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Sample records for two-kidney one-clip 2k1c

  1. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

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    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  2. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

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    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  3. Loss of prolyl carboxypeptidase in two-kidney, one-clip goldblatt hypertensive mice.

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    Nadja Grobe

    Full Text Available It is well documented that angiotensin (Ang II contributes to kidney disease progression. The protease prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP is highly expressed in the kidney and may be renoprotective by degrading Ang II to Ang-(1-7. The aim of the study was to investigate whether renal PRCP protein expression and activity are altered in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive mice. Left renal artery was constricted by using 0.12 mm silver clips. Blood pressure was measured using telemetry over the eleven weeks of study period and revealed an immediate increase in 2K1C animals during the first week of clip placement which was followed by a gradual decrease to baseline blood pressure. Similarly, urinary albumin excretion was significantly increased one week after 2K1C and returned to baseline levels during the following weeks. At 2 weeks and at the end of the study, renal pathologies were exacerbated in the 2K1C model as revealed by a significant increase in mesangial expansion and renal fibrosis. Renal PRCP expression and activity were significantly reduced in clipped kidneys. Immunofluorescence revealed the loss of renal tubular PRCP but not glomerular PRCP. In contrast, expression of prolyl endopeptidase, another enzyme capable of converting Ang II into Ang-(1-7, was not affected, while angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated in unclipped kidneys and renin was increased in clipped kidneys. Results suggest that PRCP is suppressed in 2K1C and that this downregulation may attenuate renoprotective effects via impaired Ang II degradation by PRCP.

  4. Hemodynamic and neural responses to renal denervation of the nerve to the clipped kidney by cryoablation in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

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    Rossi, Noreen F; Pajewski, Russell; Chen, Haiping; Littrup, Peter J; Maliszewska-Scislo, Maria

    2016-01-15

    Renal artery stenosis is increasing in prevalence. Angioplasty plus stenting has not proven to be better than medical management. There has been a reluctance to use available denervation methodologies in this condition. We studied conscious, chronically instrumented, two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) Goldblatt rats, a model of renovascular hypertension, to test the hypothesis that renal denervation by cryoablation (cryo-DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma and tissue ANG II, and contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham (ShC) or right renal artery clipping (2K-1C), placement of telemetry transmitters, and pair-feeding with a 0.4% NaCl diet. After 6 wk, rats were randomly assigned to cryo-DNX or sham cryotreatment (sham DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney. MAP was elevated in 2K-1C and decreased significantly in both ShC cryo-DNX and 2K-1C cryo-DNX. Tissue norepinephrine was ∼85% lower in cryo-DNX kidneys. Plasma ANG II was higher in 2K-1C sham DNX but not in 2K-1C cryo-DNX vs ShC. Renal tissue ANG II in the clipped kidney decreased after cryo-DNX. Baseline integrated RSNA of the unclipped kidney was threefold higher in 2K-1C versus ShC and decreased in 2K-1C cryo-DNX to values similar to ShC. Maximum reflex response of RSNA to baroreceptor unloading in 2K-1C was lower after cryo-DNX. Thus, denervation by cryoablation of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases not only MAP but also plasma and renal tissue ANG II levels and RSNA to the contralateral kidney in conscious, freely moving 2K-1C rats.

  5. Proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded glomeruli suggests depletion of glomerular filtration barrier proteins in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

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    Finne, Kenneth; Vethe, Heidrun; Skogstrand, Trude; Leh, Sabine; Dahl, Tone D; Tenstad, Olav; Berven, Frode S; Reed, Rolf K; Vikse, Bjørn Egil

