WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-lane asymmetric exclusion

  1. Strong Asymmetric Coupling of Two Parallel Exclusion Processes: Effect of Unequal Injection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Yanna

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, strong asymmetric coupling of two parallel exclusion processes: effect of unequal injection rates will be investigated. It is a generalization of the work of Xiao et al. (Phys. Lett. A 8, 374 (2009)), in which the particles only move on two lanes with rate 1 toward right. We can obtain the diverse phase diagram and density profiles of the system. The vertical cluster mean-field approach and extensively Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the system, and theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with simulation results.

  2. The Asymmetric Exclusion Process and Brownian Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Enaud, C.; Lebowitz, J. L.

    2004-04-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) in one dimension in its maximal current phase. We show, by an exact calculation, that the non-Gaussian part of the fluctuations of density can be described in terms of the statistical properties of a Brownian excursion. Numerical simulations indicate that the description in terms of a Brownian excursion remains valid for more general one dimensional driven systems in their maximal current phase.

  3. Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2006-04-01

    We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.

  4. Capacity of two-lane roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kennedy, DA

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of speed vs density, volume and percentage loop occupation are investigated. The effect of differing directional splits in traffic volumes is also examined. A method of determining the Level-of Service of two-lane roads in terms...

  5. Large Deviation Functional of the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.

    2004-02-01

    We obtain the large deviation functional of a density profile for the asymmetric exclusion process of L sites with open boundary conditions when the asymmetry scales like 1/L. We recover as limiting cases the expressions derived recently for the symmetric (SSEP) and the asymmetric (ASEP) cases. In the ASEP limit, the non linear differential equation one needs to solve can be analysed by a method which resembles the WKB method.

  6. Formulas and Asymptotics for the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold, E-mail: widom@ucsc.edu [University of California, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This is an expanded version of a series of lectures delivered by the second author in June, 2009. It describes the results of three of the authors' papers on the asymmetric simple exclusion process, from the derivation of exact formulas for configuration probabilities, through Fredholm determinant representation, to asymptotics with step initial condition establishing KPZ universality. Although complete proofs are in general not given, at least the main elements of them are.

  7. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Hakim, V.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-11-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices.

  8. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Hakim, V. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author).

  9. Renormalization group analysis for an asymmetric simple exclusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Sutapa

    2017-03-01

    A perturbative renormalization group method is used to obtain steady-state density profiles of a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with particle adsorption and evaporation. This method allows us to obtain a globally valid solution for the density profile without the asymptotic matching of bulk and boundary layer solutions. In addition, we show a nontrivial scaling of the boundary layer width with the system size close to specific phase boundaries.

  10. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with spatially periodic hopping rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Kolomeisky, Anatoly; Chou, Tom

    2004-03-01

    Using mean-field and numerical methods, we analyze the steady-state behavior of totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) containing periodically varying movement rates. In our models particles at a majority sites hop to the right with rate p_1, while particles occupying a periodically arranged set of sites move to the right at rate p_2. While exact solutions for the steady-state particle currents and densities are not found, the mean field results show good agreement with data derived from extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.

  11. Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries and Quadratic Harnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryc, Włodek; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2017-04-01

    We show that the joint probability generating function of the stationary measure of a finite state asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries can be expressed in terms of joint moments of Markov processes called quadratic harnesses. We use our representation to prove the large deviations principle for the total number of particles in the system. We use the generator of the Markov process to show how explicit formulas for the average occupancy of a site arise for special choices of parameters. We also give similar representations for limits of stationary measures as the number of sites tends to infinity.

  12. On the asymmetric simple exclusion process with multiple species

    CERN Document Server

    Tracy, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    In the asymmetric simple exclusion process on the integers each particle waits exponential time, then with probability p it moves one step to the right if the site is unoccupied, otherwise it stays put; and with probability q=1-p it moves one step to the left if the site is unoccupied, otherwise it stays put. In previous work the authors, using the Bethe Ansatz, found for N-particle ASEP a formula --- a sum of multiple integrals --- for the probability that a system is in a particular configuration at time t given an initial configuration. The present work extends this to the case where particles are of different species, with particles of a higher species having priority over those of a lower species. Here the integrands in the multiple integrals are not given explicitly but are defined by a system of equations whose consistency requires verifying that the Yang-Baxter equations are satisfied.

  13. Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    1998-01-01

    By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.

  14. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  15. Two-lane traffic-flow model with an exact steady-state solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    We propose a stochastic cellular-automaton model for two-lane traffic flow based on the misanthrope process in one dimension. The misanthrope process is a stochastic process allowing for an exact steady-state solution; hence, we have an exact flow-density diagram for two-lane traffic. In addition, we introduce two parameters that indicate, respectively, driver's driving-lane preference and passing-lane priority. Due to the additional parameters, the model shows a deviation of the density ratio for driving-lane use and a biased lane efficiency in flow. Then, a mean-field approach explicitly describes the asymmetric flow by the hop rates, the driving-lane preference, and the passing-lane priority. Meanwhile, the simulation results are in good agreement with an observational data, and we thus estimate these parameters. We conclude that the proposed model successfully produces two-lane traffic flow particularly with the driving-lane preference and the passing-lane priority.

  16. Braess paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittihn, Stefan; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    We study the Braess paradox in the transport network as originally proposed by Braess with totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEPs) on the edges. The Braess paradox describes the counterintuitive situation in which adding an edge to a road network leads to a user optimum with higher travel times for all network users. Travel times on the TASEPs are nonlinear in the density, and jammed states can occur due to the microscopic exclusion principle, leading to a more realistic description of trafficlike transport on the network than in previously studied linear macroscopic mathematical models. Furthermore, the stochastic dynamics allows us to explore the effects of fluctuations on network performance. We observe that for low densities, the added edge leads to lower travel times. For slightly higher densities, the Braess paradox occurs in its classical sense. At intermediate densities, strong fluctuations in the travel times dominate the system's behavior due to links that are in a domain-wall state. At high densities, the added link leads to lower travel times. We present a phase diagram that predicts the system's state depending on the global density and crucial path-length ratios.

  17. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  18. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-02-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d geq 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  19. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2003-02-28

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d {>=} 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  20. Lane changing analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S.C.Wong; Rui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the two-lane traffic are studiedby using the lane-changing rules in the car-followingmodels.The simulation show that the frequent lanechanging occurs when the lateral distance in car fol-lowing activities is considered and it gives rise to oscil-lating waves.In contrast,if the lateral distance is notconsidered (or considered occasionally),the lane chang-ing appears infrequently and soliton waves occurs.Thisimplies that the stabilization mechanism no longer func-tions when the lane changing is permitted.Since theoscillating and soliton waves correspond to the unsta-ble and metastable flow regimes,respectively,our studyverifies that a phase transition may occur as a result ofthe lane changing.

  1. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on a ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Priezzhev

    2005-06-01

    A solution of the master equation for a system of interacting particles for finite time and particle density is presented. By using a new form of the Bethe ansatz, the totally asymmetric exclusion process on a ring is solved for arbitrary initial conditions and time intervals.

  2. Koornwinder polynomials and the stationary multi-species asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Luigi; Garbali, Alexandr; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We prove that the normalisation of the stationary state of the multi-species asymmetric simple exclusion process (mASEP) is a specialisation of a Koornwinder polynomial. As a corollary we obtain that the normalisation of mASEP factorises as a product over multiple copies of the two-species ASEP.

  3. Comment on ``Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with periodic structure''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2008-07-01

    Lakatos [Phys. Rev. E 71, 011103 (2005)] have studied a totally asymmetric exclusion process that contains periodically varying movement rates. They have presented a cluster mean-field theory for the problem. We show that their cluster mean-field theory leads to redundant equations. We present a mean-field analysis in which there is no redundant equation.

  4. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  5. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  6. Exact diffusion constant for the one-dimensional partially asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Mallick, K.

    1997-02-01

    We calculate exactly the diffusion constant associated with the fluctuations of the current for the partial asymmetric exclusion model on a ring with an arbitrary number of particles and holes. We also give the diffusion constant of a tagged particle on that ring. Our approach extends, using the deformed harmonic oscillator algebra, a result already known for the fully asymmetric case. In the limit of weak asymmetry, we extract from our exact expression the crossover between the Edwards - Wilkinson and the Kardar - Parisi - Zhang equations in (1 + 1) dimensions.

  7. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  8. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  9. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  10. A new traffic model with the consideration of coupling effect with two lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guang-Han; Sun Di-Hua; He Heng-Pan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model by embedding the two delay time scales con-tinuum traffic model presented by Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in instan-taneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model, the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account. Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow. This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

  11. An exactly soluble non-equilibrium system: The asymmetric simple exclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.

    1998-07-01

    A number of exact results have been obtained recently for the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process, a model of particles which hop to their right at random times, on a one-dimensional lattice, provided that the target site is empty. Using either a matrix form for the steady-state weights or the Bethe ansatz, several steady-state properties can be calculated exactly: the current, the density profile for open boundary conditions, the diffusion constant of a tagged particle. The matrix form of the steady state can be extended to calculate exactly the steady state of systems of two species of particles and shock profiles.

  12. The Braess Paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Bittihn, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We study the Braess paradox in the transport network as originally proposed by Braess with totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEPs) on the edges. The Braess paradox describes the counterintuitive situation where adding an additional edge to a road network leads to a user optimum with higher traveltimes for all network users. Traveltimes on the TASEPs are nonlinear in the density and jammed states can occur due to the microscopic exclusion principle. Furthermore the individual edges influence each other. This leads to a much more realistic description of traffic-like transport on the network than in previously studied linear macroscopic mathematical models. Furthermore the stochastic dynamics allows to explore the effects of fluctuations on the network performance. We observe that for low densities the added edge leads to lower traveltimes. For slightly higher densities the Braess paradox in its classical sense occurs in a small density regime. In a large regime of intermediate densities strong fluctuat...

  13. Self-organized criticality in asymmetric exclusion model with noise for freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-02-01

    The one-dimensional asymmetric simple-exclusion model with open boundaries for parallel update is extended to take into account temporary stopping of particles. The model presents the traffic flow on a highway with temporary deceleration of cars. Introducing temporary stopping into the asymmetric simple-exclusion model drives the system asymptotically into a steady state exhibiting a self-organized criticality. In the self-organized critical state, start-stop waves (or traffic jams) appear with various sizes (or lifetimes). The typical interval between consecutive jams scales as ≃ Lv with v = 0.51 ± 0.05 where L is the system size. It is shown that the cumulative jam-interval distribution Ns( L) satisfies the finite-size scaling form ( Ns( L) ≃ L- vf( s/ Lv). Also, the typical lifetime ≃ Lv‧ with v‧ = 0.52 ± 0.05. The cumulative distribution Nm( L) of lifetimes satisfies the finite-size scaling form Nm( L)≃ L-1g( m/ Lv‧).

  14. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  15. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.

    2016-03-01

    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.

  16. The Bose Gas and Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process on the Half-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Tracy, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we find explicit formulas for: (1) Green's function for a system of one-dimensional bosons interacting via a delta-function potential with particles confined to the positive half-line; and (2) the transition probability for the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with particles confined to the nonnegative integers. These are both for systems with a finite number of particles. The formulas are analogous to ones obtained earlier for the Bose gas and ASEP on the line and integers, respectively. We use coordinate Bethe Ansatz appropriately modified to account for confinement of the particles to the half-line. As in the earlier work, the proof for the ASEP is less straightforward than for the Bose gas.

  17. Fluctuations in the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Open Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Enaud, C.; Landim, C.; Olla, S.

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the fluctuations around the average density profile in the weakly asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries in the steady state. We show that these fluctuations are given, in the macroscopic limit, by a centered Gaussian field and we compute explicitly its covariance function. We use two approaches. The first method is dynamical and based on fluctuations around the hydrodynamic limit. We prove that the density fluctuations evolve macroscopically according to an autonomous stochastic equation, and we search for the stationary distribution of this evolution. The second approach, which is based on a representation of the steady state as a sum over paths, allows one to write the density fluctuations in the steady state as a sum over two independent processes, one of which is the derivative of a Brownian motion, the other one being related to a random path in a potential.

  18. Exact diffusion constant of a one-dimensional asymmetric exclusion model with open boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.; Mallick, K.

    1995-06-01

    For the 1D fully asymmetric exclusion model with open boundary conditions, we calculate exactly the fluctuations of the current of particles. The method used is an extension of a matrix technique developed recently to describe the equatime steady-state properties for open boundary conditions and the diffusion constant for particles on a ring. We show how the fluctuations of the current are related to non-equal-time correlations. In the thermodynamic limit, our results agree with recent results of Ferrari and Fontes obtained by working directly in the infinite system. We also show that the fluctuations of the current become singular when the system undergoes a phase transition with discontinuities along the first-order transition line.

  19. Exact solution of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process: Shock profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Janowsky, S. A.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    1993-12-01

    The microscopic structure of macroscopic shocks in the one-dimensional, totally asymmetric simple exclusion process is obtained exactly from the complete solution of the stationary state of a model system containing two types of particles-"first" and "second" class. This nonequilibrium steady state factorizes about any second-class particle, which implies factorization in the one-component system about the (random) shock position. It also exhibits several other interesting features, including long-range correlations in the limit of zero density of the second-class particles. The solution also shows that a finite number of second-class particles in a uniform background of first-class particles form a weakly bound state.

  20. Asymmetric simple exclusion processes with complex lattice geometries: A review of models and phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming-Zhe; Li Shao-Da; Wang Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the findings of a large number of studies concerning the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with complex lattice geometries.The TASEP has been recognized as a paradigm in modeling and analyzing non-equilibrium traffic systems.The paper surveys both the observed physical phenomena and several popular meanfield approaches used to analyze the extended TASEP models.Several interesting physical phenomena,such as phase separation,spontaneous symmetry breaking,and the finite-size effect,have been identified and explained.The future investigations of the extended TASEP with complex lattice geometries are also introduced.This paper may help to obtain a better understanding of non-equilibrium systems.

  1. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom; Kolomeisky, Anatoly

    2005-01-01

    We study the steady-state behavior of totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) that contain periodically varying movement rates. In this model, particles move to the right at one of two rates: p2 if the particle occupies one of a periodically arranged set of lattice sites; p1 otherwise. Approximate mean field approaches are used to study the steady-state currents and bulk densities of this model. These mean field methods are found to provide results in good agreement with data derived from Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the condition for particle-hole symmetry in the TASEP with periodically varying movement rates is specified, and the changes in the locations of the boundary-limited to maximal-current transition lines due to symmetry violation are investigated.

  2. Effect of unequal injection rates on asymmetric exclusion processes with junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Song; Liu Ming-Zhe; Wang Jian-Jun; Wang Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of unequal injection rates on totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) with a 2-input 1-output junction and parallel update. A mean-field approach is developed to deal with the junction that connects two sub-chains and the single main chain. We obtain the stationary particle currents, density profiles and phase diagrams. Interestingly, we find that the number of stationary-state phases is changeable depending on the value of α1 (α1 is the injection rate on the first sub-chain). When α1 > 1/3, there are seven stationary-state phases in the system, however when α1 < 1/3, only six stationary-state phases exist in the system. The theoretical calculations are shown to be in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Defect-induced phase transition in the asymmetric simple exclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Popkov, Vladislav; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We reconsider the long-standing question of the critical defect hopping rate r c in the one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with a slow bond (defect). For r queuing at the defect site, whereas for r≥ rc the defect site, has only local effects on the stationary state of the homogeneous system. Mean-field theory predicts r_c=1 (when hopping rates outside the defect bond are equal to 1) but numerical investigations seem to indicate rc ≈ 0.80 (2) . Here we improve the numerics to show that r c > 0.99 and give strong evidence that indeed r_c=1 as predicted by mean-field theory, and anticipated by recent theoretical findings.

  4. Zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process in a one-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Song; Cai Jiu-Ju; Liu Fei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use theoretical analysis and extensive simulations to study zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP). In the inhomogeneous zone, the hopping probability is less than 1. Two typical lattice geometries axe investigated here. In case A, the lattice includes two equal segments. The hopping probability in the left segment is equal to 1, and in the right segment it is equal to p, which is less than 1. In case B, there are three equal segments in the system; the hopping probabilities in the left and right segments are equal to 1, and in the middle segment it is equal to p, which is leas than 1. Through theoretical analysis, we can discover the effect on these systems when p is changed.

  5. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Olivier; Mallick, Kirone

    2006-10-01

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  6. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golinelli, Olivier [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mallick, Kirone [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-10-13

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  7. Shock profiles for the asymmetric simple exclusion process in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    1997-10-01

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) on a one-dimensional lattice is a system of particles which jump at rates p and 1- p (here p > 1/2) to adjacent empty sites on their right and left respectively. The system is described on suitable macroscopic spatial and temporal scales by the inviscid Burgers' equation; the latter has shock solutions with a discontinuous jump from left density ρ - to right density ρ +, ρ- sqrt {p_ + (1 - p_ - )/p_ - (1 - p_ + )} . For a special value of the asymmetry, given by p/(1- p)= p +(1- p -)/ p -(1- p +), the measure is Bernoulli, with density ρ - on the left and p + on the right. In the weakly asymmetric limit, 2 p-1 → 0, the microscopic width of the shock diverges as (2p+1)-1. The stationary measure is then essentially a superposition of Bernoulli measures, corresponding to a convolution of a density profile described by the viscous Burgers equation with a well-defined distribution for the location of the second class particle.

  8. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  9. When do drivers abort an overtaking maneuver 5 on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Overtaking on two-lane roads is a complex driving maneuver. Drivers who desire to overtake a lead vehicle need to evaluate the available gaps in the opposite direction and accept a sufficient gap to successfully complete the overtaking maneuver. However, often drivers realize that the gap they acce

  10. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing

  11. The asymmetric simple exclusion process on chains with a shortcut revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bunzarova, Nadezhda; Brankov, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on open network consisting of three consecutively coupled macroscopic chain segments with a shortcut between the tail of the first segment and the head of the third one. The model was introduced by Y.-M. Yuan et al [J. Phys. A 40, 12351 (2007)] to describe directed motion of molecular motors along filaments. We report here unexpected results in the case of maximum current through the network which revise the previous findings. Our theoretical analysis, based on the effective rates approximation, shows that the second (shunted) segment can exist in both low-density and high-density phases, as well as in the coexistence (shock) phase. Numerical simulations demonstrate that it is the last option that takes place - the local density distribution and the nearest-neighbor correlations in the middle chain correspond to a shock phase with completely delocalized domain wall. Surprisingly, the main quantitative parameters of that shock phase are governed by a ...

  12. Nonequilibrium steady states in a closed inhomogeneous asymmetric exclusion process with generic particle nonconservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Bijoy; Mondal, Souvik; Chandra, Anjan Kumar; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Basu, Abhik

    2017-01-01

    We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) on a nonuniform one-dimensional ring consisting of two segments having unequal hopping rates, or defects. We allow weak particle nonconservation via Langmuir kinetics (LK), which are parametrized by generic unequal attachment and detachment rates. For an extended defect, in the thermodynamic limit the system generically displays inhomogeneous density profiles in the steady state—the faster segment is either in a phase with spatially varying density having no density discontinuity, or a phase with a discontinuous density changes. Nonequilibrium phase transitions between the above phases are controlled by the inhomogeneity and LK. The slower segment displays only macroscopically uniform bulk density profiles in the steady states, reminiscent of the maximal current phase of TASEP but with a bulk density generally different from half. With a point defect, there are spatially uniform low- and high-density phases as well, in addition to the inhomogeneous density profiles observed for an extended defect. In all the cases, it is argued that the mean particle density in the steady state is controlled only by the ratio of the LK attachment and detachment rates.

  13. Bethe ansatz solution for a defect particle in the asymmetric exclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.

    1999-07-01

    The asymmetric exclusion process on a ring in one dimension is considered with a single defect particle. The steady state has previously been solved by a matrix product method. Here we use the Bethe ansatz to solve exactly for the long time limit behaviour of the generating function of the distance travelled by the defect particle. This allows us to recover steady state properties known from the matrix approach such as the velocity, and obtain new results such as the diffusion constant of the defect particle. In the case where the defect particle is a second-class particle we determine the large deviation function and show that in a certain range the distribution of the distance travelled about the mean is Gaussian. Moreover, the variance (diffusion constant) grows as L1/2 where L is the system size. This behaviour can be related to the superdiffusive spreading of excess mass fluctuations on an infinite system. In the case where the defect particle produces a shock, our expressions for the velocity and the diffusion constant coincide with those calculated previously for an infinite system by Ferrari and Fontes.

  14. Shift Equivalence of Measures and the Intrinsic Structure of Shocks in the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    1998-11-01

    We investigate properties of non-translation-invariant measures, describing particle systems on $\\bbz$, which are asymptotic to different translation invariant measures on the left and on the right. Often the structure of the transition region can only be observed from a point of view which is random---in particular, configuration dependent. Two such measures will be called shift equivalent if they differ only by the choice of such a viewpoint. We introduce certain quantities, called translation sums, which, under some auxiliary conditions, characterize the equivalence classes. Our prime example is the asymmetric simple exclusion process, for which the measures in question describe the microscopic structure of shocks. In this case we compute explicitly the translation sums and find that shocks generated in different ways---in particular, via initial conditions in an infinite system or by boundary conditions in a finite system---are described by shift equivalent measures. We show also that when the shock in the infinite system is observed from the location of a second class particle, treating this particle either as a first class particle or as an empty site leads to shift equivalent shock measures.

  15. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-03-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEP's featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modeling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules, and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low density, high density, an maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d=1) TASEP. A simple mean field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d>= 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean field results.

  16. Tableaux combinatorics for the asymmetric exclusion process and Askey-Wilson polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Corteel, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Introduced in the late 1960's, the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) is an important model from statistical mechanics which describes a system of interacting particles hopping left and right on a one-dimensional lattice of n sites with open boundaries. It has been cited as a model for traffic flow and protein synthesis. In its most general form, particles may enter and exit at the left with probabilities alpha and gamma, and they may exit and enter at the right with probabilities beta and delta. In the bulk, the probability of hopping left is q times the probability of hopping right. The first main result of this paper is a combinatorial formula for the stationary distribution of the ASEP with all parameters general, in terms of a new class of tableaux which we call staircase tableaux. This generalizes our previous work for the ASEP with parameters gamma=delta=0. Using our first result and also results of Uchiyama-Sasamoto-Wadati, we derive our second main result: a combinatorial formula for the moments of ...

