer resist are discussed.

  13. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO{sub 2} and TBP Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex.

  14. Separation of the components of the TBP-H2 MBP-HDBP-H3PO4 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1981-04-01

    Several schemes for the separation of dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP), monobutylphosphoric acid (H 2 MBP) and orthophosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) as hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation products from tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) were studied. For the resolution of a HDBP, H 2 MPB and H 3 PO 4 mixture in TBP-diluent, or in TBP-diluent-heavy metal nitrate (U-VI, Th-IV or Zr-IV), techniques such as ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography and separation onto a chromatographic alumina column were investigated. For the identification, determination and analytical resolution following up for the several systems studied, techniques such as refraction index measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, molecular spectrophotometry and gas chromatography were applied. Special emphasys was given to the separation using alumina column where the HDBP acid was retained and eluted selectively for its separation from TBP-varsol-uranyl nitrate mixtures. This analytical procedure was applied to the samples coming from the Uranium Purification Pilot Plant in operation at the Centro de Engenharia Quimica (IPEN). (Author) [pt

  15. On the identification of complexing radiolysis products in the Purex system. (20%TBP - Dodecane - HNO3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Baumgartner, F.; Steiglitz, L.

    1978-09-01

    The lifetime of the extraction system TBP Dodecane-aqueous HNO. In the Purex process is limited by radiolytic and hydrolytic decomposition of the extracting and diluting agent which is indicated by an increased retention of fission products, especially zirconium. In this work, the radiolytically formed complexing agents responsible for this are enriched (molecular distillation) and separated in several fractions by liquid chromatography. The chemical composition of these fractions was identified by a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, supplemented by infra-red spectroscopy. As for doubtful complexing agents, they are mainly long-chain phosphoric acid esters, and, to a lesser extent, the existence of polycarbonyl compounds is suspected. The high molecular weight components of the phosphate ester fraction could be separated by gas chromatography and identified as oligomeric phosphate esters. (author)

  16. Separation of Am from lanthanides by a synergistic mixture of purified Cyanex 301 and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinghai Wang; Yongjun Zhu; Rongzhou Jiao

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the distribution ratios of 241 Am and lanthanides between purified Cyanex 301 (HBTMPDTP)-TBP-kerosene/nitrate solution on pH, lanthanide concentration in aqueous phase and degree of saponification of HBTMPDTP was investigated. The distribution ratios of 241 Am and lanthanides increase with pH and degree of saponification of HBTMPDTP and decrease with lanthanides concentration. Countercurrent multistage extraction consisting of 7 extraction, 3 washing and 2 stripping stages showed that more than 99,99% of 241 Am and less than 0.04% of lanthanides were extracted. The pH 1/2 value of Am was 2.45 compared to 3.16 in case of HBTMPDTP-kerosene extraction. (author)

  17. Characterization of TBP containing polysiloxane membrane/insulator/semiconductor structures for hexavalent chromium detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazoua, A. [Universite de Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Kherrat, R.; Samar, M.H. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Errachid, A. [Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, CIBER, Parc Cientific de Barcelona (PCB)-Departament d' Electronica. Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [LSA - UMR 5180 CNRS - Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)], E-mail: nicole.jaffrezic@univ-lyon1.fr; Bessueille, F.; Leonard, D. [LSA - UMR 5180 CNRS - Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    A hexavalent chromium-sensitive EMIS sensor (electrolyte membrane insulator semiconductor sensor) is prepared by deposition of a tributylphosphate (TBP) ionophore-containing siloprene membrane on a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} structure. The developed EMIS sensor was studied by means of impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and FT-IR spectroscopy. From the flat-band shift of the EMIS structure, the nersntian response to the anionic species Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup -} was demonstrated. The linear range of detection is 10{sup -4} M to 10{sup -1} M and the detection limit is 10{sup -5} M. Sulfate and chloride anions are shown not to be interfering whereas carbonate ions present a pK{sup pot} equal to 0.19.

  18. A novel TBP-TAF complex on RNA polymerase II-transcribed snRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Taylor, Alice; Roeder, Robert G; Murphy, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Initiation of transcription of most human genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) requires the formation of a preinitiation complex comprising TFIIA, B, D, E, F, H and RNAP II. The general transcription factor TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein and up to 13 TBP-associated factors. During transcription of snRNA genes, RNAP II does not appear to make the transition to long-range productive elongation, as happens during transcription of protein-coding genes. In addition, recognition of the snRNA gene-type specific 3' box RNA processing element requires initiation from an snRNA gene promoter. These characteristics may, at least in part, be driven by factors recruited to the promoter. For example, differences in the complement of TAFs might result in differential recruitment of elongation and RNA processing factors. As precedent, it already has been shown that the promoters of some protein-coding genes do not recruit all the TAFs found in TFIID. Although TAF5 has been shown to be associated with RNAP II-transcribed snRNA genes, the full complement of TAFs associated with these genes has remained unclear. Here we show, using a ChIP and siRNA-mediated approach, that the TBP/TAF complex on snRNA genes differs from that found on protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the largest TAF, TAF1, and the core TAFs, TAF10 and TAF4, are not detected on snRNA genes. We propose that this snRNA gene-specific TAF subset plays a key role in gene type-specific control of expression.

  19. Studies on avoiding second organic phase in DHDECMP-TBP/kerosene with the extraction of HNO3-Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zilin; Zhao Hugen; Hu Jingxin

    1998-01-01

    The bidentate extractant of DHDECMP (CMP) may by more practical in the treatment of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) if it could be diluted by kerosene. Bu it is difficult to avoid the formation of second organic phase in CMP/kerosene with the extraction of HNO 3 and RE. It is advantageous to avoid the formation of second organic phase after the extraction of HNO 3 and Gd by adding TBP. The formation conditions of second organic phase are studied and the loaded capacity of RE-HNO 3 is measured. The results are as follows. Raising temperature has a slight advantage to avoid formation of second organic phase. The addition of TBP is beneficial to avoid second organic phase. An organic system of 0.60 mol/L CMP-1.20 mol/L TBP/kerosene contacting with an aqueous solution containing 6.0 mol/L HNO 3 does not appear second organic phase. The extraction of RE leads to form second organic phase which does not occur when it only extracts HNO 3 . It is able to avoid second organic phase with a low concentration of CMP. The higher concentration of CMP, the higher loaded capacity of Gd 3+ and HNO 3 . It is advantageous to avoid second organic phase formation and also to get a higher loaded capacity of Gd 3+ and HNO 3 with increasing concentration of TBP. The loaded capacity of Gd decreases with an increasing initial concentration of HNO 3 in aqueous phase because of an increasing concentration of HNO 3 in the organic phase. The loaded capacity of Gd increases with raising temperature. To treat HLLW, the organic system containing 0.60 mol/L CMP and 1.40 mol/L TBP is recommended

  20. Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutbecher, M.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)

  1. Combined conduction and radiation in a two-layer planar medium with flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.H.; Ozisik, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of conduction and radiation is investigated under both transient and steady-state conditions for an absorbing, emitting, and isotropically scattering two-layer slab having opaque coverings at both boundaries. The slab is subjected to an externally applied constant heat flux at one boundary surface and dissipates heat by radiation into external ambients from both boundary surfaces. An analytic approach is applied to solve the radiation part of the problem, and a finite-difference scheme is used to solve the conduction part. The effects of the conduction-to-radiation parameter, the single scattering albedo, the optical thickness, and the surface emissivity on the temperature distribution are examined

  2. Theoretical properties of the global optimizer of two layer neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Boob, Digvijay; Lan, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of optimizing a two-layer artificial neural network that best fits a training dataset. We look at this problem in the setting where the number of parameters is greater than the number of sampled points. We show that for a wide class of differentiable activation functions (this class involves "almost" all functions which are not piecewise linear), we have that first-order optimal solutions satisfy global optimality provided the hidden layer is non-singular. ...

  3. The investigation of a two-layer fluid soliton pair using phase plane analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.; Moslehi-Fard, M.; Alinejad, H.; Mahmoodi, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear long waves theory in a two-layer fluid system has been studied. The dynamical equations according to the normalized heights in first order are obtained using the reductive perturbation method and the equations of shallow water in each fluid and taking boundary conditions appropriate into account. Conserve energy form by definition a independent variable is found. By definition a Lyapunov function, the condition for stability are shown. A new technique was used to prove stability as well as existence of soliton pair using phase plane analysis. (author)

  4. Validation of the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Clear Sky Reflectance Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Vamal, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer model was developed in our earlier studies to estimate the clear sky reflectance enhancement near clouds. This simple model accounts for the radiative interaction between boundary layer clouds and molecular layer above, the major contribution to the reflectance enhancement near clouds for short wavelengths. We use LES/SHDOM simulated 3D radiation fields to valid the two-layer model for reflectance enhancement at 0.47 micrometer. We find: (a) The simple model captures the viewing angle dependence of the reflectance enhancement near cloud, suggesting the physics of this model is correct; and (b) The magnitude of the 2-layer modeled enhancement agree reasonably well with the "truth" with some expected underestimation. We further extend our model to include cloud-surface interaction using the Poisson model for broken clouds. We found that including cloud-surface interaction improves the correction, though it can introduced some over corrections for large cloud albedo, large cloud optical depth, large cloud fraction, large cloud aspect ratio. This over correction can be reduced by excluding scenes (10 km x 10km) with large cloud fraction for which the Poisson model is not designed for. Further research is underway to account for the contribution of cloud-aerosol radiative interaction to the enhancement.

  5. A Novel, Diazonium-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System Utilizing Photoinduced Interfacial Insolubilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Ueno, Takumi; Hashimoto, Michiaki; Nonogaki, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    This paper deals with a negative two-layer photoresist system utilizing a photoinduced insolubilization process at the interface. The bottom layer is a phenolic resin either with or without aromatic azide and the top layer is a photosensitive layer comprised of an aromatic diazonium compound and a water soluble polymer. Upon exposure to light, the diazo compound decomposes to cause insolubilization at the interface between the two layers. The system exhibits high contrast due to the combination of interfacial insolubilization and contrast enhancement by photobleaching of the diazonium compound. Patterns of 0.5 um lines and spaces are obtained using an i-line stepper and a resist system containing 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride in the top layer and 3-(4-azidostyry1)- 5,5-dimethyl- 2-cyclohexen-1-one in the bottom layer. Resists with varying spectral responses from mid-UV to g-line can be designed by selecting the kind of diazo compound used in the top layer.

  6. A two-layer model for buoyant inertial displacement flows in inclined pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etrati, Ali; Frigaard, Ian A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the inertial flows found in buoyant miscible displacements using a two-layer model. From displacement flow experiments in inclined pipes, it has been observed that for significant ranges of Fr and Re cos β/Fr, a two-layer, stratified flow develops with the heavier fluid moving at the bottom of the pipe. Due to significant inertial effects, thin-film/lubrication models developed for laminar, viscous flows are not effective for predicting these flows. Here we develop a displacement model that addresses this shortcoming. The complete model for the displacement flow consists of mass and momentum equations for each fluid, resulting in a set of four non-linear equations. By integrating over each layer and eliminating the pressure gradient, we reduce the system to two equations for the area and mean velocity of the heavy fluid layer. The wall and interfacial stresses appear as source terms in the reduced system. The final system of equations is solved numerically using a robust, shock-capturing scheme. The equations are stabilized to remove non-physical instabilities. A linear stability analysis is able to predict the onset of instabilities at the interface and together with numerical solution, is used to study displacement effectiveness over different parametric regimes. Backflow and instability onset predictions are made for different viscosity ratios.

  7. Development of a novel two-layer multiplate magnetorheological clutch for high-power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Daoming; Tian, Zuzhi; Meng, Qingrui; Hou, Youfu

    2013-01-01

    A novel magnetorheological (MR) clutch for high-power applications is designed, simulated and tested. The clutch is implemented in a two-layer multiplate transmission form and adopts a two-way liquid cooling method to improve the heat dissipation capability. In this paper, a brief introduction to the transmission form of the proposed MR clutch is given first. Then, theoretical analyses of the output torque, magnetic circuit and temperature characteristic are conducted and further design details are presented and discussed, followed by a magnetostatic simulation of the designed circuit. A prototype of the clutch was fabricated and several tests were carried out to evaluate the torque transmission, time response and steady slip power of the prototype. The results show that the proposed MR clutch can produce a maximum output torque of 1545 N m and possesses a high steady slip power of up to 35 kW. Therefore, the developed two-layer multiplate MR clutch is promising for applications in many high-power situations. (paper)

  8. A design method for two-layer beams consisting of normal and fibered high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Two-layer fibered concrete beams can be analyzed using conventional methods for composite elements. The compressed zone of such beam section is made of high strength concrete (HSC), and the tensile one of normal strength concrete (NSC). The problems related to such type of beams are revealed and studied. An appropriate depth of each layer is prescribed. Compatibility conditions between HSC and NSC layers are found. It is based on the shear deformations equality on the layers border in a section with maximal depth of the compression zone. For the first time a rigorous definition of HSC is given using a comparative analysis of deformability and strength characteristics of different concrete classes. According to this definition, HSC has no download branch in the stress-strain diagram, the stress-strain function has minimum exponent, the ductility parameter is minimal and the concrete tensile strength remains constant with an increase in concrete compression strength. The application fields of two-layer concrete beams based on different static schemes and load conditions make known. It is known that the main disadvantage of HSCs is their low ductility. In order to overcome this problem, fibers are added to the HSC layer. Influence of different fiber volume ratios on structural ductility is discussed. An upper limit of the required fibers volume ratio is found based on compatibility equation of transverse tensile concrete deformations and deformations of fibers

  9. Photoacoustic investigation of the effective diffusivity of two-layer semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, J; Gurevich, Yu. G; Logvinov G, N; Rodriguez, P; Gonzalez de la Cruz, G. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-08-01

    In this work, the problem of the effective thermal diffusivity of two-layer systems is investigated using the photoacoustic spectroscopy. The experimental results are examined in terms of the effective thermal parameters of the composite system determined from an homogeneous material which produces the same physical response under an external perturbation in the detector device. It is shown, that the effective thermal conductivity is not symmetric under exchange of the two layers of the composite; i.e., the effective thermal parameters depend upon which layer is illuminated in the photoacoustic experiments. Particular emphasis is given to the characterization of the interface thermal conductivity between the layer-system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se utiliza la espectroscopia fotoacustica para medir la difusividad termica de un sistema de dos capas. Los resultados experimentales son analizados en terminos de los parametros termicos efectivos determinados a partir de un material homogeneo, el cual produce la misma respuesta fisica bajo una perturbacion externa. Se puso particular enfasis en la caracterizacion de los efectos de interfase en el flujo de calor en el sistema de dos capas. Los resultados experimentales se comparan con el modelo teorico propuesto en este trabajo.

  10. Waves propagating over a two-layer porous barrier on a seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Meng, Qing-rui; Lu, Dong-qiang

    2018-05-01

    A research of wave propagation over a two-layer porous barrier, each layer of which is with different values of porosity and friction, is conducted with a theoretical model in the frame of linear potential flow theory. The model is more appropriate when the seabed consists of two different properties, such as rocks and breakwaters. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid and incompressible and the motion is irrotational. The wave numbers in the porous region are complex ones, which are related to the decaying and propagating behaviors of wave modes. With the aid of the eigenfunction expansions, a new inner product of the eigenfunctions in the two-layer porous region is proposed to simplify the calculation. The eigenfunctions, under this new definition, possess the orthogonality from which the expansion coefficients can be easily deduced. Selecting the optimum truncation of the series, we derive a closed system of simultaneous linear equations for the same number of the unknown reflection and transmission coefficients. The effects of several physical parameters, including the porosity, friction, width, and depth of the porous barrier, on the dispersion relation, reflection and transmission coefficients are discussed in detail through the graphical representations of the solutions. It is concluded that these parameters have certain impacts on the reflection and transmission energy.

  11. Modeling a two-layer flow system at the subarctic, subalpine tree line during snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Erica E.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2002-10-01

    In the subarctic it is common to encounter a two-layer flow system consisting of a porous organic cover overlying frozen or unfrozen mineral soils with much lower hydraulic conductivities. The "simple lumped reservoir parametric," or "semidistributed land-use-based runoff processes" (SLURP), model was adapted to simulate runoff generated by such a flow system from an upland shrub land to an open woodland downslope. A subalpine site in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, was subdivided into two aggregated simulation areas (ASA), each being a unit characterized by a set of parameters. The model computes the vertical water balance and flow generation from several storages, and then routes the water out of the ASA. When applied to the 1999 snowmelt season, the model simulated the very low lateral flow and a large increase in storage in the mineral soil, as was observed in the field. The model was used to assess the sensitivity of the two-layer flow system under a range of temperature, snow cover, and frost conditions. Results show that within the range of possible climatic conditions, the hydrologic system is unlikely to yield significant runoff across the subalpine tree line, but if ground ice is abundant in the soil pores, percolation will be limited and fast flow from the surface layer is enhanced.

  12. Reverse-feeding effect of epidemic by propagators in two-layered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayu, Wu; Yanping, Zhao; Muhua, Zheng; Jie, Zhou; Zonghua, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and is currently focused on the spreading of multiple pathogens, especially in multiplex networks. However, little attention has been paid to the case where the mutual influence between different pathogens comes from a fraction of epidemic propagators, such as bisexual people in two separated groups of heterosexual and homosexual people. We here study this topic by presenting a network model of two layers connected by impulsive links, in contrast to the persistent links in each layer. We let each layer have a distinct pathogen and their interactive infection is implemented by a fraction of propagators jumping between the corresponding pairs of nodes in the two layers. By this model we show that (i) the propagators take the key role to transmit pathogens from one layer to the other, which significantly influences the stabilized epidemics; (ii) the epidemic thresholds will be changed by the propagators; and (iii) a reverse-feeding effect can be expected when the infective rate is smaller than its threshold of isolated spreading. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11135001, 11375066, and 11405059) and the National Basic Key Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834100).

  13. Reverse-feeding effect of epidemic by propagators in two-layered networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dayu; Zhao Yanping; Zheng Muhua; Zhou Jie; Liu Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and is currently focused on the spreading of multiple pathogens, especially in multiplex networks. However, little attention has been paid to the case where the mutual influence between different pathogens comes from a fraction of epidemic propagators, such as bisexual people in two separated groups of heterosexual and homosexual people. We here study this topic by presenting a network model of two layers connected by impulsive links, in contrast to the persistent links in each layer. We let each layer have a distinct pathogen and their interactive infection is implemented by a fraction of propagators jumping between the corresponding pairs of nodes in the two layers. By this model we show that (i) the propagators take the key role to transmit pathogens from one layer to the other, which significantly influences the stabilized epidemics; (ii) the epidemic thresholds will be changed by the propagators; and (iii) a reverse-feeding effect can be expected when the infective rate is smaller than its threshold of isolated spreading. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. (paper)

  14. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Balagansky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under explosion collapse of two-layer tubes with an outer layer of high-modulus ceramics and an inner layer of copper, formation of a fast and dense copper jet is plausible. We have performed a numerical simulation of the explosion collapse of a two-layer alumina/copper tube using ANSYS AUTODYN software. The simulation was performed in a 2D-axis symmetry posting on an Eulerian mesh of 3900x1200 cells. The simulation results indicate two separate stages of the tube collapse process: the nonstationary and the stationary stage. At the initial stage, a non-stationary fragmented jet is moving with the velocity of leading elements up to 30 km/s. The collapse velocity of the tube to the symmetry axis is about 2 km/s, and the pressure in the contact zone exceeds 700 GPa. During the stationary stage, a dense jet is forming with the velocity of 20 km/s. Temperature of the dense jet is about 2000 K, jet failure occurs when the value of effective plastic deformation reaches 30.

  15. Kinetic studies on uranium stripping in D2EHPA+TBP/phosphoric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, K.K.; Singh, D.K.; Kotekar, M.K.; Anitha, M.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A novel process based on synergistic mixture of 1.5 M D2EHPA (di 2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) + 0.2 M TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) to recover uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) has been developed. Though the equilibrium study for the above process has been investigated in detail its kinetic behavior has not been reported so far. The work presented in the paper is an attempt to study the kinetics of U(VI) stripping from extractant phase to aqueous phase in a constant interfacial area cell (Lewis cell). Kinetic study of the solvent extraction process helps in designing of equipment and optimizing process condition for the better utilization of solvent inventory. Mass transfer kinetics of stripping of U(VI) from loaded 1.5M D2EHPA+ 0.2M TBP with phosphoric acid (AR) has been studied over a wide range of experimental conditions such as stirring speed, interfacial contact area, phosphoric acid concentration, uranium concentration, extractant concentration in organic phase and temperature. Investigation on effect of stirring speed (100-500 rpm) on stripping of U(VI) showed that the rate constant (k) values increases linearly with increase in stirring speeds from 100 to 300 rpm (0.03 to 0.075 cm/min), while the k values were almost constant (0.0819 cm/min) in 300 to 400 rpm range, beyond 450 rpm the k values again increased due to increased turbulence at the interface. The rate constant value (∼0.0814 cm/min) was found to be independent of interfacial contact area (24.6 to 67.02 cm 2 ) available for mass transfer. The rate constants were found to increase with increase in phosphoric acid concentration (6-10M) and temperature (30-60 deg C), the values being in the range of 0.01 to 0.082 cm/min. The slopes of ln-ln plot showed that the stripping of U(VI) has a second order dependence on phosphoric acid concentration (slope∼2) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60 deg C. The activation energy value for uranium stripping was found to be in the

  16. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a self-gravitating two-layer fluid sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in a self-gravitating two-layer fluid sphere: an inner sphere and an outer layer. The density and the viscosity are assumed to be constant in each region. Analytic expressions of the dispersion relations are obtained in inviscid and viscid cases. This examination aims at the investigation of the Earth's core formation. The fluid sphere corresponds to the proto-Earth in the accretion stage. The instability is examined without rotation of the fluid sphere, while the proto-Earth is rotating. However, it is shown that the Coriolis force does not influence the conclusion in the Earth's core formation problem. 5 refs.; 10 figs

  17. Assessment of Speech in Primary Cleft Palate by Two-layer Closure (Conservative Management).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Harsha; Rao, Dayashankara; Sharma, Shailender; Gupta, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the cleft palate has evolved over a long period of time. Various techniques of cleft palate repair that are practiced today are the results of principles learned through many years of modifications. The challenge in the art of modern palatoplasty is no longer successful closure of the cleft palate but an optimal speech outcome without compromising maxillofacial growth. Throughout these periods of evolution in the treatment of cleft palate, the effectiveness of various treatment protocols has been challenged by controversies concerning speech and maxillofacial growth. In this article we have evaluated the results of Pinto's modification of Wardill-Kilner palatoplasty without radical dissection of the levator veli palitini muscle on speech and post-op fistula in two different age groups in 20 patients. Preoperative and 6-month postoperative speech assessment values indicated that two-layer palatoplasty (modified Wardill-Kilner V-Y pushback technique) without an intravelar veloplasty technique was good for speech.

  18. Synthesis of PVA/PVP hydrogels having two-layer by radiation and their physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.R.; Nho, Y.C.

    2003-01-01

    In these studies, two-layer hydrogels which consisted of polyurethane membrane and a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)/poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone(PVP)/glycerin/chitosan were made for the wound dressing. Polyurethane was dissolved in solvent, the polyurethane solution was poured on the mould, and then dried to make the thin membrane. Hydrophilic polymer solutions were poured on the polyurethane membranes, they were exposed to gamma irradiation or two steps of 'freezing and thawing' and gamma irradiation doses to make the hydrogels. The physical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity, and gel strength were examined to evaluate the hydrogels for wound dressing. The physical properties of hydrogels such as gelation and gel strength was greatly improved when polyurethane membrane was used as a covering layer of hydrogel, and the evaporation speed of water in hydrogel was reduced

  19. Exposure buildup factors for a cobalt-60 point isotropic source for single and two layer slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, R.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for point isotropic cobalt-60 sources are calculated by the Monte Carlo method with statistical errors ranging from 1.5 to 7% for 1-5 mean free paths (mfp) thick water and iron single slabs and for 1 and 2 mfp iron layers followed by water layers 1-5 mfp thick. The computations take into account Compton scattering. The Monte Carlo data for single slab geometries are approximated by Geometric Progression formula. Kalos's formula using the calculated single slab buildup factors may be applied to reproduce the data for two-layered slabs. The presented results and discussion may help when choosing the manner in which the radiation field gamma irradiation units will be described. (author)

  20. A Two-Layer Least Squares Support Vector Machine Approach to Credit Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingli; Li, Jianping; Xu, Weixuan; Shi, Yong

    Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is a revised version of support vector machine (SVM) and has been proved to be a useful tool for pattern recognition. LS-SVM had excellent generalization performance and low computational cost. In this paper, we propose a new method called two-layer least squares support vector machine which combines kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) and linear programming form of least square support vector machine. With this method sparseness and robustness is obtained while solving large dimensional and large scale database. A U.S. commercial credit card database is used to test the efficiency of our method and the result proved to be a satisfactory one.

  1. Central-Upwind Schemes for Two-Layer Shallow Water Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Kurganov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We derive a second-order semidiscrete central-upwind scheme for one- and two-dimensional systems of two-layer shallow water equations. We prove that the presented scheme is well-balanced in the sense that stationary steady-state solutions are exactly preserved by the scheme and positivity preserving; that is, the depth of each fluid layer is guaranteed to be nonnegative. We also propose a new technique for the treatment of the nonconservative products describing the momentum exchange between the layers. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated on a number of numerical examples, in which we successfully capture (quasi) steady-state solutions and propagating interfaces. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Development of analytical theory of the physical libration for a two-layer Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Barkin, Yurii; Gusev, Alexander; Ivanova, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    -project. Prognosis recommendations are made for the future experiment. The model of free rotation of the two-layer Moon is constructed, the periods of the free modes and of the librational motion of a pole are received, effects of influence of a lunar core on behavior of LPhL-harmonics caused by the solid-state rotation of the Moon are deduced. Computer simulating has revealed the sensitivity of the free libration periods to core's ellipticity and to core-mantle boundary dissipation parameters. Geometrical interpretation of the pole motion owing to the free libration is given. For the first time the theoretical model of tidal potential of the Moon is developed, on the basis of the model the analytical formulae for variations of the Stockes coefficients of the 2-nd order and of the speed of the Lunar rotation is received in dependence on time. For a two-layer structure of the Moon and the Mercury Cassini's law were stated at the first time: 1. a two-layer Moon keeps its own stationary rotation; 2. there is a splitting of Cassini nodes and angular momentums of Lunar mantle and core; 3. the same phenomenon will be observed for any two-layer planet (Mercury); 4. the differential rotation of a core and mantle is inherent to a planet as result of a generalized Cassini's Laws. Theoretical and practical methods of construction of the theory of rotation of the Earth have been successfully applied in the development of the theory of rotation of the Moon, in

  3. Two-Layer 16 Tesla Cosθ Dipole Design for the FCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holik, Eddie Frank [Fermilab; Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab

    2018-02-13

    The Future Circular Collider or FCC is a study aimed at exploring the possibility to reach 100 TeV total collision energy which would require 16 tesla dipoles. Upon the conclusion of the High Luminosity Upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Upgrade Pro-ject in collaboration with CERN will have extensive Nb3Sn magnet fabrication experience. This experience includes robust Nb3Sn conductor and insulation scheming, 2-layer cos2θ coil fabrication, and bladder-and-key structure and assembly. By making im-provements and modification to existing technology the feasibility of a two-layer 16 tesla dipole is investigated. Preliminary designs indicate that fields up to 16.6 tesla are feasible with conductor grading while satisfying the HE-LHC and FCC specifications. Key challenges include accommodating high-aspect ratio conductor, narrow wedge design, Nb3Sn conductor grading, and especially quench protection of a 16 tesla device.

  4. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  5. Modified two-layer social force model for emergency earthquake evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Qin, Xin; Liu, Baoxi

    2018-02-01

    Studies of crowd behavior with related research on computer simulation provide an effective basis for architectural design and effective crowd management. Based on low-density group organization patterns, a modified two-layer social force model is proposed in this paper to simulate and reproduce a group gathering process. First, this paper studies evacuation videos from the Luan'xian earthquake in 2012, and extends the study of group organization patterns to a higher density. Furthermore, taking full advantage of the strength in crowd gathering simulations, a new method on grouping and guidance is proposed while using crowd dynamics. Second, a real-life grouping situation in earthquake evacuation is simulated and reproduced. Comparing with the fundamental social force model and existing guided crowd model, the modified model reduces congestion time and truly reflects group behaviors. Furthermore, the experiment result also shows that a stable group pattern and a suitable leader could decrease collision and allow a safer evacuation process.

  6. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  7. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yanxun; Deng Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  8. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a self-gravitating two-layer viscous sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Puskar; Korenaga, Jun

    2018-03-01

    The dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical geometry is of profound importance in the context of the Earth's core formation. Here we present a complete derivation of this dispersion relation for a self-gravitating two-layer viscous sphere. Such relation is, however, obtained through the solution of a complex transcendental equation, and it is difficult to gain physical insights directly from the transcendental equation itself. We thus also derive an empirical formula to compute the growth rate, by combining the Monte Carlo sampling of the relevant model parameter space with linear regression. Our analysis indicates that the growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability is most sensitive to the viscosity of inner layer in a physical setting that is most relevant to the core formation.