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that hypertension may cause glomerular damage, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. In the present study, we used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue to investigate changes in the glomerular proteome in the non-clipped kidney of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats, with special emphasis on the glomerular filtration barrier. 2K1C hypertension was induced in 6-week-old Wistar Hannover rats (n = 6) that were sacrificed 23 weeks later and compared with age-matched sham-operated controls (n = 6). Tissue was stored in FFPE tissue blocks and later prepared on tissue slides for laser microdissection. Glomeruli without severe morphological damage were isolated, and the proteomes were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 2K1C glomeruli showed reduced abundance of proteins important for slit diaphragm complex, such as nephrin, podocin and neph1. The podocyte foot process had a pattern of reduced abundance of transmembrane proteins but unchanged abundances of the podocyte cytoskeletal proteins synaptopodin and α-actinin-4. Lower abundance of important glomerular basement membrane proteins was seen. Possible glomerular markers of damage with increased abundance in 2K1C were transgelin, desmin and acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 1. Microdissection and tandem mass spectrometry could be used to investigate the proteome of isolated glomeruli from FFPE tissue. Glomerular filtration barrier proteins had reduced abundance in the non-clipped kidney of 2K1C hypertensive rats. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  6. MiR-139-3p is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats

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    Yang Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have reported the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. However, its specific roles and functions in the heart undergoing hypertrophy have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a significant upregulation of miR-139-3p expression was demonstrated in the left ventricular myocardium of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Based on computational analysis, we observed that miR-139-3p can control the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1 as a target gene, which is essential for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study provides first information that the highly expressed miR-139-3p might be closely involved in MAPK1-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptotic processes in 2K1C rat.

  7. Effects of niflumic acid on alpha1-adrenoceptor-induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric artery in vitro and in vivo in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats.

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    He, Y; Tabrizchi, R

    1997-06-11

    The influence of niflumic acid (3 and 10 microM), a Cl- channel antagonist, on cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated perfused mesenteric artery (5 ml/min) from two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive and sham normotensive rats was examined. In addition, the effect of a single i.v. bolus injection of niflumic acid (3 mg/kg) on cirazoline-mediated reduction in vascular conductance in superior mesenteric artery was determined in pentobarbital-anaesthetized hypertensive and normotensive rats. Bolus injections of cirazoline induced a dose-dependent transient increase in the perfusion pressure in vitro. In the presence of niflumic acid, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited. Cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated mesenteric beds was also significantly inhibited following perfusion with Cl(-)-free buffer. Pre-perfusion of mesenteric blood vessels with Cl(-)-free buffer resulted in a significantly greater inhibition of cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction in sham normotensive rats than in hypertensive rats. We found that in Cl(-)-free buffer, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction could be further inhibited by niflumic acid. Intravenous infusion of cumulative doses of cirazoline in vivo caused a dose-dependent decrease in superior mesenteric vascular conductance. Pretreatment with niflumic acid significantly impaired cirazoline-mediated decreases in vascular conductance. Our results indicate that chloride ions play an important role in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric blood vessels. In addition, the contribution of chloride ions in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in blood vessels from hypertensive rats appears to be reduced.

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition induces alterations to hippuran renography despite unchanged ipsilateral renal blood flow in conscious two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertensive dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, G J; de Zeeuw, D; Huisman, R M; van der Hem, G K

    1988-01-01

    We performed experiments in the two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertensive dog to see whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition could improve the sensitivity of hippurate renography in detecting renal artery stenosis. Ten dogs on a sodium-restricted diet were studied before and after i

  9. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

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    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  10. Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

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    Orachorn Boonla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.

  11. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats

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    R.C.A. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  12. IMPACT OF NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERTENSION AND RENAL AND CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY IN 2K1C AND DOCA/SALT MICE