  17. Feedback control for car following model based on two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Zhu, Hui-bing; Li, Zhi-Peng

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, two-lane traffic flow considering lane changing behaviors has been discussed based on the control theory, and the friction interference which is from the neighbor lane has been taken into account. By using the control method, the stability condition is derived. The feedback signals, which include vehicular information from both lanes, acting on the two-lane traffic system have been introduced into the Full Velocity Difference car-following model. In the end, simulations are conducted to examine the validity and reasonability of the control method. It is proven that lane changing behaviors can aggravate the traffic perturbation. The traffic flow congestion could be suppressed by using the control method and the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  18. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  19. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  20. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  1. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  2. Overtaking Safety Evaluation and Setting of Auxiliary Lane on Two-Lane Highway in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking experiments on four two-lane highways were conducted. The data of overtaking conflict time (the time difference between the time of driving back to the original lane and the time of meeting with the first opposing vehicle and experimental drivers’ risk feeling were observed. Membership was adopted to denote the experimental drivers’ risk feelings which also denote the severity of traffic conflict. Membership ranges from 0 to 1 and corresponding risk becomes higher; that is, traffic conflict becomes more serious. According to the observed relationship between overtaking conflict time, and drivers’ risk feeling membership, Cauchy distribution function was adopted as membership function. The thresholds of the severity of traffic conflict were determined through Delphi method. The relationship model among traffic volume, overtaking conflict time and design speed was established according to experimental data. Then the idea of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway in China was presented. And the traffic volume values that need setting auxiliary lane corresponding to different design speed and traffic conflict degree were given according to the established model. It is expected to improve the traffic safety level of two-lane highway in China through setting auxiliary lane.

  3. On the Two Species Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Semi-Permeable Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Arvind; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Speer, Eugene R.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the structure of the nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) of a system of first and second class particles, as well as vacancies (holes), on L sites of a one-dimensional lattice in contact with first class particle reservoirs at the boundary sites; these particles can enter at site 1, when it is vacant, with rate α, and exit from site L with rate β. Second class particles can neither enter nor leave the system, so the boundaries are semi-permeable. The internal dynamics are described by the usual totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with second class particles. An exact solution of the NESS was found by Arita. Here we describe two consequences of the fact that the flux of second class particles is zero. First, there exist (pinned and unpinned) fat shocks which determine the general structure of the phase diagram and of the local measures; the latter describe the microscopic structure of the system at different macroscopic points (in the limit L→∞) in terms of superpositions of extremal measures of the infinite system. Second, the distribution of second class particles is given by an equilibrium ensemble in fixed volume, or equivalently but more simply by a pressure ensemble, in which the pair potential between neighboring particles grows logarithmically with distance. We also point out an unexpected feature in the microscopic structure of the NESS for finite L: if there are n second class particles in the system then the distribution of first class particles (respectively holes) on the first (respectively last) n sites is exchangeable.

  4. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  5. Shape-dependence of the barrier for skyrmions on a two-lane racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Single magnetic skyrmions are localized whirls in the magnetization with an integer winding number. They have been observed on nano-meter scales up to room temperature in multilayer structures. Due to their small size, topological winding number, and their ability to be manipulated by extremely tiny forces, they are often called interesting candidates for future memory devices. The two-lane racetrack has to exhibit two lanes that are separated by an energy barrier. The information is then encoded in the position of a skyrmion which is located in one of these close-by lanes. The artificial barrier between the lanes can be created by an additional nanostrip on top of the track. Here we study the dependence of the potential barrier on the shape of the additional nanostrip, calculating the potentials for a rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross section, as well as interpolations between the first two. We find that a narrow barrier is always repulsive and that the height of the potential strongly depends on the shape of the nanostrip, whereas the shape of the potential is more universal. We finally show that the shape-dependence is redundant for possible applications.

  6. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  7. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  8. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds

  9. Generalized determinant solution of the discrete-time totally asymmetric exclusion process and zero-range process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, J G; Priezzhev, V B; Shelest, R V

    2004-06-01

    We consider the discrete-time evolution of a finite number of particles obeying the totally asymmetric exclusion process with backward-ordered update on an infinite chain. Our first result is a determinant expression for the conditional probability of finding the particles at given initial and final positions, provided that they start and finish simultaneously. The expression has the same form as the one obtained by J. Stat. Phys. 88, 427 (1997)] for the continuous-time process. Next we prove that under some sufficient conditions the determinant expression can be generalized to the case when the particles start and finish at their own times. The latter result is used to solve a nonstationary zero-range process on a finite chain with open boundaries.

  10. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.

  11. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  12. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  13. Exclusive multipotency and preferential asymmetric divisions in post-embryonic neural stem cells of the fish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ander, Janina-J; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Lust, Katharina; Kellner, Tanja; Kraemer, Isabel; Urbany, Cedric; Hasel, Eva; Harris, William A; Simons, Benjamin D; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2014-09-01

    The potency of post-embryonic stem cells can only be addressed in the living organism, by labeling single cells after embryonic development and following their descendants. Recently, transplantation experiments involving permanently labeled cells revealed multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic origin in the medaka retina. To analyze whether NSC potency is affected by developmental progression, as reported for the mammalian brain, we developed an inducible toolkit for clonal labeling and non-invasive fate tracking. We used this toolkit to address post-embryonic stem cells in different tissues and to functionally differentiate transient progenitor cells from permanent, bona fide stem cells in the retina. Using temporally controlled clonal induction, we showed that post-embryonic retinal NSCs are exclusively multipotent and give rise to the complete spectrum of cell types in the neural retina. Intriguingly, and in contrast to any other vertebrate stem cell system described so far, long-term analysis of clones indicates a preferential mode of asymmetric cell division. Moreover, following the behavior of clones before and after external stimuli, such as injuries, shows that NSCs in the retina maintained the preference for asymmetric cell division during regenerative responses. We present a comprehensive analysis of individual post-embryonic NSCs in their physiological environment and establish the teleost retina as an ideal model for studying adult stem cell biology at single cell resolution.

  14. Motion of Skyrmions in Well-Separated Two-Lane Racetracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P.; Zhao, G. P.; Morvan, F. J.; Wu, S. Q.; Ran, N.

    Magnetic skyrmions are topological structures which can be used to store information as data bits in metallic racetrack memories. Their good properties, such as their stability, small size and low currents needed to drive them make them better candidates than traditional magnetic domain walls for the building of the next generation data storage. A skyrmion racetrack memory has been suggested, with the binary data encoded in the distance between skyrmions when the racetrack is a single lane. Here, we propose a new skyrmion-based two-lane racetrack structure separated by a high-K (high magnetocrystalline anisotropy) middle lane, which confines the skyrmions in their respective lanes. This design gives a new data presentation for the skyrmions on the racetrack. Phase diagrams for the skyrmion motion on the proposed racetrack as functions of the current density, middle lane anisotropy, middle lane width and DMI constant have been calculated and given, demonstrating that skyrmions can be driven in different lanes of the racetrack. This design offers the possibility of building an ultrafast and energy-efficient skyrmion transport device.

  15. Signal optimization in urban transport: A totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with traffic lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Foulaadvand, M Ebrahim; Santen, Ludger

    2017-03-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  16. Signal optimization in urban transport: A totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Foulaadvand, M. Ebrahim; Santen, Ludger

    2017-03-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  17. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  18. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  19. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  20. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  1. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  2. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  3. Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Di Silvestro, Giacomo; La Cava, Grazia; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, approximately 60% of road accident fatalities occur on two-lane rural roads. Thus, research to develop and enhance explanatory and predictive models for this road type continues to be of interest in mitigating these accidents. To this end, this paper describes a novel and extensive data collection and modeling effort to define accident models for two-lane road sections based on a unique combination of exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables directly related to the safety performance. The first part of the paper documents how these were identified for the segmentation of highways into homogeneous sections. Next, is a description of the extensive data collection effort that utilized differential cinematic GPS surveys to define the horizontal alignment variables, and road safety inspections (RSIs) to quantify the other road characteristics related to safety. The final part of the paper focuses on the calibration of models for estimating the expected number of accidents on homogeneous sections that can be characterized by constant values of the explanatory variables. Several candidate models were considered for calibration using the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. After considering the statistical significance of the parameters related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors, and goodness of fit statistics, 19 models were ranked and three were selected as the recommended models. The first of the three is a base model, with length and traffic as the only predictor variables; since these variables are the only ones likely to be available network-wide, this base model can be used in an empirical Bayesian calculation to conduct network screening for ranking "sites with promise" of safety improvement. The other two models represent the best statistical fits with different combinations of significant variables related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors. These multiple variable models can be used, with

  4. A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.

  5. Analysis of a novel two-lane lattice model on a gradient road with the consideration of relative current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin-Liang; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel hydrodynamic lattice model is proposed by considering of relative current for two-lane gradient road system. The stability condition is obtained by using linear stability theory and shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with three parameters, that is, the slope, the sensitivity of response to the relative current and the rate of lane changing. The stable region increases with the increasing of one of them when another two parameters are constant. By using nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries, and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations are derived to describe the phase transition of traffic flow. Their solutions present the density wave as the triangular shock wave, soliton wave, and kink-antikink wave in the stable, metastable, and unstable region, respectively, which can explain the phase transitions from free traffic to stop-and-go traffic, and finally to congested traffic. To verify the theoretical results, a series of numerical simulations are carried out. The numerical results are consistent with the analytical results. To check the novel model, calibration are taken based on the empirical traffic flow data. The theoretical results and numerical results show that the traffic flow on the gradient road becomes more stable and the traffic congestion can be efficiently suppressed by considering the relative current and lane changing, and the empirical analysis shows that the novel lattice model is reasonable.

  6. A viscous continuum traffic flow model with consideration of the coupling effect for two-lane freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.

  7. 考虑交通障碍的双车道扩展交通流模型%Extend Two-lane Traffic Flow Model with a Blockage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建锋; 赵靖

    2012-01-01

    借助智能交通系统(ITS),把扩展的车辆跟驰模型应用于双车道,建立根据确定规则进行换道的扩展交通流跟驰模型.通过改变发车车头间距,在开放边界条件下左车道有交通事故发生时,重现实际交通中的交通流现象.数值模拟发现:双车道交通流模型能够有效地抑制交通流阻塞,提高交通流量.%The extended car-following model is applied into two-lane system based on intelligent transportation system application (ITS). Then, an extended model of two-lane traffic in which vehicles change the lane by a deterministic rule is presented. The typical traffic induced by a car accident on the left lane under the open boundary is investigated. The simulation results suggest that the two-lane traffic model can suppress the traffic jam and enhance the traffic flow effectively.

  8. Development of adjustment functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments on rural two-lane roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to evaluate the safety effectiveness of specific single treatment on roadways by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs). However, there is a need to also assess safety effects of multiple treatments since multiple treatments are usually simultaneously applied to roadways. Due to the lack of sufficient CMFs of multiple treatments, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides combining method for multiple CMFs. However, it is cautioned in the HSM and related sources that combined safety effect of multiple CMFs may be over or under estimated. Moreover, the literature did not evaluate the accuracy of the combining method using CMFs obtained from the same study area. Thus, the main objectives of this research are: (1) to estimate CMFs and crash modification functions (CM Functions) for two single treatments (shoulder rumble strips, widening (1-9ft) shoulder width) and combination (installing shoulder rumble strips+widening shoulder width) using the observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) method and (2) to develop adjustment factors and functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments based on the accuracy of the combined CMFs for multiple treatments estimated by the existing combining method. Data was collected for rural two-lane roadways in Florida and Florida-specific safety performance functions (SPFs) were estimated for different crash types and severities. The CM Functions and adjustment functions were developed using linear and nonlinear regression models. The results of before-after with EB method show that the two single treatments and combination are effective in reducing total and SVROR (single vehicle run-off roadway) crashes. The results indicate that the treatments were more safety effective for the roadway segments with narrower original shoulder width in the before period. It was found that although the CMFs for multiple treatments (i.e., combination of two single treatments) were generally

  9. Experimental Study of Drivers' Overtaking Behavior on Two-lane Highways%双车道公路驾驶员超车行为试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江

    2013-01-01

    By high-accuracy GPS dynamic data acquisition instrument,the author designed the experimental plan of drivers' overtaking on the two-lane highways with the drivers' perceive to measure the overtakable gap and the returnable gap.The experimental results could be used as the basis for the study of two-lane highways' capacity,drivers' overtaking behavior,the design of overtaking sight distance and intelligent transportation system.%通过利用高精度全球定位系统(global positioning system,GPS)动态数据采集仪,结合驾驶员超车过程的感受度,设计了双车道公路上测量可回车车头时距和可超车车头时距的试验方案,获得的实验数据可为研究双车道公路通行能力、驾驶员超车行为、设计超车视距以及构建智能交通系统提供实测数据依据.

  10. Study on traffic states and jamming transitions for two-lane highway including a bus by using a model with calibrated optimal velocity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, traffic states and jamming transitions on two-lane highway including a bus are studied by using a car following model with a calibrated optimal velocity function. We derive a new flow-density diagram with four distinctly separated traffic states, which is different from that of the earlier study obtained by applying the OVM with theoretical optimal velocity function. The spatio-temporal diagrams are presented to illustrate phase characteristics of each traffic state. It is found that the phase characteristic features of two of four states are different from any state of the earlier result, and traffic flow of state 2 and state 3 can reproduce some characteristics observed from empirical investigations such as centralized lane-changing, hanging tail of cluster, and synchronized flow. In addition, we have clarified the lane-changing behaviors and their effects on two-lane traffic flow including a bus. It is shown that the velocity oscillations behind the bus can help the lane-changing in state 2 and the behaviors of lane-changing are the important reason of forming of the synchronized flow in state 3. It is also concluded that lane-changing can only improve the current in the region of middle density.

  11. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  12. 双车道公路设置附加车道交通量条件研究%Traffic Volume Conditions of Setting Auxiliary Lane on Two-lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国柱; 翟露露; 秦丽辉; 王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce traffic accidents and improve operating efficiency on two-lane highway, the concept of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway is proposed, and the traffic volume conditions of setting up auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are studied. Data is obtained through vehicle experiment on two-lane highway, and the relational model among the traffic conflict time, the traffic volume and the design speed on two-lane highway is established. Based on the established model, the different conditions of traffic volume of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are obtained. It shows that auxiliary lane should be set when traffic volume is more than 495 veh/h/ln and 454 veh/h/ln respectively on two-lane highway with the design speed of 80 km/h and 60km/h. It isn't recommend to set auxiliary lane on two-lane highway with the design speed of 40 km/h because the benefit is not obvious.%为了减少双车道公路交通事故数量、提高运行效率,提出了双车道公路设置附加车道的理念,基于试验数据开展了双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件研究.通过双车道公路实车实验获得的基础数据,建立了双车道公路交通冲突时间与交通量、设计速度的关系模型.依据构建的模型,给出了对应不同设计速度的双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件.基于样本数据的研究结果表明:设计速度为80 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于495 veh/h/ln时,应设置附加车道;设计速度为60 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于454 veh/h/ln,应设置附加车道;设计速度为40 km/h及以下的双车道公路,设置附加车道效益不明显,不建议设置.

  13. Research on Relationship of Traffic Condition and Traffic Safety of Two-Lane Highway in Plane Areas%平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王蓉蓉; 路维; 胡江碧

    2012-01-01

    On the bais of traffic accident data of the two-lane highway in plane areas, the influence of vertical-section, cross-section and intersection with the traffic accidents, and contrasting the analysis with conclusion abroad are discussed , then a conclusion on the relationship of the traffic condition and the traffic safety of two-lane highway in plane areas is got, a traffic safety prediction model is established,so it has important significance on the upgrading the highway safety.%以平原区双车道公路交通事故资料为基础,分析了道路平曲线和纵断面线形及交叉口等因素与交通事故的关系,将分析结论和国外研究结果相对比,得出我国平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系,并建立交通安全性预测模型,对提升我国双车道公路安全性具有重要的意义.

  14. Multielement characterization of metal-humic substances complexation by size exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, ultrafiltration and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, E; Gorriz, M P; Bouby, M; Laborda, F; Castillo, J R; Geckeis, H

    2006-10-06

    The use of three different separation techniques, ultrafiltration (UF), high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), for the characterization of a compost leachate is described. The possible interaction of about 30 elements with different size fractions of humic substances (HS) has been investigated coupling these separation techniques with UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detection techniques. The organic matter is constituted by a polydisperse mixture of humic substances ranging from low molecular weights (around 1kDa) to significantly larger entities. Elements can be classified into three main groups with regard to their interaction with HS. The first group is constituted by primarily the monovalent alkaline metal ions and anionic species like B, W, Mo, As existing as oxyanions all being not significantly associated to HS. The second group consists of elements that are at least partly associated to a smaller HS size fraction (such as Ni, Cu, Cr and Co). A third group of mainly tri- and tetravalent metal ions like Al, Fe, the lanthanides, Sn and Th are rather associated to larger-sized HS fractions. The three separation techniques provide a fairly consistent size classification for most of the metal ions, even though slight disagreements were observed. The number-average molecular weight (Mn), the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and the polydispersity (rho) parameters have been calculated both from AsFlFFF and HPSEC experiments and compared for HS and some metal-HS species. Differences in values can be partly explained by an overloading effect observed in the AsFlFFF experiments induced by electrostatic repulsion effects in the low ionic strength, high pH carrier solution. Size information obtained from ultrafiltration is not as resolved as for the other methods. Molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of the individual filter

  15. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...

  16. TWO-LANE BLACKTOP: REFUGEES & TORTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS GARCÍA CÍVICO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The right not to be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and the right of asylum have, individually considered, an extensive field of application", but it is possible to point out some traits in common. Firsty, in both rights undelie the moral spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. At the same time, according to the recent reports of the main human rights organisations, both rights are in deep political crisis. Furthermore, is possible to see that sometimes they cross each other: there is a triple «zone of intersection between the right of asylum and the right not to suffer torture, inhuman or degrading treatment: one of the reasons for escaping from a country is to avoid suffering torture ("refuge after torture" secondly, sometimes inhuman and degrading treatment occur precisely in the process of seeking asylum ("inhuman treatment in the refuge", finally, there are countries with strong deficiencies in their immigration policies and this can produce a perverse effect: the transfer of potential asylum seekers to countries where they are at risk of torture or inhuman treatment again ("torture or inhuman and degrading treatment after asylum".

  17. 公交车停靠诱发交通瓶颈的元胞自动机模拟%Investigation on traffic bottleneck induce by bus stopping with a two-lane cellular automaton model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆定; 董力耘; 戴世强

    2009-01-01

    利用双车道元胞自动机模型,研究公交车停靠对道路混合交通流的影响.针对港湾式和非港湾式两种不同公交车站设置,在开放边界下模拟了公交车停靠所产生的交通瓶颈问题,给出了车辆入流概率.公交车比例相平面上的相图,区分了自由流相和拥挤相,研究了相图各区中公交车站附近的平均密度和速度分布图,比较了两种公交车站情况下的道路交通流的动力学特征.研究发现,当公交车比例较小时,与非港湾式车站相比,港湾式车站可以显著改善车站处的交通状况.%In this paper, the influence of typical bus stops on traffic flow is investigated with the cellular automaton traffic model. For on-line and off-line bus stops, a two-lane cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the traffic bottleneck induced by bus stopping under the open boundary condition. The phase diagram in the phase plane of injection probability and bus fraction is provided and two phases, i.e., the free flow phase and congested flow phase, are distinguished. The distributions of the mean density and velocity near the bus stop in different traffic phases are given and the comparison of dynamical characteristics of traffic flows is made for different types of bus stops. It is found that using the off-line bus stop can significandy improve the traffic flow in its neighboring region, compared with the on-line bus stop in the case of small fraction of buses.

  18. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  19. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  20. Research on Length of Blocked Road Section for Maintenance of Two-lane Highway in Mountain Area Based on Vissim%基于Vissim的山区双车道公路养护作业封闭段长度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文亮; 刘振清; 贺玉龙; 高发亮

    2012-01-01

    建立山区双车道公路养护作业区Vissim仿真模型,通过信号灯控制通行时间,模拟在不同封闭段长度下车辆的运行状态,对行程延误、排队长度、停车次数和停驶车辆百分比等参数进行分析,得出山区双车道公路单车道封闭,短期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于200 m,长期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于2500 m,这为山区双车道公路养护作业区设置和交通组织提供理论依据.%The simulation model of maintenance area for two-lane highway in mountain area was established based on Vissim. The model can simulate vehicles' running state with different lengths of blocked road section through signal lamp controlling time, and can analyze parameters such as trip delay, queuing length, number of stops and the percentage of suspended vehicles. The result shows that the blocked single-lane section length for short-term maintenance of two-lane highway in mountain area should be less than 200 m and that for long-term maintenance should be less than 2500 m. It provided a theoretical basis of setting maintenance area and transportation organizations for two-lane highway in mountain area.

  1. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  2. Keep-Left Behavior Induced by Asymmetrically Profiled Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. L. N.; Vieira, A. P.; Helbing, D.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We show, computationally and analytically, that asymmetrically shaped walls can organize the flow of pedestrians driven in opposite directions through a corridor. Precisely, a two-lane ordered state emerges in which people always walk on the left-hand side (or right-hand side), controlled by the system's parameters. This effect depends on features of the channel geometry, such as the asymmetry of the profile and the channel width, as well as on the density and the drift velocity of pedestrians, and the intensity of noise. We investigate in detail the influence of these parameters on the flow and discover a crossover between ordered and disordered states. Our results show that an ordered state only appears within a limited range of drift velocities. Moreover, increasing noise may suppress such flow organization, but the flow is always sustained. This is in contrast with the "freezing by heating" phenomenon according to which pedestrians tend to clog in smooth channels for strong noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1240 (2000)]. Therefore, the ratchetlike effect proposed here acts on the system not only to induce a "keep-left" behavior but also to prevent the freezing by heating clogging phenomenon. Besides pedestrian flow, this new phenomenon has other potential applications in microfluidics systems.