  9. Three-Dimensional Computer-Assisted Two-Layer Elastic Models of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichi; Shigemura, Yuka; Otsuki, Yuki; Fuse, Asuka; Mitsuno, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    To make three-dimensional computer-assisted elastic models for the face, we decided on five requirements: (1) an elastic texture like skin and subcutaneous tissue; (2) the ability to take pen marking for incisions; (3) the ability to be cut with a surgical knife; (4) the ability to keep stitches in place for a long time; and (5) a layered structure. After testing many elastic solvents, we have made realistic three-dimensional computer-assisted two-layer elastic models of the face and cleft lip from the computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging stereolithographic data. The surface layer is made of polyurethane and the inner layer is silicone. Using this elastic model, we taught residents and young doctors how to make several typical local flaps and to perform cheiloplasty. They could experience realistic simulated surgery and understand three-dimensional movement of the flaps.

  10. Analysis of data recorded by the LCTPC equipped with a two layer GEM-system

    CERN Document Server

    Ljunggren, M

    2012-01-01

    wire based readout. The prototype TPC is placed in a 1 Tesla magnet at DESY and tested using an electron beam. Analyses of data taken during two different measurement series, in 2009 and 2010, are presented here. The TPC was instrumented with a two layer GEM system and read out using modified electronics from the ALICE experiment, including the programmable charge sensitive preamp-shaper PCA16. The PCA16 chip has a number of programmable parameters which allows studies to determine the settings optimal to the final TPC. Here, the impact of the shaping time on the space resolution in the drift direction was studied. It was found that a shaping time of 60 ns is the b...

  11. A New, Two-layer Canopy Module For The Detailed Snow Model SNOWPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttevin, I.; Lehning, M.; Jonas, T.; Gustafsson, D.; Mölder, M.

    2014-12-01

    A new, two-layer canopy module with thermal inertia for the detailed snow model SNOWPACK is presented. Compared to the old, one-layered canopy formulation with no heat mass, this module now offers a level of physical detail consistent with the detailed snow and soil representation in SNOWPACK. The new canopy model is designed to reproduce the difference in thermal regimes between leafy and woody canopy elements and their impact on the underlying snowpack energy balance. The new model is validated against data from an Alpine and a boreal site. Comparisons of modelled sub-canopy thermal radiations to stand-scale observations at Alptal, Switzerland, demonstrate the improvements induced by our new parameterizations. The main effect is a more realistic simulation of the canopy night-time drop in temperatures. The lower drop is induced by both thermal inertia and the two-layer representation. A specific result is that such a performance cannot be achieved by a single-layered canopy model. The impact of the new parameterizations on the modelled dynamics of the sub-canopy snowpack is analysed and yields consistent results, but the frequent occurrence of mixed-precipitation events at Alptal prevents a conclusive assessment of model performances against snow data.Without specific tuning, the model is also able to reproduce the measured summertime tree trunk temperatures and biomass heat storage at the boreal site of Norunda, Sweden, with an increased accuracy in amplitude and phase. Overall, the SNOWPACK model with its enhanced canopy module constitutes a unique (in its physical process representation) atmosphere-to-soil-through-canopy-and-snow modelling chain.

  12. Precession of a two-layer Earth: contributions of the core and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Tomás; Ferrándiz, José M.; Escapa, Alberto; Getino, Juan; Navarro, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's internal structure contributes to the precession rate in a small but non-negligible amount, given the current accuracy goals demanded by IAG/GGOS to the reference frames, namely 30 μas and 3 μas/yr. These contributions come from a variety of sources. One of those not yet accounted for in current IAU models is associated to the crossed effects of certain nutation-rising terms of a two-layer Earth model; intuitively, it gathers an 'indirect' effect of the core via the NDFW, or FCN, resonance as well as a 'direct' effect arising from terms that account for energy variations depending on the elasticity of the core. Similar order of magnitude reaches the direct effect of the departure of the Earth's rheology from linear elasticity. To compute those effects we work out the problem in a unified way within the Hamiltonian framework developed by Getino and Ferrándiz (2001). It allows a consistent treatment of the problem since all the perturbations are derived from the same tide generating expansion and the crossing effects are rigorously obtained through Hori's canonical perturbation method. The problem admits an asymptotic analytical solution. The Hamiltonian is constructed by considering a two-layer Earth model made up of an anelastic mantle and a fluid core, perturbed by the gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun. The former effects reach some tens of μas/yr in the longitude rate, hence above the target accuracy level. We outline their influence in the estimation of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity, a main parameter factorizing both precession and nutation.

  13. Quantification of the specific yield in a two-layer hard-rock aquifer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Véronique; Léonardi, Véronique; de Marsily, Ghislain; Lachassagne, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Hard rock aquifers (HRA) have long been considered to be two-layer systems, with a mostly capacitive layer just below the surface, the saprolite layer, and a mainly transmissive layer underneath, the fractured layer. Although this hydrogeological conceptual model is widely accepted today within the scientific community, it is difficult to quantify the respective storage properties of each layer with an equivalent porous medium model. Based on an HRA field site, this paper attempts to quantify in a distinct manner the respective values of the specific yield (Sy) in the saprolite and the fractured layer, with the help of a deterministic hydrogeological model. The study site is the Plancoët migmatitic aquifer located in north-western Brittany, France, with piezometric data from 36 observation wells surveyed every two weeks for eight years. Whereas most of the piezometers (26) are located where the water table lies within the saprolite, thus representing the specific yield of the unconfined layer (Sy1), 10 of them are representative of the unconfined fractured layer (Sy2), due to their position where the saprolite is eroded or unsaturated. The two-layer model, based on field observations of the layer geometry, runs with the MODFLOW code. 81 values of the Sy1/Sy2 parameter sets were tested manually, as an inverse calibration was not able to calibrate these parameters. In order to calibrate the storage properties, a new quality-of-fit criterion called ;AdVar; was also developed, equal to the mean squared deviation of the seasonal piezometric amplitude variation. Contrary to the variance, AdVar is able to select the best values for the specific yield in each layer. It is demonstrated that the saprolite layer is about 2.5 times more capacitive than the fractured layer, with Sy1 = 10% (7% < Sy1 < 15%) against Sy2 = 2% (1% < Sy2 < 3%), in this particular example.

  14. Revisiting the two-layer hypothesis: coexistence of alternative functional rooting strategies in savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdo, Ricardo M

    2013-01-01

    The two-layer hypothesis of tree-grass coexistence posits that trees and grasses differ in rooting depth, with grasses exploiting soil moisture in shallow layers while trees have exclusive access to deep water. The lack of clear differences in maximum rooting depth between these two functional groups, however, has caused this model to fall out of favor. The alternative model, the demographic bottleneck hypothesis, suggests that trees and grasses occupy overlapping rooting niches, and that stochastic events such as fires and droughts result in episodic tree mortality at various life stages, thus preventing trees from otherwise displacing grasses, at least in mesic savannas. Two potential problems with this view are: 1) we lack data on functional rooting profiles in trees and grasses, and these profiles are not necessarily reflected by differences in maximum or physical rooting depth, and 2) subtle, difficult-to-detect differences in rooting profiles between the two functional groups may be sufficient to result in coexistence in many situations. To tackle this question, I coupled a plant uptake model with a soil moisture dynamics model to explore the environmental conditions under which functional rooting profiles with equal rooting depth but different depth distributions (i.e., shapes) can coexist when competing for water. I show that, as long as rainfall inputs are stochastic, coexistence based on rooting differences is viable under a wide range of conditions, even when these differences are subtle. The results also indicate that coexistence mechanisms based on rooting niche differentiation are more viable under some climatic and edaphic conditions than others. This suggests that the two-layer model is both viable and stochastic in nature, and that a full understanding of tree-grass coexistence and dynamics may require incorporating fine-scale rooting differences between these functional groups and realistic stochastic climate drivers into future models.

  15. Comparative kinetic and equilibrium investigations on the extraction of U(IV) in nitric acid/Tbp or TLA-Kerosene systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, J A; Khalifa, S M; Abdel Rahman, N; Aly, H F [Hot laboratories center, Atomic energy authority post code 13758, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The extraction equilibrium of U(IV) by tributyl-phosphate (Tbp) or trilaurylamine (TLA) in kerosene from nitric acid media was investigated. The effect of the different parameters affecting the extraction was separately studied and compared. The kinetics of extraction of U(IV) by Tbp or TLA was also investigated using a stirred lewis cell. The data showed that the rate of extraction of U(IV) by Tbp is controlled by chemical reactions at the interface. In the TLA system, the extraction of U(IV) is controlled by chemical reactions at the interface and bulk phase. Rate equations show that the extraction of U(IV) is first order dependent on Tbp concentration while it is of fractional negative order with respect to TLA. The effect of temperature on the rate of extraction was also studied and the thermodynamic functions were evaluated for the two systems. 5 figs.

  16. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  17. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  18. Direct dissolution of g-level U metal and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct and in situ extraction at ambient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Bijendra Kumar; Gelatar, J.K.; Pranay Kumar Sinha; Alok Kumar Mishra; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    A study on direct dissolution of g-level metallic U and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct followed by in situ extraction at ambient pressures under batch and dynamic conditions was performed. The product organic solution was adjusted to 30 % TBP in dodecane and from it, U(VI) could be stripped quantitatively with 0.01 N nitric acid. Experimental results of the study are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2Co3 scrub-waste solutions: the ARALEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Mason, G.W.; Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na 2 CO 3 scrub-waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory-scale countercurrent extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, uses 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H 2 MBP) from acidified Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds, which also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H 2 MBP to complex actinides. Thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds (e.g., detergents) that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. 20 figures, 6 tables

  20. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single

  1. Fabrication and characterization of two-layered nanofibrous membrane for guided bone and tissue regeneration application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi Rad, Maryam; Nouri Khorasani, Saied; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Saadatkish, Niloufar; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-11-01

    Membranes used in dentistry act as a barrier to prevent invasion of intruder cells to defected area and obtains spaces that are to be subsequently filled with new bone and provide required bone volume for implant therapy when there is insufficient volume of healthy bone at implant site. In this study a two-layered bioactive membrane were fabricated by electrospinning whereas one layer provides guided bone regeneration (GBR) and fabricated using poly glycerol sebacate (PGS)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and Beta tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) (5, 10 and 15%) and another one containing PCL/PGS and chitosan acts as guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The morphology, chemical, physical and mechanical characterizations of the membranes were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile testing, then biodegradability and bioactivity properties were evaluated. In vitro cell culture study was also carried out to investigate proliferation and mineralization of cells on different membranes. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and SEM results indicated agglomeration of β-TCP nanoparticles in the structure of nanofibers containing 15% β-TCP. Moreover by addition of β-TCP from 5% to 15%, contact angle decreased due to hydrophilicity of nanoparticles and bioactivity was found to increase. Mechanical properties of the membrane increased by incorporation of 5% and 10% of β-TCP in the structure of nanofibers, while addition of 15% of β-TCP was found to deteriorate mechanical properties of nanofibers. Although the presence of 5% and 10% of nanoparticles in the nanofibers increased proliferation of cells on GBR layer, cell proliferation was observed to decrease by addition of 15% β-TCP in the structure of nanofibers which is likely due to agglomeration of nanoparticles in the nanofiber structure. Our overall results revealed PCL/PGS containing 10% β-TCP could be selected as the optimum GBR membrane

  2. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  3. Experimental analysis of two-layered dissimilar metals by roll bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghui; Li, Yugui; Li, Juan; Huang, Qingxue; Ma, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    Rolling reduction and base layers thickness have important implications for rolling compounding. A two-layered 304 stainless steel/Q345R low alloyed steel was roll bonded. The roll bonding was performed at the three thickness reductions of 25%, 40% and 55% with base layers of various thicknesses (Q345R). The microstructures of the composite were investigated by the ultra-deep microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Simultaneously, the mechanical properties of the composite were experimentally measured and the tensile fracture surfaces were observed by SEM. The interfaces were successfully bonded without any cracking or voids, which indicated a good fabrication of the 304/Q345R composite. The rolling reduction rate and thinning increase of the substrate contributed to the bonding effects appearance of the roll bonded sheet. The Cr and Ni enriched diffusion layer was formed by the interface elements diffusion. The Cr and Ni diffusion led to the formation of ˜10 μm wide Cr and Ni layers on the carbon steel side.

  4. Geostrophic tripolar vortices in a two-layer fluid: Linear stability and nonlinear evolution of equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaud, J. N.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Carton, X.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate equilibrium solutions for tripolar vortices in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow. Two of the vortices are like-signed and lie in one layer. An opposite-signed vortex lies in the other layer. The families of equilibria can be spanned by the distance (called separation) between the two like-signed vortices. Two equilibrium configurations are possible when the opposite-signed vortex lies between the two other vortices. In the first configuration (called ordinary roundabout), the opposite signed vortex is equidistant to the two other vortices. In the second configuration (eccentric roundabouts), the distances are unequal. We determine the equilibria numerically and describe their characteristics for various internal deformation radii. The two branches of equilibria can co-exist and intersect for small deformation radii. Then, the eccentric roundabouts are stable while unstable ordinary roundabouts can be found. Indeed, ordinary roundabouts exist at smaller separations than eccentric roundabouts do, thus inducing stronger vortex interactions. However, for larger deformation radii, eccentric roundabouts can also be unstable. Then, the two branches of equilibria do not cross. The branch of eccentric roundabouts only exists for large separations. Near the end of the branch of eccentric roundabouts (at the smallest separation), one of the like-signed vortices exhibits a sharp inner corner where instabilities can be triggered. Finally, we investigate the nonlinear evolution of a few selected cases of tripoles.

  5. Two-Layer Linear MPC Approach Aimed at Walking Beam Billets Reheating Furnace Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Zanoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the control and optimization of a walking beam billets reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is analyzed. An ad hoc Advanced Process Control framework has been developed, based on a two-layer linear Model Predictive Control architecture. This control block optimizes the steady and transient states of the considered process. Two main problems have been addressed. First, in order to manage all process conditions, a tailored module defines the process variables set to be included in the control problem. In particular, a unified approach for the selection on the control inputs to be used for control objectives related to the process outputs is guaranteed. The impact of the proposed method on the controller formulation is also detailed. Second, an innovative mathematical approach for stoichiometric ratios constraints handling has been proposed, together with their introduction in the controller optimization problems. The designed control system has been installed on a real plant, replacing operators’ mental model in the conduction of local PID controllers. After two years from the first startup, a strong energy efficiency improvement has been observed.

  6. Polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohne, Andrew J.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Gray, Tristan; Dilts, James; Shaw, Joseph A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating for use in polarimetric imaging. Gold nanowires were deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto a silicon surface relief grating that was patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL) and fabricated using standard silicon processing techniques. Optical characterization with a broad-spectrum tungsten halogen light source and a grating spectrometer showed normalized peak TM transmission of 53% with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 122 nm, which was consistent with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) simulations. Simulation results suggested that device operation relied on suppression of the TM transmission caused by surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the gold-silicon interface and an increase in TM transmission caused by a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the cavity between the gratings. TE rejection occurred at the initial air/gold interface. We also present simulation results of an improved design based on a two-dielectric grating where two different SPP resonances allowed us to improve the shape of the passband by suppressing the side lobes. This newer design resulted in improved side-band performance and increased peak TM transmission.

  7. A Novel Approach to ECG Classification Based upon Two-Layered HMMs in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient’s ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  8. A Two-Layer Method for Sedentary Behaviors Classification Using Smartphone and Bluetooth Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús D; López, Diego M; Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that outline the health of populations, person's lifestyle is the more important one. This work focuses on the caracterization and prevention of sedentary lifestyles. A sedentary behavior is defined as "any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METs (Metabolic Equivalent) or less while in a sitting or reclining posture". To propose a method for sedentary behaviors classification using a smartphone and Bluetooth beacons considering different types of classification models: personal, hybrid or impersonal. Following the CRISP-DM methodology, a method based on a two-layer approach for the classification of sedentary behaviors is proposed. Using data collected from a smartphones' accelerometer, gyroscope and barometer; the first layer classifies between performing a sedentary behavior and not. The second layer of the method classifies the specific sedentary activity performed using only the smartphone's accelerometer and barometer data, but adding indoor location data, using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons. To improve the precision of the classification, both layers implemented the Random Forest algorithm and the personal model. This study presents the first available method for the automatic classification of specific sedentary behaviors. The layered classification approach has the potential to improve processing, memory and energy consumption of mobile devices and wearables used.

  9. A Novel Approach to ECG Classification Based upon Two-Layered HMMs in Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; Tan, Jindong; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient's ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS) filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC) in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN) platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen. PMID:24681668

  10. Characteristics of phonation onset in a two-layer vocal fold model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2009-02-01

    Characteristics of phonation onset were investigated in a two-layer body-cover continuum model of the vocal folds as a function of the biomechanical and geometric properties of the vocal folds. The analysis showed that an increase in either the body or cover stiffness generally increased the phonation threshold pressure and phonation onset frequency, although the effectiveness of varying body or cover stiffness as a pitch control mechanism varied depending on the body-cover stiffness ratio. Increasing body-cover stiffness ratio reduced the vibration amplitude of the body layer, and the vocal fold motion was gradually restricted to the medial surface, resulting in more effective flow modulation and higher sound production efficiency. The fluid-structure interaction induced synchronization of more than one group of eigenmodes so that two or more eigenmodes may be simultaneously destabilized toward phonation onset. At certain conditions, a slight change in vocal fold stiffness or geometry may cause phonation onset to occur as eigenmode synchronization due to a different pair of eigenmodes, leading to sudden changes in phonation onset frequency, vocal fold vibration pattern, and sound production efficiency. Although observed in a linear stability analysis, a similar mechanism may also play a role in register changes at finite-amplitude oscillations.

  11. Spin-Selective Transmission and Devisable Chirality in Two-Layer Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-08-15

    Chirality is a nearly ubiquitous natural phenomenon. Its minute presence in most naturally occurring materials makes it incredibly difficult to detect. Recent advances in metasurfaces indicate that they exhibit devisable chirality in novel forms; this finding offers an effective opening for studying chirality and its features in such nanostructures. These metasurfaces display vast possibilities for highly sensitive chirality discrimination in biological and chemical systems. Here, we show that two-layer metasurfaces based on twisted nanorods can generate giant spin-selective transmission and support engineered chirality in the near-infrared region. Two designed metasurfaces with opposite spin-selective transmission are proposed for treatment as enantiomers and can be used widely for spin selection and enhanced chiral sensing. Specifically, we demonstrate that the chirality in these proposed metasurfaces can be adjusted effectively by simply changing the orientation angle between the twisted nanorods. Our results offer simple and straightforward rules for chirality engineering in metasurfaces and suggest intriguing possibilities for the applications of such metasurfaces in spin optics and chiral sensing.

  12. Clustering Approaches for Pragmatic Two-Layer IoT Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sathish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting all devices through Internet is now practical due to Internet of Things. IoT assures numerous applications in everyday life of common people, government bodies, business, and society as a whole. Collaboration among the devices in IoT to bring various applications in the real world is a challenging task. In this context, we introduce an application-based two-layer architectural framework for IoT which consists of sensing layer and IoT layer. For any real-time application, sensing devices play an important role. Both these layers are required for accomplishing IoT-based applications. The success of any IoT-based application relies on efficient communication and utilization of the devices and data acquired by the devices at both layers. The grouping of these devices helps to achieve the same, which leads to formation of cluster of devices at various levels. The clustering helps not only in collaboration but also in prolonging overall network lifetime. In this paper, we propose two clustering algorithms based on heuristic and graph, respectively. The proposed clustering approaches are evaluated on IoT platform using standard parameters and compared with different approaches reported in literature.

  13. Inferring topologies via driving-based generalized synchronization of two-layer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfei; Wu, Xiaoqun; Feng, Hui; Lu, Jun-an; Xu, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    The interaction topology among the constituents of a complex network plays a crucial role in the network’s evolutionary mechanisms and functional behaviors. However, some network topologies are usually unknown or uncertain. Meanwhile, coupling delays are ubiquitous in various man-made and natural networks. Hence, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the whole or partial topology of a complex dynamical network by taking into consideration communication delay. In this paper, topology identification of complex dynamical networks is investigated via generalized synchronization of a two-layer network. Particularly, based on the LaSalle-type invariance principle of stochastic differential delay equations, an adaptive control technique is proposed by constructing an auxiliary layer and designing proper control input and updating laws so that the unknown topology can be recovered upon successful generalized synchronization. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The technique provides a certain theoretical basis for topology inference of complex networks. In particular, when the considered network is composed of systems with high-dimension or complicated dynamics, a simpler response layer can be constructed, which is conducive to circuit design. Moreover, it is practical to take into consideration perturbations caused by control input. Finally, the method is applicable to infer topology of a subnetwork embedded within a complex system and locate hidden sources. We hope the results can provide basic insight into further research endeavors on understanding practical and economical topology inference of networks.

  14. Data Hiding Based on a Two-Layer Turtle Shell Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhu Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding is a technology that embeds data into a cover carrier in an imperceptible way while still allowing the hidden data to be extracted accurately from the stego-carrier, which is one important branch of computer science and has drawn attention of scholars in the last decade. Turtle shell-based (TSB schemes have become popular in recent years due to their higher embedding capacity (EC and better visual quality of the stego-image than most of the none magic matrices based (MMB schemes. This paper proposes a two-layer turtle shell matrix-based (TTSMB scheme for data hiding, in which an extra attribute presented by a 4-ary digit is assigned to each element of the turtle shell matrix with symmetrical distribution. Therefore, compared with the original TSB scheme, two more bits are embedded into each pixel pair to obtain a higher EC up to 2.5 bits per pixel (bpp. The experimental results reveal that under the condition of the same visual quality, the EC of the proposed scheme outperforms state-of-the-art data hiding schemes.

  15. A two-layer recurrent neural network for nonsmooth convex optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a two-layer recurrent neural network is proposed to solve the nonsmooth convex optimization problem subject to convex inequality and linear equality constraints. Compared with existing neural network models, the proposed neural network has a low model complexity and avoids penalty parameters. It is proved that from any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the equality feasible region in finite time and stays there thereafter. Moreover, the state is unique if the initial point lies in the equality feasible region. The equilibrium point set of the proposed neural network is proved to be equivalent to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality set of the original optimization problem. It is further proved that the equilibrium point of the proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Moreover, from any initial point, the state is proved to be convergent to an equilibrium point of the proposed neural network. Finally, as applications, the proposed neural network is used to solve nonlinear convex programming with linear constraints and L1 -norm minimization problems.

  16. Persufflation Improves Pancreas Preservation When Compared With the Two-Layer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.E.; O'Brien, T.D.; Ferrer-Fabrega, J.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Weegman, B.P.; Anazawa, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Kirchner, V.A.; Rizzari, M.D.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Suszynski, T.M.; Aasheim, T.; Kidder, L.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Stone, S.G.; Tempelman, L.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. It is important to maximize viable islet yield for each organ due to scarcity of suitable human donor pancreata, high cost, and the high dose of islets required for insulin independence. However, organ transport for 8 hours using the two-layer method (TLM) frequently results in lower islet yields. Since efficient oxygenation of the core of larger organs (eg, pig, human) in TLM has recently come under question, we investigated oxygen persufflation as an alternative way to supply the pancreas with oxygen during preservation. Porcine pancreata were procured from non–heart-beating donors and preserved by either TLM or persufflation for 24 hours and fixed. Biopsies were collected from several regions of the pancreas, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by a histologist. Persufflated tissues exhibited distended capillaries due to gas perfusion and significantly less autolysis/cell death than regions not exposed to persufflation or tissues exposed to TLM. The histology presented here suggests that after 24 hours of preservation, persufflation dramatically improves tissue health when compared with TLM. These results indicate the potential for persufflation to improve viable islet yields and extend the duration of preservation, allowing more donor organs to be utilized. PMID:20692396

  17. Two-layer tissue engineered urethra using oral epithelial and muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Go; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamato, Masayuki; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Kodama, Shohta

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated novel tissue engineered urethral grafts using autologously harvested oral cells. We report their viability in a canine model. Oral tissues were harvested by punch biopsy and divided into mucosal and muscle sections. Epithelial cells from mucosal sections were cultured as epithelial cell sheets. Simultaneously muscle derived cells were seeded on collagen mesh matrices to form muscle cell sheets. At 2 weeks the sheets were joined and tubularized to form 2-layer tissue engineered urethras, which were autologously grafted to surgically induced urethral defects in 10 dogs in the experimental group. Tissue engineered grafts were not applied to the induced urethral defect in control dogs. The dogs were followed 12 weeks postoperatively. Urethrogram and histological examination were done to evaluate the grafting outcome. We successfully fabricated 2-layer tissue engineered urethras in vitro and transplanted them in dogs in the experimental group. The 12-week complication-free rate was significantly higher in the experimental group than in controls. Urethrogram confirmed urethral patency without stricture in the complication-free group at 12 weeks. Histologically urethras in the transplant group showed a stratified epithelial layer overlying well differentiated submucosa. In contrast, urethras in controls showed severe fibrosis without epithelial layer formation. Two-layer tissue engineered urethras were engineered using cells harvested by minimally invasive oral punch biopsy. Results suggest that this technique can encourage regeneration of a functional urethra. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of a universal two-layered neural network derived from the PLI theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2004-05-01

    The if-and-only-if (IFF) condition that a set of M analog-to-digital vector-mapping relations can be learned by a one-layered-feed-forward neural network (OLNN) is that all the input analog vectors dichotomized by the i-th output bit must be positively, linearly independent, or PLI. If they are not PLI, then the OLNN just cannot learn no matter what learning rules is employed because the solution of the connection matrix does not exist mathematically. However, in this case, one can still design a parallel-cascaded, two-layered, perceptron (PCTLP) to acheive this general mapping goal. The design principle of this "universal" neural network is derived from the major mathematical properties of the PLI theory - changing the output bits of the dependent relations existing among the dichotomized input vectors to make the PLD relations PLI. Then with a vector concatenation technique, the required mapping can still be learned by this PCTLP system with very high efficiency. This paper will report in detail the mathematical derivation of the general design principle and the design procedures of the PCTLP neural network system. It then will be verified in general by a practical numerical example.

  19. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-08-01

    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Convergence of Extreme Value Statistics in a Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Melinda Gálfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We search for the signature of universal properties of extreme events, theoretically predicted for Axiom A flows, in a chaotic and high-dimensional dynamical system. We study the convergence of GEV (Generalized Extreme Value and GP (Generalized Pareto shape parameter estimates to the theoretical value, which is expressed in terms of the partial information dimensions of the attractor. We consider a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model of the mid-latitudes, adopt two levels of forcing, and analyse the extremes of different types of physical observables (local energy, zonally averaged energy, and globally averaged energy. We find good agreement in the shape parameter estimates with the theory only in the case of more intense forcing, corresponding to a strong chaotic behaviour, for some observables (the local energy at every latitude. Due to the limited (though very large data size and to the presence of serial correlations, it is difficult to obtain robust statistics of extremes in the case of the other observables. In the case of weak forcing, which leads to weaker chaotic conditions with regime behaviour, we find, unsurprisingly, worse agreement with the theory developed for Axiom A flows.

  1. Display of the β-effect in the Black Sea Two-Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pavlushin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is a continuation of a series of numerical experiments on modeling formation of wind currents and eddies in the Black Sea within the framework of a two-layer eddy-resolving model. The main attention is focused on studying the β-effect role. The stationary cyclonic wind is used as an external forcing and the bottom topography is not considered. It is shown that at the β-effect being taken into account, the Rossby waves propagating from east to west are observed both during the currents’ formation and at the statistical equilibrium mode when the mesoscale eddies are formed. In the integral flows’ field the waves are visually manifested in a form of the alternate large-scale cyclonic gyres and zones in which the meso-scale anti-cyclones are formed. This spatial pattern constantly propagates to the west that differs from the results of calculations using the constant Coriolis parameter when the spatially alternate cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices are formed, but hold a quasi-stationary position. The waves with the parameters of the Rossby wave first barotropic mode for the closed basin are most clearly pronounced. Interaction of the Rossby waves with large-scale circulation results in intensification of the of the currents’ hydrodynamic instability and in formation of the mesoscale eddies. Significant decrease of kinetic and available potential energy as compared to the values obtained at the constant Coriolis parameter is also a consequence of the eddy formation intensification.