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    Q. Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available NLRP3 inflammasome is formed by NLRP3, the adaptor ASC, and caspase-1, functions as a sensor of danger signals and triggers processing and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β. Recent animal studies demonstrate that NLRP3 inflammasome promotes renal inflammation. However, little is known on the role of NLRP3 in hypertension. We have investigated the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome on blood pressure, plasma renin activity and concentration (PRA and PRC, renal and cardiac hypertrophy in NALP3 and ASC deficient mice on which the two-kidney, one clip (2K1C and the deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA/salt models were applied. MBP, PRA, PRC, and HW/BW were significantly increased at week 12 in WT-2K1C mice compared to the sham. Neither NLAP3-KO nor ASC-KO 2K1C treated mice developed hypertension and had lower circulating levels of PRA and PRC and serum amyloid A (SAA and IL6 compared to the control. RNA levels of SAA, NLRP3, IL1β and IL1α were increased in the ischemic kidney in C57BL/6J mice. Administration of anti-IL1β antibody to the WT mice attenuated the increases of blood pressure and renin in 2K1C mice. With chronic administration of DOCA/salt, MBPs in both NLRP3-KO and WT mice were comparable and not significantly increased compared to tap water group. PRA and PRC in both NALP3-KO and WT mice were significantly suppressed by DOCA/salt. HW/BW and KW/BW in both DOCA/salt treated NALP3-KO and WT mice were significantly increased. DOCA/salt induced hypokalemia was comparable between Nlrp3 KO and WT groups. However, the heart and kidney index in DOCA/salt NLRP3-KO mice was significantly lower than that in DOCA/salt WT mice. Our data show that NLRP3 mediated IL1β is linked to development of renovascular hypertension and suggest that a novel target for the treatment of hypertension. The results also implicate that NLRP3 contributes to the development of cardiac and renal hypertrophy independently of blood pressure in the DOCA/salt model.

  13. Functional subtypes of renal α1-adrenoceptor in diabetic and non-dia-betic 2K1C Goldblatt renovascular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A ARMENIA; Munavvar Abdul SATTAR; Nor Azizan ABDULLAH; Md Abdul Hye KHAN; Edward James JOHNS

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the subtypes of the α-adrenoceptor mediating the adrenergically-induced renal vasoconstrictor responses in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic 2-kidney one clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Methods: The renal blood flow responses to renal nerve stimulation, noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and methoxamine were measured in the absence and presence of nitrendipine, 5-methylurapidil, chloroethylclonidine and BMY 7378. Results: The renal vasoconstrictor responses were markedly attenuated by nitrendipine and 5-methylurapidil in the diabetic rats (all P<0.05). In the non-diabetic rats, these responses were markedly attenuated by nitrendipine, 5-methylurapidil, and BMY 7378 (all P<0.05). In both experimental groups, chloroethylclonidine markedly accentuated the renal vasoconstrictions caused by all the adrenergic stimuli (all P<0.05). Conclusion: These observations indicate that α1A-adrenoceptor subtypes play a major role in mediating adrenergically-induced renal vasoconstriction in the dia-betic 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats. In the non-diabetic 2KIC Goldblatt hy-pertensive rats, contributions of α1A and α1D-adrenoceptor subtypes were proposed. Apart from post-synaptic α1-adrenoceptors, both in the diabetic and non-diabetic 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats, the potential involvement of presynaptic α1-adrenoceptors is also suggested.

  14. Elastin-insufficient mice show normal cardiovascular remodeling in 2K1C hypertension despite higher baseline pressure and unique cardiovascular architecture.

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    Wagenseil, Jessica E; Knutsen, Russell H; Li, Dean Y; Mecham, Robert P

    2007-07-01

    Mice heterozygous for the elastin gene (ELN(+/-)) show unique cardiovascular properties, including increased blood pressure and smaller, thinner arteries with an increased number of lamellar units. Some of these properties are also observed in humans with supravalvular aortic stenosis, a disease caused by functional heterozygosity of the elastin gene. The arterial geometry in ELN(+/-) mice is contrary to the increased thickness that would be expected in an animal demonstrating hypertensive remodeling. To determine whether this is due to a decreased capability for cardiovascular remodeling or to a novel adaptation of the ELN(+/-) cardiovascular system, we increased blood pressure in adult ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-) mice using the two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt model of hypertension. Successfully clipped mice have a systolic pressure increase of at least 15 mmHg over sham-operated animals. ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-)-clipped mice show significant increases over sham-operated mice in cardiac weight, arterial thickness, and arterial cross-sectional area with no changes in lamellar number. There are no significant differences in most mechanical properties with clipping in either genotype. These results indicate that ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-) hearts and arteries remodel similarly in response to adult induced hypertension. Therefore, the cardiovascular properties of ELN(+/-) mice are likely due to developmental remodeling in response to altered hemodynamics and reduced elastin levels.