  3. Dynamic screening in a two-species asymmetric exclusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; den Nijs, Marcel

    2007-08-01

    The dynamic scaling properties of the one-dimensional Burgers equation are expected to change with the inclusion of additional conserved degrees of freedom. We study this by means of one-dimensional (1D) driven lattice gas models that conserve both mass and momentum. The most elementary version of this is the Arndt-Heinzel-Rittenberg (AHR) process, which is usually presented as a two-species diffusion process, with particles of opposite charge hopping in opposite directions and with a variable passing probability. From the hydrodynamics perspective this can be viewed as two coupled Burgers equations, with the number of positive and negative momentum quanta individually conserved. We determine the dynamic scaling dimension of the AHR process from the time evolution of the two-point correlation functions, and find numerically that the dynamic critical exponent is consistent with simple Kardar-Parisi-Zhang- (KPZ) type scaling. We establish that this is the result of perfect screening of fluctuations in the stationary state. The two-point correlations decay exponentially in our simulations and in such a manner that in terms of quasiparticles, fluctuations fully screen each other at coarse grained length scales. We prove this screening rigorously using the analytic matrix product structure of the stationary state. The proof suggests the existence of a topological invariant. The process remains in the KPZ universality class but only in the sense of a factorization, as (KPZ)2. The two Burgers equations decouple at large length scales due to the perfect screening.

  4. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  5. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978 when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thing is not the one who wins or that loses, but the imagination and the creativity to modify the order of the rules and norms for that power game. It is discussed and it is exemplified about the territory concept, medicine and religion. It is discussed in terms of fairness policies and equality in a pertinent and relevant dialog for the construction of possible alliances.

  6. Sample-dependent phase transitions in disordered exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.

    2004-04-01

    We give numerical evidence that the location of the first-order phase transition between the low- and the high-density phases of the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries becomes sample dependent when quenched disorder is introduced for the hopping rates.

  7. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  8. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its empirical

  9. Cold asymmetrical fermion superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Heron

    2003-12-19

    The recent experimental advances in cold atomic traps have induced a great amount of interest in fields from condensed matter to particle physics, including approaches and prospects from the theoretical point of view. In this work we investigate the general properties and the ground state of an asymmetrical dilute gas of cold fermionic atoms, formed by two particle species having different densities. We have show in a recent paper, that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state of such a cold fermionic system. Here we extend the analysis and verify that in fact, the mixed phase is the preferred ground state of an asymmetrical superfluid in various situations. We predict that the mixed phase can serve as a way of detecting superfluidity and estimating the magnitude of the gap parameter in asymmetrical fermionic systems.

  10. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  11. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  12. Asymmetric catalysis with helical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    Inspired by nature, the use of helical biopolymer catalysts has emerged over the last years as a new approach to asymmetric catalysis. In this Concept article the various approaches and designs and their application in asymmetric catalysis will be discussed.

  13. Asymmetric catalysis with helical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by nature, the use of helical biopolymer catalysts has emerged over the last years as a new approach to asymmetric catalysis. In this Concept article the various approaches and designs and their application in asymmetric catalysis will be discussed.

  14. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  15. Dimensions of social exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Cok Vrooman

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Dimensies van sociale uitsluiting SCP has carried out research since 2004 on the occurrence and causes of social exclusion, both among the Dutch population as a whole and within certain groups (the elderly, children). The questionnaire used for this has been regularly updated

  16. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN bulletin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Ombudsman Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.

  17. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  18. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  19. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  20. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term, which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry unfolds the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions....

  1. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  2. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  3. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  4. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  5. NEET and Youth Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and social exclusion represent one of the most important themes in contemporary social policy both in UE countries and the rest of the world. In order to combat this and to improve the inclusion rate among NEET youth the social policies need to be channeled in three directions: education, training and employment. This study allows us a broad view of the proposed policies based on the analysis of this indicator.

  6. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  7. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  9. Asymmetric flow networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaizola Ortega, María Norma; Valenciano Llovera, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a new model of network formation that bridges the gap between the two benchmark models by Bala and Goyal, the one-way flow model, and the two-way flow model, and includes both as particular extreme cases. As in both benchmark models, in what we call an "asymmetric flow" network a link can be initiated unilaterally by any player with any other, and the flow through a link towards the player who supports it is perfect. Unlike those models, in the opposite direction there is ...

  10. Individual choice and social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Why is social exclusion a problem? What about ‘voluntary’ social exclusion – when an individual chooses to exclude him or herself from the wider society? Brain Barry has addressed these questions in a recent CASE book, arguing that social exclusion, voluntary or involuntary, offends against social justice and social solidarity. This paper contends that Barry’s arguments are weak for voluntary social exclusion and argues that, perhaps surprisingly, a better case can be made for treating volunt...

  11. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  12. Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Haohua; Shen, Xiaodong; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhang, Lilu; Röse, Philipp; Chen, Liang-An; Harms, Klaus; Marsch, Michael; Hilt, Gerhard; Meggers, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is seen as one of the most economical strategies to satisfy the growing demand for enantiomerically pure small molecules in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. And visible light has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and sustainable form of energy for triggering chemical transformations and catalytic chemical processes. For these reasons, visible-light-driven catalytic asymmetric chemistry is a subject of enormous current interest. Photoredox catalysis provides the opportunity to generate highly reactive radical ion intermediates with often unusual or unconventional reactivities under surprisingly mild reaction conditions. In such systems, photoactivated sensitizers initiate a single electron transfer from (or to) a closed-shell organic molecule to produce radical cations or radical anions whose reactivities are then exploited for interesting or unusual chemical transformations. However, the high reactivity of photoexcited substrates, intermediate radical ions or radicals, and the low activation barriers for follow-up reactions provide significant hurdles for the development of efficient catalytic photochemical processes that work under stereochemical control and provide chiral molecules in an asymmetric fashion. Here we report a highly efficient asymmetric catalyst that uses visible light for the necessary molecular activation, thereby combining asymmetric catalysis and photocatalysis. We show that a chiral iridium complex can serve as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provide very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles. This new asymmetric photoredox catalyst, in which the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre, offers new opportunities for the `green' synthesis of non-racemic chiral molecules.

  13. Weakly Asymmetric Bridges and the KPZ Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Cyril

    2017-08-01

    We consider the corner growth dynamics on discrete bridges from (0, 0) to (2 N, 0), or equivalently, the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with N particles on 2 N sites. We take an asymmetry of order N -α with α ∈ (0, 1) and provide a complete description of the asymptotic behaviour of this model. In particular, we show that the hydrodynamic limit of the density of particles is given by the inviscid Burgers equation with zero-flux boundary condition. When the interface starts from the flat initial profile, we show that KPZ fluctuations occur whenever α ∈ (0, 1/3]. In the particular regime α = 1/3, these KPZ fluctuations suddenly vanish at a deterministic time.

  14. Social exclusion in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  15. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  16. Researching Homelessness: Challenging Exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This themed issue of Social Inclusion provides a timely opportunity to reflect on how contemporary research is addressing the multi-dimensional issue of homelessness around the world. The papers presented here provide a wide range of new evidence on homelessness including theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions. They draw on a range of national experiences in Europe and beyond, and addressing the issue of social inclusion and social exclusion of homeless or previously homeless people from a range of perspectives and approaches. It is hoped that the contributions to this themed issue will prove influential in terms of both scholarship and potential to enhance policy making and service delivery to some of our most excluded citizens.

  17. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    ’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...... . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  18. Totally Asymmetric Limit for Models of Heat Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-08-01

    We consider one dimensional weakly asymmetric boundary driven models of heat conduction. In the cases of a constant diffusion coefficient and of a quadratic mobility we compute the quasi-potential that is a non local functional obtained by the solution of a variational problem. This is done using the dynamic variational approach of the macroscopic fluctuation theory (Bertini et al. in Rev Mod Phys 87:593, 2015). The case of a concave mobility corresponds essentially to the exclusion model that has been discussed in Bertini et al. (J Stat Mech L11001, 2010; Pure Appl Math 64(5):649-696, 2011; Commun Math Phys 289(1):311-334, 2009) and Enaud and Derrida (J Stat Phys 114:537-562, 2004). We consider here the convex case that includes for example the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model and its dual (KMPd) (Kipnis et al. in J Stat Phys 27:6574, 1982). This extends to the weakly asymmetric regime the computations in Bertini et al. (J Stat Phys 121(5/6):843-885, 2005). We consider then, both microscopically and macroscopically, the limit of large externalfields. Microscopically we discuss some possible totally asymmetric limits of the KMP model. In one case the totally asymmetric dynamics has a product invariant measure. Another possible limit dynamics has instead a non trivial invariant measure for which we give a duality representation. Macroscopically we show that the quasi-potentials of KMP and KMPd, which are non local for any value of the external field, become local in the limit. Moreover the dependence on one of the external reservoirs disappears. For models having strictly positive quadratic mobilities we obtain instead in the limit a non local functional having a structure similar to the one of the boundary driven asymmetric exclusion process.

  19. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  20. The asymmetric sandwich theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the asymmetric sandwich theorem, a generalization of the Hahn-Banach theorem. As applications, we derive various results on the existence of linear functionals that include bivariate, trivariate and quadrivariate generalizations of the Fenchel duality theorem. Most of the results are about affine functions defined on convex subsets of vector spaces, rather than linear functions defined on vector spaces. We consider both results that use a simple boundedness hypothesis (as in Rockafellar's version of the Fenchel duality theorem) and also results that use Baire's theorem (as in the Robinson-Attouch-Brezis version of the Fenchel duality theorem). This paper also contains some new results about metrizable topological vector spaces that are not necessarily locally convex.

  1. Exclusion performance and learning by exclusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; de Rose, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Responding by exclusion is a type of emergent repertoire in which an individual chooses an alternative by the apparent exclusion of other available alternatives. In this case it is possible to respond appropriately to an undefined stimulus (one that has not previously acquired discriminative functions) by excluding the defined alternatives. There is evidence of exclusion in humans and nonhuman animals, although learning as an outcome of exclusion does not always occur. This study aimed to investigate exclusion in visual simple discriminations and learning of new simple discriminations resulting from exclusion in four border collies. Subjects were trained to perform simple simultaneous discriminations between pairs of tridimensional objects, and were then tested for exclusion, novelty control and learning of new simple discriminations. All dogs successfully responded by exclusion, choosing an undefined stimulus displayed with an S-. For three dogs, it was possible to conclude that these previously undefined stimuli acquired S+ functions, documenting learning of new simple discriminations. However, this required up to four exposures to exclusion trials with each pair of stimuli.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of (-)-adaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamazaki, Naoki; Kibayashi, Chihiro

    2002-07-25

    [reaction: see text] An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-adaline has been achieved starting from a chiral 6,6-disubstituted piperidone derivative previously prepared by diastereoselective allylation of a chiral tricyclic N-acyl-N,O-acetal. The key steps include lithium ion-activated SN2-type alkynylation of the tricyclic N,O-acetal leading to exclusive formation of the (6S)-ethynylpiperidine and ring-closing olefin metathesis of the (2R,6S)-cis-2,6-dialkenylpiperidine for constructing the bridged azabicyclononane.

  3. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajder, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize recent measurements of exclusive meson production performed by the COMPASS Collaboration. In particular, recent results on the transverse target spin asymmetries for exclusive r 0 production are presented. Some of these asymmetries are sensitive to the GPDs E , which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. Other asymmetries are sensitive to the chiral-odd, transverse GPDs H T . Measurements of exclusive processes, which are a part of the COMPASS-II proposal, are also discussed

  4. Characterization of enzymatically synthesized amylopectin analogs via asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Rolland-Sabate, Agnes; Guilois, Sophie; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), when coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), is a very powerful technique for determination of the macromolecular structure of high molar mass (branched) polysaccharides. AF4 is a size fractionation technique just as size exclusion c

  5. The asymmetric alkylation of dimethylhydrazones; intermolecular chirality transfer using sparteine as chiral ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Christina M; Foley, Vera M; McGlacken, Gerard P

    2014-12-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of ketones represents a fundamental transformation in organic chemistry. Chiral auxiliaries have been used almost exclusively for this transformation. Herein we describe a strategy for the generation of enantiomerically enriched α-alkylated ketones up to an er of 83 : 17, using a chiral ligand protocol.

  6. Asymmetric Bessel modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Soifer, V A

    2014-04-15

    We propose a new, three-parameter family of diffraction-free asymmetric elegant Bessel modes (aB-modes) with an integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aB-modes are described by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind with complex argument. The asymmetry degree of the nonparaxial aB-mode is shown to depend on a real parameter c≥0: when c=0, the aB-mode is identical to a conventional radially symmetric Bessel mode; with increasing c, the aB-mode starts to acquire a crescent form, getting stretched along the vertical axis and shifted along the horizontal axis for c≫1. On the horizontal axis, the aB-modes have a denumerable number of isolated intensity zeros that generate optical vortices with a unit topological charge of opposite sign on opposite sides of 0. At different values of the parameter c, the intensity zeros change their location on the horizontal axis, thus changing the beam's OAM. An isolated intensity zero on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. The OAM per photon of an aB-mode depends near-linearly on c, being equal to ℏ(n+cI1(2c)/I0(2c)), where ℏ is the Planck constant and In(x) is a modified Bessel function.

  7. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  8. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  9. Exclusion Statistics: a Generalized Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Quan; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing the fused-particle representation of the free boson gas, we propose a description of the exclusion statistics which allows us to connect the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics smoothly.With an proper choice of the exclusion factors γl, Hadane-Wu's fractional statistics is retrieved in this representation.

  10. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  11. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  12. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...

  13. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara

    2011-01-01

    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  14. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market......Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...

  15. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  16. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  17. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas

    2017-07-01

    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  19. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Asymmetric Propanetriol Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From natural tartaric acid, (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(2-tetrahydropyranyloxy) propanol 3 was designed and synthesized, and (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) propanol 7 was prepared in a new method. They can be used as chiral synthons of lysophosphatidic acid and other compounds with asymmetric propanetriol backbone.

  1. Catalytic Asymmetric Bromocyclization of Polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ramesh C; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2017-02-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric bromonium ion-induced polyene cyclization has been achieved by using a chiral BINOL-derived thiophosphoramide catalyst and 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin as an electrophilic bromine source. Bromocyclization products are obtained in high yields, with good enantiomeric ratios and high diastereoselectivity, and are abundantly found as scaffolds in natural products.

  2. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  3. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  4. Asymmetric Multilevel Diversity Coding and Asymmetric Gaussian Multiple Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajer, Soheil; Diggavi, Suhas N

    2009-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric multilevel diversity (A-MLD) coding problem, where a set of $2^K-1$ information sources, ordered in a decreasing level of importance, is encoded into $K$ messages (or descriptions). There are $2^K-1$ decoders, each of which has access to a non-empty subset of the encoded messages. Each decoder is required to reproduce the information sources up to a certain importance level depending on the combination of descriptions available to it. We obtain a single letter characterization of the achievable rate region for the 3-description problem. In contrast to symmetric multilevel diversity coding, source-separation coding is not sufficient in the asymmetric case, and ideas akin to network coding need to be used strategically. Based on the intuitions gained in treating the A-MLD problem, we derive inner and outer bounds for the rate region of the asymmetric Gaussian multiple description (MD) problem with three descriptions. Both the inner and outer bounds have a similar geometric structure t...

  5. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.10 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ Regulations provide for the categorical exclusion... administrative operations of the Corporation. (b) List of categorical exclusions. Categories of...

  6. 42 CFR 1002.203 - Mandatory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory exclusion. 1002.203 Section 1002.203... AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICAID Mandatory Exclusion § 1002.203 Mandatory exclusion. (a) The State agency, in order to receive Federal financial participation (FFP),...

  7. Exclusive meson production at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M.; Kugler, W.

    2007-06-15

    We report on numerical studies of the NLO corrections to exclusive meson electroproduction, both in collider and fixed-target kinematics. Corrections are found to be huge at small x{sub B} and moderate at intermediate or large x{sub B}. (orig.)

  8. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  9. Social exclusion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting. This study seeks to provide a greater insight into the situation of citizens for whom 'taking part' is a problem, in other words who are victims of social exclusion. In order to expose this problem adequately, it is first important to make clear how the

  10. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, J; Moinester, M A; Piller, G; Sandacz, A; Vanderhaeghen, M; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  11. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  12. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  13. Tarlov Cyst: A diagnostic of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Cyril; Poglia, Pietro; Laudato, Pietro

    2017-07-25

    Tarlov cysts were first described in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. The cysts are usually diagnosed on MRI, which reveals the lesion arising from the sacral nerve root near the dorsal root ganglion. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon and it is recommended to consider Tarlov cyst as a diagnostic of exclusion. We report a case of a patient with voluminous bilateral L5 and S1 Tarlov cyst, and right hip osteonecrosis to increase the awareness in the orthopaedic community. A 57-year-old female, in good health, with chronic low back pain since 20 years, presented suddenly right buttock pain, right inguinal fold pain and low back pain for two months, with inability to walk and to sit down. X-ray of the lumbo-sacral spine revealed asymmetric discopathy L5-S1 and L3-L4. X-ray of the right hip did not reveal anything. We asked for an MRI of the spine and it revealed a voluminous fluid-filled cystic lesion, arising from the first sacral nerve root on both side and measuring 3,3cm in diameter. The MRI also show a part of the hip and incidentally we discovered an osteonecrosis Ficat 3 of the right femoral head. The patient was taken for a total hip arthroplasty, by anterior approach. Patient appreciated relief of pain immediately after the surgery. The current case show that even if we find a voluminous cyst we always have to eliminate other diagnosis (especially the frequent like osteonecrosis of the femoral head) and mostly in the case of unclear neurological perturbation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  15. Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, R; Menzel, C; Rockstuhl, C; Azad, A K; Cheville, R A; Lederer, F; Zhang, W; Zheludev, N I

    2009-01-01

    We show for the first time that a planar metamaterial, an array of coupled metal split-ring resonators with a unit cell lacking mirror symmetry, exhibits asymmetric transmission of terahertz radiation propagating through it in opposite directions. This intriguing effect, that is compatible with Lorentz reciprocity and time-reversal, depends on a directional difference in conversion efficiency of the incident circularly polarized wave into one of opposite handedness, that is only possible in lossy low-symmetry planar chiral metamaterials. We show that asymmetric transmission is linked to excitation of enantiomerically sensitive plasmons, these are induced charge-field excitations that depend on the mutual handedness of incident wave and metamaterial pattern. Various bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities have been identified indicating the opportunity to develop polarization sensitive negative index and slow light media based on such metamaterials.

  16. Superpositions of asymmetrical Bessel beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Soifer, V A

    2015-06-01

    We considered nonparaxial asymmetrical Bessel modes of the first and second types, which differ from a conventional symmetrical Bessel mode by a real-valued shift along one Cartesian coordinate and an imaginary shift along another (both shifts are equal in modulus). The first- and second-type Bessel modes differ only in signs of the shift and, therefore, have different orbital angular momentum (OAM) (integer or fractional). Addition and subtraction of complex amplitudes of two identical asymmetrical Bessel modes of the first and second type lead to light beams with the same integer OAM equal to the topological charge n of the original mode, but with different transverse intensity distributions, which depend on the shift magnitude. This proposed method allows controlling of the OAM of the beam with simultaneous changing of its shape, i.e., for matching with the object being trapped.

  17. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  18. Asymmetrical Γ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    , inverters with coupled transformers have been introduced, but they usually lead to high turns ratio, and hence many winding turns, at high gain. An alternative would then be the asymmetrical Γ-source inverters proposed in this paper, whose gain is raised by lowering their turns ratio toward unity. The input...... current drawn by the proposed inverters is smoother and, hence, more adaptable by the source. Theories and experimental results have been presented in this paper for validating the concepts proposed....

  19. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  20. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  1. Montreal exclusivity versus EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current air law is a showcase of multilevel regulation. The rights and obligations of airlines and their passengers are governed both by the Montreal Convention and by EU Regulation 261/2004. The EU placed itself in a difficult position by adopting Regulation 261/2004 shortly after it had signed the Montreal Convention. Both instruments provide for different standards for liability. The issue is whether or not the rules in the Convention is exclusive.

  2. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....

  3. Nanofluidic Size-Exclusion Chromatograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Svehla, Danielle; Grunthaner, Frank; Feldman, Jason; Shakkottai, P.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a nanofluidic size-exclusion chromatograph (SEC), which would be a compact, robust, lightweight instrument for separating molecules of interest according to their sizes and measuring their relative abundances in small samples. About as large as a deck of playing cards, the nanofluidic SEC would serve, in effect, as a laboratory on a chip that would perform the functions of a much larger, conventional, bench-top SEC and ancillary equipment, while consuming much less power and much smaller quantities of reagent and sample materials. Its compactness and low power demand would render it attractive for field applications in which, typically, it would be used to identify and quantitate a broad range of polar and nonpolar organic compounds in soil, ice, and water samples. Size-exclusion chromatography is a special case of high-performance liquid chromatography. In a conventional SEC, a sample plug is driven by pressure along a column packed with silica or polymer beads that contain uniform nanopores. The interstices between, and the pores in, the beads collectively constitute a size-exclusion network. Molecules follow different paths through the size-exclusion network, such that characteristic elution times can be related to sizes of molecules: basically, smaller molecules reach the downstream end of the column after the larger ones do because the smaller ones enter minor pores and stay there for a while, whereas the larger ones do not enter the pores. The volume accessible to molecules gradually diminishes as their size increases. All molecules bigger than a pore size elute together. For most substances, the elution times and sizes of molecules can be correlated directly with molecular weights. Hence, by measuring the flux of molecules arriving at the downstream end as a function of time, one can obtain a liquid mass spectrum for the molecules present in a sample over a broad range of molecular weights.

  4. Asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile and their metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjie; Shi, Rufei; Zhou, Pei; Qiu, Qiming; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Asymmetric Schiff bases, due to its asymmetric structure, can be used as asymmetric catalyst, antibacterial, and mimic molecules during simulate biological processes, etc. In recent years, research on synthesis and properties of asymmetric Schiff bases have become an increase interest of chemists. This review summarizes asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases metal complexes. Applications of DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases are also discussed in this review.

  5. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir

    2002-07-01

    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  6. Loan sales under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Martínez, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  7. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  8. Review of Composite Asymmetric Spur Gear

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep C. Dhaduti; Dr. S. G. Sarganachari

    2015-01-01

    Gears made from composite materials are widely used in many power and motion transmission applications. Due to lower weight to stiffness ratio, composite gears may be replaced by conventional material gears in power transmission systems. Design of gears with asymmetric teeth enables to increase load capacity, reduce weight, size and vibration level. This article includes a summary of asymmetric gear design parameters, new developments of asymmetric spur gear and their ...