  2. A two-layered forward model of tissue for electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Rujuta; Saulnier, Gary J; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Newell, Jonathan C; Boverman, Gregory; Isaacson, David

    2009-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is being explored as a technique to detect breast cancer, exploiting the differences in admittivity between normal tissue and tumors. In this paper, the geometry is modeled as an infinite half space under a hand-held probe. A forward solution and a reconstruction algorithm for this geometry were developed previously by Mueller et al (1999 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46 1379). In this paper, we present a different approach which uses the decomposition of the forward solution into its Fourier components to obtain the forward solution and the reconstructions. The two approaches are compared in terms of the forward solutions and the reconstructions of experimental tank data. We also introduce a two-layered model to incorporate the presence of the skin that surrounds the body area being imaged. We demonstrate an improvement in the reconstruction of a target in a layered medium using this layered model with finite difference simulated data. We then extend the application of our layered model to human subject data and estimate the skin and the tissue admittivities for data collected on the human abdomen using an ultrasound-like hand-held EIT probe. Lastly, we show that for this set of human subject data, the layered model yields an improvement in predicting the measured voltages of around 81% for the lowest temporal frequency (3 kHz) and around 61% for the highest temporal frequency (1 MHz) applied when compared to the homogeneous model

  3. Synthesis of PVA/PVP hydrogels having two layers by radiation and their physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y.C.; Park, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radiation can induce chemical reaction to modify polymer under even the solid state or in the low temperature. The radiation crosslinking can be easily adjusted by controlling the radiation dose and is reproducible. The finished product contains no residuals of substances required to initiate the chemical crosslinking that can restrict the application possibilities. In these studies, two layer's hydrogel which consisted of urethane membrane and a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone /glycerin/chitosan was made by gamma-ray irradiation or two steps of 'freezing and thawing' and gamma-ray irradiation for wound dressing. The physical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity, and gel strength were examined to evaluate the hydrogels for wound dressing. Urethane was dissolved in solvent, the urethane solution was poured on the mould, and then dried to make the thin membrane. Hydrophilic polymer solutions were poured on the urethane membranes, they were exposed to gamma irradiation or 'freezing and thawing' and gamma irradiation doses of 25, 35, 50 and 60 kGy to evaluate the physical properties of hydrogels. The physical properties of hydrogels such as gelation and gel strength were improved, and the evaporation speed of water in hydrogel was low when urethane membrane was used

  4. Traffic Offloading in Unlicensed Spectrum for 5G Cellular Network: A Two-Layer Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Licensed Assisted Access (LAA is considered one of the latest groundbreaking innovations to provide high performance in future 5G. Coexistence schemes such as Listen Before Talk (LBT and Carrier Sensing and Adaptive Transmission (CSAT have been proven to be good methods to share spectrums, and they are WiFi friendly. In this paper, a modified LBT-based CSAT scheme is proposed which can effectively reduce the collision at the moment when Long Term Evolution (LTE starts to transmit data in CSAT mode. To make full use of the valuable spectrum resources, the throughput of both LAA and WiFi systems should be improved. Thus, a two-layer Coalition-Auction Game-based Transaction (CAGT mechanism is proposed in this paper to optimize the performance of the two systems. In the first layer, a coalition among Access Points (APs is built to balance the WiFi stations and maximize the WiFi throughput. The main idea of the devised coalition forming is to merge the light-loaded APs with heavy-loaded APs into a coalition; consequently, the data of the overloaded APs can be offloaded to the light-loaded APs. Next, an auction game between the LAA and WiFi systems is used to gain a win–win strategy, in which, LAA Base Station (BS is the auctioneer and AP coalitions are bidders. Thus, the throughput of both systems are improved. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme in this paper can improve the performance of both two systems effectively.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of two layered indium oxalates with 12-membered apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenxia; Zhou Yaming; Weng Linhong; Zhang Haoyu; Zhao Dongyuan

    2003-01-01

    Two layered indium oxalates, In(C 2 O 4 ) 2.5 (C 3 N 2 H 12 )(H 2 O) 3 , I, and In(C 2 O 4 ) 1.5 (H 2 O) 3 , II, have been hydrothermally synthesized. In I, the linkage between indium and oxalate units gives rise to a sheet with a rectangular 12-membered aperture (six indium atoms and six oxalate units). Indium atom of II has an unusual pentagonal bipyramidal coordination arrangement. The connectivity between indium and oxalate units forms a neutral puckered layer with 12- (along a-axis) and eight-membered (along b-axis) apertures. Crystal data for these two indium oxalates are as follows: I, triclinic, space group: P-1 (No. 2), a=8.725(3) A, b=9.170(3) A, c=9.901(3) A, α=98.101(4) deg. , β=97.068(4) deg. , γ=102.403(4) deg. , V=756.3(4) A 3 , Z=2, M=463.0(5), ρ calc =2.042 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0377, wR 2 =0.0834. II, monoclinic, space group: P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=10.203(5) A, b=6.638(1) A, c=11.152(7) A, β=95.649(4) deg. , V=751.7(4)A 3 , Z=4, M=300.9(0), ρ calc =2.659 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0229, wR 2 =0.0488. TG analyses indicate the water molecules of I can be removed at 150 deg. C. The dehydrated product retains structural integrity

  6. Formulation of two-layer dissolving polymeric microneedle patches for insulin transdermal delivery in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chi; Lin, Wei-Ming; Shu, Jwu-Ching; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Chen, Chih-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Tsan

    2017-01-01

    Dissolving microneedles (MNs) display high efficiency in delivering poorly permeable drugs and vaccines. Here, two-layer dissolving polymeric MN patches composed of gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were fabricated with a two-step casting and centrifuging process to localize the insulin in the needle and achieve efficient transdermal delivery of insulin. In vitro skin insertion capability was determined by staining with tissue-marking dye after insertion, and the real-time penetration depth was monitored using optical coherence tomography. Confocal microscopy images revealed that the rhodamine 6G and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled insulin (insulin-FITC) can gradually diffuse from the puncture sites to deeper tissue. Ex vivo drug-release profiles showed that 50% of the insulin was released and penetrated across the skin after 1 h, and the cumulative permeation reached 80% after 5 h. In vivo and pharmacodynamic studies were then conducted to estimate the feasibility of the administration of insulin-loaded dissolving MN patches on diabetic mice for glucose regulation. The total area above the glucose level versus time curve as an index of hypoglycemic effect was 128.4 ± 28.3 (% h) at 0.25 IU/kg. The relative pharmacologic availability and relative bioavailability (RBA) of insulin from MN patches were 95.6 and 85.7%, respectively. This study verified that the use of gelatin/CMC MN patches for insulin delivery achieved a satisfactory RBA compared to traditional hypodermic injection and presented a promising device to deliver poorly permeable protein drugs for diabetic therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 84-93, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Two-Layer Hierarchy Optimization Model for Communication Protocol in Railway Wireless Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless monitoring system is always destroyed by the insufficient energy of the sensors in railway. Hence, how to optimize the communication protocol and extend the system lifetime is crucial to ensure the stability of system. However, the existing studies focused primarily on cluster-based or multihop protocols individually, which are ineffective in coping with the complex communication scenarios in the railway wireless monitoring system (RWMS. This study proposes a hybrid protocol which combines the cluster-based and multihop protocols (CMCP to minimize and balance the energy consumption in different sections of the RWMS. In the first hierarchy, the total energy consumption is minimized by optimizing the cluster quantities in the cluster-based protocol and the number of hops and the corresponding hop distances in the multihop protocol. In the second hierarchy, the energy consumption is balanced through rotating the cluster head (CH in the subnetworks and further optimizing the hops and the corresponding hop distances in the backbone network. On this basis, the system lifetime is maximized with the minimum and balance energy consumption among the sensors. Furthermore, the hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (PSO-GA are adopted to optimize the energy consumption from the two-layer hierarchy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed CMCP is verified in the simulation. The performances of the proposed CMCP in system lifetime, residual energy, and the corresponding variance are all superior to the LEACH protocol widely applied in the previous research. The effective protocol proposed in this study can facilitate the application of the wireless monitoring network in the railway system and enhance safety operation of the railway.

  8. Analyzing surface features on icy satellites using a new two-layer analogue model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, K. M.; Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The appearance of similar surface morphologies across many icy satellites suggests potentially unified formation mechanisms. Constraining the processes that shape the surfaces of these icy worlds is fundamental to understanding their rheology and thermal evolution—factors that have implications for potential habitability. Analogue models have proven useful for investigating and quantifying surface structure formation on Earth, but have only been sparsely applied to icy bodies. In this study, we employ an innovative two-layer analogue model that simulates a warm, ductile ice layer overlain by brittle surface ice on satellites such as Europa and Enceladus. The top, brittle layer is composed of fine-grained sand while the ductile, lower viscosity layer is made of putty. These materials were chosen because they scale up reasonably to the conditions on Europa and Enceladus. Using this analogue model, we investigate the role of the ductile layer in forming contractional structures (e.g. folds) that would compensate for the over-abundance of extensional features observed on icy satellites. We do this by simulating different compressional scenarios in the analogue model and analyzing whether the resulting features resemble those on icy bodies. If the resulting structures are similar, then the model can be used to quantify the deformation by calculating strain. These values can then be scaled up to Europa or Enceladus and used to quantity the observed surface morphologies and the amount of extensional strain accommodated by certain features. This presentation will focus on the resulting surface morphologies and the calculated strain values from several analogue experiments. The methods and findings from this work can then be expanded and used to study other icy bodies, such as Triton, Miranda, Ariel, and Pluto.

  9. Dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered nanoparticles on parameters of gold core and material shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, V.K.; Astafyeva, L.G.; Zharov, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of nonlinear dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered gold core and some material shell nanoparticles (NPs) placed in water on parameters of core and shell was carried out on the basis of the extended Mie theory. Efficiency cross-sections of absorption, scattering and extinction of radiation with wavelength 532 nm by core–shell NPs in the ranges of core radii r 00 =5–40 nm and of relative NP radii r 1 /r 00 =1–8 were calculated (r 1 —radius of two-layered nanoparticle). Shell materials were used with optical indexes in the ranges of refraction n 1 =0.2–1.5 and absorption k 1 =0–3.5 for the presentation of optical properties of wide classes of shell materials (including dielectrics, metals, polymers, vapor shell around gold core). Results show nonlinear dependences of optical properties of two-layered NPs on optical indexes of shell material, core r 00 and relative NP r 1 /r 00 radii. Regions with sharp decrease and increase of absorption, scattering and extinction efficiency cross-sections with changing of core and shell parameters were investigated. These dependences should be taken into account for applications of two-layered NPs in laser nanomedicine and optical diagnostics of tissues. The results can be used for experimental investigation of shell formation on NP core and optical determination of geometrical parameters of core and shell of two-layered NPs. -- Highlights: • Absorption, scattering and extinction of two-layered nanoparticles are studied. • Shell materials change in wide regions of materials (metals, dielectrics, vapor). • Effect of sharp decrease and increase of optical characteristics is established. • Explanation of sharp decreasing and increasing optical characteristics is presented

  10. A linear two-layer model for flat-band shift in irradiated MOS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, J N; Holstrom, F E; Collins, T W [International Business Machines Corp., San Jose, Calif. (USA)

    1976-04-01

    A closed-form mathematical expression is derived for the flat-band shift as a function of gate bias during electron irradiation. The model assumes that the charge in the oxide consists of charged layers of variable thickness at each of the two interfaces, depending on voltage polarity and magnitude. The region of extreme linearity which has been observed by numerous investigators and which normally occurs for the relatively small values of gate bias voltages fits this closed-form solution. Analytical results compare favourably with data obtained from 500 to 700 A thick oxides and with other previously published data.

  11. Randomized trial of four-layer and two-layer bandage systems in the management of chronic venous ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Christine J; McCullagh, Lynn; O'Connor, Theresa; Doherty, Debra C; Hourican, Catherine; Stevens, Julie; Mole, Trevor; Franks, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    To compare a four-layer bandage system with a two-layer system in the management of chronic venous leg ulceration, a prospective randomized open parallel groups trial was undertaken. In total, 112 patients newly presenting to leg ulcer services with chronic leg ulceration, screened to exclude the presence of arterial disease (ankle brachial pressure index ulceration other than venous disease, were entered into the trial. Patients were randomized to receive either four-layer (Profore) or two-layer (Surepress) high-compression elastic bandage systems. In all, 109 out of 112 patients had at least one follow-up. After 24 weeks, 50 out of 57 (88%) patients randomized to the four-layer bandage system with follow-up had ulcer closure (full epithelialization) compared with 40 out of 52 (77%) on the two-layer bandage, hazard ratio = 1.18 (95% confidence interval 0.69-2.02), p = 0.55. After 12 weeks, 40 out of 57 (70%) patients randomized to the four-layer bandage system with follow-up had ulcer closure compared with 30 out of 52 (58%) on the two-layer bandage, odds ratio = 4.23 (95% confidence interval 1.29-13.86), p = 0.02. Withdrawal rates were significantly greater on the two-layer bandage (30 out of 54; 56%) compared with the four-layer bandage system (8 out of 58; 14%), p bandaging system (15 out of 54; 28%) compared with four-layer bandaging (5 out of 54; 9%), p = 0.01. The higher mean cost of treatment in the two-layer bandaging system arm over 24 weeks ($1374 [ pound 916] vs. $1314 [ pound 876]) was explained by the increased mean number of bandage changes (1.5 vs. 1.1 per week) with the two-layer system. In conclusion, the four-layer bandage offers advantages over the two-layer bandage in terms of reduced withdrawal from treatment, fewer adverse incidents, and lower treatment cost.

  12. Contribution to the modelization of liquid-liquid extraction systems. Application to metallic nitrate extraction by TBP in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, J.

    1984-10-01

    The validity of theoretical expression for activity coefficients, in concentrated aqueous solution, proposed by Mikulin-Stokes-Robinson and Ryazanov-Vdovenko is confirmed by numerous tests. This allows a better control of the reactivity of chemicals in the extraction system: nitric aqueous solution-TBP organic solution used in nuclear hydrometallurgy. A reliable methodology is proposed for the study of metal extraction mechanism. Application to palladium (II) evidences extracted species in the organic phase. Influence of degradation product from extractant radiolysis on the behavior of this metallic element is effected. 187 refs [fr

  13. Behavior of zirconium in nitric medium in the extraction with TBP 30% V/V in dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, H.L.P. de.

    1979-10-01

    The extraction of 10 -2 M zirconium by TBP 30% V/V in dodecane from nitric acid solutions is studied as a function of the following parameters : nitric acid concentration, temperature and the presence of radiolytic degradation products of the organic phase. For this study natural zirconium is irradiated in order to obtain Zr-95, used as a tracer. The experimental results are discussed considering the displacement of the equilibrium in the systems studied as a function of different experimental variables. (Author) [pt

  14. Development of mathematical model of H{sub 2}O-HNO{sub 3}-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-TBP-Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochkin, A.; Gladilov, D.; Nekhaevskiy, S.; Merkushkin, A. [D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 9 Miusskay Sqr., Moscow, 125047 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    The nuclear fuel reprocessing is based on the PUREX process. Usually 30% TBP in hydrocarbon diluents is applied, then the composition of the organic phase can be expressed as H{sub 2}O-HNO{sub 3}-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}-TBP-diluent. The mathematical model of H{sub 2}O-HNO{sub 3}-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-TBP-dodecane system has been elaborated. Mole fractions and volume ones and rational activity coefficients have been used in order to create the system of equations on the base of mass action law. The method for calculating activity coefficients was provided. The formation constants of uranyl nitrate di-solvate and mono-solvate and di-solvate of acid have been determined. Interaction between uranyl nitrate di-solvate and dodecane and between TBP and dodecane was taken into account. Activity coefficients of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate in mixed solutions were considered. Errors of adequacy have been determined for the systems containing 30% and 12% TBP concentrations.

  15. Screen-Capturing System with Two-Layer Display for PowerPoint Presentation to Enhance Classroom Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Shou; Tsai, Hung-Hsu; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new presentation system integrating a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in a two-layer method, called the TL system, to promote learning in a physical classroom. With the TL system, teachers can readily control hints or annotations as a way of making them visible or invisible to students so as to reduce information load. In…

  16. Investigation of the synergistic effect of alcoholic compounds on the extraction of H3PO4 from Syrian wet phosphoric acid by TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulbaki, M. K.; Shino, O.; Wahoud, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the synergistic effects of alcoholic compounds such as isoamyl alcohol. Pentanol, hexanol and heptanol on the extraction of H 3 PO 4 from Syrian phosphoric acid by (TBP). The possibility to use these alcoholic compounds as a diluent instead of kerosene was also studied. The results show that the alcoholic compounds has bigger extraction yield than (TBP) diluted in kerosene. The alcoholic compounds has an important synergistic effect, when it was used as a diluent instead of kerosene, on the extraction of H 3 PO 4 by (TBP) and they have a bigger extraction yield and the quicker phase separation comparing with kerosene. Extraction of uranium, fluoride, sulfate and heavy metals is relatively small. (Authors)

  17. [Single-layer colonic anastomoses using polyglyconate (Maxon) vs. two-layer anastomoses using chromic catgut and silk. Experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Osogobio, Sandra Minerva; Takahashi-Monroy, Takeshi; Velasco, Liliana; Gaxiola, Miguel; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    The safety of an intestinal anastomosis is usually measured by its complication rate, especially the incidence of anastomotic leakage. A wide variety of methods have been described to reestablish intestinal continuity including single-layer continuous or two-layer interrupted anastomosis. To evaluate if the single-layer continuous anastomosis using polygluconate is safer and reliable than two-layer interrupted anastomosis with chromic catgut and silk. A prospective, experimental, randomized and comparative analysis was conducted in 20 dogs. They were divided in two groups; group 1 underwent two-layer interrupted anastomosis and group 2 underwent sigle-layer continuous technique. Anastomoses were timed. Both groups were under observation. Anastomotic leakage, and other complications were evaluated. The animals were sacrified and the anastomosis was taken out together with 10 cm of colon on both sides of the anastomosis. Breaking strength, histologic evaluation and hydroxyproline determination were performed. Ten two-layer anastomosis and ten single-layer anastomosis were performed. A median of 25 minutes (range: 20-30 minutes) was required to construct the anastomoses in group 1 versus 20 minutes (range: 12-25 minutes) in group 2. All animals survived and no leakage was observed. Wound infection ocurred in four dogs (20%). Median breaking strength was 230 mm Hg in group 1 and 210 mm Hg in group 2. Hydroxyproline concentration was 8.94 mg/g in group 1 (range: 5.33-16.71) and 9.94 mg/g in group 2 (range: 2.96-21.87). There was no difference among groups about the inflammatory response evaluated by pathology. There was no statistical significance in any variable evaluated. CONCLUIONS: This study demonstrates that a single-layer continuous is similar in terms of safety to the two-layer technique, but because of its facility to perform, the single-layer technique could be superior.

  18. Separation of U and Pu be the method of liquid chromatography with free stationary phase in TBP - white spirit - nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvina, M.N.; Malikov, D.A.; Maryutina, T.A.; Kulyako, Yu.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2006-01-01

    Possibility is studied of the use of liquid chromatography with free stationary phase for U and Pu separation from organic extract obtained by direct dissolution of MOX-fuel in supercritical CO 2 containing TBP·nHNO 3 complex. As stationary phase solutions of TBP in white-spirit of different concentrations are used. Effect of composition of stationary and mobile phases on separation efficiency is investigated. It is shown that use of liquid chromatography with free stationary phase permits to separate U and Pu in conditions of TBP concentration gradient in stationary phase and HNO 3 concentration gradient in mobile one [ru

  19. Equilibrium data in Th(NO3)4 - UO2(NO3)2 - TBP/varsol - HNO3-H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The extraction behavior of thorium and uranium in TBP diluent systems was studied. The main purpose of this paper is to achieve the best separation conditions of macroquantities of uranium from thorium nitrate solution. The experimental work was started with the determination of the equilibrium diagram for uranium and for thorium. The temperature effect, TBP concentration and organic/aqueous ratio were checked. Experiments with fluoride and aluminum ions in the feed solution were also carried out. From the obtained data and the existing distribution data it was possible to elaborate the correspondent flow sheets for the uranium and thorium recovery from simulated spent thorium fuel solutions. (Author) [pt

  20. Wet-Oxidation of Spent Organic Waste Tri-butyl Phosphate/Diluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abed El-Aziz, M.M.; El-Mossalamy, E.H.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tri-Butyl Phosphate was used in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the purex process. The amount of uranium retained in the organic phase depends on the type of TBP/Diluent. Destruction of spent TBP is of high interest in waste management. In the present work, oxidative degradation of TBP diluted with kerosene, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and toluene using potassium permanganate as oxidant was carried out to produce stable inorganic dry particle residue which is then immobilized in different matrices. The different factors affecting the destruction of spent waste was investigated. The up take and decontamination factor for both 152 and 154 Eu and 181 Hf and the analysis of the final product have been studied

  1. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  2. Mean flow generated by an internal wave packet impinging on the interface between two layers of fluid with continuous density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, John P. [The University of New Hampshire, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Internal waves propagating in an idealized two-layer atmosphere are studied numerically. The governing equations are the inviscid anelastic equations for a perfect gas atmosphere. The numerical formulation eliminates all variables in the linear terms except vertical velocity, which are then treated implicitly. Nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. The basic state is a two-layer flow with continuous density at the interface. Each layer has a unique constant for the Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency. Waves are forced at the bottom of the domain, are periodic in the horizontal direction, and form a finite wave packet in the vertical. The results show that the wave packet forms a mean flow that is confined to the interface region that persists long after the wave packet has moved away. Large-amplitude waves are forced to break beneath the interface. (orig.)

  3. Non-radiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloys: Two layer photothermal deflection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilahi, S., E-mail: ilehi_soufiene@yahoo.fr [Université de Carthage, Unité de Recherche de caractérisation photothermique et modélisation, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieurs de Nabeul (IPEIN), 8000 Merazka, Nabeul (Tunisia); Baira, M.; Saidi, F. [Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir. Avenue de l’Environnement, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Yacoubi, N. [Université de Carthage, Unité de Recherche de caractérisation photothermique et modélisation, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieurs de Nabeul (IPEIN), 8000 Merazka, Nabeul (Tunisia); Auvray, L. [Laboratoire Multimateriaux et Interfaces, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, 43, Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Maaref, H. [Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir. Avenue de l’Environnement, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •We have developed a two layer photothermal deflection model. •We have determined the electronic properties of BGaAs/GaAs alloys. •We have studied the boron effect in the electronic parameters. -- Abstract: Photo-thermal deflection technique PTD is used to study the nonradiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloy with boron composition of 3% and 8% grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A two layer theoretical model has been developed taking into account both thermal and electronic contribution in the photothermal signal allowing to extract the electronic parameters namely electronic diffusivity, surface and interface recombination. It is found that the increase of boron composition alters the BGaAs epilayers transport properties.

  4. Preparation of Two-Layer Anion-Exchange Poly(ethersulfone Based Membrane: Effect of Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Zarybnicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the surface modification of a commercial microfiltration poly(ethersulfone membrane by graft polymerization technique. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylbenzylchloride surface layer was covalently attached onto the poly(ethersulfone support layer to improve the membrane electrochemical properties. Followed by amination, a two-layer anion-exchange membrane was prepared. The effect of surface layer treatment using the extraction in various solvents on membrane morphological and electrochemical characteristics was studied. The membranes were tested from the point of view of water content, ion-exchange capacity, specific resistance, permselectivity, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. It was found that the two-layer anion-exchange membranes after the extraction using tetrahydrofuran or toluene exhibited smooth and porous surface layer, which resulted in improved ion-exchange capacity, electrical resistance, and permselectivity of the membranes.

  5. Reappraisal of criticality for two-layer flows and its role in the generation of internal solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Donaldson, Neil M.

    2007-07-01

    A geometric view of criticality for two-layer flows is presented. Uniform flows are classified by diagrams in the momentum-massflux space for fixed Bernoulli energy, and cuspoidal curves on these diagrams correspond to critical uniform flows. Restriction of these surfaces to critical flow leads to new subsurfaces in energy-massflux space. While the connection between criticality and the generation of solitary waves is well known, we find that the nonlinear properties of these bifurcating solitary waves are also determined by the properties of the criticality surfaces. To be specific, the case of two layers with a rigid lid is considered, and application of the theory to other multilayer flows is sketched.

  6. ATLAAS-P2P: a two layer network solution for easing the resource discovery process in unstructured networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baraglia, Ranieri; Dazzi, Patrizio; Mordacchini, Matteo; Ricci, Laura

    2013-01-01

    ATLAAS-P2P is a two-layered P2P architecture for developing systems providing resource aggregation and approximated discovery in P2P networks. Such systems allow users to search the desired resources by specifying their requirements in a flexible and easy way. From the point of view of resource providers, this system makes available an effective solution supporting providers in being reached by resource requests.

  7. Preparation, structures and magnetic properties of Dy/Zr and Ho/Zr two-layers and multi-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luche, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to the description of the ultra-vacuum evaporation equipment, to the sample preparation conditions and to the characterization of the two-layers and multi-layers through reflection and glancing incidence X diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In the second part, the magnetic properties of the samples are studied and relations between properties and structures are examined. 37 fig., 35 ref

  8. Distributed Processing System for Restoration of Electric Power Distribution Network Using Two-Layered Contract Net Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yu; Hamagami, Tomoki

    Distributed processing system for restoration of electric power distribution network using two-layered CNP is proposed. The goal of this study is to develop the restoration system which adjusts to the future power network with distributed generators. The state of the art of this study is that the two-layered CNP is applied for the distributed computing environment in practical use. The two-layered CNP has two classes of agents, named field agent and operating agent in the network. In order to avoid conflicts of tasks, operating agent controls privilege for managers to send the task announcement messages in CNP. This technique realizes the coordination between agents which work asynchronously in parallel with others. Moreover, this study implements the distributed processing system using a de-fact standard multi-agent framework, JADE(Java Agent DEvelopment framework). This study conducts the simulation experiments of power distribution network restoration and compares the proposed system with the previous system. We confirmed the results show effectiveness of the proposed system.

  9. Laboratory Research of the Two-Layer Liquid Dynamics at the Wind Surge in a Strait Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Dotsenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory experiments in a straight aerohydrocanal of the rectangular cross-section filled with the two-layer (fresh-salty liquid are represented. The disturbance generator is the air flow directed to the area above the canal. The cases of the two-layer liquid dynamics in the canal with the horizontal flat bottom and in the presence of the bottom obstacle of finite width are considered. It is shown that during the surge in the straight canal, one of the possible exchange mechanisms on the boundary of fresh and salty layers may consist in the salt water emissions (resulted from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to the upper freshwater layer. The subsequent eviction can possibly be accompanied by occurrence of undulations at the interface. Besides, the evictions can be followed by formation of the oscillating layer, i.e. the layer with maximum density gradient the oscillations of which propagate to the overlying layers. Presence of the bottom obstacle complicates the structure of the two-layer liquid motions. In particular, it results in emergence of the mixed layers and transformation of the flow behind the obstacle into a turbulent one, formation of the wave-like disturbances over the obstacle, sharp change of the interface position and occurrence of large-scale vortices with the horizontal axes. It is revealed that the maximum peak of the flow velocity horizontal component is shifted upstream from the obstacle.

  10. Effect of Dental Restorative Material Type and Shade on Characteristics of Two-Layer Dental Composite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Karimzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shade and material type and shape in dental polymer composites on the hardness and shrinkage stress of bulk and two-layered restoration systems. For this purpose, some bulk and layered specimens from three different shades of dental materials were prepared and light-cured. The experiments were carried out on three types of materials: conventional restorative composite, nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite. Micro-indentation experiment was performed on the bulk and also on each layer of layered restoration specimens using a Vicker's indenter. The interface between the two layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed significant differences between the values of hardness for different shades in the conventional composite and also in the nanohybrid composite. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the hardness values for different shades in the nanocomposite samples. The layered restoration specimens of different restorative materials exhibited lower hardness values with respect to their bulk specimens. The reduction in the hardness value of the layered conventional composite samples was higher than those of the nanocomposite and nanohybrid composite specimens indicating more shrinkage stresses generated in the conventional composite restorations. According to the SEM images, a gap was observed between the two layers in the layered restorations.

  11. Extraction of zirconium(IV) and separation of 95Zr-95Nb from acidic thiocyanate media by LIX 54 and its mixtures with TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.; Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Appreciable extraction of 95 Zr- 95 Nb by LIX 54 from aqueous HCl alone is not observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 2 M HCl. Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of this pair from such acid medium. Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP from thiocyanate media, whereas there has been no appreciable synergism in case of niobium(V) under identical conditions. Slope analyses indicate the species extracted by pure TBP to be disolvate whereas for extraction by the mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP it is found to be monosolvate with respect to TBP. The extraction of both the metal ions have been found to depend on the concentration of acid as well as that of thiocyanate ions. Extraction increases with increase in percentage of either of the extractants. Effective separation of these congeneric pairs has been achieved by suitable choice of above system. Extraction is independent of aq. zirconium concentration up to 0.01 M above which it decreases. (orig.)