  15. CHANGES IN RENAL-FUNCTION INDUCED BY ACE-INHIBITION IN THE CONSCIOUS 2-KIDNEY, ONE-CLIP GOLDBLATT HYPERTENSIVE DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, GJ; VISSCHER, CA; DEZEEUW, D; HUISMAN, RM; PIERS, DA; BEEKHUIS, H; VANDERHEM, GK

    1992-01-01

    In order to study why the diagnostic sensitivity of I-123-hippurate renography for a renal artery stenosis is improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-) inhibition we used the model of the conscious chronically instrumented two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive dog. Urine flow (UV), rena

  16. Comparison of different inner diameter silver clip impact on 2K1C hypertension model%不同内径银夹诱导2K1C高血压模型的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲玲; 俞婷婷; 郭焜; 兰潮棕; 刘彪; 宋佳治; 刘有静; 汪星辉; 高杉

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effect of three different inner diameter silver clips on 2K1C hypertensive rats.METHODS:A 2K1C hypertensive rats were established by narrow the right renal artery with different inner diameter of U-shaped silver clips.Animals were divided into 4 groups:the sham-operate group,2K1C-0.2 mm group,2K1C-0.25 mm group and 2K1C-0.3 mm group.The tail-cuff apparatus was employed to measure the rat tail arterial blood pressure during the 0-8 weeks.At the end of 8th wk,the hemodynamics index recorded.The cardiac and kidney hypertrophy index were expressed as heart weight/body weight (HW/BW),left kidney weight/body weight (LKW/BW) and right kidney weight/body weight (RKW/BW).The aorta remodeling was investigated by HE stain.The content of hydroxyproline in myocardial tissue was measured by colorimetric determination.Radioimmunoassay method was used to detected the AngⅡ content in serum.RESULTS:The 2K1C-0.25 group and 2K1C-0.3 group showed the higher model successful rate,less pyknotic kidneys,significant impairment of cardiac function,markedly increasing of HW/BW,vascular remodeling index,the content of hydroxyproline and the AngⅡ content compared with sham-operate group.However,the 2K1C-0.2 group performed not well in model successful rate,pyknotic kidneys and the AngⅡ content in serum.CONCLUSION:The 2K1C renovascular hypertension model that narrow the renal artery with 0.25 or 0.3 mm inner diameter of U-shaped silver clips proves to be the optimal one.%目的:比较不同内径银夹缩窄大鼠肾动脉诱导的2K1C高血压模型效果.方法:用U型银夹缩窄大鼠右侧肾动脉建立2K1C高血压模型,分为4组:假手术组、2K1C-0.2 mm组、2K1C-0.25 mm组和2K1C-0.3 mm组.0~8周内,用无创尾动脉压测量仪测量大鼠尾动脉压.第8周末,BL-420S生物机能实验系统监测各组动物的心功能,计算大鼠心重量指数(HW/BW)、左和右肾脏重量指数(LKW/BW和RKW/BW),HE染色观察胸主动脉重构情况,比色法

  17. Adrenomedullin gene delivery attenuates renal damage and cardiac hypertrophy in Goldblatt hypertensive rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cindy Wang; Eric Dobrzynski; Julie Chao; Lee Chao

    2001-01-01

    .... A single tail vein injection of adenovirus harboring the human AM gene significantly blunted a blood pressure increase that lasted for more than 3 wk in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats...