  9. The asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen effect

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Manoel P.; Carvalho, Silvânia A.; De Leo, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We show in which conditions optical gaussian beams, propagating throughout an homogeneous dielectric right angle prism, present an asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) effect. This asymmetric behavior is seen for incidence at critical angles and happens in the propagation direction of the outgoing beam. The asymmetric GH effect can be also seen as an amplification of the standard GH shift. Due to the fact that it only depends on the ratio between the wavelength and the minimal waist size of the inc...

  10. The asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen effect

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Manoel P; De Leo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We show in which conditions optical gaussian beams, propagating throughout an homogeneous dielectric right angle prism, present an asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) effect. This asymmetric behavior is seen for incidence at critical angles and happens in the propagation direction of the outgoing beam. The asymmetric GH effect can be also seen as an amplification of the standard GH shift. Due to the fact that it only depends on the ratio between the wavelength and the minimal waist size of the incoming gaussian beam, it can be also used to determine one of these parameters. Multiple peaks interference is an additional phenomenon seen in the presence of such asymmetric effects.

  11. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent.

  12. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  13. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  14. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  15. 5 CFR 551.214 - Statutory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory exclusion. 551.214 Section 551.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.214 Statutory exclusion....

  16. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1815.110 Section 1815... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical exclusion of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the...

  17. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...

  19. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals differential gene expression between asymmetric and symmetric zygotic divisions in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiang Hu

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell divisions occur widely during many developmental processes in plants. In most angiosperms, the first zygotic cell division is asymmetric resulting in two daughter cells of unequal size and with distinct fates. However, the critical molecular mechanisms regulating this division remain unknown. Previously we showed that treatment of tobacco zygotes with beta-glucosyl Yariv (βGlcY could dramatically alter the first zygotic asymmetric division to produce symmetric two-celled proembryos. In the present study, we isolated zygotes and two-celled asymmetric proembryos in vivo by micromanipulation, and obtained symmetric, two-celled proembryos by in vitro cell cultures. Using suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH and macroarray analysis differential gene expression between the zygote and the asymmetric and symmetric two-celled proembryos was investigated. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 1610 EST clones representing 685 non-redundant transcripts were obtained. Gene ontology (GO term analysis revealed that these transcripts include those involved in physiological processes such as response to stimulus, regulation of gene expression, and localization and formation of anatomical structures. A homology search against known genes from Arabidopsis indicated that some of the above transcripts are involved in asymmetric cell division and embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the up- or down-regulation of the selected candidate transcripts during zygotic division. A few of these transcripts were expressed exclusively in the zygote, or in either type of the two-celled proembryos. Expression analyses of select genes in different tissues and organs also revealed potential roles of these transcripts in fertilization, seed maturation and organ development. The putative roles of few of the identified transcripts in the regulation of zygotic division are discussed. Further functional work on these

  20. Eigenstate localization in an asymmetric coupled quantum well pair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mialitsin, Aleksej; Schmult, Stefan; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2012-01-01

    exclusively either in the wide or the narrow parts of the well pair. The energy of the narrow-well localized state determines the minimal excitation energy for optically pumped charge carriers separation. In a previously used design [Guliamov et al., PRB 64 035314 (2001)] this narrow well transition energy......Optical pumping of a type-I/type-II coupled asymmetric quantum well pair induces a spatially separated two dimensional charge carriers plasma in the well’s wide and narrow parts. Treating the two coupled wells as a single system we find that the eigenstate probability distribution localizes...... was measured to correspond to a wavelength of 646 nm. We propose modifications to the design suggested earlier with the purpose of pushing up the energy required for the optical pumping of the two-dimensional plasma into the green and blue regions of the visible spectrum....

  1. Choreography of Ig allelic exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2008-06-01

    Allelic exclusion guarantees that each B or T cell only produces a single antigen receptor, and in this way contributes to immune diversity. This process is actually initiated in the early embryo when the immune receptor loci become asynchronously replicating in a stochastic manner with one early and one late allele in each cell. This distinct differential replication timing feature then serves an instructive mark that directs a series of allele-specific epigenetic events in the immune system, including programmed histone modification, nuclear localization and DNA demethylation that ultimately bring about preferred rearrangement on a single allele, and this decision is temporally stabilized by feedback mechanisms that inhibit recombination on the second allele. In principle, these same molecular components are also used for controlling monoallelic expression at other genomic loci, such as those carrying interleukins and olfactory receptor genes that require the choice of one gene out of a large array. Thus, allelic exclusion appears to represent a general epigenetic phenomenon that is modeled on the same basis as X chromosome inactivation.

  2. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  3. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  4. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  5. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  6. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  7. Asymmetric catalysis : ligand design and microwave acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bremberg, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals partly with the design and synthesis ofligands for use in asymmetric catalysis, and partly with theapplication of microwave heating on metal-based asymmetriccatalytic reactions. Enantiomerically pure pyridyl alcohols and bipyridylalcohols were synthesized from the chiral pool for future usein asymmetric catalysis. Lithiated pyridines were reacted withseveral chiral electrophiles, yielding diastereomeric mixturesthat could be separated without the use of resolutiontechniques....

  8. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  9. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  10. The Catalytic Asymmetric Intramolecular Stetter Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alaniz, Javier Read; Rovis, Tomislav

    2009-05-01

    This account chronicles our efforts at the development of a catalytic asymmetric Stetter reaction using chiral triazolium salts as small molecule organic catalysts. Advances in the mechanistically related azolium-catalyzed asymmetric benzoin reaction are discussed, particularly as they apply to catalyst design. A chronological treatise of reaction discovery, catalyst optimization and reactivity extension follows.

  11. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  12. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong

    2017-05-01

    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  13. Hard Exclusive Reactions at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubarovsky, Valery P. [JLAB

    2011-09-20

    Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity--dependent and helicity--independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\rho^0$, $\\rho^+$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in $Q^2$=1--4.5 GeV$^2$, $x_B$=0.1--0.5, and $|t|$ up to 2 GeV$^2$. The presented results offer a unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken $x_B$ and momentum transfer to the nucleon $t$ at the same time.

  14. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  15. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Gao

    2003-11-01

    Mapping the transition from strongly interacting, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of the CEBAF facility. In this talk, I review recent results from Jefferson Lab on deuteron photodisintegration and photopion production processes and the future 12 GeV program.

  16. On the Generalized Exclusion Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, M; Zerouaoui, J

    2001-01-01

    We review the principal steps leading to drive the wave function $\\psi _{\\{k_1,k_2,...,k_N \\}}(1,2,...,N)$ of a gaz of $N$ identical particle states with exotic statistics. For spins $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$, we show that the quasideterminant conjectured in [19], by using $2d$ conformal field theoretical methods, is indeed related to the quantum determinant of noncommutative geometry. The q-number $[N]!=\\prod_{n=1}^N(\\sum_{j=0}^{N-1} q^j)$ carrying the effect of the generalized Pauli exclusion principle, according to which no more than $(M-1)$ identical particles of spin $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$ can live altogether on the same quantum state, is rederived in rigourous from the q-antisymmetry. Other features are also given.

  17. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (psocial exclusion was also significant (p=0.035) and arose from a significant, specific increase of shame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (psocial exclusion, individuals with obesity do not respond with more intensive negative emotions in general compared to controls, but with a specific increase in shame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial.

  18. Enantiopure sulfoxides: recent applications in asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Ribagorda, María; Urbano, Antonio

    2009-11-07

    Sulfoxides are nowadays recognised as powerful chiral auxiliaries that may participate in a wide range of asymmetric reactions. Their high configurational stability, the existence of several efficient methods allowing the access to both configurations as well as their synthetic versatility are characteristic features offering a tremendous potential to develop new applications. Significant recent advances leading to high asymmetric inductions in carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bond forming reactions, and applications of homochiral sulfoxides to atroposelective synthesis and asymmetric catalysis are discussed. New uses of sulfoxides in the design of chiroptical switches are also shown.

  19. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Koshima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  20. Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.

  1. Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Egger, Boris; Brand, Andrea H

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. Recent studies are also beginning to reveal the connection between the misregulation of asymmetric cell division and cancer. What we are learning from Drosophila as a model system has implication both for stem cell biology and also cancer research.

  2. Asymmetric Ketone Reduction by Imine Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Maike; Meisner, Jan; Quertinmont, Leann; Lutz, Stefan; Kästner, Johannes; Nestl, Bettina M

    2017-02-01

    The rapidly growing area of asymmetric imine reduction by imine reductases (IREDs) has provided alternative routes to chiral amines. Here we report the expansion of the reaction scope of IREDs by showing the stereoselective reduction of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone. Assisted by an in silico analysis of energy barriers, we evaluated asymmetric hydrogenations of carbonyls and imines while considering the influence of substrate reactivity on the chemoselectivity of this novel class of reductases. We report the asymmetric reduction of C=N as well as C=O bonds catalysed by members of the IRED enzyme family. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-06

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe.

  4. On-chip asymmetric microcavity optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Soheil; Hudnut, Alexa W; Armani, Andrea M

    2016-12-26

    High quality factor (Q) optical resonators have enabled rapid growth in the field of cavity-enhanced, radiation pressure-induced optomechanics. However, because research has focused on axisymmetric devices, the observed regenerative excited mechanical modes are similar. In the present work, a strategy for fabricating high-Q whispering gallery mode microcavities with varying degrees of asymmetry is developed and demonstrated. Due to the combination of high optical Q and asymmetric device design, two previously unobserved modes, the asymmetric cantilever and asymmetric crown mode, are demonstrated with sub-mW thresholds for onset of oscillations. The experimental results are in good agreement with computational modeling predictions.

  5. Exclusive meson production at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Manaenkov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The data were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron or positron beam of HERA. Exclusive electroproduction of $\\omega$ mesons on unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets is studied in the kinematic region of $Q^2>1.0$ GeV$^2$, 3.0 GeV $< W <$ 6.3 GeV, and $-t'< 0.2 $ GeV$^{2}$, while for $\\rho^0$-meson production on a transversely polarized hydrogen target $-t'< 0.4$ GeV$^{2}$ is used. Spin-density matrix elements for $\\omega$ production are presented in projections of $Q^2$ or $-t'$, while the ratios of the helicity amplitudes for the reaction $\\gamma^*+p \\to \\rho^0+p$ are obtained in the entire kinematic region. The usage of the transversely polarized target allows for the first time the extraction of the ratios of certain nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to the natural-parity exchange amplitude $T_{0\\frac{1}{2}0\\frac{1}{2}}$ without the nucleon-helicity flip describing the longitudinal $\\rho^0$-meson production by the longitudinal...

  6. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis of vindoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Boger, Dale L

    2010-03-24

    A concise asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-vindoline (1) is detailed based on a tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which the tether linking the initiating dienophile and oxadiazole bears a chiral substituent that controls the facial selectivity of the initiating Diels-Alder reaction and sets absolute stereochemistry of the remaining six stereocenters in the cascade cycloadduct. This key reaction introduces three rings and four C-C bonds central to the pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. Implementation of the approach also required the development of a unique ring expansion reaction to provide a six-membered ring suitably functionalized for introduction of the Delta (6, 7)-double bond found in the core structure of vindoline and defined our use of a protected hydroxymethyl group as the substituent used to control the stereochemical course of the cycloaddition cascade.

  8. an asymmetrically heated rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strąk Kinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses test results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel 1.7 mm in depth, 16 mm in width and 180 mm in length. The essential part of the experimental stand was a vertically oriented rectangular minichannel, which was heated asymmetrically with a plate made of Haynes-230 alloy. Distilled water was used as the cooling fluid. Changes in the temperature on the outer side of the heated plate in the central, axially symmetric part of the channel were measured using infrared thermography. Simultaneously, the other side of the heated plate in contact with the fluid was observed through a glass pane to identify the two-phase flow patterns. The one-dimensional model used for the heat transfer analysis took into account the heat flow direction, which was perpendicular to the direction of the fluid flow in the minichannel. The study involved determining local values of the heat transfer coefficient and generating boiling curves. The data for water were compared with the findings reported for the FC-72 fluid.

  9. Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, T B; Bahder, Thomas B.; Fazi, Chris

    2002-01-01

    When a high voltage (~30 kV) is applied to a capacitor whose electrodes have different physical dimensions, the capacitor experiences a net force toward the smaller electrode (Biefeld-Brown effect). We have verified this effect by building four capacitors of different shapes. The effect may have applications to vehicle propulsion and dielectric pumps. We review the history of this effect briefly through the history of patents by Thomas Townsend Brown. At present, the physical basis for the Biefeld-Brown effect is not understood. The order of magnitude of the net force on the asymmetric capacitor is estimated assuming two different mechanisms of charge conduction between its electrodes: ballistic ionic wind and ionic drift. The calculations indicate that ionic wind is at least three orders of magnitude too small to explain the magnitude of the observed force on the capacitor. The ionic drift transport assumption leads to the correct order of magnitude for the force, however, it is difficult to see how ionic dr...

  10. Asymmetric dark matter bound state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2017-02-01

    We propose an interesting framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has novel collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local U (1 )d symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson X . The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into X -pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form a bound state due to its large self-interaction via X mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with b b ¯. The resulting signature at the LHC depends on the decays of X . In this paper we consider a case of particular interest: p p →b b ¯ +ADMonium followed by ADMonium→2 X →2 e+e- where the electrons are identified as (un)converted photons. It may provide a competitive explanation to heavy di-photon resonance searches at the LHC.

  11. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  12. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 8..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... a competitor's product. (b) Section 8.52 lists practices that result in exclusion. Section...

  13. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A; K\\'{e}p\\'{\\i}r\\'{o}, Ibolya

    2006-01-01

    We consider Swiss-cheese brane universes embedded asymmetrically into the bulk. Neither the junction conditions between the Schwarzschild spheres and the sorrounding Friedmann brane regions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda $, nor the evolution of the scale factor are changed with respect to the symmetric case. The universe expands and decelerates forever. The asymmetry however has a drastic influence on the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Instead of the two branches of the symmetric case, in the asymmetric case four branches emerge. Moreover, the future pressure singularity arising in the symmetric case only for huge values of $\\Lambda $ becomes quite generic in the asymmetric case. Such pressure singularities emerge also when $\\Lambda=0$ is set. Then they are due entirely to the asymmetric embedding. For generic values of $\\Lambda $ we introduce a critical value of a suitably defined asymmetry parameter, which separates Swiss-cheese cosmologies with and without pressure singularities.

  14. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornillos, Valentin; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of ,-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good y

  16. Asymmetric Watermarking Scheme Based on Correlation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Munir

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetric watermarking is the second generation of watermarking scheme which uses different keys for embedding and detecting watermark. Key for embedding is private or secret, but key for detecting can be available publicly and everyone who has the key can detect watermark Watermark detection does not need to be original multimedia data. Detection of watermark is realized using correlation test between public key and multimedia data received. In most of schemes, private key is the watermark itself; public key is public watermark which correlates to the private watermark This paper presents concept of asymmetric watermarking scheme that based on correlation test and reviews some schemes of asymmetric watermarking that have been proposed by researchers. Keywords: asymmetric watermarking, private key, public key, watermark., multimeelia,:correlation.

  17. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Veera R; Laxminarasimhulu Gorentla; Pramod K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  18. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera R. Arava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  19. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  20. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  1. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  2. DOES VOLATILITY RESPOND ASYMMETRIC TO PAST SHOCKS?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Botoc

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to examine if the stock market volatility exhibits asymmetric or an asymmetric response to past shocks, for certain CEE countries (Romania,Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland) over the period May 2004 - September 2014. For the stock marketsfrom East Europe the results are in line with the symmetric volatility, i.e. volatility is similaraffected by both positive and negative returns with the same magnitude. For the stock marketsfrom Central Europe the results are consistent ...

  3. Exclusion from School and Recognition of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet; Fordyce, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    There has been an overall decrease in exclusion rates and numbers in recent years across the UK. This change has often been heralded as evidence that national inclusion policies are "working" and that schools themselves are becoming increasingly inclusive. This article examines findings from a recent study on school exclusion in Wales,…

  4. Disciplinary Exclusion: The Influence of School Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Lucy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion is a strategy used by some schools in response to challenging behaviour. While some studies have explored interventions that can be implemented to reduce the exclusion of "at risk" pupils, others have considered how the underlying school ethos influences how challenging behaviour is understood and managed. The…

  5. 32 CFR 989.13 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 989.13 Section 989.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.13 Categorical exclusion. (a) CATEXs define those...

  6. Social exclusion of the poor people

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical part is devoted to the social exclusion of poor people and its requisites. The introductory chapters explain what is the social exclusion of poor people, and what is the problem with poverty. There are also analyzed the different legal standards. The practical part is aimed at socially excluded people, their social life and their comparison.

  7. Generation of central exclusive final states

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the Pythia 8 program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in Pythia 8. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor.

  8. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A

    2014-09-01

    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  9. Exclusion and Education in South Africa: An Education Law Perspective of Emerging Alternative Understandings of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The new democratic dispensation in South Africa (1994) was accompanied by law and policy aimed at preventing unfair exclusion from educational opportunities and promoting equal access to educational opportunities. However, feelings of unfair exclusion remain and new understandings of exclusion are emerging. This paper examines the new policy and…

  10. Comparison of consistency assessment models for isolated horizontal curves in two-lane rural highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cárdenas-Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de consistencia del diseño geométrico de carreteras tiene por objetivo contar con carreteras más seguras. Para analizar consistencia existen dos tipos de modelos: agregados y desagregados. Los primeros consideran diferencias de velocidades de diseño y operación en la mitad de la curva. Los segundos consideran la variación espacial del perfil de velocidad de operación. Este trabajo comparó los dos métodos usando datos empíricos de velocidad de operación obtenidos con un GPS de 10 Hz en 34 curvas horizontales simples de carreteras de dos carriles en Chile. Los resultados permitieron concluir que solo en 19 casos los métodos resultaron equivalentes entre sí. Esta compatibilidad sólo se da cuando el perfil de velocidad de operación posee poca varianza especial. Si el perfil de velocidad de operación es muy variable espacialmente, el nivel de consistencia obtenido usando los 2 métodos es diferente, caso en el cual resulta más conveniente combinarlos.

  11. Optimizing Work Zones for Two-Lane Urban Road Maintenance Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qian; SHI Jing

    2008-01-01

    Road maintenance work brings costs to the govemment and delays to users.The setting up of work zones often leads to severe congestion during peak hours,especially in busy urban areas.A road maintenance delay model is presented here that includes consideration of excessive traffic flow and non-motorists.A trial-and-error method is used to find the optimal work zone length and the best work starting time to minimize the total cost of maintenance and delays.A numerical example with a sensitivity analysis is also given.The results show that optimal starting time is not sensitive to the flow speed and the increase of work zone speeds sharply reduces the total cost when the road is congested.

  12. Contribution to Accident Prediction Models Development for Rural Two-Lane Roads in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženko Glavić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades numerous research efforts have been conducted worldwide to determine the relationship between traffic accidents and traffic and road characteristics. So far, the mentioned studies have not been carried out in Serbia and in the region. This paper represents one of the first attempts to develop accident prediction models in Serbia. The paper provides a comprehensive literature review, describes procedures for collection and analysis of the traffic accident data, as well as the methodology used to develop the accident prediction models. The paper presents models obtained by both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The obtained results are compared to the results of other studies and comparisons are discussed. Finally, the paper presents conclusions and important points for future research. The results of this research can find theoretical as well as practical application.

  13. Crash prediction model for two-lane rural highways in the Ashanti region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ackaah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Crash Prediction Models (CPMs have been used elsewhere as a useful tool by road Engineers and Planners. There is however no study on the prediction of road traffic crashes on rural highways in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to develop a prediction model for road traffic crashes occurring on the rural sections of the highways in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The model was developed for all injury crashes occurring on selected rural highways in the Region over the three (3 year period 2005–2007. Data was collected from 76 rural highway sections and each section varied between 0.8 km and 6.7 km. Data collected for each section comprised injury crash data, traffic flow and speed data, and roadway characteristics and road geometry data. The Generalised Linear Model (GLM with Negative Binomial (NB error structure was used to estimate the model parameters. Two types of models, the ‘core’ model which included key exposure variables only and the ‘full’ model which included a wider range of variables were developed. The results show that traffic flow, highway segment length, junction density, terrain type and presence of a village settlement within road segments were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables (p<0.05 for crash involvement. Adding one junction to a 1 km section of road segment was found to increase injury crashes by 32.0% and sections which had a village settlement within them were found to increase injury crashes by 60.3% compared with segments with no settlements. The model explained 61.2% of the systematic variation in the data. Road and Traffic Engineers and Planners can apply the crash prediction model as a tool in safety improvement works and in the design of safer roads. It is recommended that to improve safety, highways should be designed to by-pass village settlements and that the number of junctions on a highway should be limited to carefully designed ones.

  14. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  15. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-02-22

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions.

  16. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Claypool, Heather M

    2012-02-01

    Some research indicates that social exclusion leads to increased emotional- and physical-pain sensitivity, whereas other work indicates that exclusion causes emotional- and physical-pain numbing. This research sought to examine what causes these opposing outcomes. In Study 1, the paradigm used to instantiate social exclusion was found to moderate the social exclusion-physical pain relation: Future-life exclusion led to a numbing of physical pain whereas Cyberball exclusion led to hypersensitivity. Study 2 examined the underlying mechanism, which was hypothesized to be the severity of the "social injury." Participants were subjected to either the standard future-life exclusion manipulation (purported to be a highly severe social injury) or a newly created, less-severe version. Supporting our hypothesis, the standard (highly severe) future-life exclusion led to physical-pain numbing, whereas the less-severe future-life exclusion resulted in hypersensitivity. Implications of these results for understanding the exclusion-pain relation and other exclusion effects are discussed.

  17. Spacecraft observations and analytic theory of crescent-shaped electron distributions in asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Egedal, J; Daughton, W; Wetherton, B; Cassak, P A; Chen, L -J; Lavraud, B; Trobert, R B; Dorelli, J; Gershman, D J; Avanov, L A

    2016-01-01

    Supported by a kinetic simulation, we derive an exclusion energy parameter $\\cal{E}_X$ providing a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to cross from one inflow region to the other during magnetic reconnection. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, setting the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix during asymmetric reconnection. The analytic model accounts for the two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions observed by spacecraft in a thin boundary layer along the low density separatrix.