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Microcantidades de Uranio previa extraccin con Metilisobutilcetona-Fosfato de Tributilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J; Palomares Delgado, F; Petrement, J; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1962-07-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Dielectric studies on binary mixtures of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and long-chain primary alcohols (modifiers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S.K.; Swain, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    Dielectric constant (ε) of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), in binary mixtures with five long-chain primary alcohols viz; 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 1-octanol has been measured at ν = 455 kHz and at temperature 302 K. The data is used to evaluate mutual correlation factor g ab , excess molar polarization ΔP and excess free energy of mixing ΔF ab by using Winkelmann-Quitzsch eqn. for binary mixtures to assess the suitability of the alcohols as modifiers. The trend of variation of these parameters exhibit marked dependence on chain-length of the alcohols indicating 1-heptanol to be an efficient modifier. (author)

  14. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  15. Extraction of uranium from simulated ore by the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction method with nitric acid-TBP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Le Thi Kim; Imai, Tomoki; Tomioka, Osamu; Nakashima, Mikio; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Meguro, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method using CO 2 as a medium with an extractant of HNO 3 -tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) complex was applied to extract uranium from several uranyl phosphate compounds and simulated uranium ores. An extraction method consisting of a static extraction process and a dynamic one was established, and the effects of the experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and extraction time, on the extraction of uranium were ascertained. It was found that uranium could be efficiently extracted from both the uranyl phosphates and simulated ores by the SFE method using CO 2 . It was thus demonstrated that the SFE method using CO 2 is useful as a pretreatment method for the analysis of uranium in ores. (author)

  16. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  17. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  19. A two layer chaotic encryption scheme of secure image transmission for DCT precoded OFDM-VLC transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Fangni; Qiu, Weiwei; Chen, Shoufa; Ren, Dongxiao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a two-layer image encryption scheme for a discrete cosine transform (DCT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed. Firstly, in the proposed scheme the transmitted image is first encrypted by a chaos scrambling sequence,which is generated from the hybrid 4-D hyper- and Arnold map in the upper-layer. After that, the encrypted image is converted into digital QAM modulation signal, which is re-encrypted by chaos scrambling sequence based on Arnold map in physical layer to further enhance the security of the transmitted image. Moreover, DCT precoding is employed to improve BER performance of the proposed system and reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. The BER and PAPR performances of the proposed system are evaluated by simulation experiments. The experiment results show that the proposed two-layer chaos scrambling schemes achieve image secure transmission for image-based OFDM VLC. Furthermore, DCT precoding can reduce the PAPR and improve the BER performance of OFDM-based VLC.

  20. Regional evapotranspiration estimation based on a two-layer remote-sensing scheme in Shahe River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jian; Wang, Huixiao

    2014-01-01

    Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) derived from remote sensing data has significant meaning for plant growth monitoring, crop yield assessment, disaster monitoring and understanding energy and water cycle in river basin area and surrounding regions. In the study, we developed a land surface ET remote sensing retrieval system to estimate the daily ET in Shahe river basin using the TM/ETM+ images. The system is based on the two-layer ET model and includes three parts: inversion of the evaporation ration using two-layer model, calculation of total daily net radiation, and estimation of daily ET based on evaporation fraction method. The results show that the average daily ET is about 2.28mm of the typical days in spring, and 2.97mm in summer, 1.59mm in autumn, and 0.5mm in winter. The ET in upstream areas covered by forest is higher than that in the downstream covered by settlement and farmland. In summer the difference of ET between the upper reaches and lower reaches is smaller compared to the other three seasons. The measurements by large aperture scintillometer and eddy correlation instrument were used for validation. By comparing the observed data with the estimated data, we found the estimation system had a high precision with the relative error between 0 and 16% (mean error of 11.1%), and the variance 0.77mm

  1. Preparation and evaluation of tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release pellets modified by two-layered membrane techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release pellets using two-layered membrane techniques. Centrifugal granulator and fluidized-bed coater were employed to prepare drug-loaded pellets and to employ two-layered membrane coating respectively. The prepared pellets were evaluated for physicochemical characterization, subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and in vitro release of different pH. Different release models and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized to analyze the release mechanism of Harnual® and home-made pellets. By comparing the dissolution profiles, the ratio and coating weight gain of Eudragit® NE30D and Eudragit® L30D55 which constitute the inside membrane were identified as 18:1 and 10%–11%. The coating amount of outside membrane containing Eudragit® L30D55 was determined to be 0.8%. The similarity factors (f2 of home-made capsule and commercially available product (Harnual® were above 50 in different dissolution media. DSC studies confirmed that drug and excipients had good compatibility and SEM photographs showed the similarities and differences of coating surface between Harnual® and self-made pellets before and after dissolution. According to Ritger-Peppas model, the two dosage form had different release mechanism.

  2. Equivalent circuit models of two-layer flexure beams with excitation by temperature, humidity, pressure, piezoelectric or piezomagnetic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Marschner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-layer flexure beams often serve as basic transducers in actuators and sensors. In this paper a generalized description of their stimuli-influenced mechanical behavior is derived. For small deflection angles this description includes a multi-port circuit or network representation with lumped elements for a beam part of finite length. A number of coupled finite beam parts model the dynamic behavior including the first natural frequencies of the beam. For piezoelectric and piezomagnetic interactions, reversible transducer models are developed. The piezomagnetic two-layer beam model is extended to include solenoid and planar coils. Linear network theory is applied in order to determine network parameters and to simplify the circuit representation. The resulting circuit model is the basis for a fast simulation of the dynamic system behavior with advanced circuit simulators and, thus, the optimization of the system. It is also a useful tool for understanding and explaining this multi-domain system through basic principles of general system theory.

  3. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.; Leroy, C.

    2016-01-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  4. Fully-differential spectrophotometry determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water separated by CL-TBP levextrel resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jiannan

    2000-01-01

    A method for separation by CL-TBP levextrel resin and determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water by fully-differential spectrophotometry is developed. In 4 mol/L HNO 3 medium, in presence of tartaric acid, CL-TBP levextrel resin is used for adsorption of thorium and separating from other elements. The thorium on the resin is stripped by 4 mol/L HCl, with oxalic acid and urea as screening agent, thorium forms red complex with arsenazo III. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 668 nm, and the molar absorptivity is 1.27 x 10 5 L/(mol·cm) . The complex can be steady for 2.5 h. By regulating micro-current of differential spectrophotometry, the method can realize determination with high precision. Sensitivity of this method increase 10 times than usual spectrophotometry. The relative standard deviation is better than +- 5% and recovery of thorium is 99%-107%

  5. Tritium distribution ratios between the 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD) organic phase and uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzou; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi.

    1989-10-01

    Tritium distribution ratios between the organic and aqueous phases were measured for the system of 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD)/uranyl nitrate-nitric acid water. It was confirmed that tritium is extracted by TBP into the organic phase in both chemical forms of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated nitric acid (TNO 3 ). The value of tritium distribution ratio ranged from 0.002 to 0.005 for the conditions of 0-6 mol/L nitric acid, 0.5-800 mCi/L tritium in aqueous phase, and 0-125 g-U/L uranium in organic phase. Isotopic distribution coefficient of tritium between the organic and aqueous phases was observed to be about 0.95. (author)

  6. Study on the plutonium extraction and reextraction in radiolytic degraded system 30 % TBP-n-dodecane/HNO3-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.M.; Wronska, T.

    1980-01-01

    The degree of the complexation of plutonium(4) by the products of radiolysis of the system 30 % TBP-n-dodecane/HNO 3 -H 2 O as a function of radiation dose and concentration of nitric acid has been studied. The special method of calculation based on extraction equilibria was used. The retention of plutonium in the organic phase after single reductive reextraction has been determined. (author)

  7. Removal of Sr ions from nuclear wastes by D2EHPA+TBP based supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sr ions removal from nuclear wastes is of great importance. /sup 90/Sr radionuclide, due to its long half-life to disintegrate into daughter products and release of radiations, resulting from fission of uranium, produce heat and is a real problem for disposal of radioactive wastes. The separation study of Sr ions from aqueous solutions is, therefore, very important in the nuclear industry. n the present article some of the work done to develop the separation technique based on coupled transport phenomenon for Sr ions is reported. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid mixed with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), diluted in kerosene oil, as an organic liquid has been used as a membrane, supported in polypropylene hydrophobic films to transport Sr ions. The optimum conditions and mechanism of transport for these ions across the membrane have been described. The effect of feed complexing components i.e. tartaric acid and citric acid concentration on the flux and permeability of the Sr/sup 2+/ ions has been studied. It is shown that supported liquid membrane technique can be used as an alternate process to classical solvent extraction to remove Sr ions from nuclear industry wastes. (author)

  8. Demonstration of Minor Actinide separation from a genuine PUREX raffinate by TODGA/TBP and SANEX reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340 D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chalmers University of Technology, Nuclear Chemistry, Deparment of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gothenburg (Sweden); Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340 D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Valrho (CEA), DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    A genuine High Active Raffinate was produced from small scale Purex reprocessing of a UO{sub 2} spent fuel solution and used as feed for a subsequent TODGA/TBP process. In this process, efficient recovery of the trivalent Minor Actinides (MA) actinides could be demonstrated using a hot cell set-up of 32 centrifugal contactor stages. The feed decontamination factors obtained for Am and Cm were in the range of 4.10{sup 4} which corresponds to a recovery of more than 99.99 % in the product fraction. Trivalent lanthanides and Y were co-extracted, otherwise only a small part of the Ru ended up in the product. The collected actinide/lanthanide fraction was later used as feed for a Sanex (separation of actinides from lanthanides) process based on the CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP ligand. Preliminary results show recoveries of more than 99.9 % of Am, Cm and less than 0.1 % of the major lanthanides in the product. (authors)

  9. Stripping study of U(VI) from loaded TBP/n-paraffin using ammonium nitrate bearing waste as strippant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrishma Paik; Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Stripping studies of U(VI) from loaded solvent TBP/n-paraffin was carried out using ammonium nitrate solution as strippant. Effects of various stripping parameters such as concentration of ammonium nitrate solution, U(VI) concentration in organic phase, initial pH of strippant, temperature etc. have been investigated in detail. Kinetics of the stripping process by ammonium nitrate was found to be slower than that of stripping with water. It was observed that with the increase in ammonium nitrate concentration in aqueous solution, stripping of U(VI) decreased. With the increase in U(VI) loading in the organic phase, there was an increase in uranium stripping for ammonium nitrate whereas for distilled water it becomes reverse. With the increase in pH of the aqueous ammonium nitrate solution, stripping increased up to a certain pH of 8.5 and after that precipitation of uranium started. Increase in temperature of the biphasic system shows an enhancing effect of U(VI) stripping. Evaluation of thermodynamic data such as ΔH indicated that the process is endothermic. Based on the optimized conditions, McCabe-Thiele diagram was constructed for U(VI) stripping using ammonium nitrate solution at room temperature. (author)

  10. The spin-3/2 Ising model AFM/AFM two-layer lattice with crystal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yigit, A.; Albayrak, E.

    2010-01-01

    The spin-3/2 Ising model is investigated for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions on the two-layer Bethe lattice by using the exact recursion relations in a pairwise approach for given coordination numbers q=3, 4 and 6 when the layers are under the influences of equal external magnetic and equal crystal fields. The ground state (GS) phase diagrams are obtained on the different planes in detail and then the temperature dependent phase diagrams of the system are calculated accordingly. It is observed that the system presents both second- and first-order phase transitions for all q, therefore, tricritical points. It was also found that the system exhibits double-critical end points and isolated points. The model also presents two Neel temperatures, TN, and the existence of which leads to the reentrant behavior.

  11. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single-layer MEMS fractal capacitors. Explicitly, a capacitor with a woven structure and another with an interleaved configuration were fabricated in the standard PolyMUMPS surface micromachining process and tested at S-band frequencies. The self-resonant frequencies of the fabricated capacitors were close to 10GHz, which is better than that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which measured only 5.5GHz. Further, the presented capacitors provided a higher capacitance when compared with the state-of-the-art-reported MEMS fractal capacitors created using a single layer at the expense of a lower quality factor. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  12. Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

  13. New Data on Joint Extraction of Nitric Acid, Uranium(VI) and Tetravalent Elements by Diluted TBP and New Approach to Modeling of their Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, B.Ya.; Fedorov, Yu.S.; Puzikov, E.A.; Blazheva, I.V.

    2008-01-01

    HNO 3 and U(IV) extraction by diluted TBP (tributyl phosphate) appeared significantly higher than believed earlier, requiring correction of mathematical model for extraction of all the species. The proposed model of HNO 3 extraction includes its dissolving in the extracted water, as well as its abduction to UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (TBP) 2 . Extraction of U(VI) and tetravalent elements is considered as reaction of their hydrated or partially hydrolyzed forms, the latter could be extracted themselves or as neutral forms with water liberation. The equation of element chemical reaction for modeling is determined by the slope of the linear part of the S-shaped curve representing D/S 2 function as a plot of HNO 3 concentration, where D is a distribution coefficient of the micro-component and S is a TBP concentration free of HNO 3 . The description of tetravalent element extraction in U(VI) presence needs the assumption of cation-cation interaction of element hydrolyzed forms with U(VI) in aqueous phase. Zr distribution is affected by micellar effects. (authors)

  14. Improved lumped models for transient combined convective and radiative cooling of a two-layer spherical fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alice Cunha da; Su, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a fourth generation thermal nuclear reactor, graphite-moderated and helium cooled. The HTGRs have important characteristics making essential the study of these reactors, as well as its fuel element. Examples of these are: high thermal efficiency,low operating costs and construction, passive safety attributes that allow implication of the respective plants. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a HTGR with spherical fuel elements that named the reactor. This fuel element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO2 particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix and a convective heat transfer by Helium happens on the outer surface of the fuel element. In this work, the transient heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature reactor was studied in a transient situation of combined convective and radiative cooling. Improved lumped parameter model was developed for the transient heat conduction in the two-layer composite sphere subjected to combined convective and radiative cooling. The improved lumped model was obtained through two-point Hermite approximations for integrals. Transient combined convective and radiative cooling of the two-layer spherical fuel element was analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed lumped model, with respect to die rent values of the Biot number, the radiation-conduction parameter, the dimensionless thermal contact resistance, the dimensionless inner diameter and coating thickness, and the dimensionless thermal conductivity. It was shown by comparison with numerical solution of the original distributed parameter model that the improved lumped model, with H2,1/H1,1/H0,0 approximation yielded significant improvement of average temperature prediction over the classical lumped model. (author)

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almon, A.C.; Buchanan, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Both silver catalyzed and direct electrochemical oxidation of organic species are examined in analytical detail. This paper describes the mechanisms, reaction rates, products, intermediates, capabilities, limitations, and optimal reaction conditions of the electrochemical destruction of organic waste. A small bench-top electrocell being tested for the treatment of small quantities of laboratory waste is described. The 200-mL electrochemical cell used has a processing capacity of 50 mL per day, and can treat both radioactive and nonradioactive waste. In the silver catalyzed process, Ag(I) is electrochemically oxidized to Ag(II), which attacks organic species such as tributylphosphate (TBP), tetraphenylborate (TPB), and benzene. In direct electrochemical oxidation, the organic species are destroyed at the surface of the working electrode without the use of silver as an electron transfer agent. This paper focuses on the destruction of tributylphosphate (TBP), although several organic species have been destroyed using this process. The organic species are converted to carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic acids

  16. Separation of zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) using solvent mixture of TBP-D_2EHPA and amberlite XAD-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Biyantoro; I Made Sukarna; Agus Suyanto

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the composition (ratio of extractant and resin) of the SIR which is effective for the separation of Zr and Hf, knowing adsorption equilibrium models Zr and Hf using the SIR, and knowing the most effective adsorption results from SIR weight ratio. The research was conducted by using the SIR method that is impregnating the extractant into the resin. Extractant used is a mixture of TBP and D_2EHPA (1 : 3), the resin used is XAD-16, and the feed used is ZOC. This research was conducted by varying the composition of the SIR, after the result of effective SIR variation. Adsorption process is then performed using the ZOC with SIR. Then filtered, the filtrate was analyzed by XRF. While solids SIR adsorption product was desorbed using sulfuric acid. Then the desorption results were analyzed using XRF spectrometer. Based on calculations, the results of the most effective SIR composition for the separation of Zr-Hf are comparison extractant and resin = 5:5 either for the dry method and wet method, the equilibrium equations for Zr approaching Langmuir equilibrium models while the equilibrium equation for Hf approaching Freundlich equilibrium models which the most effective adsorption results that bait comparison with the SIR = 10 mL : 5 g with β = 0.1831; η Zr = 26.39 % and η Hf = 66.19 % for dry method and β = 0.1557; η Zr = 25.17 % and η Hf = 68.36 % for wet method. From result desorption process was 2 M H_2SO_4. (author)

  17. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  18. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-03-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  19. TargetCrys: protein crystallization prediction by fusing multi-view features with two-layered SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Han, Ke; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The accurate prediction of whether a protein will crystallize plays a crucial role in improving the success rate of protein crystallization projects. A common critical problem in the development of machine-learning-based protein crystallization predictors is how to effectively utilize protein features extracted from different views. In this study, we aimed to improve the efficiency of fusing multi-view protein features by proposing a new two-layered SVM (2L-SVM) which switches the feature-level fusion problem to a decision-level fusion problem: the SVMs in the 1st layer of the 2L-SVM are trained on each of the multi-view feature sets; then, the outputs of the 1st layer SVMs, which are the "intermediate" decisions made based on the respective feature sets, are further ensembled by a 2nd layer SVM. Based on the proposed 2L-SVM, we implemented a sequence-based protein crystallization predictor called TargetCrys. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed 2L-SVM for fusing multi-view features. We also compared TargetCrys with existing sequence-based protein crystallization predictors and demonstrated that the proposed TargetCrys outperformed most of the existing predictors and is competitive with the state-of-the-art predictors. The TargetCrys webserver and datasets used in this study are freely available for academic use at: http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetCrys .

  20. Quasi-two-layer morphodynamic model for bedload-dominated problems: bed slope-induced morphological diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Sergio; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2018-02-01

    We derive a two-layer depth-averaged model of sediment transport and morphological evolution for application to bedload-dominated problems. The near-bed transport region is represented by the lower (bedload) layer which has an arbitrarily constant, vanishing thickness (of approx. 10 times the sediment particle diameter), and whose average sediment concentration is free to vary. Sediment is allowed to enter the upper layer, and hence the total load may also be simulated, provided that concentrations of suspended sediment remain low. The model conforms with established theories of bedload, and is validated satisfactorily against empirical expressions for sediment transport rates and the morphodynamic experiment of a migrating mining pit by Lee et al. (1993 J. Hydraul. Eng. 119 , 64-80 (doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1993)119:1(64))). Investigation into the effect of a local bed gradient on bedload leads to derivation of an analytical, physically meaningful expression for morphological diffusion induced by a non-zero local bed slope. Incorporation of the proposed morphological diffusion into a conventional morphodynamic model (defined as a coupling between the shallow water equations, Exner equation and an empirical formula for bedload) improves model predictions when applied to the evolution of a mining pit, without the need either to resort to special numerical treatment of the equations or to use additional tuning parameters.

  1. Forced phase-locked states and information retrieval in a two-layer network of oscillatory neurons with directional connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, Victor; Pimashkin, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    We propose two-layer architecture of associative memory oscillatory network with directional interlayer connectivity. The network is capable to store information in the form of phase-locked (in-phase and antiphase) oscillatory patterns. The first (input) layer takes an input pattern to be recognized and their units are unidirectionally connected with all units of the second (control) layer. The connection strengths are weighted using the Hebbian rule. The output (retrieved) patterns appear as forced-phase locked states of the control layer. The conditions are found and analytically expressed for pattern retrieval in response on incoming stimulus. It is shown that the system is capable to recover patterns with a certain level of distortions or noises in their profiles. The architecture is implemented with the Kuramoto phase model and using synaptically coupled neural oscillators with spikes. It is found that the spiking model is capable to retrieve patterns using the spiking phase that translates memorized patterns into the spiking phase shifts at different time scales

  2. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  3. Experimental study of core bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR based on a two-layer block model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huhu, E-mail: huhuwang@tamu.edu; Hassan, Yassin A., E-mail: y-hassan@tamu.edu; Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis, E-mail: elvisdom@tamu.edu

    2016-09-15

    Bypass flow in a prismatic very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) plays an important role in determining the coolant distribution in the core region. Efficient removal of heat from the core relies on the majority of coolant passing through the coolant channels instead of the bypass gaps. Consequently, the bypass flow fraction and its flow characteristic are important in the design process of the prismatic VHTR. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the flow behavior including the turbulence characteristics inside the bypass gaps using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), bypass fraction and pressure drops in the system. The experiment facility constructed at Texas A&M University is a scaled model consisting of two layers of fuel blocks. The distributions of the mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity and turbulence kinetic energy within the bypass gap at two different elevations under different Reynolds number were investigated. Uncertainties in the bypass flow fraction estimation were evaluated. The velocity and turbulence study in this work is considered to be unique, and may serve as a benchmark for the related numerical calculations.

  4. Quasi-two-layer morphodynamic model for bedload-dominated problems: bed slope-induced morphological diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Sergio; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

    2018-02-01

    We derive a two-layer depth-averaged model of sediment transport and morphological evolution for application to bedload-dominated problems. The near-bed transport region is represented by the lower (bedload) layer which has an arbitrarily constant, vanishing thickness (of approx. 10 times the sediment particle diameter), and whose average sediment concentration is free to vary. Sediment is allowed to enter the upper layer, and hence the total load may also be simulated, provided that concentrations of suspended sediment remain low. The model conforms with established theories of bedload, and is validated satisfactorily against empirical expressions for sediment transport rates and the morphodynamic experiment of a migrating mining pit by Lee et al. (1993 J. Hydraul. Eng. 119, 64-80 (doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1993)119:1(64))). Investigation into the effect of a local bed gradient on bedload leads to derivation of an analytical, physically meaningful expression for morphological diffusion induced by a non-zero local bed slope. Incorporation of the proposed morphological diffusion into a conventional morphodynamic model (defined as a coupling between the shallow water equations, Exner equation and an empirical formula for bedload) improves model predictions when applied to the evolution of a mining pit, without the need either to resort to special numerical treatment of the equations or to use additional tuning parameters.

  5. Permeabilitas Membran Transpor Campuran Unsur Tanah Jarang (La, Nd, Gd, Lu Menggunakan Carrier (TBP : D2EHPA Melalui Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djabal Nur Basir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that have been developed currently for the separation and purification of rare earth elements, REE’s are solvent extraction by through immobilization of an extracting agent in a porous polymeric membrane. This methods beside could increase the transport selectivity, also the amount of carrier was very few. This technique is known as supported liquid membrane, SLM. Research toward transport and separation of REE’s through SLM have been still relatively limited merely to single feed-binary mixture, and one type of carrier. The transport   membrane permeability was obtained in a mixture of REE’s (La,Nd,Gd,Lu using the carrier TBP : D2EHPA by SLM. In this SLM technique, supporting membrane PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene was soaked in a mixture of TBP carrier (tributilfosfat as a neutral ligand and D2EHPA (acid-2- etilheksilfosfat as anionic ligand with a particular concentration ratio in the solvent kerosene as membrane phase. HCl as receiver phase and solution mixture of REE’s as feed phase. Determination of the REE’s total concentration was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry with NAS (sodium alizarin sulfonate as the colouring agent at pH 4,75 and the solution absorbance was determinated at 534 nm as maximum wavelength. Transport patterns of REE’s on the variation of the concentration of total mixed carrier composition, pH, and concentration  of the receiver phase were done for 300 minutes. The optimum conditions of transport mixture of REE’s (La, Nd, Gd, Lu were feed phase pH 3,0; carrier TBP: D2EHPA (0,3:0,7 M; and receiver phase HCl 3,0 M. In this condition, the transport membrane permeability in mixture of REE’s was 0,1077 cm.menit-1 with the percent of transport was 95,24%.

  6. Thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl2--HCl--H2O--TBP liquid--liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevarez, M.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl 2 -HCl-H 2 O-TBP system is described. The model makes use of the various aqueous phase cobaltous chloride complexes stoichiometric stability constants expressed as their degree of formation, their mechanism of extraction into the organic phase, and the equilibrium constant for the extraction reaction. The model was verified by the good agreement between the calculated cobalt distribution coefficients and those obtained experimentally both in the present study and published by other investigators. The optimum extraction of cobalt by the TBP occurred at an HCl equilibrium aqueous place concentration between 8.5 and 9.5M. The development of efficient procedures for the separation and concentration of important industrial metals from their aqueous solutions by liquid-liquid extraction has recently been given impetus by the realization of an impending shortage of energy and mineral resources. Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the few methods by which it is possible to quantitatively separate elements which are similar in properties. The use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate cobalt and nickel, which very frequently occur in nature together, is an important separation problem in nonferrous metallurgy. There is some fundamental information available in the chemical literature regarding the mechanism and equilibrium thermodynamic properties of selected liquid-liquid extraction systems. This research effort shows how this available information can be utilized to improve existing separation and concentration theory and technique. The development and application of a thermodynamic equilibrium model for describing the liquid-liquid extraction of cobaltous chloride from aqueous HCl solutions by tributyl phosphate (TBP) using experimental data obtained in this investigation and from the literature are presented

  7. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, C.; Xie, H.J.; Wang, Y.Z.; Chen, Y.M.; Jiang, Y.S.; Tang, X.W.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. - Highlights: •Degradation of contaminants was considered in modeling solute transport in GCL/SL. •Analytical solutions were derived for assessment of GCL/SL with degradation. •Degradation in GCL can be ignored as half-life is larger than 1 year. •Base concentration is more sensitive to half-life of SL than to permeability of SL

  8. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, C. [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xie, H.J., E-mail: xiehaijian@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Soft Soils and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Y.Z.; Chen, Y.M.; Jiang, Y.S.; Tang, X.W. [MOE Key Laboratory of Soft Soils and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. - Highlights: •Degradation of contaminants was considered in modeling solute transport in GCL/SL. •Analytical solutions were derived for assessment of GCL/SL with degradation. •Degradation in GCL can be ignored as half-life is larger than 1 year. •Base concentration is more sensitive to half-life of SL than to permeability of SL.

  9. Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Near Cloud Reflectance Enhancement Using LES SHDOM Simulated Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Levy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A transition zone exists between cloudy skies and clear sky; such that, clouds scatter solar radiation into clear-sky regions. From a satellite perspective, it appears that clouds enhance the radiation nearby. We seek a simple method to estimate this enhancement, since it is so computationally expensive to account for all three-dimensional (3-D) scattering processes. In previous studies, we developed a simple two-layer model (2LM) that estimated the radiation scattered via cloud-molecular interactions. Here we have developed a new model to account for cloud-surface interaction (CSI). We test the models by comparing to calculations provided by full 3-D radiative transfer simulations of realistic cloud scenes. For these scenes, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-like radiance fields were computed from the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM), based on a large number of cumulus fields simulated by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) large eddy simulation (LES) model. We find that the original 2LM model that estimates cloud-air molecule interactions accounts for 64 of the total reflectance enhancement and the new model (2LM+CSI) that also includes cloud-surface interactions accounts for nearly 80. We discuss the possibility of accounting for cloud-aerosol radiative interactions in 3-D cloud-induced reflectance enhancement, which may explain the remaining 20 of enhancements. Because these are simple models, these corrections can be applied to global satellite observations (e.g., MODIS) and help to reduce biases in aerosol and other clear-sky retrievals.

  10. Separation of An(III) from PUREX raffinate as an innovative SANEX process based on a mixture of TODGA/TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypula, Michal; Wilden, Andreas; Schreinemachers, Christian; Modolo, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Within the ACSEPT project, an innovative SANEX process based on TODGA/TBP for selective An(III) separation from PUREX raffinate was studied. Oxalic acid usually used for Zr complexation is considered a weak point. An investigation to substitute oxalic acid with a different masking agent was carried out. A new masking agent already studied in FZJ was applied and showed good complexation properties towards Zr and Pd. Re-investigation of the formula of the actinide stripping solution was also performed. Good separation of Ln over Am was obtained by means of DTPA and malic acid. Glycine appeared to be the strongest within the tested buffers. (authors)

  11. TBP 20% diluent/H N O3/H2 O liquid-liquid extraction system: equilibrium data normalization of nitric acid, ruthenium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.L.G. de; Araujo, B.F. de.

    1991-11-01

    The extraction behavior of nitric acid, nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate and zirconium hydroxide nitrate in the system tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) 20% -diluent was studied. The main purpose was to obtain enough data to elaborate process flowsheets for the treatment of irradiated uranium fuels. During the runs, the equilibrium diagrams of nitric acid, ruthenium and zirconium were settled. From the achieved data, the influence of nitric acid, ruthenium, zirconium and nitrate ions concentration in the aqueous phase was checked. Furthermore, the density and the surface tension of the aqueous and organic phases were determined, gathering the interfacial tension after the contact between the phases. (author)

  12. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 2. Facing sand with the alkaline organic binder REZOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper constitutes the second part of the article concerning the implementation of the two-layer mould technology for steel casts inZ.M. POMET. The results of the laboratory examinations of the backing sand with the inorganic binder RUDAL were presented in thefirst part of the paper. Whereas in the second part the results of the laboratory testing of the facing sand with the alkaline resin REZOLITare given. The technology of two-layer moulds was already implemented in Z.M. POMET within the target project. Examples of castingsmade in this technology are shown in the final part of this paper.