  18. 8.4.Electrolytes,water,acid-base imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920951 The effects of high dietary potas-sium on blood pressure,glomeruli and arter-ioles of kidney and spleen in two-kidney oneclip hypertensive rats.ZHANG Jianzhong (张中),ZHANG Hongyan (张宏彦).Dept Pathol,Ningxia Med Coll.Yin Chin Cir J 1991; 6 (5):380-382.in two-kidney,one clip (2K,1C) hypertensiveWistar rats,we studied the effects of high dietary

  19. 超声评价高血压大鼠左室肥厚时缬沙坦对其结构和功能的影响%Effects of Valsartan on Left Ventricular Structure and Function in 2K1C Hypertensive Rats Evaluated with Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙花; 夏稻子; 张宇虹; 张文华; 曲鹏; 田小红

    2001-01-01

    目的:应用高频超声心动图观察肾性高血压大鼠左室肥厚(LVH)时结构和功能的改变,并结合心肌癌基因C-FOS,C-MYC表达水平,评价缬沙坦(Valsartan,VAL)对左室构型的影响及可能机制。方法:36只SD大鼠随机分成手术组26只和假手术组10只,手术组鼠制成二肾一夹(2K1C)型肾高血压动物模型后,分为高血压组和VAL组各13只。对三组鼠行经胸超声心动图监测并测定心肌C-FOS,C-MYC表达水平。结果:VAL组室壁厚度、心功能及癌基因表达水平与假手术组无显著性差异;与高血压组有显著性差异。结论:超声能准确评价VAL抑制心肌肥厚和保护心功能的作用,后者可能是抑制心肌癌基因表达的结果。%Objective:To observe the hypertrophic left ventricular structureand function by echocardiography in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats and to connect with the level of expression of cardiac cellular oncogenes C-FOS and C-MYC as well as to evaluate the effects of Valsartan(VAL) on LV and its probable mechanism.Methods:36 SD rats were divided randomly into the sham team (n=10) and the operating team (n=26). The latter were made into 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rat models and then subdivided into hypertension team (n=13) and VAL team (n=13). Three teams who were all studied by echocardiography and expressions of oncogenes C-FOS and C-MYC were detected by immunohistochemical technique.Results:The changes of rat heart structure and function could be revealed clearly by echocardiography. LV mass correlated well with the real mass. There was no statistical significance between VAL team and the sham in ventricular thickness, heart function and expression of C-FOS and C-MYC, while there was significant difference between VAL team and hypertension team.Conclusions:Echocardiography can be used to accurately evaluate the effects of VAL on inhibiting LVH and protecting heart function, which perhaps result

  20. Metalloproteinase inhibition ameliorates hypertension and prevents vascular dysfunction and remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michele M; Rizzi, Elen; Figueiredo-Lopes, Lívia; Fernandes, Karla; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2008-06-01

    Altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is implicated in the vascular remodeling of hypertension. We examined whether increased MMP-2 expression/activity plays a role in the vascular remodeling and dysfunction found in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension. Sham operated or 2K-1C hypertension rats were treated with doxycycline 30mg/(kgday) (or vehicle). Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. After 8 weeks of treatment, aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and independent relaxations. Quantitative morphometry of structural changes, collagen, and elastin contents in the aortic wall were studied in hematoxylin/eosin, Sirius Red, and Orceine stained aortic sections, respectively. Aortic MMP-2 levels were determined by gelatin zymography and aortic MMP-2 proteolytic activity was measured using DQ gelatin as the substrate after MMP-2 was captured by a specific antibody and immobilized on a microplate. Aortic MMP-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 mRNA levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. Doxycycline attenuated 2K-1C hypertension (215+/-8mmHg versus 167+/-13mmHg in 2K-1C rats and 2K-1C+doxy rats, respectively; Pdoxy rats. Our results suggest that MMP-2 plays a role in 2K-1C hypertension and its structural and functional vascular changes, which were attenuated by doxycycline.