  18. All-optical adder/subtractor based on tera-hertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical adder/subtractor (A/S) unit with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) is proposed.Tile all-optical A/S unit with a set of all-optical full-adders and optical exclusive-ORs (XORs),can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components.We try to exploit the advantages of TOAD-based optical switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit which can perform binary addition and subtraction.With computer simulation results confirming the described methods,conclusions are given.

  19. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  20. Asymmetric tandem organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Thomas J.

    where it is used to predict the short-circuit current (Jsc) generation of the sub-cells, which is not accessible experimentally. Current-matching is then used to predict the Jsc of the complete tandem device. . As a support to the optical modelling, ellipsometry measurements of thin films of ClAlPc are presented. These films of known thickness are analysed to extract the complex refractive index for use in optical modelling calculations. A dependence of the complex refractive index on film thickness and substrate is also noted. Finally, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) technique is considered as applied to solar cells, and an additional method is proposed to characterise current balancing in asymmetric tandem cells under illumination. This technique is verified experimentally by two separate sets of data..

  1. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time on mutual exclusion lock in efficient manner has been discussed in detail.

  2. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  3. Hydrodynamic solutions of spatially-varying 1D exclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean field limit. The mean field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean field currents are exact as long as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  4. [Development of new methods in asymmetric reactions and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Node, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    Several novel methods using chiral reagents and biocatalysts for asymmetric reactions are described. Among those reactions, asymmetric reduction via a novel tandem Michael addition/Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction of acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones using a chiral mercapto alcohol, asymmetric synthesis of allene-1,3-dicarboxylate via crystallization induced asymmetric transformation, and improved asymmetric nitroolefination of lactones and lactames at alpha-carbon using new chiral reagents were developed. In the reactions using biocatalysts, asymmetric dealkoxycarbonylation of bicyclic beta-keto diesters having sigma-symmetry with lipase or esterase to give optically active beta-keto esters, the asymmetric reduction of bicyclic 1,3-diketones having sigma-symmetry with Baker's yeast to give optically active keto alcohols, and the asymmetric aldol reaction of glycine with threonine aldolase were also developed. The above mentioned products were effectively utilized as chiral building blocks for the asymmetric synthesis of natural products and drugs.

  5. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  6. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  7. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  8. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  9. 27 CFR 10.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 10..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... in exclusion. Section 10.54 lists the criteria used for determining whether other practices can...

  10. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion....

  11. Diffractive and Exclusive Processes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the CMS results on diffractive and exclusive production.Measurements of inclusive single and double diffractive production are discussedas well as measurements of the diffractive production at a hard scale. Measurementsof charged particle multiplicities for single diffractive enhanced data sample and studies of central diffractive jet production were perfrmed in a collaboration with the TOTEM experiment. CMS results on cross section measurements for exclusive dilepton and WW production are also presented.

  12. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    military. Many opponents believe that the military is being used as an experiment to "further social change in our society without regard for military...Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  13. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    and social exclusion by 2020. In the aftermath of the crisis welfare states are called to address multi-level social risks while securing their financial sustainability. This Review presents evidence from Framework Programme research projects with a view to address the challenges of poverty and social...... exclusion. It puts forward policy recommendations that put the emphasis on social investment and protection and pave the way for upward convergence in employment and social issues...

  14. Asymmetric catalysis based on tropos ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Mikami, Koichi

    2012-11-21

    All enantiopure atropisomeric (atropos) ligands essentially require enantiomeric resolution or synthetic transformation from a chiral pool. In sharp contrast, the use of tropos (chirally flexible) ligands, which are highly modular, versatile, and easy to synthesize without enantiomeric resolution, has recently been the topic of much interest in asymmetric catalysis. Racemic catalysts bearing tropos ligands can be applied to asymmetric catalysis through enantiomeric discrimination by the addition of a chiral source, which preferentially transforms one catalyst enantiomer into a highly activated catalyst enantiomer. Additionally, racemic catalysts bearing tropos ligands can also be utilized as atropos enantiopure catalysts obtained via the control of chirality by a chiral source followed by the memory of chirality. In this feature article, our results on the asymmetric catalysis via the combination of various central metals and tropos ligands are summarized.

  15. Dc SQUIDs with asymmetric shunt resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Nagel, Joachim; Kemmler, Matthias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISAplus, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb dc SQUIDs. Simulations based on the coupled Langevin equations predict that the optimum energy resolution ε, and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID, can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R{sup -1} = R{sub 1}{sup -1} + R{sub 2}{sup -1}, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R = R{sub 1,2}/2. Both types of SQUIDs were characterized with respect to their transport and noise properties at temperature T = 4.2 K, and we compared the experimental results with numerical simulations. Experiments yielded ε ∼ 32 ℎ for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance L = 22 pH, whereas a comparable symmetric device achieved ε = 110 ℎ.

  16. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  17. The development of stereotyping and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the developmental science literature on stereotyping and exclusion, with a focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Stereotyping of others, which is defined as the attribution of traits to individuals based on group membership, is often used to justify exclusion of others in social group contexts. This review includes a focus on the links between these two constructs. Research on stereotyping and exclusion has drawn on several theoretical traditions, including social domain theory, social identity developmental theory, and subjective group dynamics theory, which are also discussed in the context of the research findings. Key findings on stereotyping include categorization and classification in relationship with decreased in-group bias, and the role of stereotypes in encoding information. Findings on exclusion include the use of available information to make judgments, preferences for in-group members who are normative and out-group members who are deviant, the increased importance, with age, of group functioning in exclusion decisions, and decreased negative evaluation of in-group members who partake in exclusionary behaviors. Though little research has explicitly studied the links between stereotyping and exclusion from groups, this review describes the current literature in both areas and suggests future directions for research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  19. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Karamched, Bhargav R.

    2016-08-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states.

  20. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  1. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  2. Asymmetric catalysis with short-chain peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bartosz; Wennemers, Helma

    2014-10-01

    Within this review article we describe recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with peptides. Numerous peptides have been established in the past two decades that catalyze a wide variety of transformations with high stereoselectivities and yields, as well as broad substrate scope. We highlight here catalytically active peptides, which have addressed challenges that had thus far remained elusive in asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective synthesis of atropoisomers and quaternary stereogenic centers, regioselective transformations of polyfunctional substrates, chemoselective transformations, catalysis in-flow and reactions in aqueous environments.

  3. Deep inelastic scattering on asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Boros, C.; Tsushima, K.; Bissey, F.; Afnan, I. R.; Thomas, A. W.

    2000-11-01

    We study deep inelastic scattering on isospin asymmetric nuclei. In particular, the difference of the nuclear structure functions and the Gottfried sum rule for the lightest mirror nuclei, 3He and 3H, are investigated. It is found that such systems can provide significant information on charge symmetry breaking and flavor asymmetry in the nuclear medium. Furthermore, we propose a new method to extract the neutron structure function from radioactive isotopes far from the line of stability. We also discuss the flavor asymmetry in the Drell-Yan process with isospin asymmetric nuclei.

  4. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  5. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility.......In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even...

  6. Asymmetric localization in disordered Landau bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nita, M [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, PO Box MG7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aldea, A [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, PO Box MG7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zittartz, J [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Cologne University, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2007-06-06

    We show that, due to band mixing, the eigenstate localization within the disordered Landau bands gets an asymmetric structure: the degree of localization increases in the lower part of the band and decreases in the upper one. The calculation is performed for a two-dimensional lattice with the Anderson disorder potential and we prove that this effect is related to the upper shift of the extended states within the band and is enhanced by the disorder strength. The asymmetric localization and the energy shift disappear when the interband coupling is switched off.

  7. Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis in fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Alessandra; Bovo, Sara; Bertoldini, Matteo; Scrivanti, Alberto; Matteoli, Ugo

    2008-06-01

    Opposite enantiomers of a chiral fragrance may exhibit different olfactory activities making a synthesis in high enantiomeric purity commercially and scientifically interesting. Accordingly, the asymmetric synthesis of four chiral odorants, Fixolide, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile, has been investigated with the aim to develop practically feasible processes. In the devised synthetic schemes, the key step that leads to the formation of the stereogenic center is the homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of a prochiral olefin. By an appropriate choice of the catalyst and the reaction conditions, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile were obtained in high enantiomeric purity, and odor profiles of the single enantiomers were determined.

  8. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping

    2016-11-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  9. Switchable regioselectivity in amine-catalysed asymmetric cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Zhou, Yuan-Chun; Xiao, Wei; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Building small-molecule libraries with structural and stereogenic diversity plays an important role in drug discovery. The development of switchable intermolecular cycloaddition reactions from identical substrates in different regioselective fashions would provide an attractive protocol. However, this also represents a challenge in organic chemistry, because it is difficult to control regioselectivity to afford the products exclusively and at the same time achieve high levels of stereoselectivity. Here, we report the diversified cycloadditions of α‧-alkylidene-2-cyclopentenones catalysed by cinchona-derived primary amines. An asymmetric γ,β‧-regioselective intermolecular [6+2] cycloaddition reaction with 3-olefinic (7-aza)oxindoles is realized through the in situ generation of formal 4-aminofulvenes, while a different β,γ-regioselective [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with maleimides to access fused cyclobutanes is disclosed. In contrast, an intriguing α,γ-regioselective [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is uncovered with the same set of substrates, by employing an unprecedented dual small-molecule catalysis of amines and thiols. All of the cycloaddition reactions exhibit excellent regio- and stereoselectivity, producing a broad spectrum of chiral architectures with high structural diversity and molecular complexity.

  10. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    2001-01-01

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into sepa

  11. Integrated Optical Asymmetric Coupler Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-05-01

    Analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) asymmetric vertical coupler is presented. The integrated optical component is a coupler composed of a single mode (SM) low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. High sensitivities of about 0.14 rad.kPa-1 should be achieved.

  12. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-06-26

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds.

  13. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  14. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  15. Mach bands change asymmetrically during solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Diamond, Mark R; Badcock, David R

    2003-01-01

    Observations made during two partial eclipses of the Sun show that the Mach bands on shadows cast by the Sun disappear and reappear asymmetrically as an eclipse progresses. These changes can be explained as due to changes in the shape of the penumbras of shadows as the visible portion of the Sun forms crescents of different orientation.

  16. THz operation of asymmetric-nanochannel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balocco, C.; Halsall, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Song, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The THz spectrum lies between microwaves and the mid-infrared, a region that remains largely unexplored mainly due to the bottleneck issue of lacking compact, solid state, emitters and detectors. Here, we report on a novel asymmetric-nanochannel device, known as the self-switching device, which can

  17. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  18. Nucleation Process in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Peres-Menezes, D

    1998-01-01

    An extended version of the non linear Walecka model, with rho mesons and eletromagnetic field is used to investigate the possibility of phase transitions in hot (warm) nuclear matter, giving rise to droplet formation. Surface properties of asymmetric nuclear matter as the droplet surface energy and its thickness are also examined.

  19. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  20. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  1. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  2. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F

    1995-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  3. Asymmetric relationships between proteins shape genome evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaart, R.A.; Kensche, P.R.; Huynen, M.A.; Dutilh, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between proteins are often asymmetric: one protein (A) depends for its function on another protein (B), but the second protein does not depend on the first. In metabolic networks there are multiple pathways that converge into one central pathway. The enzymes in the conv

  4. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  5. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  6. Responding by exclusion in temporal discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippola, Nathália Sabaine; Domeniconi, Camila; Machado, Armando

    2014-03-01

    Responding by exclusion, one of the most robust phenomena in Experimental Psychology, describes a particular form of responding observed in symbolic, matching-to-sample tasks. Given two comparison stimuli, one experimentally defined and one experimentally undefined, the participant prefers the undefined comparison following an undefined sample. The goal of the present study was to determine whether responding by exclusion could be obtained using samples that varied along a single dimension. Using a double temporal bisection task, 10 university students learned to choose visual comparisons (colored circles) based on the duration of a tone. In tests of exclusion, sample stimuli with new durations were followed by comparison sets that included one previously trained, defined comparison (colored circle) and one previously untrained, undefined comparison (geometric shape). Participants preferred the defined comparisons following the defined samples and the undefined comparisons following the undefined samples, the choice pattern typical of responding by exclusion. The use of samples varying along a single dimension allows us to study the interaction between stimulus generalization gradients and exclusion in the control of conditional responding.

  7. Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-06-01

    Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.

  8. Is Amino-Acid Homochirality Due To Asymmetric Photolysis In Space?

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, C

    1999-01-01

    Amino acids occurring in proteins are, with rare exceptions, exclusively of the L-configuration. Among the many scenarios put forward to explain the origin of this chiral homogeneity (i.e., homochirality), one involves the asymmetric photolysis of amino acids present in space, triggered by circularly polarized UV radiation. The recent observation of circularly polarized light (CPL) in the Orion OMC-1 star-forming region (Bailey et al. 1998, Science 281, 672) has been presented as providing a strong validation of this scenario. The present paper reviews the situation. It is stressed for example that one important condition for the asymmetric photolysis by CPL to be at the origin of the terrestrial homochirality of natural amino acids is generally overlooked, namely, the asymmetric photolysis should favour the L-enantiomer for ALL the primordial amino acids involved in the genesis of life (i.e., biogenic amino acids). Although this condition is probably satisfied for aliphatic amino acids, some non-aliphatic am...

  9. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...... to ICT adoption in higher education deal with similar factors, but these are experienced differently in different contexts. While generalizing these factors into categories enables a better understanding of the nature of digital exclusion, solving and circumventing them remains complex due......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...

  10. On Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    Taking a combinatorial point of view on cyclotomic polynomials leads to a larger class of polynomials we shall call the inclusion-exclusion polynomials. This gives a more appropriate setting for certain types of questions about the coefficients of these polynomials. After establishing some basic properties of inclusion-exclusion polynomials we turn to a detailed study of the structure of ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomials. The latter subclass is exemplified by cyclotomic polynomials $\\Phi_{pqr}$, where $p

  11. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  12. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    .e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...

  13. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  14. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  15. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu (Petrascu), C; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10$^{-29}$ - 10$^{-30}$, thus improving the previous limit by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented.

  16. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  17. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  18. ICT and Socio-Economic Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; D'AMBROSIO, CONCHITA

    2003-01-01

    Using an innovative dataset for ICT use for five countries in Europe, we examine the impact and association of ICT on socio-economic exclusion. Using OLS regression we find significant wage premiums for PC and internet usage at the workplace. Following Dinardo/Fortin/Lemieux (1997), we examine the impact of ICT on the distribution of wages. We find that the risk of economic exclusion increases markedly for those not having ICT at the workplace, with the largest effects being found in Britain....

  19. Exclusive B decays to charmonium final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; De Bonis, I; Favier, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Galeazzi, F; Jérémie, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zachariadou, K; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen Jia Chao; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Fan, Q; Gill, M S; Gowdy, S J; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kral, J F; Leclerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Strother, P; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Champion, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; O'Neale, S W; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Yushkov, A N; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C D; Chun, S; Branson, J G; Faccini, R; MacFarlane, D B; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N P; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Schalk, T L; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Williams, D C; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoredsky, A P; Hitlin, D G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J Y T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Aleksan, Roy; De Domenico, G; de Lesquen, A; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Devmal, S C; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J D; Sen, S; Smith, J G; Wagner, D L; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Kocian, M L; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Di Lodovico, F; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E A; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Le Peltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, Andrea; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljevic, V; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; McMahon, S; McMahon, T R; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Dauncey, P D; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J W; Martin, R D; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Kurup, A; McGrath, P; Scott, I; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Li, Y; Pavlovich, J; Trunov, A G; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Fullwood, J; Khan, A; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Thompson, R J; Weatherall, J H; Dallapiccola, C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Blaylock, G; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R R; Lin, C S; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Bloom, P; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R A; Reidy, J; Sanders, D; Summers, D J; Arguin, J F; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Woch, A; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Falbo, M; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R G; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F R; Leruste, P J; Lory, J; Martínez-Vidal, F; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versille, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Haire, M J; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Kelsey, M H; Lü, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J S; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Waldi, R; Jacques, P F; Kalelkar, M S; Plano, R J; Adye, T; Egede, U; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, Gian P; Copty, N K; Purohit, M V; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Bloom, Elliott D; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Doser, Michael; Dunwoodie, W M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Grosso, P; Hewett, J L; Himel, Thomas M; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kim, P; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Manzin, G; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Morii, M; Mount, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Paolucci, P; Petrak, S; Quinn, Helen R; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Sciolla, G; Serbo, V V; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wisniewski, W J; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A V; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Vallazza, E; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Elmer, P; Johnson, J R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/psi, psi(2S), and chi_C1. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B0 --> J/psi K* decay, and measurements of the B0 and B+ masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  20. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  1. Fluorescence exclusion: A simple versatile technique to calculate cell volumes and local heights (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2017-02-01

    Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.

  2. 27 CFR 6.151 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 6.151 Section 6.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.151 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion,...

  3. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act. The...

  4. Exclusive Diffraction at HERA and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, S

    2010-01-01

    The exclusive diffractive production of vector mesons and real photons in ep collisions has been studied at HERA in a wide kinematic range. Here the most recent experimental results are presented together with a Regge-type model and projects for new diffractive studies at LHC.

  5. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact under NEPA is required... significant impact. Compliance with the other applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Categorical exclusions....

  6. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  7. 40 CFR 68.126 - Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion. 68.126 Section 68.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126...

  8. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    marital status, wealth index and age of the child were closely associated with EBF practices, nonetheless, in the ... nutrients, water etc. for an infant's need under six months of age (9). ... Exclusive breast-feeding: the mother/care giver reported ...

  9. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  10. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  11. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  12. 29 CFR 102.159 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusions. 102.159 Section 102.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt-Collection Procedures... initiation of the collection action. A determination of when the debt first accrued should be made according...

  13. Encounters with Exclusion through Disability Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines disability arts and its role in identifying exclusion and barriers to participation within society. The work of selected writers, poets and musicians is presented and its value as a form of ideological critique is explored. It is suggested that disability arts has the potential to succeed where other forms of ideological…

  14. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  15. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  16. Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Mehta, Anil K; Sidorov, Anton N; Orlando, Thomas M; Jiang, Zhigang; Anthony, Neil R; Lynn, David G

    2016-03-16

    Energetic insights emerging from the structural characterization of peptide cross-β assemblies have enabled the design and construction of robust asymmetric bilayer peptide membranes. Two peptides differing only in their N-terminal residue, phosphotyrosine vs lysine, coassemble as stacks of antiparallel β-sheets with precisely patterned charged lattices stabilizing the bilayer leaflet interface. Either homogeneous or mixed leaflet composition is possible, and both create nanotubes with dense negative external and positive internal solvent exposed surfaces. Cross-seeding peptide solutions with a preassembled peptide nanotube seed leads to domains of different leaflet architecture within single nanotubes. Architectural control over these cross-β assemblies, both across the bilayer membrane and along the nanotube length, provides access to highly ordered asymmetric membranes for the further construction of functional mesoscale assemblies.

  17. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models in SO(10)

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Natsumi; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study the possibilities for asymmetric dark matter in the context of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models of grand unification. Dark matter stability in SO(10) is guaranteed by a remnant $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry which is preserved when the intermediate scale gauge subgroup of SO(10) is broken by a ${\\bf 126}$ dimensional representation. The asymmetry in the dark matter states is directly generated through the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles around the intermediate scale, or transferred from the baryon/lepton asymmetry generated in the Standard Model sector by leptogenesis. We systematically classify possible asymmetric dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers, and derive the conditions for each case that the observed dark matter density is (mostly) explained by the asymmetry of dark matter particles.

  18. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-21

    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  19. Asymmetric dark matter models in SO(10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2017-02-01

    We systematically study the possibilities for asymmetric dark matter in the context of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models of grand unification. Dark matter stability in SO(10) is guaranteed by a remnant Z2 symmetry which is preserved when the intermediate scale gauge subgroup of SO(10) is broken by a {126} dimensional representation. The asymmetry in the dark matter states is directly generated through the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles around the intermediate scale, or transferred from the baryon/lepton asymmetry generated in the Standard Model sector by leptogenesis. We systematically classify possible asymmetric dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers, and derive the conditions for each case that the observed dark matter density is (mostly) explained by the asymmetry of dark matter particles.

  20. Asymmetric Vesicle Instability in Extensional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Andrew; Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Previous researchers have chronicled the breakup of drops in an extensional flow as they stretch into a dumbbell shape with a long thin neck. Motivated by recent experimental observations, we study an apparently similar problem with vesicles, which are deformable but incompressible membranes that conserve area and volume. First, we simulate vesicles in an unbounded uniaxial extensional flow which are given general radial perturbations from an initially stable symmetric equilibrium state. For sufficiently low reduced volume (outer viscosity) there exists a capillary number at which an asymmetric perturbation mode will grow, resulting in the formation of an asymmetric dumbbell shape with a thin connecting cylindrical bridge analogous to the shapes associated with drop breakup. Our simulations help elucidate a mechanism for this instability based on a competition between internal pressure differentials in the vesicle resulting from the membrane bending force and ambient flow. We compare and contrast this transition to the ``standard'' drop breakup transition. Funded by NSF GRFP and Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  1. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.

  2. Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Preventing Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah Rohmah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk has protective factors for infants’ digestive tract. Infants are vulnerable to diseases, one of which is diarrhea. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and the administration of exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Methods: This study was an observational study. Data on mothers with 6 months old infants were collected from Jatinangor Primary Health Center (PHC infant records. The inclusion criteria applied were infants born in April 2012, alive, and living in Jatinangor subdistrict. One hundred and seventy one infants were recorded in April of 2012 in the PHC data. Thirty five were excluded because they were not born in April 2012. Another 45 were excluded because they were not permanent residents of Jatinangor subdistrict, while 4 infants died, and 23 had incomplete data. Therefore, only 66 infants were included as study subjects. Those infants came from 12 villages in the subdistrict of Jatinangor. Data collection was then performed using a questionnaire to the parents during the period of 21–31 October 2012. Results: From 66 infants, the proportion of diarrhea was 66.7%. Only 27.3% of all infants received exclusive breastfeeding. There was a difference in the proportion of diarrhea between infants who were exclusively breastfed and those who were not. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduced the risk of diarrhea (OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83. Conclusions: There is a relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Breastfeeding has a protective effect against diarrhea in infants.