  13. Formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers from laccase-catalyzed oxidation of bromophenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kunde; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Xi; Ding, Jiafeng; Kong, Xiaoyan; Gan, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been frequently found in the marine biosphere as emerging organic contaminants. Studies to date have suggested that OH-PBDEs in marine biota are natural products. However, the mechanisms leading to the biogenesis of OH-PBDEs are still far from clear. In this study, using a laccase isolated from Trametes versicolor as the model enzyme, we explored the formation of OH-PBDEs from the laccase-catalyzed oxidation of simple bromophenols (e.g., 2,4-DBP and 2,4,6-TBP). Experiments under ambient conditions clearly showed that OH-PBDEs were produced from 2,4-DBP and 2,4,6-TBP in presence of laccase. Polybrominated compounds 2'-OH-BDE68, 2,2'-diOH-BB80, and 1,3,8-TrBDD were identified as the products from 2,4-DBP, and 2'-OH-BDE121 and 4'-OH-BDE121 from 2,4,6-TBP. The production of OH-PBDEs was likely a result of the coupling of bromophenoxy radicals, generated from the laccase-catalyzed oxidation of 2,4-DBP or 2,4,6-TBP. The transformation of bromophenols by laccase was pH-dependant, and was also influenced by enzymatic activity. In view of the abundance of 2,4-DBP and 2,4,6-TBP and the phylogenetic distribution of laccases in the environment, laccase-catalyzed conversion of bromophenols may be potentially an important route for the natural biosynthesis of OH-PBDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TBP 20% - diluent/HNO3/H2O liquid-liquid extraction system: equilibrium normalization data of nitric acid, ruthenium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.L.G. de.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of nitric acid, nitrosyl-ruthenium nitrate and zirconium hydroxide nitrate in the system tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) 20% - diluent was studied. The main purpose was to obtain enough data to elaborate process flowsheets for the treatment of irradiated uranium fuels. During the runs, the equilibrium diagrams of nitric acid, ruthenium and zirconium were settled. From the achieved data, the influence of nitric acid, ruthenium, zirconium and nitrate ions concentration in the aqueous phase was checked. Furthermore, the density and the surface tension of the aqueous and organic phases were determined, gathering the interfacial tension after the contact between the phases. A comparison among the obtained equilibrium data and the existing one from literature allowed the elaboration of mathematical models to express the distribution behaviour of nitric acid, ruthenium and zirconium as a function of nitrate ions concentration in the aqueous phase. The reduction of TBP concentration from 30% v/v (normally used) to 20% v/v, has shown no influence in the extraction behaviour of the elements. A decreasing in the distribution values was observed and that means an important factor during the decontamination of uranium from its contaminants, ruthenium and zirconium. (Author) [pt

  15. Simulation of technetium extraction behavior in UO2 (NO3)2-TcO4--HNO3-H2O/TBP-kerosene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlong; He Hui; Chen Yanxin; Tang Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    By comparing and analyzing lots of reported data of technetium with the computing results, a modification function P(c 0 (U), t) was introduced to the existing distribution coefficient model of technetium, and a new mathematical model for simulating technetium extraction behavior in the system of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -TcO 4 -HNO 3 -H 2 O/TBP- kerosene was established, as well as a computer program. The reliability of the program was verified by 179 sets of distribution coefficient data, and the results were found to agree well with experimental data. By comparing the reported data of technetium with the computing results, an evaluation was made to test the performance of the revised model. It turned out that the calculation results of the new model were more reliable than that of the one reported previously. The revised model and program can be the foundation to simulating technetium extraction behavior in the system of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 - TcO 4 - -HNO 3 -H 2 O/TBP-kerosene with the temperature scope from 10 to 60℃, U concentration from 0 to 280 g/L, and nitric acid concentration from 0.1 to 5 mol/L. (authors)

  16. Using a two-layered sphere model to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties of Microcystis aeruginosa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layered sphere model is used to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the cyanophyte Microcystis aeruginosa. Enclosing a vacuole-like particle within a chromatoplasm shell layer significantly...

  17. Determination of 25 trace impurity elements in U3O8 by horizontal ICP-AES after separation with TBP levextrel resin chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Jingsu; Shi Youqing; Gao Binghua; Liu Yingmei

    1988-01-01

    A method for the determination of Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Ru, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, W and Zn 25 trace elements in U 3 O 8 is reported. The sample is dissolved in HNO 3 or HNO 3 -HCLO 4 -HF and the uranium is separated by TBP Levextrel resin chromatogyaphy. The impurity elements containing in the aquaous phase are determined by horizontal ICp-AES method. With a sample of 300 mg, the detection limit for all the 25 elements is in the range of 0.01∼5ppm, the recovery is in the range of 82∼ 121%, the determination precision (RSD) is less than ±13%. 18 trace elements in reference material of U 3 O 8 prepared in China are determined, the values obtained well with the values of overall median of accepted laboratory means

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of a new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase, Li2CaTa2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhenhua; Tang Kaibin; Shao Qian; Li Guocan; Zeng Suyuan; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    A new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has been synthesized for the first time. The detailed structure determination of Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy (ED) shows that it crystallizes in the space group Fmmm [a∼5.5153(1), b∼5.4646(1), c∼18.2375(3)A]. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 indicates that it had absorption in the UV region. The photocatalytic activity of the Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 powders was evaluated by degradation of RhB molecules in water under ultra visible light irradiation. The results showed that Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 with a two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of a two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 A new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has been synthesized for the first time. Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 crystallizes in the space group Fmmm determined by powder X-ray and electron diffraction. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra and the photocatalytic degradation of RhB molecules in water under ultra visible light irradiation show that Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 is a potential material in photocatalysis

  19. Discrete ordinates solution of coupled conductive radiative heat transfer in a two-layer slab with Fresnel interfaces subject to diffuse and obliquely collimated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muresan, Cristian; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Menezo, Christophe; Morlot, Rodolphe

    2004-01-01

    The coupled conductive radiative heat transfer in a two-layer slab with Fresnel interfaces subject to diffuse and obliquely collimated irradiation is solved. The collimated and diffuse components problems are treated separately. The solution for diffuse radiation is obtained by using a composite discrete ordinates method and includes the development of adaptive directional quadratures to overcome the difficulties usually encountered at the interfaces. The complete radiation numerical model is validated against the predictions obtained by using the Monte Carlo method

  20. High-Sensitive Two-Layer Photoresistors Based on p-Cd x Hg1- x Te with a Converted Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, N. D.; Talipov, N. Kh.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of an experimental study of photoelectric characteristics of two-layer photoresistors based on p-Cd x Hg1- x Te (x = 0.24-0.28) with a thin near-surface layer of n-type obtained by treatment in atmospheric gas plasma are presented. It is shown that the presence of a potential barrier between the p- and n-regions causes high photosensitivity and speed of operation of such photoresistors at T = 77 K

  1. A two-layer application of the MAGIC model to predict the effects of land use scenarios and reductions in deposition on acid sensitive soils in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer application of the catchment-based soil and surface water acidification model, MAGIC, was applied to 21 sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWAMN, and the results were compared with those from a one-layer application of the model. The two-layer model represented typical soil properties more accurately by segregating the organic and mineral horizons into two separate soil compartments. Reductions in sulphur (S emissions associated with the Second S Protocol and different forestry (land use scenarios were modelled, and their effects on soil acidification evaluated. Soil acidification was assessed in terms of base saturation and critical loads for the molar ratio of base cations (CA2+ + MG 2+ + K+ to aluminium (Al in soil solution. The results of the two-layer application indicate that base saturation of the organic compartment was very responsive to changes in land use and deposition compared with the mineral soil. With the two- layer model, the organic soil compartment was particularly sensitive to acid deposition, which resulted in the critical load being predicted to be exceeded at eight sites in 1997 and two sites in 2010. These results indicate that further reductions in S deposition are necessary to raise the base cation (BC:Al ratio above the threshold which is harmful to tree roots. At forested sites BC:Al ratios were generally well below the threshold designated for soil critical loads in Europe and forecasts indicate that forest replanting can adversely affect the acid status of sensitive term objectives of protecting and sustaining soil and water quality. Policy formulation must seek to protect the most sensitive environmental receptor, in this case organic soils. It is clear, therefore, that simply securing protection of surface waters, via the critical loads approach, may not ensure adequate protection of low base status organic soils from the effects of acidification.

  2. High-Sensitive Two-Layer Photoresistors Based on p-Cd x Hg1-x Te with a Converted Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, N. D.; Talipov, N. Kh.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of an experimental study of photoelectric characteristics of two-layer photoresistors based on p-Cd x Hg1-x Te (x = 0.24-0.28) with a thin near-surface layer of n-type obtained by treatment in atmospheric gas plasma are presented. It is shown that the presence of a potential barrier between the p- and n-regions causes high photosensitivity and speed of operation of such photoresistors at T = 77 K

  3. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  4. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Influence of the solid-gas interface on the effective thermal parameters of a two-layer structure in photoacoustic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, N Munoz; Perez, L MartInez; Garibay-Febles, V; Lozada-Cassou, M

    2004-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view, the influence of the solid-gas interface on the effective thermal parameters in a two-layer structure of the photoacoustic technique is discussed. It is shown that the effective thermal parameters depend strongly upon the thermal resistance value associated with the solid-gas interface. New expressions for the effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity in the low frequency limit are obtained. In the high frequency limit, the 'resonant' behaviour of the effective thermal diffusivity is maintained and a new complex dependence on frequency of the effective thermal conductivity is shown

  6. Determination of the Mass Absorption Coefficient in Two-Layer Ti/V and V/Ti Thin Film Systems by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.

  7. The oxidation of uranium(IV) ions by nitrous acid in 30% tri-butyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltunov, V.S.; Marchenko, V.I.; Savilova, O.A.; Dvoeglazov, K.N.; Taylor, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of the oxidation of U(IV) ions by nitrous acid in a 30% TBP solution have been determined. The rate equation was found to be: - d[U(IV)] / dt = k 2a [U(IV)][HNO 2 ][HNO 3 ][H 2 O] / [HNO 3 ] 2 + β 3 [HNO 3 ][H 2 O] + β 4 [H 2 O] 2 , where, k 2a = 0.405 ± 0.055 M -1 min -1 at 55 C (β 3 ∼ 0.08; β 4 ∼ 0.007) and the activation energy was E = 112 ± 17 kJ mol -1 . The reaction mechanism appeared to involve interaction with the 1 st hydrolysis product of U(IV)-UOH 3+ . The data is compared with a previous study of the nitric acid oxidation of U(IV) in 30% TBP. This reaction is autocatalytic due to the formation of nitrous acid during the reaction. The kinetics of the decomposition of HNO 2 in 30% TBP (in the absence of U(IV)) have also been reported. (orig.)

  8. Magnetooptic effects and Auger electron spectroscopy of two-layer NiFe-Dy and Fe-Dy films with nonuniform layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'man, I.S.; Markov, V.V.; Khudyakov, A.E.; Ivantsov, R.D.; Bondarenko, G.V.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.; Kesler, V.G.; Parshin, A.S.; Ronzhin, I.P.

    2001-01-01

    Magneto-optical effects (magnetic circular dichroism and meridional Kerr effect) and element distribution with layer thickness in two-layer NiFe-Dy and Fe-Dy films, prepared by thermal sputtering of component in ultrahigh vacuum, are investigated. It is shown, that Dy in a two-layer film in the temperature range of 80-300 K makes constant contributions to both effects investigated which are approximately equal to the values of the effects observed in an isolated Dy film only at temperatures below the temperature T c of Dy transition into a ferromagnetic state (T c ∼ 100 K for the films under study). This behaviour of magneto-optical effects is assumed to be due to the influence of a NiFe layer spin system on magnetic state of a Dy layer, this influence is enhanced by the deep penetration of Ni and Fe ions into Dy layer as it follows from the data obtained using Auger electron spectroscopy [ru

  9. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M; Okamoto, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M; Noguchi, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y; Akabane, H [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  10. A two-layered diffusion model traces the dynamics of information processing in the valuation-and-choice circuit of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piu, Pietro; Fargnoli, Francesco; Innocenti, Alessandro; Rufa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    A circuit of evaluation and selection of the alternatives is considered a reliable model in neurobiology. The prominent contributions of the literature to this topic are reported. In this study, valuation and choice of a decisional process during Two-Alternative Forced-Choice (TAFC) task are represented as a two-layered network of computational cells, where information accrual and processing progress in nonlinear diffusion dynamics. The evolution of the response-to-stimulus map is thus modeled by two linked diffusive modules (2LDM) representing the neuronal populations involved in the valuation-and-decision circuit of decision making. Diffusion models are naturally appropriate for describing accumulation of evidence over the time. This allows the computation of the response times (RTs) in valuation and choice, under the hypothesis of ex-Wald distribution. A nonlinear transfer function integrates the activities of the two layers. The input-output map based on the infomax principle makes the 2LDM consistent with the reinforcement learning approach. Results from simulated likelihood time series indicate that 2LDM may account for the activity-dependent modulatory component of effective connectivity between the neuronal populations. Rhythmic fluctuations of the estimate gain functions in the delta-beta bands also support the compatibility of 2LDM with the neurobiology of DM.

  11. Micro distillation of crude oil to obtain TBP (True Boiling Points) curve; Micro destilacao de petroleo para obtencao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Lourdes S.P.; Mendes, Luana de Jesus [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS and others petroleum companies adopt the ASTM norms as reference method for oil distillation, ASTM D2892 (2005) that uses columns with 14 to 18 theoretical plates and the ASTM D 5236 (2003) , that distills mixture of heavy hydrocarbons with boiling point over 150 deg C. The result of these two distillations is the TBP (True Boiling Point) curve that is the main tool to define the yield of oil derivatives, the 'royalties' payment, the oil price for commercialization and the logistic support of oil location or in new plants projects of distillation and optimization studies. This procedure has some limitations as the volume sample, at least 1L, and the time of distillation, 2 to 4 days. The objective of this work is to propose a new alternative to attain de PEV curve, developing a new methodology using micro scale distillation that uses a more efficient column than the conventional method. Graphics of both methods were created and the results between the conventional and the micro distillation received statistical treatment to prove the equivalence between them. (author)

  12. Separation Of Uranium From Fission Products Zr And Ru With 30% TBP (Tri Butyl Phosphate) Dodecane In Nitric Acid Medium As An Extract Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdady, R. Didiek; Masduki, Busron; Sigit

    2000-01-01

    Separation of uranium from fission products Zr and Ru in batch process with Tbp 30% - dodecane in nitric acid medium has been investigated. The extraction was carried out on various acidity of 1,006 M, 1.990 M, 2,980 M, 4,006 M, and 5,006 M, and uranium concentration in feed of 100.30 g/l; 149.96 g/l, 250.30 g/l and 300.7 g/l. The results showed that equilibrium of extraction was achieved at 25 minutes, enhancement factor of ruthenium increased and of zirconium decreased Utilization of grand concentration of uranium in feed caused decreasing of distribution coefficient, zirconium and ruthenium. The better contribution of experiments was obtained at the acidity of 2 M and uranium concentration in feed of 149.9 g/l with the decontamination factor of zirconium, FD zr-u was 1,65 and of ruthenium, FD ru-u was 1,52

  13. Actinide extraction from ICPP sodium bearing waste with 0.75 M DHDECMP/TBP in Isopar L reg-sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Garn, T.G.; Law, J.D.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Tillotson, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Recent process development efforts at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant include examination of solvent extraction technologies for actinide partitioning from sodium bearing waste (SBW) solutions. The use of 0.75 M dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP or simply CMP) and 1.0 M tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted in Isopar L reg-sign was explored for actinide removal from simulated SBW solutions. Experimental evaluations included batch contacts in radiotracer tests with simulated sodium bearing waste solution to measure the extraction and recovery efficiency of the organic solvent. The radioactive isotopes utilized for this study included Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, U-233, Np-239, Zr-95, Tc-99m, and Hg-203. Extraction contacts of the organic solvent with the traced SBW stimulant, strip (back-extraction) contacts of the loaded organic solvent with either a 1-hydroxyethane-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in nitric acid solution or an oxalic acid in nitric acid solution, and solvent wash contacts with sodium carbonate were performed

  14. Stripping of Uranium (IV) from D2EHPA + TBP system with ammonium oxalate and its recovery as uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is an important fissile material for the generation of electricity by nuclear reactors. To obtain uranium as a final product meeting the stringent nuclear specifications, many process steps are involved starting from ore processing to the precipitation of yellow cake. Solvent extraction is one of the process industrially adopted worldwide to achieve such purity of uranium from leach liquor and usually uses amine or organophosphorus types of extractant depending upon the composition of feed material. In solvent extraction technique, stripping is a prominent hydrometallurgical operation which brings the metal values of interest in aqueous solution for further treatment. In the case of uranium, stripping is dependent on its oxidation state. For hexavalent state generally carbonate solutions are used, where as in the case of tetravalent form salt solution such as ammonium oxalate is effective. Use of ammonium oxalate as stripping agent for tetravalent uranium from pyrophosphoric acid has been reported in patent however the details are not disclosed. In the present investigation an effort has been made to investigate the stripping behaviour of uranium from a synthetically loaded synergistic solvent mixture of uranium in tetravalent state

  15. Analysis and development of methods for the recovery of tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)-30%v/v-degraded dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate associated with an inert hydrocarbon is the main solvent used in reprocessing of nuclear irradiated fuel arising of pressurized water reactors. The combined action of radiation and nitric acid cause severe damage to solvent, in reprocessing steps. The recovery of the solvent is, thus, of great importance, since it decreases the amount of the waste and improves the process economy. A comparative analysis of several methods of the recovery of this solvent was carried out, such as: alkaline washing, adsorption with resins, adsorption with aluminium oxide, adsorption by active carbon and adsorption by vermiculite. Some modifications of analytical 95 Zr test and a mathematical definition of two new parameters (degradation grade and efficiency of recovery) were done. Through this modified 95 Zr test, the residence time and the rate of degraded solvent: recuperator were determined. After laboratory tests, vermiculite associated with active carbon was employed for the treatment of 50 liters of tri-n-butyl phosphate (30% V/V)-dodecane, degraded by hydrolysis. Other analyses were performed to check the potentialities of these solids for this solvent recovery. (Author) [pt

  16. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  17. Label-free logic modules and two-layer cascade based on stem-loop probes containing a G-quadruplex domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Junjie; Wang, Jine; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hu, Jiming; Pei, Renjun

    2014-09-01

    A simple, versatile, and label-free DNA computing strategy was designed by using toehold-mediated strand displacement and stem-loop probes. A full set of logic gates (YES, NOT, OR, NAND, AND, INHIBIT, NOR, XOR, XNOR) and a two-layer logic cascade were constructed. The probes contain a G-quadruplex domain, which was blocked or unfolded through inputs initiating strand displacement and the obviously distinguishable light-up fluorescent signal of G-quadruplex/NMM complex was used as the output readout. The inputs are the disease-specific nucleotide sequences with potential for clinic diagnosis. The developed versatile computing system based on our label-free and modular strategy might be adapted in multi-target diagnosis through DNA hybridization and aptamer-target interaction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Waste treatment in NUCEF facility with silver mediated electrochemical oxidation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, M.; Sugikawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Silver mediated electrochemical oxidation technique has been considered one of promising candidates for alpha-bearing waste treatment. Destruction tests of organic compounds, such as insoluble tannin, TBP and dodecane, were carried out by this technique and the experimental data such as destruction rates, current efficiencies and intermediates were obtained. These compounds could be completely mineralized without the formation of reactive organic nitrate associated to safety hazards. On the basis of these results, the applicability of silver mediated electrochemical oxidation technique to waste treatment in NUCEF was evaluated. (authors)

  19. Labelled T{sub 3}, T{sub 4} and TBP for In Vitro Testing of Thyroid Function in Man and Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P.; Boruchowski, Sabina; Shomron, I. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Isotopes, Tel-Hashomer Hospital, Tel-Aviv University Medical School, Faculty of Continuing Medical Education, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    1970-02-15

    Iodothyronines are bound to determined electrophoretic fractions of serum proteins - TBP (TBG, TBA, TBPA). Radioiodine labelled T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} complex the free TBP fractions until saturation. The excess of added in vitro thyronines is then absorbed by the RBC. The changes described can be detected and quantitatively determined by radioisotope tests: radioelectrophoresis - T{sub 3/4} BP test, and RBC - {sup 125}I T{sub 3} test (Hamolsky test). The in vitro tests of the thyroid function can be clinically reliable if the protein fractions are normal, and they may be altered without thyroid pathology if the TBG fractions are abnormal. The electrophoretic fractions vary quantitatively and qualitatively in animals of different classes and orders. We chose these features to study the correlation between iodothyronines, plasma proteins and the above-mentioned thyroid tests. Twenty-two animal species (arranged according to the increasing percentage of the Hamolsky test) were examined: goat (8.6%, cow, lamb, calf, man, camel, goose, hamster, rat, turkey, marmot, duck, horse, donkey, hen, dog, pigeon, rabbit, guinea-pig, mouse, fish and frog (91.5%). The following additional parameters were examined: PBI, serum quantitative electrophoresis, T{sub 3} BP studies. All the tests were performed under identical technical conditions. Results and conclusions: (1) The Hamolsky test in the examined animals ranges from 9% to 92%. It is highest in the poicolothermics, in which much prealbumin and few glubulins are found on electrophoresis. The T{sub 3} BP is low, and about a half of the added {sup 125}I T{sub 3} remains unbound. (2) T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} are complexed with T{sub 3} BP and T{sub 4} BP fractions, which correspond to prealbumin, albumin, alpha 1-2, beta and exceptionally gamma globulin. The fractions are variable but characteristic for each animal species. T{sub 3} BP does not correlate exactly with T{sub 4} BP, and seems to be distributed over more fractions

  20. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  1. Rapid radiations of both kiwifruit hybrid lineages and their parents shed light on a two-layer mode of species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Chi; Zhong, Caihong; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ying; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Zupeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yangtao; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Xinwei; Li, Li; Liu, Chunyan; McCann, Honour C; He, Weiming; Niu, Yan; Chen, Min; Du, Liuwen; Gong, Junjie; Datson, Paul M; Hilario, Elena; Huang, Hongwen

    2017-07-01

    Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus. Furthermore, at least two separate parental species pairs were involved in the repeated origin of the hybrid lineages, in some of which a further phase of syngameon was triggered. On the basis of the elucidated hybridization relationships, we obtained a highly resolved backbone phylogeny consisting of taxa exhibiting no evidence of hybrid origin. The backbone taxa have distinct demographic histories and are the product of recent rounds of rapid radiations via sorting of ancestral variation under variable climatic and ecological conditions. Our results suggest a mode for consecutive plant diversification through two layers of radiations, consisting of the rapid evolution of backbone lineages and the formation of hybrid swarms derived from these lineages. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Centrifugal Separation Device Based on Two-Layer Laminar Flow in Microchannels for High-Throughput and Continuous Blood Cell/Plasma Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taizo Kobayashi,; Taisuke Funamoto,; Makoto Hosaka,; Satoshi Konishi,

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a novel type of centrifugation device that is based on the two-layer laminar flow in micro flow channels for continuous blood cell/plasma separation. We propose to rotate the flow channels which are arranged along the circumference around the rotational axis. Downsizing the channel width reduced both the cell sedimentation time and the required centrifugal force, because the channel width corresponds to the centrifugal sedimentation length. First, plasma and cells were continuously extracted from pig blood in each of the branch channels using a milled acrylic prototype device (channel width = 800 μm, volume = 150 μl). Next, the relationship between the channel width (125, 250, and 500 μm) and the sedimentation time taken for various centrifugal forces (2.3, 9, 36, and 145 G) was evaluated using the downsized microchannels fabricated by hot-embossing and thermal bonding technologies. Using downsized microchannels with a width of 125 μm successfully reduced the sedimentation time to 85 s as compared to the sedimentation time of 270 s for a channel of a width of 500 μm, when a centrifugal force of 2.3 G was applied. The use of the proposed device did not result in obvious hemolysis at the centrifugal forces lower than 335 G.

  3. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  4. A New Solution for the Compression of a Two-Layer Strip and Its Application to Analysis of Bonding by Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical study on the compression of a two-layer strip of strain-hardening rigid-plastic materials between rigid platens. Semianalytical solutions are obtained for stress and velocity fields in each layer. Special attention is devoted to the conditions corresponding to the beginning of cold bond formation between the layers. Depending on input parameters various general deformation patterns are possible. In particular, there exists such a range of process parameters that the soft metal layer yields while the hard metal layer is rigid at the beginning of the process. As the deformation proceeds, yielding also starts in the hard metal layer and the entire strip becomes plastic. This is a typical deformation pattern adopted in describing the process of joining by rolling. However, at a certain range of input parameters plastic deformation of the entire strip begins at the initial instant. Moreover, it is possible that only the hard metal layer yields while the soft metal layer does not. This deformation pattern takes place when the thickness of the soft metal layer is much smaller than that of the hard metal layer.

  5. Integration of Ground and Multi-Resolution Satellite Data for Predicting the Water Balance of a Mediterranean Two-Layer Agro-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Battista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of site water budget is important in Mediterranean areas, where it represents a crucial factor affecting the quantity and quality of traditional crop production. This is particularly the case for spatially fragmented, multi-layer agricultural ecosystems such as olive groves, which are traditional cultivations of the Mediterranean basin. The current paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of spatialized meteorological data and remote sensing techniques to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETA and the soil water content (SWC of an olive orchard in Central Italy. The relatively small size of this orchard (about 0.1 ha and its two-layer structure (i.e., olive trees and grasses require the integration of remotely sensed data with different spatial and temporal resolutions (Terra-MODIS, Landsat 8-OLI and Ikonos. These data are used to drive a recently proposed water balance method (NDVI-Cws and predict ETA and then site SWC, which are assessed through comparison with sap flow and soil wetness measurements taken in 2013. The results obtained indicate the importance of integrating satellite imageries having different spatio-temporal properties in order to properly characterize the examined olive orchard. More generally, the experimental evidences support the possibility of using widely available remotely sensed and ancillary datasets for the operational estimation of ETA and SWC in olive tree cultivation systems.

  6. Numerical modelling of two-layer shallow water flow in microtidal salt-wedge estuaries: Finite volume solver and field validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krvavica Nino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A finite volume model for two-layer shallow water flow in microtidal salt-wedge estuaries is presented in this work. The governing equations are a coupled system of shallow water equations with source terms accounting for irregular channel geometry and shear stress at the bed and interface between the layers. To solve this system we applied the Q-scheme of Roe with suitable treatment of source terms, coupling terms, and wet-dry fronts. The proposed numerical model is explicit in time, shock-capturing and it satisfies the extended conservation property for water at rest. The model was validated by comparing the steady-state solutions against a known arrested salt-wedge model and by comparing both steady-state and time-dependant solutions against field observations in Rječina Estuary in Croatia. When the interfacial friction factor λi was chosen correctly, the agreement between numerical results and field observations was satisfactory.

  7. The resonance susceptibility of two-layer exchange-coupled ferromagnetic film with a combined uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in the layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul’ga, N.V., E-mail: shulga@anrb.ru; Doroshenko, R.A.

    2016-12-01

    A numerical investigation of the resonance dynamic susceptibility of ferromagnetic exchange-coupled two-layer films with a combined cubic and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the layers has been performed. It has been found that the presence of cubic anisotropy leads to the fact that much of the off-diagonal components of the dynamic susceptibility are nonzero. The change of the ferromagnetic resonance frequencies and dynamic susceptibility upon the magnetization along the [100], [010], and [011] directions have been calculated. The evolution of the profile of the dynamic susceptibility occurring during the magnetization has been described. The impact of changes in the distribution of equilibrium and dynamic components of the magnetization on the dependences of the components of the dynamic susceptibility and the ferromagnetic resonance frequency on the external magnetic fields has been discussed. - Highlights: • The extremes in the dependences of integrated dynamic susceptibility components are observed at low fields. • Lower extremes can be observed at a shift of the localization of the lower FMR mode toward the interface between the layers. • The features of the distribution of the dynamic susceptibility over the thickness have been discussed. • The cubic anisotropy leads to the fact that the off-diagonal integrated dynamic susceptibility components are essential. • FMR signal can be excited in vicinity of the interlayer boundary.

  8. Structure and mechanical properties of a two-layered material produced by the E-beam surfacing of Ta and Nb on the titanium base after multiple rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, V. A.; Golkovski, M. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Ruktuev, A. A.; Polyakov, I. A.; Kuksanov, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    The study has been conducted in line with the current approach to investigation of materials obtained by considerably deep surface alloying of the titanium substrate with Ta, Nb, and Zr. The thickness of the resulting alloyed layer was equal to 2 mm. The coating was formed through weld deposition of a powder with the use of a high-voltage electron beam in the air. It has been lately demonstrated that manufactured such a way alloyed layers possess corrosion resistance which is significantly higher than the resistance of titanium substrates. It has already been shown that such two-layered materials are weldable. The study objective is to investigate the feasibility of rolling for necking the sheets with the Ti-Ta-Nb anticorrosion coating with further fourfold decrease in their thickness. The research is also aimed at investigation of the material properties after rolling. Anticorrosion layers were formed both on CP-titanium and on VT14 (Ti-4Al-3Mo-1 V) durable titanium alloy. The results of chemical composition determination, structure examination, X-ray phase analysis and mechanical properties observations (including bending properties of the alloyed layers) are presented in the paper. The combination of welding, rolling, and bending enables the manufacture of corrosion-resistant vessels and process pipes which are made from the developed material and find technological application.