  1. Resveratrol improves vasoprotective effects of captopril on aortic remodeling and fibrosis triggered by renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalin, Henrique Melo; Garcia, Arthur Feierabend Engracia; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambeli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system triggers vascular remodeling and fibrosis during the renovascular hypertensive two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) model by oxidative-stress-mediated mechanisms. Thus, we hypothesized that the chronic treatment with the polyphenolic antioxidant resveratrol would improve the vasoprotective effects promoted by the chronic treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) captopril in 2K1C hypertensive rats. Our main objective was to evaluate the effects of the combined treatment with resveratrol and captopril on vascular remodeling and fibrosis in 2K1C rats. Male Wistar rats underwent to unilateral renal stenosis by 2K1C Goldblatt model. Six weeks after surgery, rat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by indirect tail-cuff plethysmography. 2K1C rats were considered hypertensive when presenting SBP higher than 160 mmHg and underwent resveratrol (20 mg/kg), captopril (6 or 12 mg/kg), or resveratrol (20 mg/kg) combined with captopril (6 or 12 mg/kg) treatment for 3 weeks. Nine weeks after surgery, rat SBP was measured, and rat thoracic aorta was isolated for histological assays with hematoxylin/eosin or Picrosirius Red to evaluate aortic remodeling and fibrosis, respectively. Oral treatment of 2K1C hypertensive rats with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) combined with the dose-dependent ACEi captopril (6 and 12 mg/kg) resulted in lesser aortic thickening and reduced aortic fibrosis. Resveratrol (20 mg/kg) promoted a more expressive hypotensive effect with captopril (12 mg/kg) in 2K1C rats than the treatment with isolated captopril (12 mg/kg). Resveratrol improves the vasoprotective effects promoted by captopril on aortic remodeling and fibrosis during renovascular hypertension probably by synergic mechanisms involving antioxidant actions and nitric oxide generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased immunoreactivity of visfatin in the pancreas and liver of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ż; Janiuk, I; Lewandowska, A; Kasacka, I

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major endocrine and metabolic disorders, in which visfatin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoreactivity of visfatin in pancreas and liver of “two kidney, one clip” (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the pancreas and liver of rats. After a 6-week period of the renal artery clipping procedure, 2K1C rats developed a stable hypertension. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (for general histological examination) and processed for immunolocalization of visfatin. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction was measured using Nikon NIS-Elements Advanced Research software. The hypertension significantly weakened the immunohistochemical reaction exhibiting visfatin in the pancreas and liver of hypertensive rats, compared to control animals. The changes induced by hypertension in the visfatin-containing cells in the pancreas and liver of the rats are discussed and needs further study.

  3. Hipertensão arterial experimental e prenhez em ratas: uso do modelo Goldblatt I (1 rim - 1 clipe Experimental hypertension and pregnancy in rats: use of Goldblatt I (one kidney -- one clip model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Dias

    1999-05-01

    controlled constriction of the main left renal artery, according to the technique described by Goldblatt, and contralateral nephrectomy (Goldblatt I - one kidney, one clip hypertension. They were studied at 15 precise moments. Afterwards, periodic blood pressure determinations were made by the tail plethysmographic method. Results: pregnancy caused a fall in blood pressure levels in the rat. Conclusion: the experimental model was adequate for the purposes of the study, since it proved to be efficient in producing hypertension.

  4. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  5. Anti-hypertensive effects of a closed-loop chip system in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Min; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhao, Cong-Kan; Xu, Yao; Gao, Xing-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The authors' previous study showed a closed-loop chip system that was used to control arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study the anti-hypertensive effects of the chip system were investigated in anaesthetized two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats and compared with sham-operated rats. The chip system recorded, sampled, and processed the signals of arterial pressure and instantaneously controlled arterial pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve. The frequency of stimulation was determined according to the feedback signals of arterial pressure. The chip system, running three different programs, successfully achieved a different degree of depressor effects. It effectively decreased not only mean arterial pressure (MAP), but also renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in both 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats. The chip system significantly increased the baroreflex gain in the 2K1C rats, but not in the sham-operated rats. It normalized the increased left ventricle developing pressure and maximal rise rate of the left ventricle pressure (dP/dtmax) in the 2K1C rats. These results indicate that the depressor effect can be controlled by changing the programs of the chip system. The closed-loop chip system effectively decreased arterial pressure and sympathetic outflow, increased baroreflex gain, and normalized the enhanced cardiac contractility in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands.