  3. New electric field in asymmetric magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakit, K; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Ruffolo, D

    2013-09-27

    We present a theory and numerical evidence for the existence of a previously unexplored in-plane electric field in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection. This electric field, dubbed the "Larmor electric field," is associated with finite Larmor radius effects and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. Potentially, it could be an important indicator for the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to locate reconnection sites as we expect it to appear on the magnetospheric side, pointing earthward, at the dayside magnetopause reconnection site.

  4. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  5. Fluorous Mixture Synthesis of Asymmetric Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A divergent fluorous mixture synthesis (FMS) of asymmetric fluorinated dendrimers has been developed. Four generations of fluorinated dendrimers with the same fluorinated moiety were prepared with high efficiency, yield and purity. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of these dendrimers provided valuable information for their application and future optimization. This strategy has not only provided a practical method for the synthesis and purification of dendrimers, but also established the possibility of utilizing the same fluorinated moiety for FMS. PMID:20170088

  6. Temporal association in asymmetric neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompolinsky, H.; Kanter, I.

    1986-12-01

    A neural network model which is capable of recalling time sequences and cycles of patterns is introduced. In this model, some of the synaptic connections, Jij, between pairs of neurons are asymmetric (Jij≠Jji) and have slow dynamic response. The effects of thermal noise on the generated sequences are discussed. Simulation results demonstrating the performance of the network are presented. The model may be also useful in understanding the generation of rhythmic patterns in biological motor systems.

  7. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  8. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  9. Asymmetric Attention: Visualizing the Uncertain Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    this is the multiplayer online role-playing game called, “Asymmetric Warfare Virtual Training Technology ” or AW- VTT (Peck, 2005). This simulation...Personnel, Performance 622785A790 and Training Technology Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I...advanced detection technologies . However, Soldiers may not utilize these resources for various reasons (Cohen, April 2009), including: no immediate or

  10. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analysa Margaretha Bogar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the prevention of rickets. Human milk typically contains a vitamin D concentration of 25 IU/L or less. Bbreastfed infants are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Previous studies conducted in countries with four seasons have reported that risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency influence the vitamin D status in exclusively breastfed infants. Objective To compare the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OoHD in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Singkil District, Manado from February to May 2011. Of 48 Posyandu (Integrated Health Center, 4 were chosen to be the sources of subjects for this study. Subjects were collected consecutively among infants aged 6-7 months. The resulting exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed groups had 36 infants each. Results The mean 25(OHD level in the exclusively breastfed group was 61.75 nmol/L (95% CI 58.02 to 65.48 and in the non-exclusively breastfed group was 85.09 nmol/L (95% CI 79.49 to 90.68. The difference in 25(D levels in the two groups was statistically significant. However, 25(OHD levels of both groups were within the normal range. Conclusion The 25(D level was significantly lower in ex-exclusively breastfed infants compared to that in non-exclusively breastfed infants, but both levels were still in the normal range. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:157-60].

  11. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box*

    Science.gov (United States)

    China Lattice QCD Collaboration; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Guo-Zhan; Feng, Xu; Gong, Ming; He, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2007-06-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Lüscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.

  12. Asymmetric Conditional Volatility in International Stock Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, N B; Menezes, R; Ferreira, Nuno B.; Mendes, Diana A.; Menezes, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the S&P 500, FTSE100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of chan...

  13. Multiple Traveling Salesmen in Asymmetric Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Friggstad, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We consider some generalizations of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Path problem. Suppose we have an asymmetric metric G = (V,A) with two distinguished nodes s,t. We are also given a positive integer k. The goal is to find k paths of minimum total cost from s to t whose union spans all nodes. We call this the k-Person Asymmetric Traveling Salesmen Path problem (k-ATSPP). Our main result for k-ATSPP is a bicriteria approximation that, for some parameter b >= 1 we may choose, finds between k and k + k/b paths of total length O(b log |V|) times the optimum value of an LP relaxation based on the Held-Karp relaxation for the Traveling Salesman problem. On one extreme this is an O(log |V|)-approximation that uses up to 2k paths and on the other it is an O(k log |V|)-approximation that uses exactly k paths. Next, we consider the case where we have k pairs of nodes (s_1,t_1), ..., (s_k,t_k). The goal is to find an s_i-t_i path for every pair such that each node of G lies on at least one of these paths. Simple appro...

  14. SPECT using asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jianyu; Meikle, Steven R, E-mail: jianyu.lin@curtin.edu.au [Ramaciotti Imaging Centre, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-07-07

    Tomographic systems employing truncated projections have been developed for parallel and fan beam collimation and for cone beam CT but the idea has not been extensively explored in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper, we explore the sampling requirements and system performance of SPECT systems with asymmetric pinhole collimators and truncated projections. We demonstrate that complete 3D sampling can be achieved by using multiple detectors with truncated asymmetric pinholes, offset axially from each other, and a spiral orbit. The use of truncated projections can be exploited in the design of pinhole SPECT systems by moving the pinholes closer to the subject, resulting in increased sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. Truncated and untruncated pinhole systems were evaluated using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated from the linearized local impulse response as a figure of merit. The CNR for the truncated pinhole system was up to 60% greater than that for the untruncated system at matched resolution for a source voxel near the centre of a uniform phantom and 30% greater at the edge. We conclude that an object can be reconstructed from asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections, which leads to potentially important design considerations and applications in single- and multi-pinhole SPECT.

  15. Traceless Synthesis of Asymmetrically Modified Bivalent Nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Carolin C; Agashe, Ninad D; Fierz, Beat

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomes carry extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), which results in complex modification patterns that are involved in epigenetic signaling. Although two copies of each histone coexist in a nucleosome, they may not carry the same PTMs and are often differently modified (asymmetric). In bivalent domains, a chromatin signature prevalent in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), namely H3 methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), coexists with H3K27me3 in asymmetric nucleosomes. We report a general, modular, and traceless method for producing asymmetrically modified nucleosomes. We further show that in bivalent nucleosomes, H3K4me3 inhibits the activity of the H3K27-specific lysine methyltransferase (KMT) polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) solely on the same histone tail, whereas H3K27me3 stimulates PRC2 activity across tails, thereby partially overriding the H3K4me3-mediated repressive effect. To maintain bivalent domains in ESCs, PRC2 activity must thus be locally restricted or reversed.

  16. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  17. Asymmetric distribution of histones during Drosophila male germline stem cell asymmetric divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vuong; Feng, Lijuan; Chen, Xin

    2013-05-01

    It has long been known that epigenetic changes are inheritable. However, except for DNA methylation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance. Many types of stem cells undergo asymmetric cell divisions to generate self-renewed stem cells and daughter cells committed for differentiation. Still, whether and how stem cells retain their epigenetic memory remain questions to be elucidated. During the asymmetric division of Drosophila male germline stem cell (GSC), our recent studies revealed that the preexisting histone 3 (H3) are selectively segregated to the GSC, whereas newly synthesized H3 deposited during DNA replication are enriched in the differentiating daughter cell. We propose a two-step model to explain this asymmetric histone distribution. First, prior to mitosis, preexisting histones and newly synthesized histones are differentially distributed at two sets of sister chromatids. Next, during mitosis, the set of sister chromatids that mainly consist of preexisting histones are segregated to GSCs, while the other set of sister chromatids enriched with newly synthesized histones are partitioned to the daughter cell committed for differentiation. In this review, we apply current knowledge about epigenetic inheritance and asymmetric cell division to inform our discussion of potential molecular mechanisms and the cellular basis underlying this asymmetric histone distribution pattern. We will also discuss whether this phenomenon contributes to the maintenance of stem cell identity and resetting chromatin structure in the other daughter cell for differentiation.

  18. Exclusive Multipotency and Preferential Asymmetric Divisions in Post-Embryonic Neural Stem Cells of the Fish Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Centanin, L.; Ander, J.-J.; Hoeckendorf, B.; Lust, K.; T. Kellner; Kraemer, I.; Urbany, C.; Hasel, E.; Harris, W.A.; Simons, B. D.; Wittbrodt, J

    2014-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It has been published by The Company of Biologists Ltd in Development here: http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2014/08/19/dev.109892.long. The potency of post-embryonic stem cells can only be addressed in the living organism, by labeling single cells after embryonic development and following their descendants. Recently, transplantation experiments involving permanently labeled cells revealed multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic or...

  19. Position-space renormalization-group approach for driven diffusive systems applied to the asymmetric exclusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ivan T; McKay, Susan R

    2003-05-01

    This paper introduces a position-space renormalization-group approach for nonequilibrium systems and applies the method to a driven stochastic one-dimensional gas with open boundaries. The dynamics are characterized by three parameters: the probability alpha that a particle will flow into the chain to the leftmost site, the probability beta that a particle will flow out from the rightmost site, and the probability p that a particle will jump to the right if the site to the right is empty. The renormalization-group procedure is conducted within the space of these transition probabilities, which are relevant to the system's dynamics. The method yields a critical point at alpha(c)=beta(c)=1/2, in agreement with the exact values, and the critical exponent nu=2.71, as compared with the exact value nu=2.00.

  20. Position-space renormalization-group approach for driven diffusive systems applied to the asymmetric exclusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.

    2003-05-01

    This paper introduces a position-space renormalization-group approach for nonequilibrium systems and applies the method to a driven stochastic one-dimensional gas with open boundaries. The dynamics are characterized by three parameters: the probability α that a particle will flow into the chain to the leftmost site, the probability β that a particle will flow out from the rightmost site, and the probability p that a particle will jump to the right if the site to the right is empty. The renormalization-group procedure is conducted within the space of these transition probabilities, which are relevant to the system’s dynamics. The method yields a critical point at αc=βc=1/2, in agreement with the exact values, and the critical exponent ν=2.71, as compared with the exact value ν=2.00.

  1. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  2. Central exclusive production of hadrons in CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M. G. [Fermilab; Lontkovskyi, D. [Unlisted, PL; Makarenko, I. [Unlisted, PL; Swiech, A. [Unlisted, PL; Zurek, M. [Unlisted, PL

    2012-01-01

    At the Fermilab Tevatron with $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 and 1960 GeV, we have studied exclusive double pomeron exchange in the Collider Detector at Fermilab, CDF. With $\\sim$300,000 events we present the mass spectrum of two hadrons, $h^+h^-$, assumed to be pions, with $|\\eta(\\pi)| <$ 1.3 and two rapidity gaps $\\Delta \\eta > 4.6$. The mass spectrum shows resonance structures, including $f_0(980),f_2(1270),$ and$ f_0(1370)$. The cross section ratio 1960 GeV/900 GeV and the mean $p_T(pair)$ show mass-dependent structures, even above $M$ = 2 GeV where there are no established $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ resonances. The data extend above $M$ = 5 GeV. We place an upper limit on exclusive $\\chi_{c0} \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^+K^-$.

  3. Diffractive and Exclusive Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ruspa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements are discussed of inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes in pp colli- sions at √ s = 7 TeV at the LHC using the CMS detector. Results are presented of the single- and double-diffractive cross section and of the inclusive differential cross section for events with a forward rapidity gap. A study of exclusive W + W − production by two-photon exchange, where, in different kinematic regions, both con fi rmation and deviations from the Standard Model predic- tions are searched, is reported. Finally, a joint measurement with the CMS and TOTEM detectors of the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV is presented. This is the fi rst joint study between the two experiments.

  4. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  5. Exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Andreas

    1991-06-01

    The recent experimental results on exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons obtained by the ARGUS collaboration are presented in the talk. The results include exclusive hadronic decays involving a b → c transition, namely B decays with a D, D ∗ plus several pions and B decays to J/ψ or ψ' mesons plus Kaons have been studied. The measurements of branching ratios for two-body B decays involving a J/ψ or ψ' meson are of wide interest in the light of proposals for the study of CP violation in future experiments. The branching ratios are compared with the predictions of the model of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel and with a model of A.V. Dobrovolskaya. Using the cleanest decay channels, the masses and mass difference of the charged and neutral B meson are obtained. This mass difference is then compared with the mass splitting in other isospinmultipletts and with theoretical models.

  6. Measurement of exclusive $\\omega$ electroproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Borras, K; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Bell, M; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, M V; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Sheheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tassi, E; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Turcato, M; Voci, C; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2001-01-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons, ep -> e omega p, has been studied in the kinematic range 3 pi^+pi^-pi^0. The exclusive (ep -> e omega p) cross section in the above kinematic region is 0.108 +- 0.014(stat.) +- 0.026(syst.) nb. The reaction ep -> e phi p, phi -> pi^+pi^-pi^0, has also been measured. The cross sections, as well as the cross-section ratios omega/rho and omega/phi, are presented as a function of W and Q^2. Thus, for the first time, the properties of omega electroproduction can be compared to those of rho^0, phi and J/psi electroproduction at high W.

  7. Social exclusion: the interplay of group goals and individual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cameron B; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Past research has shown that adolescents justify social exclusion based on concerns for group functioning, and yet, to date, no study has evaluated whether group functioning justifications shift or remain stable across different exclusion contexts. In this study, we systematically manipulated exclusion context (i.e., competitive or noncompetitive soccer groups) and individual characteristics of the target of exclusion to test the nature of the interaction between these factors during exclusion judgments. Adolescents' (N = 201; 61% Female) exclusion judgments differed across contexts only when an individual's ability was under consideration. Intergroup (i.e., gender, nationality) and interpersonal (i.e., aggression, shyness) characteristics overwhelmed contextual considerations. Results indicate the complexity of factors weighed by adolescents when making exclusion judgments, and suggest the need for extension of the present findings to understand more fully the interaction between the context of exclusion and individual characteristics in exclusion judgments.

  8. Hard Exclusive Production of Tensor Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M

    2001-01-01

    We point out that hard exclusive production of tensor mesons $f_2(1270)$ with helicity $\\lambda=\\pm 2$ is dominated by the gluon component in the meson wave function and can be used to determine gluon admixture in tensor mesons in a theoretically clean manner. We present a detailed analysis of the tensor meson distribution amplitudes and calculate the transition form factor $\\gamma+\\gamma^*\\to f_2(1270)$ for one real and one virtual photon.

  9. Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the logitudinal polarization fraction (RL) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R⊥) for B→D*D(s)* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  10. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  11. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  12. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  13. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Sznajder, Paweł

    2016-11-01

    Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  14. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  15. Exclusion testing in pregnancy for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A; Quarrell, O W; Lazarou, L P; Meredith, A L; Harper, P S

    1990-01-01

    The results of DNA analysis are presented for a series of 90 couples, with one partner at 50% risk for Huntington's disease (HD), who were referred for exclusion testing in pregnancy over a three year period. Thirty-seven couples were studied in detail. The aims of the study were to evaluate attitudes towards prenatal testing, before pregnancy and afterwards, and the effectiveness of our counseling and methods of organising the service. Problems which could arise in relation to presymptomatic testing are documented. It is concluded that exclusion testing is a valuable form of prediction for some couples, particularly where family structure does not permit prediction for the person at risk. The need for intensive counselling was highlighted by the difficulties experienced by many couples in understanding how the test worked. Particular ethical and organisational problems may arise which require careful consideration beforehand and some recommendations are made. The proportion of couples who will continue to request exclusion testing as pre-symptomatic testing becomes more widely applicable remains unknown. PMID:2145437

  16. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centreofmass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The 7 TeV study concentrates on a precision measurement of the dielectron and dimuon process, while the 8 TeV measurement explores the exclusive production of WW pairs in the elec...

  17. Evolution of exclusive paternal care in arthopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, D W

    2001-01-01

    Exclusive male care of offspring is the rarest form of postzygotic parental care among animals and has arisen independently in only 13 arthropod taxa. To distinguish the effects of sexual selection from those of natural selection on the evolution of arthropod paternal care, predictions concerning several life-history and behavioral traits resulting from both forms of selection are made and tested across all known taxa with exclusive paternal care. Comparisons suggest parallels between prezygotic nuptial gifts and exclusive postzygotic male care and support the hypothesis that, in arthropods, male behaviors that enhance female reproductive success either directly, by releasing females from the fecundity constraints of maternal care (enhanced fecundity hypothesis), or indirectly, by identifying mates with superior genes (handicap principle), are traits on which sexual selection has acted. Under such conditions, males that are willing to guard young become preferred mates for gravid females and enjoy greater promiscuity than males that are unable or unwilling to guard. Females use nest construction or the act of guarding another female's eggs as honest signals of paternal intent and quality.

  18. MAJOR HEPATIC RESECTION UNDER TOTAL VASCULAR EXCLUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 顾晋; 苏向前; 焦春雨; 王怡; 欧阳晓辉; 董培德; 杨成旺

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To eveluate major liver resections with vascular exclusion (TVE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Sixteen consecutive, major liver resections performed with TVE in HCC patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean ages were 54 years. Ten patients had cirrhosis and eleven patients had chronic hepatitis B. Results: There was no perioperative death and the mean hospital stay was 20 days and the average amount of intraoperative blood transfusion was 400 mL (range 0-2000 mL). Forty-four percent of the patients did not receive intraoperative blood transfusion. The mean total bilirubin(T-BIL) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were 24μmol/L (range 8-56μmol/L) and 56 IU/L (range 10-204 IU/L) measured prior to discharge. Conclusion: In our experience, total vascular exclusion is invaluable in major or difficult liver resections, especially when lesions adjacent to the hepatic veins and vena cava. It is associated with a low blood transfusion requirement and a low incidence of complications. It further obviates the need for dissection of the porta hepatis thus reduces the associated risks. Total vascular exclusion time of 30min appears to be well tolerated, even in patients with cirrhosis..

  19. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, ‘second-order’ freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the second-order freeriders from eroding the social immune system. PMID:23222449

  20. Measurement of exclusive processes with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive vector meson photoproduction is studied in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections ($d\\sigma/dt$), where $t\\approx p^{2}_{T}$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. We also report a measurement of the exclusive or quasi-exclusive $W^{+}W^{-}$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ($7$ TeV) using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ ($5.5$fb$^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. Finally, the latest performance plots of combined...

  1. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.

  2. Exclusion and Hierarchy of Time Scales Lead to Spatial Segregation of Molecular Motors in Cellular Protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I.; Gov, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular motors that carry cargo along biopolymer filaments within cells play a crucial role in the functioning of the cell. In particular, these motors are essential for the formation and maintenance of the cellular protrusions that play key roles in motility and specific functionalities, such as the stereocilia in hair cells. Typically, there are several species of motors, carrying different cargos, that share the same track. Furthermore, it was observed that in the mature stereocilia, the different motors occupy well-segregated bands as a function of distance from the tip. We use a totally asymmetric exclusion process model with two- and three-motor species, to study the conditions that give rise to such spatial patterns. We find that the well-segregated bands appear for motors with a strong hierarchy of attachment or detachment rates. This is a striking example of pattern formation in nonequilibrium, low-dimensional systems.

  3. Domain-wall theory and nonstationarity in driven flow with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, R. B.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamical evolution toward steady state of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, in both uniform and nonuniform (staggered) one-dimensional systems with open boundaries. Domain-wall theory and numerical simulations are used and, where pertinent, their results are compared to existing mean-field predictions and exact solutions where available. For uniform chains we find that the inclusion of fluctuations inherent to the domain-wall formulation plays a crucial role in providing good agreement with simulations, which is severely lacking in the corresponding mean-field predictions. For alternating-bond chains the domain-wall predictions for the features of the phase diagram in the parameter space of injection and ejection rates turn out to be realized only in an incipient and quantitatively approximate way. Nevertheless, significant quantitative agreement can be found between several additional domain-wall theory predictions and numerics.

  4. Collective dynamics of an inhomogeneous two-channel exclusion process: Theory and Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dhiman, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development of a novel theoretical approach, named hybrid approach, to handle a localized bottleneck in a symmetrically coupled two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with Langmuir kinetics. The hybrid approach is combined with singular perturbation technique to get steady-state phase diagrams and density profiles. We have thoroughly examined the role played by the strength of bottleneck, binding constant and lane-changing rate in the system dynamics. The appearances of bottleneck-induced shock, a bottleneck phase and Meissner phase are explained. Further, the critical values of bottleneck rate are identified, which signify the changes in the topology of phase diagram. It is also found that increase in lane-changing rate as well as unequal attachment, detachment rates weaken the bottleneck effect. Our theoretical arguments are in good agreement with extensively performed Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  6. Synthesis of asymmetric tetracarboxylic acids and corresponding dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to processes for preparing asymmetrical biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids and the corresponding asymmetrical dianhydrides, namely 2,3,3',4'-biphenyl dianhydride (a-BPDA), 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) and 3,4'-methylenediphthalic anhydride (-MDPA). By cross-coupling reactions of reactive metal substituted o-xylenes or by cross-coupling o-xylene derivatives in the presence of catalysts, this invention specifically produces asymmetrical biphenyl intermediates that are subsequently oxidized or hydrolyzed and oxidized to provide asymmetric biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids in comparatively high yields. These asymmetrical biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids are subsequently converted to the corresponding asymmetrical dianhydrides without contamination by symmetrical biphenyl dianhydrides.

  7. Centralized and decentralized global outer-synchronization of asymmetric recurrent time-varying neural network by data-sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlian; Zheng, Ren; Chen, Tianping

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss outer-synchronization of the asymmetrically connected recurrent time-varying neural networks. By using both centralized and decentralized discretization data sampling principles, we derive several sufficient conditions based on three vector norms to guarantee that the difference of any two trajectories starting from different initial values of the neural network converges to zero. The lower bounds of the common time intervals between data samples in centralized and decentralized principles are proved to be positive, which guarantees exclusion of Zeno behavior. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of the theoretical results.