  9. Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Adam; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Elster, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy allows for depth-selective determination of absorption changes in the adult human head that facilitates separation between cerebral and extra-cerebral responses to brain activation. The aim of the present work is to analyze which combinations of moments of measured distributions of times of flight (DTOF) of photons and source-detector separations are optimal for the reconstruction of absorption changes in a two-layered tissue model corresponding to extra- and intra-cerebral compartments. To this end we calculated the standard deviations of the derived absorption changes in both layers by considering photon noise and a linear relation between the absorption changes and the DTOF moments. The results show that the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper (superficial) layer increases (decreases) with the thickness of the superficial layer. It is confirmed that for the deeper layer the use of higher moments, in particular the variance of the DTOF, leads to an improvement. For example, when measurements at four different source-detector separations between 8 and 35 mm are available and a realistic thickness of the upper layer of 12 mm is assumed, the inclusion of the change in mean time of flight, in addition to the change in attenuation, leads to a reduction of the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper tissue layer by a factor of 2.5. A reduction by another 4% can be achieved by additionally including the change in variance.

  10. Determination of small amounts of nitric acid in the presence of large amounts of uranium (VI) and extraction of nitric acid into TBP solutions highly loaded with uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.; Schuler, R.

    1982-10-01

    A new method for the determination of small amounts of nitric acid in the presence of large amounts of uranium(VI) was elaborated. The method is based on the precipitation of uranium(VI) as iodate and subsequent alkalimetric titration of the acid in the supernatant. The extraction of nitric acid and uranium(VI) with 30% TBP in dodecane was studied at high loading of the organic phase with uranyl nitrate and at 25, 40 and 60 0 C. The results are compared with available published data on the extraction of nitric acid under similar conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. On-line monitoring of the U(VI) concentration in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene: an evaluation of real-time analysis in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) containers via Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bai; Ding-Ming Li; Zhi-Yuan Chang; De-Jun Fan; Jin-Ping Liu; Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the practicability of Raman spectroscopy for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene within polyetheretherketone containers, laboratory scale experiments were performed and several influencing factors for real-time determination were investigated. A method of internal standard was employed for the first time. Software developed for real-time concentration data display can give the U(VI) concentration autonomously within several seconds. The study confirmed Raman spectroscopy as a promising methodology for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in organic phase. (author)

  12. Some features of formation and dissolution of a series of Pu(IV) and Zr alkyl and butyl alkyl phosphates in the system TBP -n-dodecane - nitric acid - water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, G.S.; Moshkov, M.M.; Kokina, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The formation and composition of salts produced on interaction of a series of alkyl- and butylalkylphosphoric acids having alkyl radical chain lengths from C 4 to C 1 0 with Pu(IV) and Zr in organic and aqueous phases of the system TBP - n-dodecane -nitric acid - water were studied. The composition of compounds was found to depend on the conditions of their formation, defined first of all by the HNO 3 concentration in aqueous and organic phases. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. The determination of molar volumes of uranous nitrate and nitric acid in systems of U(NO3)4-HNO3-H2O and U(NO3)4-HNO3-30% TBP kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chengying

    1986-01-01

    The data of molar volumes of uranous nitrate and nitric acid are necessary for the calculation of the changes in phase volume during the extraction in U(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 /30%TBP-kerosene system. However, the data of the partial molar volume of U(NO 3 ) 4 are not available in literature. In the present work, the molar volumes of U(NO 3 ) 4 and HNO 3 are calculated by linear fitting of the experimental data. The result of the molar volume of HNO 3 is consistent with those in literature

  14. Dynamic magnetic properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system on a two-layer square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temizer, Ümüt

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic critical behavior of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system on a bilayer square lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) interactions in the presence of a time-varying external magnetic field. The dynamic equations describing the time-dependencies of the average magnetizations are derived from the Master equation. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transitions and to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in seven different planes for both FM/FM and AFM/FM interactions and the effects of the related interaction parameters on the dynamic phase diagrams are examined. It is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical point, triple point (TP), quadruple point (QP), double critical end point (B), multicritical point (A) and tetracritical point (M). Moreover, the reentrant behavior is observed for AFM/FM interaction in the system. - Highlights: • The mixed spin (1, 3/2) Ising system is studied on a two-layer square lattice. • The Glauber transition rates are employed to construct the dynamic equations. • The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in seven different planes. • The system displays many dynamic critical points. • The reentrant behavior is observed for AFM/FM interaction

  15. The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the two-layered Shiraz aquifer in the northwest of Maharlou saline lake, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Mehdi; Zare, Mohammad; Chitsazan, Manouchehr

    2018-03-01

    Maharlou saline lake is the outlet of Shiraz closed basin in southern Iran, surrounded by several disconnected alluvial fresh water aquifers. These aquifers in the west and northwest of the lake are recharged by karstic anticlines such as Kaftarak in the north and Barmshour in the south. Here groundwater salinity varies along the depth so that better quality water is located below brackish or saline waters. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the salinity anomaly and the origin of the fresher groundwater in lower depth. Hence, the change in groundwater salinity along depth has been investigated by means of a set of geoelectrical, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and environmental isotopes data. The interpretation of geoelectrical profiles and hydrogeological data indicates that the aquifer in the southeast of Shiraz plain is a two-layer aquifer separated by a fine-grained (silt and clay) layer with an approximate thickness of 40 m at the depth of about 100-120 m. Hydrgeochemistry showed that the shallow aquifer is recharged by Kaftarak karstic anticline and is affected by the saline lake water. The lake water fraction varies in different parts from zero for shallow aquifer close to the karstic anticlines to ∼70 percent in the margin of the lake. The deep aquifer is protected from the intrusion of saline lake water due to the presence of the above-mentioned confining layer with lake water fraction of zero. The stable isotopes signatures also indicate that the 'fresh' groundwater belonging to the deep aquifer is not subject to severe evaporation or mixing which is typical of the karstic water of the area. It is concluded that the characteristics of the deep aquifer are similar to those of the karstic carbonate aquifer. This karstic aquifer is most probably the Barmshour carbonated anticline buried under the shallow aquifer in the southern part. It may also be the extension of the Kaftarak anticline in the northern part.

  16. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  17. Supervised Learning of Two-Layer Perceptron under the Existence of External Noise — Learning Curve of Boolean Functions of Two Variables in Tree-Like Architecture —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the supervised batch learning of Boolean functions expressed by a two-layer perceptron with a tree-like structure. We adopt continuous weights (spherical model) and the Gibbs algorithm. We study the Parity and And machines and two types of noise, input and output noise, together with the noiseless case. We assume that only the teacher suffers from noise. By using the replica method, we derive the saddle point equations for order parameters under the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We study the critical value αC of the loading rate α above which the learning phase exists for cases with and without noise. We find that αC is nonzero for the Parity machine, while it is zero for the And machine. We derive the exponents barβ of order parameters expressed as (α - α C)bar{β} when α is near to αC. Furthermore, in the Parity machine, when noise exists, we find a spin glass solution, in which the overlap between the teacher and student vectors is zero but that between student vectors is nonzero. We perform Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations by simulated annealing and also by exchange Monte Carlo simulations in both machines. In the Parity machine, we study the de Almeida-Thouless stability, and by comparing theoretical and numerical results, we find that there exist parameter regions where the RS solution is unstable, and that the spin glass solution is metastable or unstable. We also study asymptotic learning behavior for large α and derive the exponents hat{β } of order parameters expressed as α - hat{β } when α is large in both machines. By simulated annealing simulations, we confirm these results and conclude that learning takes place for the input noise case with any noise amplitude and for the output noise case when the probability that the teacher's output is reversed is less than one-half.

  18. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA) 3 (TPPO) 2 /polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10 -2 S cm -1 , and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  19. Isolation and expression of the genes coding for the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferrin binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferring binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The results of the sequence revealed two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 38,830 and 85,140. The deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from phylogenetically related microorganisms. Partial sequences coding the amino and carboxyl regions of MltB and a sequence of 761 base pairs encoding the amino region of TbpB have been expressed in E. coli. The strong humoral response elicited by these proteins in mouse confirmed the immunogenic properties of the recombinant proteins. A similar response was elicited by both proteins when injected intraperitoneally in Atlantic salmon. The present data indicates that these proteins are good candidates to be used in formulations to study the protective immunity of salmon to infection by P. salmonis.

  20. Development of next generation code system as an engineering modeling language (5). Investigation on restructuring method of conventional codes into two-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    A proposed method for gradually restructuring to the two-level system of next generation analysis system by reusing the conventional analysis system, called 'incremental method', was applied and evaluated. The following functions were selected for the evaluation: Neutron diffusion calculation for the three-dimensional XYZ system based on finite differential method, and input utilities of the cross-section data file used in the conventional system. In order to evaluate the effect of the restructuring, 'Module Coupling Index (MCI)' and 'McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity (MCC)' were used for quantifying the quality of the modular design and the complexity of the program sequence of each module. Although MCIs of each module before restructuring were mainly 6 - 7 degrees, it was possible to reduce them to under 4 degrees in most module by restructuring with the incremental method. And, it is found that the modules under 4 degrees of MCI can be easily combined with different programming languages, which are necessary for building the two-layer system. In the meantime, MCCs in most module before restructuring were over 20 and some were over 50. The incremental method could reduce them to under 10 when C++ was used, and reduce them to under 20 when FORTRAN was used. It is correspondent to reduction of the error frequency occurred in its modification from 20 - 40% to 5 - 10%. The total number of MCC could be reduced to 1/3 when C++ was used, and to 1/2 when FORTRAN was used. By using the restructured functions in the present study and some previously developed functions, a reactor analysis tool was systematized and applied to criticality analysis of the Experimental Fast Reactor 'JOYO' MR-I. In addition, the following two functionality expansion tests were performed: To add cross section direct perturbation functionality, and to add control rod criticality position search functionality. In the tests, both the functionality expansions were carried out satisfying the condition

  1. A revised global ozone dry deposition estimate based on a new two-layer parameterisation for air-sea exchange and the multi-year MACC composition reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Woodhouse, Matthew T.; Galbally, Ian E.

    2018-03-01

    Dry deposition at the Earth's surface is an important sink of atmospheric ozone. Currently, dry deposition of ozone to the ocean surface in atmospheric chemistry models has the largest uncertainty compared to deposition to other surface types, with implications for global tropospheric ozone budget and associated radiative forcing. Most global models assume that the dominant term of surface resistance in the parameterisation of ozone dry deposition velocity at the oceanic surface is constant. There have been recent mechanistic parameterisations for air-sea exchange that account for the simultaneous waterside processes of ozone solubility, molecular diffusion, turbulent transfer, and first-order chemical reaction of ozone with dissolved iodide and other compounds, but there are questions about their performance and consistency. We present a new two-layer parameterisation scheme for the oceanic surface resistance by making the following realistic assumptions: (a) the thickness of the top water layer is of the order of a reaction-diffusion length scale (a few micrometres) within which ozone loss is dominated by chemical reaction and the influence of waterside turbulent transfer is negligible; (b) in the water layer below, both chemical reaction and waterside turbulent transfer act together and are accounted for; and (c) chemical reactivity is present through the depth of the oceanic mixing layer. The new parameterisation has been evaluated against dry deposition velocities from recent open-ocean measurements. It is found that the inclusion of only the aqueous iodide-ozone reaction satisfactorily describes the measurements. In order to better quantify the global dry deposition loss and its interannual variability, modelled 3-hourly ozone deposition velocities are combined with the 3-hourly MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) reanalysis ozone for the years 2003-2012. The resulting ozone dry deposition is found to be 98.4 ± 30.0 Tg O3 yr-1 for the ocean

  2. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  3. Analysis of the Deformability of Two-Layer Materials AZ31/Eutectic / Analiza Możliwości Odkształcania Plastycznego Materiału Dwuwarstwowego AZ31/Eutektyka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mola R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of physical simulation of the deformation of the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material using the Gleeble 3800 metallurgical processes simulator. The eutectic layer was produced on the AZ31 substrate using thermochemical treatment. The specimens of AZ31 alloy were heat treated in contact with aluminium powder at 445°C in a vacuum furnace. Depending on the heating time, Al-enriched surface layers with a thickness of 400, 700 and 1100 μm were fabricated on a substrate which was characterized by an eutectic structure composed of the Mg17Al12 phase and a solid solution of aluminium in magnesium. In the study, physical simulation of the fabricated two-layered specimens with a varying thickness of the eutectic layer were deformed using the plane strain compression test at various values of strain rates. The testing results have revealed that it is possible to deform the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material at low strain rates and small deformation values.

  4. On a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask for low-resistance ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, S. S.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si_3N_4/SiO_2 mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.

  5. Three-dimensional random resistor-network model for solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Ali; Luo Jingli; Nandakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes was developed to evaluate the performance and further investigate the effect of microstructure on the performance of SOFC electrodes. Porosity of the electrode is controlled by adding pore former particles (spheres) to the electrode and ignoring them in analysis step. To enhance connectivity between particles and increase the length of triple-phase boundary (TPB), sintering process is mimicked by enlarging particles to certain degree after settling them inside the packing. Geometrical characteristics such as length of TBP and active contact area as well as porosity can easily be calculated using the current model. Electrochemical process is simulated using resistor-network model and complete Butler-Volmer equation is used to deal with charge transfer process on TBP. The model shows that TPBs are not uniformly distributed across the electrode and location of TPBs as well as amount of electrochemical reaction is not uniform. Effects of electrode thickness, particle size ratio, electron and ion conductor conductivities and rate of electrochemical reaction on overall electrochemical performance of electrode are investigated.

  6. Investigation of Zirconium Oxide Films in Different Dissolved Hydrogen Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that in pre-transition zirconium oxide, the volume fraction of tetragonal zirconium oxide increased near the oxide/metal (O/M) interface, and the sub-stoichiometric zirconium oxide layer was observed. The diffusion of oxygen ion through the oxide layer is the rate-limiting process during the pre-transition oxidation process, and this diffusion mainly occurs in the grain boundaries. The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high-temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pre-transition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this study, in situ Raman and TEM analysis were conducted for investigating the phase transformation of zirconium alloy in primary water. From this study, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The zirconium alloy was oxidized in primary water chemistry for 100 d, and Raman and TEM were measured after 30, 50, 80, and 100 d from start-up. 2. TEM and FFT analysis showed that the zirconium oxide mostly consisted of the monoclinic phase. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface

  7. The Two-Layer Geodynamo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, M. Yu.

    2018-02-01

    A 2-D mean field geodynamo model with the algebraic form of nonlinearity is considered. The geostrophic alpha-effect and differential rotation are taken from the 3-D models of convection in the liquid core of the Earth. The analysis reveals that these both are located in different spatial areas, and their correlation is no more than ten percent. The model allows typical Z-distributions of the poloidal magnetic field to be generated within the Taylor cylinder. On the surface, this field configuration corresponds to the magnetic dipole. Because of the spatial homogeneity of the magnetic field in the cylinder, dissipation of the field is small, which causes its greater amplitude in this region. Owing to the simple form of alpha-effect quenching by the magnetic field, the model can be used to generate a magnetic field over geological times.

  8. Analysis and development of methods for the recovery of degraded tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-30%V/V-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate associated with an inert hydrocarbon, is the principal solvent used in reprocessing of nuclear irradiated fuel arising of pressurized water reactors, nowdays. The combined action of radiation and nitric acid cause severe damage to solvent, in reprocessing steps. Then, the recovery of solvent gets some importance, since it decreases the amount of the waste and improves the economy of the process. A comparative analysis of several methods of the recovery of this solvent was done, such as: alkaline washing, adsortion with resins, adsorption with aluminium oxide, adsorption by active carbon and adsorption by vermiculite. Some modifications of the analytical test of 95 Zr and a mathematical definition of two new parameters were done: the degradation grade and the eficiency of recovering. Through this modified test of 95 Zr, the residence time and the rate of degraded solvent: recuperator, were determined. After the laboratory tests had been performed, vermiculite, associated with active carbon, were employed in the treatment of 50 liters of tri-n-butyl phosphate (30%V/V)-dodecane, degraded by hydrolysis. Succeding analyses were made to check up the potentialities of these solids in the recovering of this solvent. (Author) [pt

  9. The role of carbon in the breakaway oxidation of mild steel in high pressure carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surman, P.L.; Brown, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    The rate controlling step in the oxidation of iron and mild steel in CO 2 is the diffusion of iron across the inner of two layers of magnetite scale. Cation diffusion is directed towards available oxidant and hence tends to produce fresh oxide in freely available space. The initial oxidation process is thus protective and stress-free. As oxidation proceeds the gaseous reaction product, carbon monoxide, tends to accumulate at the oxide/metal interface. Eventually this leads to simultaneous carbon deposition and oxide formation. This carbon contamination allows oxidant access to oxide crystallite 'jacking points', and hence volume expansion and stressed breakaway corrosion can occur. Experiments designed to simulate the promotion, propagation and healing of breakaway oxidation and to define the conditions for carbon deposition are reported. (author)

  10. Changing the thickness of two layers: i-ZnO nanorods, p-Cu2O and its influence on the carriers transport mechanism of the p-Cu2O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Phung, Pham Kim; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two layers: i-ZnO nanorods and p-Cu2O were fabricated by electrochemical deposition. The fabricating process was the initial formation of ZnO nanorods layer on the n-IGZO thin film which was prepared by sputtering method, then a p-Cu2O layer was deposited on top of rods to form the p-Cu2O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-ZnO heterojunction. The XRD, SEM, UV-VIS, I-V characteristics methods were used to define structure, optical and electrical properties of these heterojunction layers. The fabricating conditions and thickness of the Cu2O layers significantly affected to the formation, microstructure, electrical and optical properties of the junction. The length of i-ZnO nanorods layer in the structure of the heterojunction has strongly affected to the carriers transport mechanism and performance of this heterojunction.

  11. On a two-layer Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric mask for low-resistance ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunyan, S. S., E-mail: spartakmain@gmail.com; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The fabrication of a two-layer Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.

  12. Structural characterization of tellurite glasses doped with transition metal oxides using Raman spectra and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Shaltout, I; Al Yahyaei, K M

    2006-05-01

    Systems of iron tellurite glasses were prepared by melt quenching with compositions of [85%TeO2+5%Fe2O3+10%TMO], where transition metal oxides (TMO) are TiO2, V2O5, MnO, CoO, NiO and CuO. Furthermore, the main structural units of these samples have been characterized by means of Raman spectra (150-1200 cm(-1)) as well as wavenumber predictions by means of Gaussian 98 ab initio calculations for the proposed site symmetries of TeO4(4-) triagonal bipyramid (C2v) and Te2O7(6-) bridged tetrahedra (Cs and C1). Aided by normal coordinate analysis, calculated vibrational frequencies, Raman scattering activities, force constants in internal coordinates and potential energy distributions (PEDs), revised vibrational assignments for the fundamental modes have been proposed. The main structural features are correlated to the dominant units of triagonal bipyramid (tbp) or bridged tetrahedral (TeO3+1 binds to TeO3 through TeOTe bridge; corner sharing). Moreover, the Raman spectra of the investigated tellurites reflect a structural change from tbp (coordination number is four) to triagonal pyramidal (coordination number is three).

  13. Calculation of a TBP extraction column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de.

    1973-01-01

    Problems involving the number of stages in an extraction column and the equipment needed in most aqueous methods of reprocessing of nuclear fuels were studied. A solution for the separation of uranium from fission products in a feed solution that contains these components plus nitric acid, thorium and protactinium is obtained. The program has peculiarities such as treatment of tracer components; acceptance of decontamination and recuperation factors better than the set values for the solution; occurrence of niaxima concentrations; change of key component; criterion for ending of section; corrections for interaction; input data not including concentration estimates of the raffinate and organic extract; set of limitations for the concentrations based on input data to help convergence

  14. Catalytic oxidation using nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide is a very inert gas used generally as oxidant as it offers some advantage compared with other oxidants such as O2 but a considerably higher temperature (> 526 °C is often required. For particular cases such as the oxidation of sugar alcohols, especially for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, N2O has the advantage over O2 of a higher reaction selectivity. In the present paper we present the modelling of oxidation reaction of sugar alcohols using an oxidizing agent in low concentrations, which is important to suppress subsequent oxidation reactions due to the very low residual concentrations of the oxidizing agent. For orientation experiments we chose nitrous oxide generated by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Kinetic modeling of the reaction was performed after determination of the differential equations that describe the system under study.

  15. Oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshkewitch, E.; Richerson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book explores single-phase ceramic oxide systems from the standpoint of physical chemistry and technology. This second edition also focuses on advances in technology since publication of the original edition. These include improvements in raw materials and forming and sintering techniques, and the major role that oxide ceramics have had in development of advanced products and processes. The text is divided into five major sections: general fundamentals of oxide ceramics, advances in aluminum oxide technology, advances in zirconia technology, and advances in beryllium oxide technology

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 and its novel association with oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration. FGF21 is now considered a stress-responsive hormone in humans. The discovery of an essential response element in the FGF21 gene, for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, and its relation with genes such as NRF2, TBP-2, UCP3, SOD2, ERK, and p38, places FGF21 as a key regulator of the oxidative stress cell response. Its role in chronic diseases and its involvement in the treatment and follow-up of these diseases has been recently the target of new studies. The diminished oxidative stress through FGF21 pathways observed with anti-diabetic therapy is another clue of the new insights of this hormone.

  17. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  18. Developing alternative oxidation processes for the treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turc, H.A.; Broudic, J.Ch.; Joussot-Dubien, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    An electro-generated silver (II) mediated oxidation process is currently under development in the Atalante facility of the French Atomic Energy Commission, as an operation of the DELOS unit, with the aim to mineralize α-contaminated solvents with respect to the principles of nuclear safety. This process is a wet oxidation one involving a powerful mediator (Ag(II)/Ag(I): 1.92 V/NHE), but its throughput is mainly limited by technological constraints. Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) has been investigated and proved by inactive studies as to be a versatile and powerful process, which could help destroying the contaminated solvents (dodecane, TBP, TLA...) produced by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing research and industry. The current development aims to set up a continuous HTO pilot in a standard glovebox, in order to solve both technological and safety difficulties and to treat small volumes of contaminated solvents. This paper discusses the main results of the silver(II) oxidation and HTO process development works. (authors)

  19. Selective Recovery of Yttrium and Ytterbium Oxides from Abu Rusheid REEs Concentrate via Alkaline Leaching and Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    The REEs concentrate prepared from Abu Rusheid lamprophyre ore material is found to assay 44.65% Y_2O_3 and 13.87% Yb_2O_3 together with less amounts of 10 other REEs. This concentrate has been subjected to alkaline leaching process using seven different alkali reagents (single or mixed). From the obtained results, the mixed Na_2CO_3/(NH_4)HCO_3 reagent has been able to leach up to 87.32 % of Yb and 98.73% of Y together with a minor amount of Eu( 1.44)%. Finally, TBP extractant has been used to separate highly pure Yb and Y concentrate oxides from the nitrate solution

  20. Determination of rare earth elements, hafnium and cadmium in sintered pellets of mixed thorium and uranium oxides by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, S.N.M.

    1987-01-01

    This work shows the development of a method for determination of the rare-earth elements (Eu, Sm, Dy and Gd), Hf and Cd contents in sinterized U and Th mixed oxides by neutron activation analysis. The sample is dissolved in nitric/fluoridric (0,1% HF) medium, to dryness and redissolved in 6N HCl solution. The Hf is extracted into organic phase (0,5 M TTA/benzene), irradiated and analysed through 181 Hf isotope energy peak. The aqueous phase is treated with NH 4 OH for the precipitation of hidroxides. Then, these are dissolved in 6N HNO 3 solution. The extraction of U and Th is made in two steps, one with TBP/CCl 4 and another with 0,5 M TTA/C 6 H 6 . Then the rare-earth elements and Cd are irradiated and determined by gamma spectrometry. (author) [pt

  1. High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Gill, Simerjeet K.; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Bai, Jianming; Ghose, Sanjit; Rebak, Raul B.; Ecker, Lynne E.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys of iron-chromium-nickel are being explored as alternative cladding materials to improve safety margins under severe accident conditions. Our research focuses on non-destructively investigating the oxidation behavior of the FeCrNi alloy "Alloy 33" using synchrotron-based methods. The evolution and structure of oxide layer formed in steam environments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence methods and scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that a compact and continuous oxide scale was formed consisting of two layers, chromium oxide and spinel phase (FeCr2O4) oxides, wherein the concentration of the FeCr2O4 phase decreased from the surface to the bulk-oxide interface.

  2. Rhodium and Hafnium Influence on the Microstructure, Phase Composition, and Oxidation Resistance of Aluminide Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Maryana Zagula-Yavorska; Małgorzata Wierzbińska; Jan Sieniawski

    2017-01-01

    A 0.5 μm thick layer of rhodium was deposited on the CMSX 4 superalloy by the electroplating method. The rhodium-coated superalloy was hafnized and aluminized or only aluminized using the Chemical vapour deposition method. A comparison was made of the microstructure, phase composition, and oxidation resistance of three aluminide coatings: nonmodified (a), rhodium-modified (b), and rhodium- and hafnium-modified (c). All three coatings consisted of two layers: the additive layer and the interdi...

  3. Oxidation protection and behavior of in-situ zirconium diboride–silicon carbide coating for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Li, Hejun; Yin, Xuemin; Chu, Yanhui; Chen, Xi; Fu, Qiangang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZrB 2 –SiC coating was prepared on C/C composite by in-situ reaction. • A two-layered structure was obtained when the coating was oxidized at 1500 °C. • The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. • The morphology evolution of oxide scale during oxidation was illuminated. - Abstract: To protect carbon/carbon (C/C) composites against oxidation, zirconium diboride–silicon carbide (ZrB 2 –SiC) coating was prepared by in-situ reaction using ZrC, B 4 C and Si as raw materials. The in-situ ZrB 2 –SiC coated C/C presented good oxidation resistance, whose weight loss was only 0.15% after isothermal oxidation at 1500 °C for 216 h. Microstructure evolution of coating at 1500 °C was studied, revealing a two-layered structure: (1) ZrO 2 (ZrSiO 4 ) embedded in SiO 2 -rich glass, and (2) unaffected ZrB 2 –SiC. The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. A model based on the evolution of oxide scale was proposed to explain the failure mechanism of coating

  4. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  5. Evaluation of oxides formed at high temperatures in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kumar, N.A.P.; Szpunar, J.A., E-mail: kiraniitkgp@yahoo.com [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube samples has been studied at four different temperatures, i.e., 400°, 600°, 800°, and 1000°C. The amount of tetragonal phase is found to decrease with increase of temperature. The oxide texture of (002){sub m} and (111){sub m} type increased with the temperature from 400°C to 600°C, however at temperatures above 600°C the texture strength seems to diminish and the oxide layer becomes structurally unstable. Further, the impedance response is found to be dependent on the microstructure of the oxide film. For the sample oxidized at 400°C, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) spectra exhibited a two-time constant behavior, showing the formation of two-layer oxide film on the Zr-2.5Nb alloy, which correspond to a porous outer oxide and a barrier inner oxide, respectively. In addition, the samples were oxidized at constant temperature of 600°C with varying oxidation time. The observation shows that the oxide is more protective in the early stage of oxide growth. However, further growth of oxide film has resulted in degeneration of its protective character. (author)

  6. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  7. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  8. In situ Raman Spectroscopy of Oxide Films on Zirconium Alloy in Simulated PWR Primary Water Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pretransition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was used for in situ investigations for characterizing the phase of zirconium oxide. In situ Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for investigating in detail the characteristics of oxide films in a high-temperature corrosion environment. In previous studies, an in situ Raman system was developed for investigating the oxides on nickel-based alloys and low alloy steels in high-temperature water environment. Also, the early stage oxidation behavior of zirconium alloy with different dissolved hydrogen concentration environments in high temperature water was treated in the authors' previous study. In this study, a specific zirconium alloy was oxidized and investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy for 100 d oxidation, which is close to the first transition time of the zirconium alloy oxidation. The ex situ investigation methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to further characterize the zirconium oxide structure. As oxidation time increased, the Raman peaks of tetragonal zirconium oxide were merged or became weaker. However, the monoclinic zirconium oxide peaks became distinct. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface and this could explain the Raman spectra difference between the 30 d result and others.

  9. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  10. Natural convection of the oxide pool in a three-layer configuration of core melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin, E-mail: bjchung@khu.ac.kr

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Natural convection of oxide pool in 3-layer configuration during IVR was investigated. • High Ra was achieved by using mass transfer experiments based on analogy concept. • Heat ratio to light metal layer was 14% higher for 3-layer configuration than 2-layer one. • Heat transfer to heavy metal layer was poor and hence heat load to side wall increased. • Angular heat loads to side wall showed strengthened heat focusing at uppermost location. - Abstract: We investigated the natural convection of the oxide layer in a three-layer configuration of core melts in a severe accident. In order to achieve high modified Rayleigh numbers of 10{sup 12}–10{sup 13}, mass transfer experiments were performed using a copper sulfate electroplating system based upon the analogy between heat and mass transfer. Four different cooling conditions of the top and the bottom plates were tested. The upward heat ratios were 14% higher for three-layer than for two-layer due to the reduced heights and the downward heat ratios were lower the same amount. The local Nusselt numbers for the top and the bottom plates were measured and compared with the two layer configuration. To explore the heat load to the reactor vessel, the angle-dependent heat fluxes at the side wall, were measured and compared with the two-layer configuration. Heat load to the side wall and peak heat at the uppermost location were intensified for the three-layer configuration.