  7. Sequential activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of hypertensive nephropathy in Goldblatt rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Gyun; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Se-Yun; Lee, Arah; Moon, Ju Young; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Lim, Sung Jig; Sohn, Il Suk; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2016-07-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has an important role in generating and maintaining hypertension in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) rats. This study evaluated how various intrarenal RAS components contributed to hypertension not only in the maintenance period (5w; 5 wk after operation) but also earlier (2w; 2 wk after operation). We inserted a 2.5-mm clip into the left renal artery of Sprague-Dawley rats and euthanized them at 2w and 5w following the operation. Systolic blood pressure increased within 1 wk after the operation, and left ventricular hypertrophy occurred in 2K1C rats. At 2w, juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) and collecting duct (CD) renin increased in clipped kidney (CK) of 2K1C rats. The tubular angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was not changed, but peritubular ACE2 decreased in nonclipped kidney (NCK) and CK of 2K1C rats. At 5w, ACE and CD renin were enhanced, and ACE2 was still lessened in both kidneys of 2K1C rats. However, plasma renin activity (PRA) was not different from that in sham rats. In proximal tubules of CK, the ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) was not suppressed, but the Mas receptor (MasR) was reduced; thus the AT1R/MasR ratio was elevated. Although hypoxic change in CK could not be excluded, the JGA renin of CK and CD renin in both kidneys was highly expressed independent of time. Peritubular ACE2 changed in the earlier period, and uninhibited AT1R in proximal tubules of CK was presented in the maintenance period. In 2K1C rats, attenuated ACE2 seems to contribute to initiating hypertension while upregulated ACE in combination with unsuppressed AT1R may have a key role in maintaining hypertension.

  8. Endogenous angiotensin II modulates nNOS expression in renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.C. Pereira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO influences renal blood flow mainly as a result of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Nevertheless, it is unclear how nNOS expression is modulated by endogenous angiotensin II, an inhibitor of NO function. We tested the hypothesis that the angiotensin II AT1 receptor and oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase contribute to the modulation of renal nNOS expression in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats (150 to 170 g body weight divided into 2K1C (N = 19 and sham-operated (N = 19 groups. nNOS expression in kidneys of 2K1C hypertensive rats (N = 9 was compared by Western blotting to that of 2K1C rats treated with low doses of the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 mg·kg-1·day-1; N = 5 or the superoxide scavenger tempol (0.2 mmol·kg-1·day-1; N = 5, which still remain hypertensive. After 28 days, nNOS expression was significantly increased by 1.7-fold in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats and by 3-fold in the non-clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats compared with sham rats, but was normalized by losartan. With tempol treatment, nNOS expression increased 2-fold in the clipped kidneys and 1.4-fold in the non-clipped kidneys compared with sham rats. The changes in nNOS expression were not followed by changes in the enzyme activity, as measured indirectly by the cGMP method. In conclusion, AT1 receptors and oxidative stress seem to be primary stimuli for increased nNOS expression, but this up-regulation does not result in higher enzyme activity.

  9. Antihypertensive effects of Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) on blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Anwar; Imam, Guzelnur; Yimin, Wuliya; Kerim, Parhat; Tohti, Ibadet; Berké, Bénédicte; Moore, Nicholas

    2010-07-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL), sweet basil, is a medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible antihypertensive effects of OBL extract in renovascular hypertensive rats. The two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model of renovascular hypertension was used in Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into sham, untreated 2K1C, captopril- (30 mg kg(-1) per day orally) and OBL- (100, 200, 400 mg kg(-1) per day orally) (low (L)-, medium (M)-, high (H)-OBL) treated 2K1C groups (n=10-12 per group), followed up for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, heart weight/body weight, plasma angiotensin-II and endothelin (ET)-1 were studied. OBL reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by about 20 and 15 mm Hg, respectively, compared with 35 and 22 mm Hg for captopril, from the lowest dose tested with no dose dependency. Cardiac hypertrophy was reduced from 3.6+/-0.7 mg g(-1) for untreated 2K1C to 3.0+/-0.6, 2.9+/-0.6 and 2.4+/-0.4 mg g(-1) for L-, M- and H-OBL, respectively, compared with 2.6+/-0.5 for sham and 3.1+/-0.4 mg g(-1) for captopril (P<0.05). Renal function was improved with captopril. Angiotensin was reduced to a lesser extent than with captopril. ET was reduced to lower concentrations (78+/-15, 80+/-22, 82+/-15 pg ml(-1) for L-, M-, H-OBL, respectively) than in sham (116+/-31 pg ml(-1)), untreated 2K1C (174+/-72 pg ml(-1)) or captopril (117+/-72 pg ml(-1)) groups. The effects of OBL on blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and ET, are consistent with an effect on ET-converting enzyme, and warrant further exploration.