  8. A internalização da exclusão The internalization of exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Procura-se mostrar as formas dissimuladas que as políticas públicas neoliberais colocaram em funcionamento com a finalidade de reduzir custos econômicos, sociais e políticos das formas de exclusão objetivas (repetência e evasão, sem alterar em essência a seletividade da escola, criando um campo de exclusão subjetiva (auto-exclusão, exclusão entre ciclos, "trilhas de progressão continuada diferenciadas", no qual a responsabilidade da exclusão recai sobre o próprio excluído. São apresentadas três teses na tentativa de compreender este movimento. A primeira trata da conversão da exclusão objetiva em exclusão subjetiva; a segunda mostra como os mecanismos da avaliação informal são acionados no sentido de criar "trilhas de progressão continuada diferenciadas" nas propostas de organização por ciclos de progressão continuada; e, finalmente, a terceira aponta a desresponsabilização da escola em relação à escolarização das camadas populares ("aprender a aprender", na esteira da desresponsabilização do próprio Estado mínimo proposto pelas atuais políticas públicas. Finalmente, apresentam-se por contraste elementos para uma política alternativa voltada para as responsabilidades formativas da escola que visem a transformar a relação entre as pessoas e entre estas e a natureza.This paper aims at showing the concealed forms that the neoliberal public policies implemented in order to reduce the economical, social and political costs of the objective forms of exclusion (repetition and desertion. Without modifying the essence of school selectivity, they created a field of subjective exclusion (auto-exclusion, exclusion between cycles, "trilhas de progressão continuada differenciadas", in which the very person excluded is responsible for their exclusion. Three theses are presented in an attempt to understand this movement. The first one deals with the conversion of the objective exclusion into subjective exclusion. The

  9. Infinite dimensional mixed economies with asymmetric information

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study asymmetric information economies consisting of both non-negligible and negligible agents and having ordered Banach spaces as their commodity spaces. In answering a question of Herv\\'{e}s-Beloso and Moreno-Garc\\'{i}a, we establish a characterization of Walrasian expectations allocations by the veto power of the grand coalition. It is also shown that when an economy contains only negligible agents a Vind's type theorem on the private core with the exact feasibility can be restored. This solves a problem of Pesce.

  10. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-07

    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  11. Asymmetric chemical reactions by polarized quantum beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Kensei

    One of the most attractive hypothesis for the origin of homochirality in terrestrial bio-organic compounds (L-amino acid and D-sugar dominant) is nominated as "Cosmic Scenario"; a chiral impulse from asymmetric excitation sources in space triggered asymmetric reactions on the surfaces of such space materials as meteorites or interstellar dusts prior to the existence of terrestrial life. 1) Effective asymmetric excitation sources in space are proposed as polarized quantum beams, such as circularly polarized light and spin polarized electrons. Circularly polarized light is emitted as synchrotron radiation from tightly captured electrons by intense magnetic field around neutron stars. In this case, either left-or right-handed polarized light can be observed depending on the direction of observation. On the other hand, spin polarized electrons is emitted as beta-ray in beta decay from radioactive nuclei or neutron fireballs in supernova explosion. 2) The spin of beta-ray electrons is longitudinally polarized due to parity non-conservation in the weak interaction. The helicity (the the projection of the spin onto the direction of kinetic momentum) of beta-ray electrons is universally negative (left-handed). For the purpose of verifying the asymmetric structure emergence in bio-organic compounds by polarized quantum beams, we are now carrying out laboratory simulations using circularly polarized light from synchrotron radiation facility or spin polarized electron beam from beta-ray radiation source. 3,4) The target samples are solid film or aqueous solution of racemic amino acids. 1) K.Kobayashi, K.Kaneko, J.Takahashi, Y.Takano, in Astrobiology: from simple molecules to primitive life; Ed. V.Basiuk; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, 2008. 2) G.A.Gusev, T.Saito, V.A.Tsarev, A.V.Uryson, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere. 37, 259 (2007). 3) J.Takahashi, H.Shinojima, M.Seyama, Y.Ueno, T.Kaneko, K.Kobayashi, H.Mita, M.Adachi, M.Hosaka, M.Katoh, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, 3044

  12. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  13. Asymmetric Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of Disparlure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 郑剑峰; 黄培强

    2012-01-01

    Starting from propargyl alcohol (12), and on the basis of Zhou's modified Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, the sex pheromone of the Gypsy moth, disparlure (+)-8 and its enantiomer (-)-8 have been synthesized, each in six steps, with overall yields of 29% for (+)-8 and 27% for (-)-8 (ee〉98%). The use of the sequential coupling tactic renders the method flexible, which is applicable to the synthesis of other cis-epoxy pheromones.

  14. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  15. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Tentrup, Tristan B. H.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.

  16. Analysis of Asymmetric Piezoelectric Composite Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J -S; Wu, K -C

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the vibration analysis of an asymmetric composite beam composed of glass a piezoelectric material. The Bernoulli's beam theory is adopted for mechanical deformations, and the electric potential field of the piezoelectric material is assumed such that the divergence-free requirement of the electrical displacements is satisfied. The accuracy of the analytic model is assessed by comparing the resonance frequencies obtained by the analytic model with those obtained by the finite element method. The model developed can be used as a tool for designing piezoelectric actuators such as micro-pumps.

  17. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  18. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  19. Asymmetric Laser Radiant Cooling in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    Laser pulses with small spatial and temporal dimensions can interact with a fraction of the electron bunches circulating in Compton storage rings. We studied synchrotron dynamics of such bunches when laser photons scatter off from the electrons with energy higher than the synchronous energy. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling', as shown theoretically, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering; the oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped in one synchrotron period, which makes this method feasible for injection the bunches into a ring in the longitudinal phase space. The theoretical results are validated with simulations.

  20. Resonance phenomena for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱定边

    2002-01-01

    We establish the coexistence of periodic solution and unbounded solution, the infinity of largeamplitude subharmonics for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator x" + a2x+ - b2x- + h(x) = p(t) with h(±∞) - 0 and xh(x) → +∞(x →∞), assuming that M(τ ) has zeros which are all simple and M(τ ) 0respectively, where M(τ ) is a function related to the piecewise linear equation x" + a2x+ - b2x- = p(t).``

  1. Photoresponse of silicon with asymmetric area contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M. Golam; Sundararajan, Jency P.; Verma, Amit; Nekovei, Reza; Khader, Mahmoud M.; Darling, R. B.; Patil, Sunil R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on high performance metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photosensors based on asymmetric metal pad areas. The reported devices require a single-step metal deposition, and exhibit large photo response even under zero-bias. Moreover the devices offer fast and stable light switching behavior. Device fabrication and electrical characterization results are presented that are further analyzed with TCAD modeling and simulation. Device simulations show that contact asymmetry along with surface recombination and barrier lowering plays an important role in the MSM I-V characteristics.

  2. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Manabu; McAleer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (wDCC) model. The paper applies the wDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models. We use the standardized multivariate t-distribution to accommodate heavy-tailed errors. The paper presents an empirical example using the trivariate data of the Nikkei 225, Hang Seng and Straits Times Indices for estimating and forecasting the wDCC-EGARCH and wDCC-GJR mod...

  3. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    CERN Document Server

    Uppu, Ravitej; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.

  4. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  5. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Gao, Nansha; Songhua, Cao

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  6. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  7. An Asymmetric Block Dynamic Conditional Correlation Multivariate GARCH Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Gregorio A.

    2006-01-01

    The Block DCC model for determining dynamic correlations within and between groups of financial asset returns is extended to account for asymmetric effects. Simulation results show that the Asymmetric Block DCC model is competitive in in-sample forecasting and performs better than alternative DCC models in out-of-sample forecasting of conditional correlation in the presence of asymmetric effect between blocks of asset returns. Empirical results demonstrate that the model is able to capture ...

  8. Asymmetric Campaigning as a Rational Choice: Planning Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Maslow identified five levels: survival, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. He presented his theory as a pyramid with five layers...to be sustained by actions of the asymmetric opponent. For the media-fed frenzy over constraints and protraction to continue, the asymmetric...lot of people. The reason for this is twofold. First, the actor needs sufficient support to exist and to sustain an asymmetric campaign. Second, the

  9. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  10. Asymmetric transmission: a generic property of lossy periodic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, E; Zheludev, N I

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves is a well-established property of lossy, anisotropic, two-dimensionally chiral patterns. Here we show that asymmetric transmission can be observed for oblique incidence onto any lossy periodically structured plane. Our results greatly expand the range of natural and artificial materials in which directionally asymmetric transmission can be expected making it a cornerstone electromagnetic effect rather than a curiosity of planar chiral metamaterials. Prime candidates for asymmetric transmission at oblique incidence are rectangular arrays of plasmonic spheres or semiconductor quantum dots, lossy double-periodic gratings and planar metamaterial structures.

  11. Asymmetric cell divisions: a view from plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash, Emily B; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2009-06-01

    All complex multicellular organisms must solve the problem of generating diverse and appropriately patterned cell types. Asymmetric division, in which a single mother cell gives rise to daughters with distinct identities, is instrumental in the generation of cellular diversity and higher-level patterns. In animal systems, there exists considerable evidence for conserved mechanisms of polarization and asymmetric division. Here, we consider asymmetric cell divisions in plants, highlighting the unique aspects of plant cell biology and organismal development that constrain the process, but also emphasizing conceptual and mechanistic similarities with animal asymmetric divisions.

  12. The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively in Swaziland. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Seven exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and ...

  13. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  14. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  15. Evolutionary stability in the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhou He

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals. These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a "strong" player is greater than the "weak" players in the model of Diekmann (1993. This contradicts Selten's (1980 model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game.

  16. Instability of asymmetric continuous shaft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, R.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the governing equation of asymmetric continuous shaft in inertial frame of reference is studied. In particular, determination of the parameter ranges for the stability or instability of the shaft response is the focus of the present work. The governing equations are a fourth-order coupled partial differential equations containing time dependent coefficients. The equations are non-dimensionalized in terms of two parameters related to the average moment of inertia and the difference of moments of inertia about the principal axes. Using the latter as the asymptotic parameter and employing modal superposition, a formal methodology based on perturbation methods is developed to ascertain the stability and instability characteristics. The methodology is applicable to shafts subjected to some of the classical boundary conditions viz. simply supported, cantilever, and fixed-fixed. Similar stability curves are obtained for each mode for these different boundary conditions. The novel non-dimensionalization scheme chosen leads to the stability boundaries as well as the loci of varying speeds to be in the form of straight lines. The intersection of these lines determine the stable and unstable speed ranges of different asymmetric shafts. The results are generalized for different material and geometric properties of the shaft.

  17. Asymmetric disassembly and robustness in declining networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Uzzi, Brian

    2008-10-28

    Mechanisms that enable declining networks to avert structural collapse and performance degradation are not well understood. This knowledge gap reflects a shortage of data on declining networks and an emphasis on models of network growth. Analyzing >700,000 transactions between firms in the New York garment industry over 19 years, we tracked this network's decline and measured how its topology and global performance evolved. We find that favoring asymmetric (disassortative) links is key to preserving the topology and functionality of the declining network. Based on our findings, we tested a model of network decline that combines an asymmetric disassembly process for contraction with a preferential attachment process for regrowth. Our simulation results indicate that the model can explain robustness under decline even if the total population of nodes contracts by more than an order of magnitude, in line with our observations for the empirical network. These findings suggest that disassembly mechanisms are not simply assembly mechanisms in reverse and that our model is relevant to understanding the process of decline and collapse in a broad range of biological, technological, and financial networks.

  18. Coil-Type Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrical Cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zenan; Moore, Julian; Calderon, Jean; Zhai, Lei; Thomas, Jayan

    2015-10-21

    Cable-shaped supercapacitors (SCs) have recently aroused significant attention due to their attractive properties such as small size, lightweight, and bendability. Current cable-shaped SCs have symmetric device configuration. However, if an asymmetric design is used in cable-shaped supercapacitors, they would become more attractive due to broader cell operation voltages, which results in higher energy densities. Here, a novel coil-type asymmetric supercapacitor electrical cable (CASEC) is reported with enhanced cell operation voltage and extraordinary mechanical-electrochemical stability. The CASECs show excellent charge-discharge profiles, extraordinary rate capability (95.4%), high energy density (0.85 mWh cm(-3)), remarkable flexibility and bendability, and superior bending cycle stability (≈93.0% after 4000 cycles at different bending states). In addition, the CASECs not only exhibit the capability to store energy but also to transmit electricity simultaneously and independently. The integrated electrical conduction and storage capability of CASECS offer many potential applications in solar energy storage and electronic gadgets. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Asymmetric negotiation in structured language games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2008-02-01

    We propose an asymmetric negotiation strategy to investigate the influence of high-degree agents on the agreement dynamics in a structured language game, the naming game. We introduce a model parameter, which governs the frequency of high-degree agents acting as speakers in communication. It is found that there exists an optimal value of the parameter that induces the fastest convergence to a global consensus on naming an object for both scale-free and small-world naming games. This phenomenon indicates that, although a strong influence of high-degree agents favors consensus achievement, very strong influences inhibit the convergence process, making it even slower than in the absence of influence of high-degree agents. Investigation of the total memory used by agents implies that there is some trade-off between the convergence speed and the required total memory. Other quantities, including the evolution of the number of different names and the relationship between agents’ memories and their degrees, are also studied. The results are helpful for better understanding of the dynamics of the naming game with asymmetric negotiation strategy.

  20. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  1. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  2. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  3. Properties of asymmetrically evolved community networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Di; Gao Zi-You; Zheng Jian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a simple asymmetrically evolved community network with a combination of preferential at-tachment and random properties. An important issue about community networks is to discover the different utility increments of two nodes, where the utility is introduced to investigate the asymmetrical effect of connecting two nodes. On the other hand, the connection of two nodes in community networks can be classified as two nodes belonging to the same or to different communities. The simulation results show that the model can reproduce a power-law utility distribution P(u)~ u-σ,σ=2+ 1/p, which can be obtained by using mean-field approximation methods. Furthermore, the model exhibits exponential behaviour with respect to small values of a parameter denoting the random effect in our model at the low-utility region and a power-law feature with respect to big values of this parameter at the high-utility region, which is in good agreement with theoretical analysis. This kind of community network can reproduce a unique utility distribution by theoretical and numerical analysis.

  4. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric transition disks: Vorticity or eccentricity?

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, A; Ghanbari, J

    2013-01-01

    Context. Transition disks typically appear in resolved millimeter observations as giant dust rings surrounding their young host stars. More accurate observations with ALMA have shown several of these rings to be in fact asymmetric: they have lopsided shapes. It has been speculated that these rings act as dust traps, which would make them important laboratories for studying planet formation. It has been shown that an elongated giant vortex produced in a disk with a strong viscosity jump strikingly resembles the observed asymmetric rings. Aims. We aim to study a similar behavior for a disk in which a giant planet is embedded. However, a giant planet can induce two kinds of asymmetries: (1) a giant vortex, and (2) an eccentric disk. We studied under which conditions each of these can appear, and how one can observationally distinguish between them. This is important because only a vortex can trap particles both radially and azimuthally, while the eccentric ring can only trap particles in radial direction. Method...

  6. Survey of Reflection-Asymmetric Nuclear Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Erik; Cao, Yuchen; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking it is possible for a nucleus to have a deformed shape in its ground state. It is theorized that atoms whose nuclei have reflection-asymmetric or pear-like deformations could have non-zero electric dipole moments (EDMs). Such a trait would be evidence of CP-violation, a feature that goes beyond the Standard Model of Physics. It is the purpose of this project to predict which nuclei exhibit a reflection-asymmetric deformation and which of those would be the best candidates for an EDM measuring experiment. Using nuclear Density Functional Theory along with the new computer code AxialHFB and massively parallel computing we calculated ground state nuclear properties for thousands of even-even nuclei across the nuclear chart: from light to superheavy and from stable to short-lived systems. Six different Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) were used to assess systematic errors in our calculations. These results are to be added to the website Massexplorer (http://massexplorer.frib.msu.edu/) which contains results from earlier mass table calculations and information on single quasiparticle energies.

  7. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Reactions with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valery Kubarovsky

    2011-11-01

    Deeply virtual exclusive reactions offer an unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken x{sub B} and momentum transfer to the nucleon t at the same time. Such processes can reveal much more information about the structure of the nucleon than either inclusive electroproduction or elastic form factors alone. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity–dependent and helicity–independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured with CLAS, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the {pi}{sup }0, {eta} , {rho}{sup }0, {rho}{sup +}, {omega} and {phi} for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in Q{sup 2}=1–4.5 GeV{sup 2}, x{sub B}=0.1–0.5, and {absval t} up to 2 GeV{sup 2}. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of traditional Regge and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) models. The successful description of the recent CLAS pseudoscalar meson exclusive production data by GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the transversity GPDs. We view the work presented in this report as leading into the program of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The increased energy and luminosity will allow us to acquire data at much higher Q{sup 2} and x{sub B}, and perform Rosenbluth L/T separations of the cross sections.

  8. Social Inclusion and Exclusion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Rawal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion/inclusion figured prominently in the policy discourse in France in the mid 1970s. The concept was later adopted by the European Union in the late 1980s as a key concept in social policy and in many instances replaced the concept of poverty. This concept which had first appeared in Europe as a response to the crisis of the welfare State has now gained considerable currency over the last five years in both official and development discourses in Nepal. The issue gained considerable leverage when the Nepal Government recognized inclusion as a policy issue as one of the four pillars of 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, which is also Nepal's Tenth Plan. The debates surrounding inclusion/exclusion have ascended to conspicuous importance in the present political transition in Nepal with several groups such as Dalit, women, ethnic communities, donor communities, Madhesi communities and region voicing their demands for an inclusive state by virtue of which, the issue has now come to be a part of the popular public discourse. However, what has to be borne in mind is that the concept lacks universality in the way it has been defined and employed. While some claim that social exclusion is more illuminating and holds the promise of understanding disadvantaged groups better, others argue that this concept is so evocative, ambiguous, multidimensional and elastic that it can be defined in many different ways and owing to its ambiguity in definition it may mean all things to all people. Howsoever, the term has been used, defined, conceptualized, the article here makes an effort to review accessible literature on the topic.DOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1362Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.161-180

  9. Exclusive lower extremity mirror movements and diastematomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Dure, Leon S; Oakes, W Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Mirror movements usually seen in the Klippel-Feil syndrome are most commonly appreciated in the upper extremities. Lower extremity involvement is seen rarely and when observed, is found in conjunction with upper extremity mirror movements. We report what we believe to be the first case of mirror movements found exclusively in the lower extremities in a female patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome. Our hopes are that this report will help elucidate mechanisms involved with these anomalous movements, as currently there is no commonly accepted etiology.

  10. Ds+ Exclusive Hadronic Decays Involving omega

    OpenAIRE

    The CLEO Collaboration; Ge, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected near the Ds*+ Ds- peak production energy Ecm=4170 MeV by the CLEO-c detector, we search for Ds+ exclusive hadronic decays involving omega. We find B(Ds+ -> pi+ omega) = (0.21 +- 0.09 +- 0.01)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi0 omega) = (2.78 +- 0.65 +- 0.25)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- omega) = (1.58 +- 0.45 +- 0.09)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ eta omega) = (0.85 +- 0.54 +- 0.06)%, B(Ds+ -> K+ omega) K+ pi0 omega) K+ pi+ pi- omega) K+ eta omega)

  11. Exclusive photoproduction of {upsilon} mesons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction {gamma} p {yields} {upsilon} p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb{sup -1}. The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  12. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double degeneracy, which creates significant novel challenges in the analysis of the system. We prove global existence of weak solutions and well-posedness of strong solutions close to equilibrium. We further study some asymptotics of the model, and in particular we characterize the large-time behavior of solutions. 2010 © Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    ofI resource acquisition, but their genetic determinants are physicall .- linked and possibly co-regiulated or, the same sect ion of DNA. Thec o-eria...7473-7481. Garen, A. (1968). Sense and Nonsense in the Genetic Lode. Science 160:149-159. ( elIer, A. I . and A. rich (1980). A LGA ferarinatio...Mutants Deficient in rni Exclusion. Science 158:1588-1589. 11saio, C. L. and L. W. Black (1977). DNA Plackaging- and the Pathway of Bacteriophage T4

  14. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  15. Sport, physical activity and social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mike

    2004-08-01

    This paper is a brief review of the concept of social exclusion and its evolution. I address which individuals are excluded from sport and physical activity and how; link inclusion policies to the 'cross-cutting issues' and the idea of social capital; and outline the intervention policies being adopted in the new sport strategy 'Game Plan' (). I address the link between transport, exercise and health in a case study. Since these policies are new, research and evaluation has been short term and scattered, and outcome measurements have not yet received academic or professional consensus, it is too soon to say for sure what works or even to confirm what is best practice.

  16. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  17. Abuse, exclusion and intolerance to being female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bertha Velázquez Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of abuse, exclusion and intolerance to women is a consequence of practices of domination pervasive in contemporary societies. This problem is manifested in the systematic harassment to women's bodies, to her thoughts and personal lifestyles, which constrains her personal dignity and violates her basic human rights. The approach to this analysis is based on the documentary method and is part of an investigation of health and gender issues in the collegiate body Gender and Sustainable Development in the Autonomous University of Mexico State.

  18. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults...... during a comprehensive five-year study of bullying....

  19. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources' needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets' feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  20. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  1. Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions about Exclusion in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Gasser, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…

  2. 29 CFR 98.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excluded or exclusion. 98.945 Section 98.945 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from...

  3. 26 CFR 1.72-4 - Exclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion ratio. 1.72-4 Section 1.72-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-4 Exclusion ratio. (a) General rule... annuities described in section 72(o) and § 1.122-1), an exclusion ratio is to be determined for...

  4. 29 CFR 18.615 - Exclusion of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exclusion of witnesses. 18.615 Section 18.615 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.615 Exclusion of witnesses. At the... authorize exclusion of a party who is a natural person, or an officer or employee of a party which is not...

  5. 41 CFR 105-68.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 105-68.945 Section 105-68.945 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from being...

  6. 7 CFR 3017.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 3017.945 Section 3017.945 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from...

  7. Social Exclusion and Career Development: A United Kingdom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion can be defined in different ways, but a prominent definition--in relation to young people in particular--is exclusion from formal learning and paid employment. This ignores the role of informal learning and the informal economies. In England, career guidance services were remodelled to deal with the issue of social exclusion by…

  8. 42 CFR 402.308 - Waivers of exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorization to obtain information from private health insurers, peer review organizations (including, but not... of exclusion request. An excluded person must submit a request for waiver of exclusion in writing to... the submitter that the waiver of exclusion request has been received. (2) Reviews and validates...

  9. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  10. 47 CFR 76.123 - Satellite syndicated program exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite syndicated program exclusivity. 76... Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.123 Satellite syndicated program exclusivity. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to...

  11. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  12. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1230 - Exclusion of life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of life insurance. 416.1230 Section 416.1230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1230 Exclusion of life insurance. (a) General....

  14. 20 CFR 416.1234 - Exclusion of Indian lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of Indian lands. 416.1234 Section 416.1234 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1234 Exclusion of Indian lands. In determining...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1212 - Exclusion of the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the home. 416.1212 Section 416.1212 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1212 Exclusion of the home. (a) Defined. A home...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1238 - Exclusion of certain housing assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of certain housing assistance. 416.1238 Section 416.1238 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1238 Exclusion of certain...