  11. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  12. RNA oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.

    2015-01-01

    .9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...

  13. Radiolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.G.; Ewart, F.T.; Hobley, J.; Smith, A.J.; Walters, W.S.; Williams, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Work under the Radiolytic Oxidation Contract from 1986 until April 1989 is reported. The effects of alpha- and gamma-irradiation on the chemistries of plutonium, neptunium and technetium, under conditions representative of the near fields of intermediate and high level waste repositories, were investigated. Gamma-radiolysis of Np (IV) results in oxidation in solutions below pH 12. Solutions of Tc (VII) are reduced to Tc (IV) by gamma-irradiation in contact with blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement under an inert atmosphere but not when in contact with pulverized fuel ash/ordinary Portland cement. Tc (IV) is shown to be susceptible to oxidation by the products of the alpha-radiolysis of water. The results of 'overall effects' experiments, which combined representative components of typical ILW or HLW near fields, supported these observations and also showed enhanced plutonium concentrations in alpha-irradiated, HLW simulations. Mathematical models of the behaviour of plutonium and neptunium during gamma-radiolysis have been developed and indicate that oxidation to Pu (VI) is possible at dose rates typical of those expected for HLW. Simulations at ILW dose rates have indicated some effect upon the speciation of neptunium. Laboratory studies of the gamma-irradiation of Np (IV) in bentonite-equilibrated water have also been modelled. Computer code used: PHREEQE, 8 Figs.; 48 Tabs.; 38 refs

  14. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  15. Influence of oxidation treatment on ballistic electron surface-emitting display of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wentao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Wenjiang; Duan, Xiaotao

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of porous silicon (PS) samples are treated by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images show that PS samples are segmented into two layers. Oxidized film layer is formed on the top surface of PS samples treated by RTO while at the bottom of PS samples treated by ECO. Both ECO and RTO treatment can make emission current density, diode current density, and emission efficiency of PS increase with the bias voltage increasing. The emission current density and the field emission enhancement factor β of PS sample treated by RTO are larger than that treated by ECO. The Fowler–Nordheim curves of RTO and ECO samples are linear which indicates that high electric field exists on the oxidized layer and field emission occurs whether PS is treated by RTO or ECO.

  16. Extraction of zirconium from raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Garima; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from dilute streams is a major task in nuclear industry in the view of environmental remediation and value recovery. Presently solvent extraction process is employed on the commercial scale to recover nuclear pure zirconium using TBP as extractant. The waste stream of TBP extraction process contains about 1.2 gpl of Zirconium in nitrate form. At present there is no process to recover Zirconium from this raffinate stream. Hence, under the present study recovery of zirconium from the raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant Raffinate has been investigated. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry is not suitable for the extraction of zirconium from lean solution at low acidity as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In search of a suitable extractant Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) was investigated as potential carrier. Parametric batch studies for various equilibrium data like extractant concentration, strippant concentration, solvent reusability, equilibration time, acidity etc. were done to optimize the process condition. For the distribution studies, equal volumes of the raffinate and organic phase were shaken at room temperature in digital wrist action shaker for 10 minutes to ensure complete equilibrium. It was found that 0.1 M MAPO in 80:20 dodecane: isodecanol is suitable for extraction of Zr at 2 N acidity. 0.1 M MAPO gives distribution coefficient in the range of 12-15 for Zr. The slope of log-log plot between MAPO concentration and K, suggests involvement of 3 molecules of MAPO in the formation of extracting species. 0.2 M Oxalic acid was able to completely back extract Zr from the organic phase into aqueous phase. Also good regeneration capacity of MAPO projects its potential to be used as extractant for the process. Based on the equilibrium studies, Dispersion Liquid Membrane configuration in hollow fiber contactor was explored for the extraction of Zirconium from Zirconium Nitrate Pure

  17. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    Semiconducting oxides are amongst the most widely studied and topical materials in contemporary condensed matter science, with interest being driven both by the fundamental challenges posed by their electronic and magnetic structures and properties, and by the wide range of applications, including those in catalysis and electronic devices. This special section aims to highlight recent developments in the physics of these materials, and to show the link between developing fundamental understanding and key application areas of oxide semiconductors. Several aspects of the physics of this wide and expanding range of materials are explored in this special section. Transparent semiconducting oxides have a growing role in several technologies, but challenges remain in understanding their electronic structure and the physics of charge carriers. A related problem concerns the nature of redox processes and the reactions which interconvert defects and charge carriers—a key issue which may limit the extent to which doping strategies may be used to alter electronic properties. The magnetic structures of the materials pose several challenges, while surface structures and properties are vital in controlling catalytic properties, including photochemical processes. The field profits from and exploits a wide range of contemporary physical techniques—both experimental and theoretical. Indeed, the interplay between experiment and computation is a key aspect of contemporary work. A number of articles describe applications of computational methods whose use, especially in modelling properties of defects in these materials, has a long and successful history. Several papers in this special section relate to work presented at a symposium within the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) meeting held in Warsaw in September 2010, and we are grateful to the EMRS for supporting this symposium. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for

  18. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  19. Raman spectroscopy of isotopically labeled two-layer graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Kong, J.; Kavan, Ladislav; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 12 (2012), s. 2500-2502 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA MŠk ME09060; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1062 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemical doping * isotope labeling * graphene Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  20. Two layers of Australian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Gupta, S.M.; Kodagali, V.N.

    34:369–384.Storzer D. and Wagner G. A. 1980. Two discrete tektite formingevents 140,000 years apart in the Australian-Southeast Asian area (abstract). Meteoritics 15:372.Storzer D., Jessberger E. K., Klay N., and Wagner G. A. 1984. 40Ar/39Ar... evidence for 2 discrete tektite-forming events in theAustralian-Southeast Asian area (abstract). Meteoritics 19:317. Schnetzler C. C. and Pinson W. H., Jr. 1963. The chemical composition of tektites. In Tektites, edited by O’Keefe J. A...

  1. Fermion families from two layer warped extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhiqiang; Ma BoQiang

    2008-01-01

    In extra dimensions, the quark and lepton mass hierarchy can be reproduced from the same order bulk mass parameters, and standard model fermion families can be generated from one generation in the high dimensional space. We try to explain the origin of the same order bulk mass parameters and address the family replication puzzle simultaneously. We show that they correlate with each other. We construct models that families are generated from extra dimensional space, and in the meantime the bulk mass parameters of same order emerge naturally. The interesting point is that the bulk mass parameters, which are in same order, correspond to the eigenvalues of a Schroedinger-like equation. We also discuss the problem existing in this approach.

  2. Two-Layer Transaction Management for Workflow Management Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Boertjes, E.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Workflow management applications require advanced transaction management that is not offered by traditional database systems. For this reason, a number of extended transaction models has been proposed in the past. None of these models seems completely adequate, though, because workflow management

  3. A numerical two layer model for blood oxygenation in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminatai, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the modelling of the simultaneous transport of O 2 and CO 2 in the pulmonary circulation described in our earlier studies, the blood has been treated as a homogeneous layer of haemoglobin solution. Since the size of the erythrocyte is not negligible in comparison with that of the capillary, the blood can no longer be considered as a homogeneous fluid and hence, It is worthwhile to consider the blood flow as a two-phase flow consisting of cells and plasma. In the present study, the heterogeneous nature of blood has been proposed by considering the axial train model for the flow [whitmore (1967)], in order to analyze the effect of cell free plasma layer on the process of blood oxygenation in pulmonary capillaries. The proposed model consists of a core of suspended erythrocytes surrounded by a cell free plasma layer near the wall. The coupled system of convective diffusion equaions together with the physiologically relevant boundary, entrance and interface conditions is solved numerically by a four-point semi-implicit scheme to gether with a fixed point iterative technique. The distance traversed by the blood before getting fully oxygenated is computed. It is shown that the core haematocrit and the thickness of the cell depleted layer affect the oxygenation process significantly. It is found that (i) oxygen takes longest and carbondioxide is the fastest to attain equilibraton, (ii) the blood is completely oxygenated within one-fifth part of its transit and (iii) the rate of oxygenation is smaller in case of homogeneous model than that in heterogenous model in the capillary. Finally, the effect of various physiological parameters on the rate of oxygenation has been examined

  4. Two-layer targets for the D-D reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, M.I.; Primenko, G.I.; Strizhak, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron concentration and neutron output from twolayer loading target during deuteron beam braking in first layer of target is studied theoretically. Struggling effect on neutron output is discussed [ru

  5. Merging polygons on two-layer printed circuit board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murov S. Yu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for solving the problem of connection of maximum number of isolated islands of metallized areas of the same chain, located on different layers of the printed circuit board. The method can be used in the automatic tracing of the boards.

  6. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Funabashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Lab. Critical Mass Lab. These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the US Dept. of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organically moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the Scale code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section library accurately compute k/sub eff/ for organically moderated MOX fuel pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32 vol % TBP/68 vol% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water

  7. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs

  8. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar; Zainus Salimin; Sugeng Purnomo; Ratiko

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10 -1 Ci/m 3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  9. The oxidation; Okislenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    In this chapter of book author determine that alkylene tetra hydro-{gamma}-piron, oxidated by potassium permanganate in all cases of passed oxidation gave oxidation products, confirmatory their structure.

  10. Multiphase layered oxide growth on pure metals. I. General formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromhold, A.T. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A general formulation for the simultaneous growth of any number of layered planar oxide phases on a pure metal under diffusion-controlled conditions has been developed. Four individual situations have been developed in detail, namely, situations in which the predominant mode of ion transport is by cation interstitials, cation vacancies, anion interstitials, or anion vacancies. The generalized formulation enables the determination of quasi-steady-state growth kinetics following step function changes in the experimental conditions such as ambient oxygen pressure or temperature. Numerical evaluation of the coupled growth equations for the individual phases is required to deduce the general predictions of the theory. In the limit of two-layer growth by cation interstitial diffusion, the present formulation reproduces the earlier results of Fromhold and Sato

  11. Simulation of Natural Convection in the Oxide Layer of Three-Layer Corium Pool in an IVR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper describes the three-layer phenomena and preliminary plan to simulate the oxide layer experimentally. We will perform the mass transfer experiments using a copper sulfate-sulfuric acid (CuSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electroplating system based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. By performing the mass transfer experiments, we can achieve the high buoyancy condition with small facilities. The test facility is semicircular whose bottom is chopped, simulating the oxide pool above the heavy metal layer in a three-layer configuration. We will measure the heat flux at the top plate, side wall and bottom plate, and compare these results with those for a two-layer pool. In a three-layer configuration, the upper light metal layer becomes thinner, increasing the focusing effect. Thus, it is important to evaluate the heat flux from the oxide pool to the upper metallic layer. However, there is few heat transfer studies for a three-layer configuration. This paper is to discuss and to make a plan for the heat transfer experiments of oxide pool in a three- layer system. We will perform the mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. The test results will be analyzed phenomenologically and compared with two-layer results.

  12. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  13. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  14. Characterization and corrosion behavior of ceramic coating on magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdu, Salih; Aytac, Aylin; Usta, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The commercial pure magnesium was coated by micro-arc oxidation method. · The coating is composed of two layers, a porous outer layer and a dense inner layer. · A super corrosion resistance was achieved with MAO coatings. · Coating with Mg 2 SiO 4 is more resistant to corrosion than that containing Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . - Abstract: In this study, the commercial pure magnesium was coated in different aqueous solutions of Na 2 SiO 3 and Na 3 PO 4 by the micro-arc oxidation method (MAO). Coating thickness, phase composition, surface and cross sectional morphology and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by eddy current method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. The average thickness of the coatings ranged from 52 to 74 μm for sodium silicate solution and from 64 to 88 μm for sodium phosphate solution. The dominant phases on the coatings were detected as spinal Mg 2 SiO 4 (Forsterite) and MgO (Periclase) for sodium silicate solution and Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (Farringtonite) and MgO (Periclase) for sodium phosphate solution. SEM images reveal that the coating is composed of two layers as of a porous outer layer and a dense inner layer. The corrosion results show the coating consisting Mg 2 SiO 4 is more resistant to corrosion than that containing Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .

  15. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  16. Determination of lithium and potassium in uranium oxide powders and pellets by Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a method developed at Control Laboratory, NFC which includes prior separation of lithium and potassium from uranium matrix before their measurements. Solvent extraction, using Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) in CCI 4 followed by Tri-n-Octyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) in CCI 4 , is employed for prior separation of Li and K. The resultant aqueous solution was analyzed by Flame-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (AES) method. Solvent extraction conditions are optimized for measurement of Li and K in the same aliquot. Experimental conditions such as instrument calibration, flame condition, fuel flow, sample flow rate through nebulizer, burner height etc. are also optimized. Under the optimal condition the detection limits achieved for lithium is 0.02 ppm and 0.2 ppm for potassium. A RSD of ± 3 % for Li at 0.05 ppm and ± 4% for K at 1 ppm level has been achieved in this method. The results of lithium in the sample are compared with the values obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Similarly, values of potassium are compared with Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The comparisons are in good agreement. The above method is simple, sensitive, reproducible and can be used for measurement of lithium and potassium in UO 2 powder and pellets on regular basis

  17. Extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) from ferric nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.; Grudpan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ferric nitrate acts as a strong salting-out agent in the extraction of thorium(IV), uranyl, europium(III), samarium(III) and zirconium(IV) nitrates as well as of nitric acid with tributyl phosphate in dodecane. Nitric acid, if present in the extraction system together with large amounts of ferric nitrate, markedly suppresses the extraction of thorium(IV) and lanthanides(III) but significantly supports the extraction of zirconium(IV). Separation factors of different metal pairs are presented as functions of the concentrations of ferric nitrate and nitric acid

  18. TBP degradation products. Separation and gas-chromatographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Alem, C.M.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A de.

    1991-11-01

    A separation method for di butylphosphate, mono butylphosphate and phosphoric acid as degradation products in organic and aqueous streams of the process containing variable amounts of actinides and fission products is described. The products were separated by extraction and after methylation the final determination was carried out by gas chromatography. TPP was used as internal standard and 5 to 500 mg/L concentration range was determined with 1 to 10% deviation depending on the concentration of organo phosphates. (author)

  19. Magnetoelectric effect in two-layered self-biased composites Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68}/epoxy - PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalgin, A.V.; Gridnev, S.A.; Popov, I.I. [Voronezh State Technical University, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Direct magnetoelectric (ME) effect in two-layered Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68}/Epoxy - PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} composites containing magnetostrictive layers of the epoxy with distributed in it Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68} granules and piezoelectric layers of the PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} ceramics was studied. It was found, that the gradient distribution of Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68} granules in magnetostrictive layers induces the internal (self-biased) magnetic field. This field leads to the increase in ME responses in composites with the gradient distribution of Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68} granules in magnetostrictive layers as compared with ME responses in composites with the random distribution of Tb{sub 0.12}Dy{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.68} granules in magnetostrictive layers, which does not induce the internal magnetic field. We revealed the possibility of controlling and determining values of the internal magnetic field in composites and conditions for obtaining optimal ME responses. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Oxide Pool During In-Vessel Retention of Core Melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The integrity of reactor vessel may be threatened by the heat generation at the oxide pool and to the natural convection heat transfer to the reactor vessel by those two layers. Therefore, External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) is performed in order to secure the integrity of the reactor vessel. Whether the IVR(In-Vessel Retention) Strategy can be applicable to a larger reactor is the technical concern, which nourished the research interest for the natural convection heat transfer of metal and oxide pool and ERVC performance. Especially, it is hard to simulate oxide pool by experimentally due to the high level of buoyancy. Moreover, the volumetrically exothermic working fluid should be adopted to simulate the behavior of the core melts. Therefore, the volumetric heat sources that immersed in the working fluid have been adopted to simulate oxide pool by experiment. We investigated oxide pool with two different designs of the volumetric heat sources that adopted previous experiments. The investigation was performed by mass transfer experiment using analogy between heat and mass transfers. The results were compared to previous studies. We simulated the natural convection heat transfer of the oxide pool by mass transfer experiment. The isothermally cooled condition was established by limiting current technique firstly. The results were compared to previous studies under identical design of the volumetric heat sources. The average Nu's of the curvature and the top plate were close to the previous studies.

  1. Oxidation films morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paidassi, J.

    1960-01-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [fr

  2. Internal fuel pin oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pin has positioned within it material which will decompose to release an oxidizing agent which will react with the cladding of the pin and form a protective oxide film on the internal surface of the cladding

  3. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  4. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  5. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  6. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  7. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  8. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  9. Sputtered indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillery, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for depositing on a substrate multiple layer films comprising at least one primary layer of a metal oxide and at least one primary layer of a metal other than the metal of the oxide layer. The improvement described here comprises improving the adhesion between the metal oxide and metal layers by depositing between the layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers. An article of manufacture is described comprising a nonmetallic substrate, and deposited thereon in any order: a. at least one coating layer of metal; b. at least one coating layer of an oxide of a metal other than the metal of the metal layer; and c. deposited between the metal and metal oxide layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers

  10. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  11. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  12. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  13. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  14. Review of zircaloy oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, F.C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Lewis, B.J. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the kinetics for Zircaloy clad oxidation behaviour in steam and air during reactor accident conditions. The generation of chemical heat from metal/water reaction is considered. The effect of internal clad oxidation due to Zircaloy/UO{sub 2} interaction is also discussed. Low-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy due to water-side corrosion is further described. (author)

  15. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  16. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  17. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  18. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  19. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  20. Aligned carbon nanotube webs as a replacement for indium tin oxide in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, Kallista; Fanchini, Giovanni; Watkins, Scott E.; Huynh, Chi P.; Hawkins, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with flexible webs of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). These webs were drawn from a forest of MWNTs and placed directly onto the device substrate to form the hole collecting electrode. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates with one or two MWNT web layers to study the trade-off between transparency and resistivity on device performance. Devices with two web layers performed better with a fill factor of 0.47 and a device power conversion efficiency of 1.66% due to their higher conductivity. Flexible devices on Mylar substrates were also demonstrated with an efficiency of 1.2% indicating the potential of MWNT webs as a flexible alternative to the more conventional indium tin oxide. - Highlights: ► Drawable carbon nanotube webs were used as an anode in bulk heterojunction cells. ► One and two layers of carbon nanotube webs were compared. ► A thick active layer of ∼ 530 nm was needed to avoid shunting through nanotubes. ► Two layers of web gave the better efficiency of 1.6%. ► Flexible devices on Mylar were demonstrated with 1.2% efficiency

  1. Aligned carbon nanotube webs as a replacement for indium tin oxide in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Kallista, E-mail: kallista.sears@csiro.au; Fanchini, Giovanni; Watkins, Scott E.; Huynh, Chi P.; Hawkins, Stephen C.

    2013-03-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with flexible webs of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). These webs were drawn from a forest of MWNTs and placed directly onto the device substrate to form the hole collecting electrode. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates with one or two MWNT web layers to study the trade-off between transparency and resistivity on device performance. Devices with two web layers performed better with a fill factor of 0.47 and a device power conversion efficiency of 1.66% due to their higher conductivity. Flexible devices on Mylar substrates were also demonstrated with an efficiency of 1.2% indicating the potential of MWNT webs as a flexible alternative to the more conventional indium tin oxide. - Highlights: ► Drawable carbon nanotube webs were used as an anode in bulk heterojunction cells. ► One and two layers of carbon nanotube webs were compared. ► A thick active layer of ∼ 530 nm was needed to avoid shunting through nanotubes. ► Two layers of web gave the better efficiency of 1.6%. ► Flexible devices on Mylar were demonstrated with 1.2% efficiency.

  2. Rare earth oxide doping in oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Gaertner, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The effect on life performance and poisoning with O 2 by doping oxide cathodes with rare earth oxides and pseudo rare earth oxides, notably yttria, is qualitatively explained in terms of electrolysis of BaO during emission of electrons. Doped cathodes show less electrolysis and consume therefore less Ba during life: consequently, doped cathodes have a better life performance. However, the lower Ba-production makes doped cathodes more sensitive to oxygen poisoning. The experimentally found relation between conductivity and yttria concentration was the motive to propose a new model for the crystal imperfections in BaO. In this new imperfection model most Y 3+ -ions will combine with barium vacancies, therefore, the increase of the conductivity is modest and also the effect on the position of the Fermi level is modest. By assuming a combination of bulk and surface conductivity, the agreement between experiment and theory can be improved further

  3. Thermally oxidized formation of new Ge dots over as-grown Ge dots in the Si capping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Tianxiao; Lin Jinhui; Shao Yuanmin; Wu Yueqin; Yang Xinju; Fan Yongliang; Jiang Zuimin; Chen Zhigang; Zou Jin

    2011-01-01

    A Si-capped Ge quantum dot sample was self-assembly grown via Stranski-Krastanov mode in a molecular beam epitaxy system with the Si capping layer deposited at 300 deg. C. After annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere at 1000 deg. C, a structure, namely two layers of quantum dots, was formed with the newly formed Ge-rich quantum dots embedded in the oxidized matrix with the position accurately located upon the as-grown quantum dots. It has been found that the formation of such nanostructures strongly depends upon the growth temperature and oxygen atmosphere. A growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructure based on the Ge diffusion from the as-grown quantum dots, Ge segregation from the growing oxide, and subsequent migration/agglomeration.

  4. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  5. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  6. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  7. Bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells sandwiched by solution processed molybdenum oxide and titania nanosheet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2014-02-01

    The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered photovoltaic device and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoOx/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic device. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (η). The conventional cell sandwiched between a solution-processed, partially crystallized molybdenum oxide hole-extracting buffer layer and a TN electron extracting buffer layer showed comparable cell performance to a device sandwiched between vacuum-deposited molybdenum oxide and TN layers, whereas the inverted cell with solution-processed molybdenum oxide showed a poorer performance probably owing to the increment in the leakage current across the film. The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the use of a polyfluorene-based cationic semiconducting polymer as a substitute for an insulating PDDA film, resulting in the improved cell performance.

  8. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......The past decade has provided exciting insights into a novel class of central (small) RNA molecules intimately involved in gene regulation. Only a small percentage of our DNA is translated into proteins by mRNA, yet 80% or more of the DNA is transcribed into RNA, and this RNA has been found......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...

  10. Engineering complex oxide interfaces for oxide electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A complex interplay of physics and chemistry in transition metal oxides determines their electronic, magnetic, and ferroic properties enabling a wide range of applications of these materials. BiFeO_3, a canonical multiferroic system exhibits the interesting feature of enhanced conductivity on

  11. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  12. Miscellaneous industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Sections of this chapter consider the usage of TBP under several headings which seek to bring together broadly related applications. In Section 2 on functional fluids, the use of TBP in hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and hydrocarbon fuels is discussed. The low flammability of TBP and its lubricating and corrosion protection effects are important features in these applications. The exploitation of low flammability properties is further developed in Section 3 on fire retardants and stabilizers. The use of TBP to stabilize products towards oxidative and photochemical degradation is also considered in this section. Although low flammability is an important property in the plasticizer applications described in Section 4, the principal effect claimed from adding TBP is the modification of the mechanical properties of polymers. Section 5 on defoamers is less concerned with the bulk properties of TBP than with its behavior as a surface active agent in aqueous systems. A combination of defoaming, plasticizing, and fire-retarding properties shown by TBP may be of use in paper, paints, and coatings. These are considered in Section 6 along with other uses of TBP in surface treatments. The good solvent properties of TBP combined with its protective effects on metal surfaces also make it a useful agent in metal cleaning and corrosion protection. The remaining sections turn from the physical properties of TBP to consider its chemical and biological effects. Section 7 describes the use of TBP in catalysts and chemical reagents while Section 8 relates to herbicide and insecticide formulations containing TBP. To place the contents of these sections into perspective it should be noted that the use of TBP in aircraft hydraulic fluids, discussed in the early part of Section 1, accounts for almost twice the volume of TBP utilized in all the remaining applications together

  13. Oxidation characteristics of porous-nickel prepared by powder metallurgy and cast-nickel at 1273 K in air for total oxidation time of 100 h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Z. Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation behavior of two types of inhomogeneous nickel was investigated in air at 1273 K for a total oxidation time of 100 h. The two types were porous sintered-nickel and microstructurally inhomogeneous cast-nickel. The porous-nickel samples were fabricated by compacting Ni powder followed by sintering in vacuum at 1473 K for 2 h. The oxidation kinetics of the samples was determined gravimetrically. The topography and the cross-section microstructure of each oxidized sample were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffractometry and X-ray energy dispersive analysis were used to determine the nature of the formed oxide phases. The kinetic results revealed that the porous-nickel samples had higher trend for irreproducibility. The average oxidation rate for porous- and cast-nickel samples was initially rapid, and then decreased gradually to become linear. Linear rate constants were 5.5 × 10−8 g/cm2 s and 3.4 × 10−8 g/cm2 s for the porous- and cast-nickel samples, respectively. Initially a single-porous non-adherent NiO layer was noticed on the porous- and cast-nickel samples. After a longer time of oxidation, a non-adherent duplex NiO scale was formed. The two layers of the duplex scales were different in color. NiO particles were observed in most of the pores of the porous-nickel samples. Finally, the linear oxidation kinetics and the formation of porous non-adherent duplex oxide scales on the inhomogeneous nickel substrates demonstrated that the addition of new layers of NiO occurred at the scale/metal interface due to the thermodynamically possible reaction between Ni and the molecular oxygen migrating inwardly.

  14. Oxidation characteristics of porous-nickel prepared by powder metallurgy and cast-nickel at 1273 K in air for total oxidation time of 100 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Lamiaa Z; Ghanem, Wafaa A; El Kady, Omayma A; Lotfy, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Hafiz A; Elrefaie, Fawzi A

    2017-11-01

    The oxidation behavior of two types of inhomogeneous nickel was investigated in air at 1273 K for a total oxidation time of 100 h. The two types were porous sintered-nickel and microstructurally inhomogeneous cast-nickel. The porous-nickel samples were fabricated by compacting Ni powder followed by sintering in vacuum at 1473 K for 2 h. The oxidation kinetics of the samples was determined gravimetrically. The topography and the cross-section microstructure of each oxidized sample were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffractometry and X-ray energy dispersive analysis were used to determine the nature of the formed oxide phases. The kinetic results revealed that the porous-nickel samples had higher trend for irreproducibility. The average oxidation rate for porous- and cast-nickel samples was initially rapid, and then decreased gradually to become linear. Linear rate constants were 5.5 × 10 -8  g/cm 2  s and 3.4 × 10 -8  g/cm 2  s for the porous- and cast-nickel samples, respectively. Initially a single-porous non-adherent NiO layer was noticed on the porous- and cast-nickel samples. After a longer time of oxidation, a non-adherent duplex NiO scale was formed. The two layers of the duplex scales were different in color. NiO particles were observed in most of the pores of the porous-nickel samples. Finally, the linear oxidation kinetics and the formation of porous non-adherent duplex oxide scales on the inhomogeneous nickel substrates demonstrated that the addition of new layers of NiO occurred at the scale/metal interface due to the thermodynamically possible reaction between Ni and the molecular oxygen migrating inwardly.

  15. Oxidation of uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200 degrees C in H 2 , and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190 degrees C, 230 degrees C, and 300 degrees C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U 4 O 9 -type oxide, and their x-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300 degrees C. Reduced pitchblende, after oxidation to UO 2+x and U 4 O 9 -type oxides, transformed into α-U 3 O 8 at 300 degrees C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: 1. Th and/or lanthanide elements maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; 2. the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled non-irradiated UO 2 . An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts (XRD, EMPA, SEM, AEM) to identify U 3 O 7 in samples form Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal αU 3 O 7 . Most probably, reported occurrences of U 3 O 7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions, 45 refs

  16. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  17. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the AASERT supported research is to develop the plasma deposition/implantation process for coating barium, strontium and calcium oxides on nickel substrates and to perform detailed surface...

  18. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  19. Oxidizer in phosphoric reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Benedetto, J. dos

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation during the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid affected the distribution of uranium and impurities between phosphoric acid and gypsum, by decreasing the uranium loss to gypsum and the impurities solubilization in phosphoric acid. (Author) [pt

  20. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    profile with reversible reduction and oxidation, suggesting the formation of FeII-OH/O-FeIII clusters as that in GRs were formed on the ITO electrode (trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloride (CT) and 4-chlorophenol are used to test...

  1. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N

    2000-01-01

    .... The vacuum are plasma deposition gun developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been used to deposit oxides and nitrides with very precise control over deposition rate and composition.

  2. Structural analysis and characterization of layer perovskite oxynitrides made from Dion-Jacobson oxide precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schottenfeld, Joshua A.; Benesi, Alan J.; Stephens, Peter W.; Chen, Gugang; Eklund, Peter C.; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    A three-layer oxynitride Ruddlesden-Popper phase Rb 1+x Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10-x N x .yH 2 O (x=0.7-0.8, y=0.4-0.6) was synthesized by ammonialysis at 800 o C from the Dion-Jacobson phase RbCa 2 Nb 3 O 10 in the presence of Rb 2 CO 3 . Incorporation of nitrogen into the layer perovskite structure was confirmed by XPS, combustion analysis, and MAS NMR. The water content was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis and the rubidium content by ICP-MS. A similar layered perovskite interconversion occurred in the two-layer Dion-Jacobson oxide RbLaNb 2 O 7 to yield Rb 1+x LaNb 2 O 7-x N x .yH 2 O (x=0.7-0.8, y=0.5-1.0). Both compounds were air- and moisture-sensitive, with rapid loss of nitrogen by oxidation and hydrolysis reactions. The structure of the three-layer oxynitride Rb 1.7 Ca 2 Nb 3 O 9.3 N 0.7 .0.5H 2 O was solved in space group P4/mmm with a=3.887(3) and c=18.65(1)A, by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data. The two-layer oxynitride structure Rb 1.8 LaNb 2 O 6.3 N 0.7 .1.0H 2 O was also determined in space group P4/mmm with a=3.934(2) and c=14.697(2)A. GSAS refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data showed that the water molecules were intercalated between a double layer of Rb+ ions in both the two- and three-layer Ruddlesden-Popper structures. Optical band gaps were measured by diffuse reflectance UV-vis for both materials. An indirect band gap of 2.51eV and a direct band gap of 2.99eV were found for the three-layer compound, while an indirect band gap of 2.29eV and a direct band gap of 2.84eV were measured for the two-layer compound. Photocatalytic activity tests of the three-layer compound under 380nm pass filtered light with AgNO 3 as a sacrificial electron acceptor gave a quantum yield of 0.025% for oxygen evolution

  3. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  4. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  5. Chemistry of phospholipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M

    2012-10-01

    The oxidation of lipids has long been a topic of interest in biological and food sciences, and the fundamental principles of non-enzymatic free radical attack on phospholipids are well established, although questions about detail of the mechanisms remain. The number of end products that are formed following the initiation of phospholipid peroxidation is large, and is continually growing as new structures of oxidized phospholipids are elucidated. Common products are phospholipids with esterified isoprostane-like structures and chain-shortened products containing hydroxy, carbonyl or carboxylic acid groups; the carbonyl-containing compounds are reactive and readily form adducts with proteins and other biomolecules. Phospholipids can also be attacked by reactive nitrogen and chlorine species, further expanding the range of products to nitrated and chlorinated phospholipids. Key to understanding the mechanisms of oxidation is the development of advanced and sensitive technologies that enable structural elucidation. Tandem mass spectrometry has proved invaluable in this respect and is generally the method of choice for structural work. A number of studies have investigated whether individual oxidized phospholipid products occur in vivo, and mass spectrometry techniques have been instrumental in detecting a variety of oxidation products in biological samples such as atherosclerotic plaque material, brain tissue, intestinal tissue and plasma, although relatively few have achieved an absolute quantitative analysis. The levels of oxidized phospholipids in vivo is a critical question, as there is now substantial evidence that many of these compounds are bioactive and could contribute to pathology. The challenges for the future will be to adopt lipidomic approaches to map the profile of oxidized phospholipid formation in different biological conditions, and relate this to their effects in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidized phospholipids

  6. Thin zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Polycrystalline Zr and two pure Zr single-crystal samples, one oriented with the normal to the surface parallel to the c-axis of the hcp structure (Z1) and the other with the normal perpendicular to c (Z2), were oxidised at 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 Torr and room temperature. Oxidation kinetics, composition and thicknesses of the oxide films formed in each case were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as the main technique. The oxidation kinetics followed logarithmic laws in all cases. The deconvolution of XPS Zr3d peaks indicated the formation of two Zr-O compounds before the formation of ZrO 2 . Varying the photoelectrons take-off angle, the compound distribution inside the oxide films could be established. Thus, it was confirmed that the most external oxide, in contact with the gas, was ZrO 2 . The thickness of the films grown at the different pressures was determined. In the polycrystalline samples, thicknesses between 15 and 19 ± 2Angstroem were obtained for pressures between 10 -8 and 10 -6 Torr, in close coincidence with the determined ones for Z2. The thicknesses measured in Z1 were smaller, reaching 13 ± 2Angstroem for the oxidations performed at 10 -6 Torr. (author)

  7. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs

  8. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  9. Electrochemistry of hydrous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.D.; Lyons, M.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The formation, acid-base properties, structural aspects, and transport processes of hydrous oxide films are discussed. Classical and nonclassical theoretical models of the oxide-solution interface are compared. Monolayer oxidation, behavior, and crystal growth of oxides on platinum, palladium, gold, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, and some non-noble metals, including tungsten, are reviewed and compared

  10. Porous ceramics out of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunov, V.S.; Balkevich, V.L.; Vlasov, A.S.; Guzman, I.Ya.; Lukin, E.S.; Poluboyarinov, D.N.; Poliskij, R.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of manufacturing procedures and properties of oxide ceramics intended for high-temperature thermal insulation and thermal protection applications. Presented are structural characteristics of porous oxide refractories and their properties. Strength and thermal conductivity was shown to depend upon porosity. Described is a procedure for manufacturing porous ceramic materials from aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide. The thermal resistance of porous ceramics from BeO is considerably greater than that of other high-refractoriness oxides. Listed are areas of application for porous materials based on oxides

  11. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  12. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ˜124% (237 F g-1) with excellent cycling stability (˜93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors.

  13. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Christine H J; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ∼124% (237 F g −1 ) with excellent cycling stability (∼93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors. (paper)

  14. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  15. Bacterium oxidizing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1953-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the microbiological oxidation of carbon monoxide is based on doubtful observations and imperfect experimental procedures. By making use of shake cultures in contact with gas mixtures containing high concentrations of CO and by employing liquid enrichment media with a low content of organic matter and solid media of the same composition with not more than 1.2% agar, it proved possible to isolate a co-oxidizing bacterium of the genus hydrogenomonas from sewage sludge. For the first time irrefutable proof has been given of the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a pure culture of a bacterium, both in growing cultures and in resting cell suspensions. 12 references.

  16. Zircaloy oxidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, J.T.; Beauchamp, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.

    1985-06-01

    The oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 in steam have been determined at 1300-2400 0 C. Growth of the ZrO 2 and α-Zr layers display parabolic behavior over the entire temperature range studied. A discontinuity in the oxidation kinetics at 1510 0 C causes rates to increase above those previously established by the Baker-Just relationship. This increase coincides with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation in ZrO/sub 2-x/. No discontinuity in the oxide growth rate is observed upon melting of Zr(0). The effects of temperature gradients have been taken into account and corrected values representative of near-isothermal conditions have been computed

  17. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.; Ciebiera, Lloyd P.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system

  18. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  19. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  20. Analysis of chemical dissolution of the barrier layer of porous oxide on aluminum thin films using a re-anodizing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrublevsky, I. [Department of Microelectronics, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6 Brovka street, Minsk 220013 (Belarus)]. E-mail: nil-4-2@bsuir.edu.by; Parkoun, V. [Department of Microelectronics, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6 Brovka street, Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Sokol, V. [Department of Microelectronics, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6 Brovka street, Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Schreckenbach, J. [Institut fuer Chemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany)

    2005-09-30

    Chemical dissolution of the barrier layer of porous oxide formed on thin aluminum films (99.9% purity) in the 4% oxalic acid after immersion in 2 mol dm{sup -3} sulphuric acid at 50 deg. C has been studied. The barrier layer thickness before and after dissolution was calculated using a re-anodizing technique. It has been shown that above 57 V the change in the growth mechanism of porous alumina films takes place. As a result, the change in the amount of regions in the barrier oxide with different dissolution rates is observed. The barrier oxide contains two layers at 50 V: the outer layer with the highest dissolution rate and the inner layer with a low dissolution rate. Above 60 V the barrier oxide contains three layers: the outer layer with a high dissolution rate, the middle layer with the highest dissolution rate and the inner layer with a low dissolution rate. We suggest that the formation of the outer layer of barrier oxide with a high dissolution rate is linked with the injection of protons or H{sub 3}O{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the oxide film at the anodizing voltages above 57 V.

  1. Study of oxide film formed in a pre cracked CT specimen of AISI 304L during a rising displacement test in 288 C water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.; Castano M, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study of oxide film formed inside pre cracked CT specimens during a rising displacement test in high temperature water (288 C) was performed in this study, The environmental conditions used during the experiments were similar to these found in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR): Normal Water Condition (NWC - 200 ppb O 2 ) and Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC - 125 ppb H2). The oxide films formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases the oxide film consisted of two layers identified as magnetite. In the case of HWC the results agree with previous reports that mention magnetite as a stable phase in reducing conditions. However the stable phase in oxidant conditions is hematite and this work shows the presence of magnetite crystals in the narrow crack of CT specimens in spite of the oxidant environmental condition. This situation confirms that inside the pre-cracked CT specimens the environmental conditions were different from the oxidant bulk, and probably a poor oxygen access and stagnant conditions within the narrow crack promoted a localized reducing environment that permitted the magnetite formation. Is evident that the crack growth studies should consider the conditions inside crack because they are significantly different. (Author)

  2. Catalytic Oxidation of Cyanogen Chloride over a Monolithic Oxidation Catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of cyanogen chloride was evaluated over a monolithic oxidation catalyst at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg C in air employing feed concentrations between 100 and 10,000 ppm...

  3. Uranium oxidation: characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Smyrl, N.R.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. Results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. 27 figures

  4. Green oxidations: Titanium dioxide induced tandem oxidation coupling reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeena, Vineet; Robinson, Ross S

    2009-01-01

    Summary The application of titanium dioxide as an oxidant in tandem oxidation type processes is described. Under microwave irradiation, quinoxalines have been synthesized in good yields from the corresponding ?-hydroxyketones.

  5. Oxidation of methyl heterocyclic compounds on vanadium oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanskaya, M.V.; Lejtis, L.A.; Iovel', I.G.; Gol'dberg, Yu.Sh.; Skolmejstere, R.A.; Golender, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Data on vapor-phase oxidation of methyl derivatives of thiophene, Δ 2 - thiazo line, pyridine, pyrazine and pyramidine on oxide vanadium-molybdenum catalysts to corresponding heterylaldehydes are generalized. The dependence of catalytic properties of oxide vanadium-molybdenum systems in oxidation reactions of methylheterocyclic compounds on V:Mo ratio in the catalyst is revealed. It is shown that heterocyclic compounds are coordinated by a heteroatom on Lewis centres of V-Mo-O-catalyst primarily with partially reduced vanadium ions

  6. Improved Understanding of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Contaminant Oxidation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    natural oxidant demand •OH hydroxide radical Ox oxidant O3 ozone PCE perchloroethylene HSO5− peroxymonosulfate PNDA p...properties (e.g., soil mineralogy , natural carbon content) affect oxidant mobility and stability in the subsurface, and develop a standardized natural...chlorinated ethenes For contaminant oxidation by activated S2O82−, it is more difficult to develop a general description of kobs vs. T because there are

  7. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  8. Highly oxidized superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  10. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reactio...

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  12. Dopamine Oxidation and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Currently, there is a general agreement that mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein aggregation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and impaired protein degradation are involved in the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease. Aminochrome has been proposed to play an essential role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the formation of neurotoxic α-synuclein protofibrils, and impaired protein degradation. Here, we discuss the relationship between the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin, and the role of dopamine oxidation to aminochrome in autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons. Aminochrome induces the following: (i the formation of α-synuclein protofibrils that inactivate chaperone-mediated autophagy; (ii the formation of adducts with α- and β-tubulin, which induce the aggregation of the microtubules required for the fusion of autophagy vacuoles and lysosomes.

  13. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  14. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  15. The Interface Structure of High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant Aluminum-Based Coatings on Titanium Billet Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhefeng; Rong, Ju; Yu, Xiaohua; Kun, Meng; Zhan, Zhaolin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yannan

    2017-10-01

    A new type of high-temperature oxidation-resistant aluminum-based coating, on a titanium billet surface, was fabricated by the cold spray method, at a high temperature of 1050°C, for 8 h, under atmospheric pressure. The microstructure of the exposed surface was analyzed via optical microscopy, the microstructure of the coating and elemental diffusion was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and the interfacial phases were identified via x-ray diffraction. The Ti-Al binary phase diagram and Gibbs free energy of the stable phase were calculated by Thermo-calc. The results revealed that good oxidation resistant 50-μm-thick coatings were successfully obtained after 8 h at 1050°C. Two layers were obtained after the coating process: an Al2O3 oxidation layer and a TiAl3 transition layer on the Ti-based substrate. The large and brittle Al2O3 grains on the surface, which can be easily spalled off from the surface after thermal processing, protected the substrate against oxidation during processing. In addition, the thermodynamic calculation results were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Contribution to the study of the oxidation of cobalt and its protoxide in air at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, M.G.

    1964-01-01

    The surface oxidation process of cobalt in air follows, a parabolic law and is characterized between 750 and 1350 deg. C by an activation energy of 41,000 cals/mole. Between 400 and 900 deg. C the oxide film is made up of two layers: CoO next to the metal and Co 3 O 4 on the surface. Above 900 deg. C only CoO remains. The morphological properties of these films have been studied; growth anisotropy, crystallization facies, oxide grain growth, texture, nucleation of Co 3 O 4 on a CoO base round about 900 deg. C. The oxidation of cobalt protoxide between 700 and 910 deg. C results in the building up, on the outside surface of CoO discs, of a usually continuous layer of Co 3 O 4 . Under certain conditions this surface reaction is accompanied by a reaction along the longitudinal symmetry plane of the sample where a layer of Co 3 O 4 of very irregular thickness builds up. (author) [fr

  17. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  18. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabipour

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 2Department of Cardiology ... oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), may play a causative role in ... the oxidation of lipids in the cell membrane especially the oxidation of LDL.

  19. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  20. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  1. Electrochemical analysis of metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Pikna, L.

    90-91, - (2003), s. 45-50 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : powder electroanalysis * Fe oxides * Mn oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  2. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  3. Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  4. Oxidative Decarboxylation of Levulinic Acid by Cupric Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, cupric oxides was found to effectively oxidize levulinic acid (LA and lead to the decarboxylation of levulinic acid to 2-butanone. The effects of cupric oxide dosage, reaction time and initial pH value were investigated in batch experiments and a plausible mechanism was proposed. The results showed that LA decarboxylation over cupric oxides at around 300 °C under acidic conditions produced the highest yield of butanone (67.5%. In order to elucidate the catalytic activity of cupric oxides, XRD, AFM, XPS and H2-TPR techniques was applied to examine their molecular surfaces and their effects on the reaction process.

  5. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  8. 针铁矿催化氧化溴酚生成羟基多溴联苯醚和溴代二英%Formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins via goethite-catalyzed oxidation of bromophenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙粉玲; 丁佳锋; 周时洋; 林坤德

    2015-01-01

    探究了针铁矿催化转化溴酚(2,4⁃DBP或2,4,6⁃TBP)生成羟基化多溴联苯醚(HO⁃PBDEs)和溴代二噁英( PBDD/Fs)的可能性.结果表明,针铁矿可以在常温和干反应条件下有效地催化转化溴酚化合物生成HO⁃PBDEs和PBDD/Fs.反应16 d,97.3%的2,4⁃DBP被针铁矿氧化转化,其中2.4%被转化为2′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃68,2.8%被转化为2,2′⁃OH⁃BB⁃80,0.2%被转化1,3,8⁃TrBDD,0.4%被转化为2,4,6,8⁃TeBDF.同样的反应时间内,98.7%的2,4,6⁃TBP被针铁矿氧化转化,反应产物可能为2′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃121、4′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃121、1,3,6,8⁃TeBDD和1,3,7,9⁃TeBDD.根据检测到的产物,提出了针铁矿氧化转化溴酚的可能途径.%The formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers ( HO⁃PBDEs ) and brominated dibenzo⁃p⁃dioxins, dibenzofurans ( PBDD/Fs ) from goethite⁃catalyzed oxidation of bromophenols ( BPs, e. g., 2, 4⁃DBP and 2, 4, 6⁃TBP ) was investigated. Results showed that goethite readily catalyzed the conversion of 2,4⁃DBP and 2,4,6⁃TBP to HO⁃PBDEs and PBDD/Fs under dry conditions and at ambient temperature. In 16 d, 97.3%of 2,4⁃DBP was converted and the yields of 2′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃68, 2,2′⁃OH⁃BB⁃80, 1,3,8⁃TrBDD and 2,4,6,8⁃TeBDF were 2.4%, 2.8%, 0.2% and 0. 4%, respectively. Similarly, 98. 7% of 2,4,6⁃TBP was transformed and the possible reaction products were 2′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃121, 4′⁃OH⁃BDE⁃121, 1,3,6,8⁃TBDD and 1,3,7,9⁃TBDD. The possible formation pathways for the goethite⁃catalyzed oxidation of bromophenols were proposed.

  9. Interactions between iron oxides and copper oxides under hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G B; Owen, D G

    1995-08-01

    Under hydrothermal conditions, magnetite and hematite have been shown to undergo interconversion reactions, the extent of which is controlled in part by the presence of copper oxides. In oxygenated water, the degree to which magnetite was oxidized to hematite was found to be dependent on the presence of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O. When these materials were absent, the oxidation of magnetite was limited by the dissolved oxygen in the aqueous system. Participation of the copper oxides in the oxidation process was confirmed by more complete conversion of magnetite was also influenced by the presence of the copper oxides. In addition to driving the reduction to completion, the presence of the copper oxides also exerted a strong influence over the morphology of the magnetite that formed. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  10. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  11. Manganese Oxidation by Bacteria: Biogeochemical Aspects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Manganese is an essential trace metal that is not as readily oxidizable like iron. Several bacterial groups posses the ability to oxidize Mn effectively competing with chemical oxidation. The oxides of Mn are the strongest of the oxidants, next...

  12. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  13. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  14. Electrorheology of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Sang Guk

    2012-04-01

    Novel polarizable graphene oxide (GO) particles with oxidized groups on their edge and basal planes were prepared by a modified Hummers method, and their electro-responsive electrorheological (ER) characteristics when dispersed in silicone oil were examined with and without an electric field applied. The fibrillation phenomenon of this GO-based electro-responsive fluid was also observed via an optical microscope under an applied electric field. Both flow curves and dielectric spectra of the ER fluid were measured using a rotational rheometer and a LCR meter, respectively. Its viscoelastic properties of both storage and loss moduli were also examined using a vertical oscillation rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator, finding that the GO-based smart ER system behaves as a viscoelastic material under an applied electric field.

  15. Mechanochemistry of titanium oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemistry represents an alternative route in synthesis of nanomaterials. Mechanochemical routes are attractive because of their simplicity, flexibility, and ability to prepare materials by solid state reactions at room temperature. The aim of this work is the mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured titanium oxides of different composition starting from mixtures of Ti and TiO2, TiO and TiO2 or Ti2O3 and TiO2. Emphasis is on the Magneli phases Ti4O7 and Ti5O9 because their mixture is commercially known as EBONEX material. The materials prepared were characterized by XRPD, TG/DTA analysis, SEM and optical microscopy. Titanium monoxide and several Magneli oxides, Ti4O7, Ti5O9 and Ti6O11, are successfully prepared. The results are very interesting because the EBONEX materials were prepared at lower than usual temperature, which would decrease the effective cost of production.

  16. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  17. Chemical oxidizers treat wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the inherent benefits of these original oxidation systems, a second generation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has emerged. These processes combine key features of the first generation technologies with more sophisticated advances in UV technology, such as the new pulsed plasma xenon flash lamp that emits high-energy, high-intensity UV light. Second generation systems can be equipped with a transmittance controller to prevent lamp fouling or scaling. The coupling of the first generation's technology with the new UV sources provides the rapid destruction of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons and humic acids from contaminated water. It also is effective in the treatment of organic laden gases from soil vapor extraction systems. AOPs may promote the oxidation (and subsequent removal) of heavy metals in water, though few data are available to verify the claim. The success of AOPs, including ozonation with UV light, hydrogen peroxide with UV light and advanced photolysis, is linked with their creation of hydroxyl-free radicals (OH·) that are effective in eliminating contaminants such as formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. Hydroxyl free-radicals are consumed in microsecond reactions and exhibit little substrate selectivity with the exception of halogenated alkanes such as chloroform. They can act as chain carriers. Given their power, hydroxyl free-radicals react with virtually all organic solutes more quickly (especially in water) than any other oxidants, except fluorine. There are projects that have found the combination of some AOPs to be the most efficient organic destruction techniques for the job. For example, one project successfully remediated groundwater contaminated with gasoline and Number 2 diesel through successive treatments of ozone and hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet light, followed by granular activated carbon. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Krypton oxides under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Łata, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300?GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamical...

  19. Radiolytic graphite oxidation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.; Sadler, I.A.; Wickham, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of radiolytic oxidation in graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled reactors has long been recognised, especially in the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors where potential rates are higher because of the higher gas pressure and ratings than the earlier Magnox designs. In all such reactors, the rate of oxidation is partly inhibited by the CO produced in the reaction and, in the AGR, further reduced by the deliberate addition of CH 4 . Significant roles are also played by H 2 and H 2 O. This paper reviews briefly the mechanisms of these processes and the data on which they are based. However, operational experience has demonstrated that these basic principles are unsatisfactory in a number of respects. Gilsocarbon graphites produced by different manufacturers have demonstrated a significant difference in oxidation rate despite a similar specification and apparent equivalence in their pore size and distribution, considered to be the dominant influence on oxidation rate for a given coolant-gas composition. Separately, the inhibiting influence of CH 4 , which for many years had been considered to arise from the formation of a sacrificial deposit on the pore walls, cannot adequately be explained by the actual quantities of such deposits found in monitoring samples which frequently contain far less deposited carbon than do samples from Magnox reactors where the only source of such deposits is the CO. The paper also describes the current status of moderator weight-loss predictions for Magnox and AGR Moderators and the validation of the POGO and DIFFUSE6 codes respectively. 2 refs, 5 figs

  20. Oxidative stability of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Exnerová, Milena; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 1026-1033 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * nanotubes * oxidation stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  1. Molecular theory of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheka, Elena F; Popova, Nadezhda A

    2013-08-28

    Applied to graphene oxide, the molecular theory of graphene considers its oxide as a final product in the succession of polyderivatives related to a series of oxidation reactions involving different oxidants. The graphene oxide structure is created in the course of a stepwise computational synthesis of polyoxides of the (5,5) nanographene molecule governed by an algorithm that takes into account the molecule's natural radicalization due to the correlation of its odd electrons, the extremely strong influence of the structure on properties, and a sharp response of the molecule behavior on small actions of external factors. Taking these together, the theory has allowed for a clear, transparent and understandable explanation of the hot points of graphene oxide chemistry and suggesting reliable models of both chemically produced and chemically reduced graphene oxides.

  2. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , and SnO 2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga 2 O, In 2 O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO 2 , somewhat lower for In 2 O 3 , and the lowest for Ga 2 O 3 . Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides

  3. The oxidative hypothesis of senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilca M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g., those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc. This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal β -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol, alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of (B6O) boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.S.; Solov'ev, N.E.; Ugaj, Ya.A.

    1987-01-01

    Reactivity of B 6 O to oxygen is investigated. It is shown that the process of B 6 O oxidation in the air in the temperature range 760-1150 K results in the maximum transformation degree equal to 0.35. At the initial stages oxidation proceeds in kinetic regime, at final stages - in diffusion one, and high viscosity of B 2 O 3 probably affects the oxidation process

  5. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  6. The 2016 oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, M.; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    of these materials to understand the tunability of their properties and the novel properties that evolve due to their nanostructured nature is another facet of the challenge. The research related to the oxide electronic field is at an impressionable stage, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap......, Pentcheva, and Gegenwart. Finally, Miletto Granozio presents the European action ‘towards oxide-based electronics’ which develops an oxide electronics roadmap with emphasis on future nonvolatile memories and the required technologies.In summary, we do hope that this oxide roadmap appears as an interesting...

  7. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  8. Characterization of microstructure of A508III/309L/308L weld and oxide films formed in deaerated high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qi; Li, Hongjuan; Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Xiao, Qian; Ma, Jiarong; Ru, Xiangkun

    2018-01-01

    The microstructure of A508III/309L/308L weld clad and the properties of the oxide films formed in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water at 290 °C were characterized. The A508III heat-affected zone (HAZ) consisted primarily of a decarburization zone with ferrite near the fusion line and a following pearlite structure with fine grains. A high hardness region in the HAZ could be the result of C-enrichment. M23C6 and M7C3 precipitates were observed in element transition zone. 308L stainless steel (SS) containing ∼ 12% ferrites exhibited both ferritic-austenitic solidification mode (FA mode, δ→γ) and austenitic-ferritic solidification mode (AF mode, γ→δ), whereas 309L SS containing ∼ 9% ferrites exhibited only FA mode. The A508III surface oxide film was mainly Fe3O4 in deaerated high-temperature water. The coarse grain zone covered with few oxide particles was different from other types of film on the other region of HAZ and the bulk zone. More pitting appears on 309L SS after immersion in deaerated high-temperature water due to the dissolution of inclusions. SS surface oxide films consisted primarily of spinels. The oxide film on SS was divided into two layers. Ni was concentrated mainly at the oxide/substrate interface. The oxide film formed on 309L was thicker than that on the 308L. The ferrite in the stainless steel could improve the oxidation resistance.

  9. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  10. Actinide oxide photodiode and nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Milan; Usov, Igor

    2017-12-05

    Photodiodes and nuclear batteries may utilize actinide oxides, such a uranium oxide. An actinide oxide photodiode may include a first actinide oxide layer and a second actinide oxide layer deposited on the first actinide oxide layer. The first actinide oxide layer may be n-doped or p-doped. The second actinide oxide layer may be p-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is n-doped, and the second actinide oxide layer may be n-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is p-doped. The first actinide oxide layer and the second actinide oxide layer may form a p/n junction therebetween. Photodiodes including actinide oxides are better light absorbers, can be used in thinner films, and are more thermally stable than silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.

  11. Trends in reactivity of oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja

    The results in this thesis are based on Density Functional Theory calculations. The catalytic activity of oxides and other compound materials are investigated. It is found that the adsorption energy of the molecules NH2, NH, OH and SH on transition metal nitride, oxide and sulfide surfaces scales......, and I) and OH on a wide range of rutile oxide surfaces. Furthermore, Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found for the adsorption of a large number of molecules (including Cl, Br and I) on transition metal oxides. In these relations the activation energies scale linearly with the dissociative...... chemisorption energies. It turns out that the BEP relation for rutile oxides is almost coinciding with the dissociation line, i.e. no barrier exists for the reactive surfaces. The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, and HI) is investigated. A micro-kinetic model is solved...

  12. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  13. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  14. Corrosion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    Data are reported on the volatilization rate of beryllium oxide in moist air depending on temperature and water vapour concentration. They are concerned with powder samples or sintered shapes of various densities. For sintered samples, the volatilization rate is very low under the following conditions: - temperature: 1300 deg. C, - water vapour concentration in moist air: 25 g/m 3 , - flow rate: 12 I/hour corresponding to a speed of 40 m/hour on the surface of the sample. For calcinated powders (1300 deg. C), grain growth has been observed under a stream of moist air at 1100 deg. C. For instance, grain size changes from 0,5 to at least 2 microns after 500 hours of exposure at this temperature. Furthermore, results data are reported on corrosion of sintered beryllium oxide in pressurized water. At 250 deg. C, under a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2 water is very slightly corrosive; however, internal strains are revealed. Finally, some features on the corrosion in liquid sodium are exposed. (author) [fr

  15. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  16. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  17. Crystallization inhibitors for amorphous oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznitskij, L.A.; Filippova, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Data for the last 10 years, in which experimental results of studying the temperature stabilization of x-ray amorphous oxides (including R 3 Fe 5 O 12 R-rare earths, ZrO 2 , In 2 O 3 , Sc 2 O 3 ) and their solid solution are presented, are generalized. Processes of amorphous oxide crystallization with the production of simple oxides, solid solutions and chemical compounds with different polyhedral structure, are investigated. Energy and crystallochemical criteria for selecting the doping inhibitor-components stabilizing the amorphous state are ascertained, temperatures and enthalpies of amorpous oxide crystallization are determined, examination of certain provisions of iso,orphous miscibility theory is conducted

  18. DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

  19. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  20. Oxidative desulfurization of benzene fraction on transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikov, E. B.; Vishnetskaya, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    It is established that molecular oxygen is able to oxidize thiophene selectively in a mixture with benzene on V2O5 · MoO3. The introduction of thiophene inhibits the oxidation of benzene. It is shown that the conversion of thiophene during operation of the catalyst is reduced at first and then increases until it reaches its initial value.