  17. Social Exclusion and Career Development: A United Kingdom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion can be defined in different ways, but a prominent definition--in relation to young people in particular--is exclusion from formal learning and paid employment. This ignores the role of informal learning and the informal economies. In England, career guidance services were remodelled to deal with the issue of social exclusion by…

  18. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  19. Some exclusion cages do not exclude predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. C. C. Ameixa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exclusion techniques, such as cages, are the most frequently used means of evaluating the efficiency of natural enemies in suppressing the abundance of their prey. The growth rates and peak densities of aphid populations within cages are usually larger than those in uncaged populations. However, cages change the microenvironment and prevent aphids from emigrating. Attempts were made to avoid the change in the microenvironment by using cages with a large (8 mm mesh. Here we test the hypothesis that because of the large mesh size, predators can easily penetrate into such cages during an experiment. Our results have shown that cages with a large (8 mm mesh size do not prevent predators from entering the cages and therefore cannot be used as “exclusion cages” for measuring the effect of predators on aphid numbers. Other methods of assessing the effectiveness of natural enemies in reducing the abundance of their prey, like removing the predators or direct observations, should be used instead.

  20. Recent diffractive and exclusive results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the exclusive and semi-exclusive production of charged pion pairs in proton-proton collisions, $pp\\rightarrow p(p^{*})+ \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+ p (p^{*})$, where the $ \\pi^+\\pi^-$ pair is emitted at central rapidities,and the scattered protons stay intact (p) or diffractively dissociate ($p^*$) without detection is presented in these proceedings.The measurement is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 450$\\mu b^{-1}$ collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The dipion cross section, measured for single-pion transverse momentum $p_T > 0.2$ GeV and rapidity $\\mid y\\mid < 2$, is $26.5\\pm0.3(stat.)\\pm5.0(syst.)\\pm1.1\\mu b$. The differential cross sections measured as a function of the invariant mass and $p_T$ of the pion pair are compared to phenomenological predictions.

  1. Asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol) star polymers with a cholic acid core and their aggregation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juntao; Giguère, Guillaume; Zhu, X X

    2009-04-13

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) arms are grafted onto a cholic acid core via anionic polymerization, yielding star-shaped polymers with a unique asymmetric structure with facial amphiphilicity. Well-defined cholic acid-PEG(4) stars (polydispersity index, ca. 1.05) with tunable molar masses (ca. 1000-13,000) were obtained and characterized by the use of size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The asymmetric star polymers were found to aggregate differently from cholic acid salt. The critical aggregation concentrations of the star polymers were determined by surface tension measurements, and spherical aggregates of the polymers with different PEG chain lengths were observed by transmission electron microscopy using the freeze-fracture etching technique. The elongated aggregates formed by the sodium salt of cholic acid were also observed. The hydrodynamic diameters of the aggregates were also measured using dynamic light scattering technique. The formation of aggregates makes them interesting systems as potential drug carriers.

  2. Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenkov, Pavel V.

    A novel approach to fabrication of monolithic photonic integrated circuits based on the asymmetric twin- waveguide (ATG) structure is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to the conventional integration methods relying on semiconductor regrowth, the ATG approach requires only one epitaxy step, while the integrated devices are defined by post-growth patterning. The ATG structure contains two evanescently coupled waveguide layers separated by a cladding layer. The upper layer provides optical gain for the active devices such as lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers. The transparent lower layer is used to make waveguides and optical interconnects on the chip. Thus the ATG represents a versatile integration platform for cost- effective fabrication of photonic integrated circuits, similar in some respects to the electronic CMOS platform. Light propagation and coupling in the ATG structure are analyzed using the beam propagation method to optimize the layer design. It is shown that the asymmetric refractive index profile eliminates undesirable optical coupling between the waveguide layers. At the interfaces between the active and passive devices, lateral tapers are used to induce vertical coupling of light with a coupling loss of typically integrated devices can be separately optimized to achieve performance close to that of the conventional discrete components. The design of taper couplers is described in detail, and their performance is experimentally verified. Using the ATG approach, several integrated devices were fabricated in the InGaAsP/InP material system for λ = 1.55 μm wavelength operation. Lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers with integrated waveguides were characterized to test the integration approach. Single-frequency, distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers achieved output power of 11 mW with a 40 dB side-mode suppression ratio. A DBR laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator had a 24 dB extinction ratio between 0V and -2V bias

  3. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  4. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  5. Asymmetric catalytic synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-09-01

    A concise catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B is reported. The synthetic sequence notably features an asymmetric acetaldehyde alkynylation, a Ru-catalyzed alder-ene reaction, and a Zn-ProPhenol ynone aldol condensation. Comparison with the reported data suggests a misassignment of the natural product structure.

  6. Asymmetric group loans, non-assortative matching and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis; Lensink, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that an asymmetric group debt contract, where one borrower co-signs for another, but not vice versa, leads to heterogeneous matching. The analysis suggests that micro finance organizations can achieve the first best by offering asymmetric group contracts. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.

  8. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.  ……

  9. A rationale for the preparation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.H.V.; Oude Hendrikman, J.; Wijmans, J.G.; Smolders, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Pervaporation is carried out primarily with homogeneous membranes. An improvement in permeation rate can be achieved by using asymmetric or composite membranes. In order to maintain a high selectivity, very dense top layers are needed. The formation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes will be disc

  10. Extensive Taguchi's Quality Loss Function Based On Asymmetric tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; LI Yuan-sheng; LIU Feng

    2004-01-01

    If specification interval is asymmetric, basic specification is the target value of quality characteristics. In this paper Taguchi's quality loss function is applied to describe quality loss based on asymmetric tolerances. The measurement of quality loss which is caused by the deviation of quality characteristics from basic specification is further presented.

  11. ASYMMETRIC HYDROSILYLATION CATALYZED BY POLYMER—SUPPORTED THIAZOLIDINE RHODIUM CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEIYanohui; LIHong; 等

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrisilylation catalyzed by polymeric thiazolidine rhodium catalysts was conducted.Almost the same optical yields have been obtained when comb-shaped polymeric ligands and their corresponding monomer complexed rhodium cataltysts were used to asymmetric hydrosilylation of acetophenone.Optical yield of chiral 1-methylbenzyl alcohol reaches as high as 71.5%.Temperature dependence of enantioselective hydrosilylation of acetophenone was discussed.

  12. Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-(11 R,12S)-Mefloquine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of (+)-(11R,12S)-mefloquine hydrochloride, an antimalarial drug, was accomplished from commercially available 2-trifluoromethylaniline, ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoroacetoacetate and cyclopentanone in 7 steps with a 14% overall yield. The key steps were proline-catalyzed asymmetric direct aldol reaction and Beck-mann rearrangement. The absolute configuration was assigned by a Mosher's method.

  13. A new convenient asymmetric approach to herbarumin Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song Chen; Shi Jun Da; Li Hong Yang; Bo Yan Xu; Zhi Xiang Xie; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of herbarumin Ⅲ 3, a naturally occurred phytotoxin, along with 8-epi-herbarumin Ⅲ 22, was succeeded in 12 steps from n-butyraldehyde based on Brown's asymmetric allylation, taking modified Julia olefination and Yamaguchi's macro-lactonization as key steps.

  14. Effect of asymmetric auxin application on Helianthus hypocotyl curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, F.; Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid was applied asymmetrically to the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. After 5 hours on a clinostat, auxin gradients as small as 1 to 1.3 produced substantial (more than 60 degrees) hypocotyl curvature. This result suggests the asymmetric growth underlying hypocotyl gravitropism can be explained by lateral auxin redistribution.

  15. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  16. Competitions between prosocial exclusions and punishments in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linjie; Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Prosocial punishment has been proved to be a powerful mean to promote cooperation. Recent studies have found that social exclusion, which indeed can be regarded as a kind of punishment, can also support cooperation. However, if prosocial punishment and exclusion are both present, it is still unclear which strategy is more advantageous to curb free-riders. Here we first study the direct competition between different types of punishment and exclusion. We find that pool (peer) exclusion can always outperform pool (peer) punishment both in the optional and in the compulsory public goods game, no matter whether second-order sanctioning is considered or not. Furthermore, peer exclusion does better than pool exclusion both in the optional and in the compulsory game, but the situation is reversed in the presence of second-order exclusion. Finally, we extend the competition among all possible sanctioning strategies and find that peer exclusion can outperform all other strategies in the absence of second-order exclusion and punishment, while pool exclusion prevails when second-order sanctioning is possible. Our results demonstrate that exclusion is a more powerful strategy than punishment for the resolution of social dilemmas.

  17. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission through an acoustic prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ailing; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xi, Yanhui

    2017-08-01

    Narrow bandwidth and complex structure are the main shortcomings of the existing asymmetric acoustic transmission devices. In this letter, a simple broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission device is proposed by using an acoustic prism filled with xenon gas. The sound pressure field distributions, the transmission spectra, and the prism angle effect are numerically investigated by using finite element method. The proposed device can always realize asymmetric acoustic transmission for the wave frequency larger than 480 Hz because the wave paths are not influenced by the wave frequencies. The asymmetric acoustic transmission is attributed to normal refraction and total reflection occur at different interfaces. Besides, relatively high transmission efficiency is realized due to the similar impedance between the acoustic prism and background. And the transmitted wave direction can be controlled freely by changing the prism angle. Our design provides a simple method to obtain broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission device and has potentials in many applications, such as noise control and medical ultrasound.

  18. Asymmetric division coordinates collective cell migration in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guilherme; Harrington, Kyle I; Lovegrove, Holly E; Page, Donna J; Chakravartula, Shilpa; Bentley, Katie; Herbert, Shane P

    2016-12-01

    The asymmetric division of stem or progenitor cells generates daughters with distinct fates and regulates cell diversity during tissue morphogenesis. However, roles for asymmetric division in other more dynamic morphogenetic processes, such as cell migration, have not previously been described. Here we combine zebrafish in vivo experimental and computational approaches to reveal that heterogeneity introduced by asymmetric division generates multicellular polarity that drives coordinated collective cell migration in angiogenesis. We find that asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle during endothelial tip cell division generates daughters of distinct size with discrete 'tip' or 'stalk' thresholds of pro-migratory Vegfr signalling. Consequently, post-mitotic Vegfr asymmetry drives Dll4/Notch-independent self-organization of daughters into leading tip or trailing stalk cells, and disruption of asymmetry randomizes daughter tip/stalk selection. Thus, asymmetric division seamlessly integrates cell proliferation with collective migration, and, as such, may facilitate growth of other collectively migrating tissues during development, regeneration and cancer invasion.

  19. Evaluation of exclusion prenatal and exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, M C; de Die-Smulders, C E M; Bijlsma, E K; de Wert, G M W R; Geraedts, J P; Roos, R A C; Tibben, A

    2013-02-01

    Individuals at 50% risk of Huntington's disease (HD) who prefer not to know their carrier status, might opt for exclusion prenatal diagnosis (ePND) or exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis (ePGD). This study aims to provide a better understanding of couples' motives for choosing ePND or ePND, and surveys couples' experiences in order to make recommendations for the improvement of counselling for exclusion testing. This qualitative retrospective interview study focussed on couples who underwent ePND or ePGD for HD in the period 1996-2010. Seventeen couples were included of which 13 had experienced ePND and 6 ePGD. Mean time-interval since exclusion-testing was 3.9 years. Couples' moral reservations regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) or discarding healthy embryos were counterbalanced by the wish to protect their future child against HD. Seven couples had terminated a total of 11 pregnancies with a 50% HD risk, none showed regret. ePGD was used by couples who wanted to avoid (another) TOP. ePND and ePGD are acceptable reproductive options for a specific group of counsellees. To guarantee sound standards of care, it is imperative that candidate couples be given in-depth non-directive counselling about all possible scenarios, and adequate professional and psychological support prior to, during and after ePND/ePGD.

  20. Magnetoresistive system with concentric ferromagnetic asymmetric nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, J. I., E-mail: javila@ulg.ac.be; Tumelero, M. A.; Pasa, A. A.; Viegas, A. D. C. [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies (LFFS), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CP 476 Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    A structure consisting of two concentric asymmetric nanorings, each displaying vortex remanent states, is studied with micromagnetic calculations. By orienting in suitable directions, both the asymmetry of the rings and a uniform magnetic field, the vortices chiralities can be switched from parallel to antiparallel, obtaining in this way the analogue of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations found in bar magnets pairs. Conditions on the thickness of single rings to obtain vortex states, as well as formulas for their remanent magnetization are given. The concentric ring structure enables the creation of magnetoresistive systems comprising the qualities of magnetic nanorings, such as low stray fields and high stability. A possible application is as contacts in spin injection in semiconductors, and estimations obtained here of magnetoresistance change for a cylindrical spin injection based device show significant variations comparable to linear geometries.

  1. Asymmetric Beam Combination for Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D

    2001-01-01

    Optical interferometers increasingly use single-mode fibers as spatial filters to convert varying wavefront distortion into intensity fluctuations which can be monitored for accurate calibration of fringe amplitudes. Here I propose using an asymmetric coupler to allow the photometric intensities of each telescope beam to be measured at the same time as the fringe visibility, but without the need for dedicated photometric outputs, which reduce the light throughput in the interferometric channels. In the read-noise limited case often encountered in the infrared, I show that a 53% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for the visibility amplitude measurement is achievable, when compared to a balanced coupler setup with 50% photometric taps (e.g., the FLUOR experiment). In the Poisson-noise limit appropriate for visible light, the improvement is reduced to only ~8%. This scheme also reduces the cost and complexity of the beam combination since fewer components and detectors are required, and can be extended to mor...

  2. Activation of carboxylic acids in asymmetric organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Mattia Riccardo; Poladura, Belén; Diaz de Los Bernardos, Miriam; Leutzsch, Markus; Goddard, Richard; List, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Organocatalysis, catalysis using small organic molecules, has recently evolved into a general approach for asymmetric synthesis, complementing both metal catalysis and biocatalysis. Its success relies to a large extent upon the introduction of novel and generic activation modes. Remarkably though, while carboxylic acids have been used as catalyst directing groups in supramolecular transition-metal catalysis, a general and well-defined activation mode for this useful and abundant substance class is still lacking. Herein we propose the heterodimeric association of carboxylic acids with chiral phosphoric acid catalysts as a new activation principle for organocatalysis. This self-assembly increases both the acidity of the phosphoric acid catalyst and the reactivity of the carboxylic acid. To illustrate this principle, we apply our concept in a general and highly enantioselective catalytic aziridine-opening reaction with carboxylic acids as nucleophiles.

  3. THz operation of asymmetric-nanochannel devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balocco, C.; Halsall, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Song, A. M.

    2008-09-01

    The THz spectrum lies between microwaves and the mid-infrared, a region that remains largely unexplored mainly due to the bottleneck issue of lacking compact, solid state, emitters and detectors. Here, we report on a novel asymmetric-nanochannel device, known as the self-switching device, which can operate at frequencies up to 2.5 THz for temperature up to 150 K. This is, to our knowledge, not only the simplest diode but also the quickest acting electronic nanodevice reported to date. The radiation was generated by the free electron laser FELIX (Netherlands). The dependences of the device efficiency as a function of the electric bias, radiation intensity, radiation frequency and temperature are reported.

  4. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  5. Asymmetric Aminalization via Cation-Binding Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sang Yeon; Liu, Yidong; Oh, Joong Suk

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, in principle, can generate "chiral" anionic nucleophiles, where the counter cations are coordinated within chiral environments. Nitrogen-nucleophiles are intrinsically basic, therefore, its use as nucleophiles is often challenging and limiting the scope...... of the reaction. Particularly, a formation of configurationally labile aminal centers with alkyl substituents has been a formidable challenge due to the enamine/imine equilibrium of electrophilic substrates. Herein, we report enantioselective nucleophilic addition reactions of potassium phthalimides to Boc......-protected alkyl- and aryl-substituted α-amido sulfones. In-situ generated imines smoothly reacted with the nitrogen nucleophiles to corresponding aminals with good to excellent enantioselectivitiy under mild reaction conditions. In addition, transformation of aminal products gave biologically relevant...

  6. Distributed Function Computation in Asymmetric Communication Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Agnihotri, Samar

    2009-01-01

    We consider the distributed function computation problem in asymmetric communication scenarios, where the sink computes some deterministic function of the data split among N correlated informants. The distributed function computation problem is addressed as a generalization of distributed source coding (DSC) problem. We are mainly interested in minimizing the number of informant bits required, in the worst-case, to allow the sink to exactly compute the function. We provide a constructive solution for this in terms of an interactive communication protocol and prove its optimality. The proposed protocol also allows us to compute the worst-case achievable rate-region for the computation of any function. We define two classes of functions: lossy and lossless. We show that, in general, the lossy functions can be computed at the sink with fewer number of informant bits than the DSC problem, while computation of the lossless functions requires as many informant bits as the DSC problem.

  7. Chilly Dark Sectors and Asymmetric Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, $N_{\\mathrm{eff}}$, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and ...

  8. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  9. Asymmetric quantum dialogue in noisy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-02-01

    A notion of asymmetric quantum dialogue (AQD) is introduced. Conventional protocols of quantum dialogue are essentially symmetric as the users (Alice and Bob) can encode the same amount of classical information. In contrast, the proposed scheme for AQD provides different amount of communication powers to Alice and Bob. The proposed scheme offers an architecture, where the entangled state to be used and the encoding scheme to be shared between Alice and Bob depend on the amount of classical information they want to exchange with each other. The general structure for the AQD scheme has been obtained using a group theoretic structure of the operators introduced in Shukla et al. (Phys Lett A 377:518, 2013). The effect of different types of noises (e.g., amplitude damping and phase damping noise) on the proposed scheme is investigated, and it is shown that the proposed scheme for AQD is robust and it uses an optimized amount of quantum resources.

  10. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P Roy; Samanta, C

    2009-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and the isovector components of density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility $K_\\infty$ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part $K_{asy}$ of the isobaric incompressibility and the slope $L$ are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes, from the neutron skin thickness of nuclei and from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. This work provides a fundamental basis for the understanding of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, and validates the important empirical constraints obtained from recent experimental data.

  11. Disordered contact process with asymmetric spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2013-02-01

    An asymmetric variant of the contact process where the activity spreads with different and independent random rates to the left and to the right is introduced. A real space renormalization scheme is formulated for the model by means of which it is shown that the local asymmetry of spreading is irrelevant on large scales if the model is globally (statistically) symmetric. Otherwise, in the presence of a global bias in either direction, the renormalization method predicts two distinct phase transitions, which are related to the spreading of activity in and against the direction of the bias. The latter is found to be described by an infinite randomness fixed point while the former is not.

  12. Asymmetric Ferromagnet-Superconductor-Ferromagnet Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadden-Zimansky, P.; Bazaliy, Ya.B.; Litvak, L.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Pearson, J.; Gu, J.Y.; You, Chun-Yeol; Beasley, M.R.; Bader, S.D.

    2011-11-04

    In layered ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet F{sub 1} /S/F{sub 2} structures, the critical temperature T{sub c} of the superconductors depends on the magnetic orientation of the ferromagnetic layers F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} relative to each other. So far, the experimentally observed magnitude of change in T{sub c} for structures utilizing weak ferromagnets has been 2 orders of magnitude smaller than is expected from calculations. We theoretically show that such a discrepancy can result from the asymmetry of F/S boundaries, and we test this possibility by performing experiments on structures where F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} are independently varied. Our experimental results indicate that asymmetric boundaries are not the source of the discrepancy. If boundary asymmetry is causing the suppressed magnitude of T{sub c} changes, it may only be possible to detect in structures with thinner ferromagnetic layers.

  13. Universality in freezing of an asymmetric drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Md Farhad; Waghmare, Prashant R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the evidence of universality in conical tip formation during the freezing of arbitrary-shaped sessile droplets. The focus is to demonstrate the relationship between this universality and the liquid drop shape. We observe that, in the case of asymmetric drops, this universal shape is achieved when the tip reconfigures by changing its location, which subsequently alters the frozen drop shape. The proposed "two-triangle" model quantifies the change in the tip configuration as a function of the asymmetry of the drop that shows a good agreement with the experimental evidence. Finally, based on the experimental and theoretical exercise, we propose the scaling dependence between the variations in the tip configuration and the asymmetry of the drop.

  14. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Katherine; Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2012-01-01

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via interference of squeezed states. In many of optical systems, such as parametric down conversion or interference of optical squeezed states, production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually used for demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of the concept of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualisation of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal...

  15. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  16. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  17. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  18. Catalytic asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongwei; Hu, Lin; Li, Zhe; Deng, Li

    2015-07-01

    The carbon-nitrogen double bonds in imines are fundamentally important functional groups in organic chemistry. This is largely due to the fact that imines act as electrophiles towards carbon nucleophiles in reactions that form carbon-carbon bonds, thereby serving as one of the most widely used precursors for the formation of amines in both synthetic and biosynthetic settings. If the carbon atom of the imine could be rendered electron-rich, the imine could react as a nucleophile instead of as an electrophile. Such a reversal in the electronic characteristics of the imine functionality would facilitate the development of new chemical transformations that convert imines into amines via carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbon electrophiles, thereby creating new opportunities for the efficient synthesis of amines. The development of asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines (in which the imines act as nucleophiles) remains uncharted territory, in spite of the far-reaching impact such reactions would have in organic synthesis. Here we report the discovery and development of new chiral phase-transfer catalysts that promote the highly efficient asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines with the carbon electrophile enals. These catalysts mediate the deprotonation of imines and direct the 2-azaallyl anions thus formed to react with enals in a highly chemoselective, regioselective, diastereoselective and enantioselective fashion. The reaction tolerates a broad range of imines and enals, and can be carried out in high yield with as little as 0.01 mole per cent catalyst with a moisture- and air-tolerant operational protocol. These umpolung reactions provide a conceptually new and practical approach to chiral amino compounds.

  19. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  20. Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"%Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Organic chemistry exploring the world at a molecu- lar level remains essential for our society in the 21st century. Asymmetric synthesis, particularly those em- ploying catalytic approach, is one of the most important research fields in organic synthesis providing chiral compounds in an enantiopure form. The latter is critical since the two enantiomers of one chiral compound, in many cases, have a different response in biological sys- tems. The huge markets of non-racemic chiral com- pounds as synthetic intermediates, pharmaceuticals,