  10. Effects of allisartan, a new AT1 receptor blocker, on blood pressure and end-organ damage in hypertensive animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-yue WU; Xiu-juan MA; Chu YANG; Xia TAO; Ai-jun LIU; Ding-feng SU; Jian-guo LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of allisartan, a new angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, on blood pressure (BP) and end-organ damage (EOD) in hypertensive rats and dogs. Methods: First, a single dose of allisartan was given intragastricaUy to evaluate the BP reduction in spontaneously hyper-tensive rats (SHRs), two kidney-one clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats and dogs, and Beagle dogs with angiotensin Ⅱ-induced hypertension. Second, aUisartan was mixed in rat chow for long-term treatment. After 4 months of drug admin-istration, rats were instrumented to determine BP and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Observation of morphologic changes was used to estimate EOD. Third, the acute toxicity of allisartan was compared with that of losartan in mice. Results: BP was significantly decreased after intragastric administration of allisartan in SHRs, 2K1C rats, 2K1C dogs and with allisartan exhibited an improved BRS and organ protective effects. Mice who were administered allisartan experi-enced less acute toxicity than those treated with losartan.Conclusion: Auisartan is highly effective for BP reduction and organ protection with low toxicity.

  11. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  12. Sesamin exerts renoprotective effects by enhancing NO bioactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Qi; Kong, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jie-Ren; Li, Xin-Li

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sesamin on kidney damage and renal endothelial dysfunction in two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat-sucrose diet (2K1C rats on HFS diet). Sesamin was intragastrically administered to 2K1C rats on HFS diet for eight weeks. Then, we measured the levels of serum hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), renal malonaldehyde (MDA), total-erythrocuprein (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)). The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrotyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox) in the left and right renal cortexes were detected by Western blotting. Pathological changes in the left and right renal cortexes were observed by periodic acid-schiff staining (PAS) and Masson's staining. Treatment with sesamin (120 and 60mg/kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) in 2K1C rats on HFS diet improved renal function, corrected structural abnormalities, and attenuated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, sesamin increased eNOS protein expression and reduced nitrotyrosine and p47phox protein expression. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment with sesamin had renoprotective effect and improved renal endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of eNOS expression and reduction of NO oxidative inactivation in both clipped and contralateral kidneys of 2K1C rats on HFS diet, and sesamin may have a favorably therapeutic value in treating chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension and hyperlipemia.

  13. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  14. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β in myocyte was upregulated by angiotensin II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To observe the regulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-βin myocyte stimulated by angiotensin II (AngII) at both integrated and cellular levels and reveal the signal transduction mechanism in cell, two kidneys, one clip (2K1C) renal hypertension were performed by placing a sliver clip around the left renal artery. Blood pressure and the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after operation. The content of AngII in heart was detected by radioimmunology assay; the protein level of PDGF receptor-βin heart was measured by Western blot analysis. The alteration of PDGF receptor-βstimulated by AngII and several inhibitors was observed on cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM). The content of AngII in heart of 2K1C renal hypertensive rat at 4 and 8 weeks after operation was increased. Compared with sham group, 4 and 8 weeks after operation, PDGF receptor-βin heart of 2K1C group was upregulated by 100.3% and 127.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. This upregulation could be inhibited by captopril. For cultured myocyte, PDGF receptor-βwas increased by 47.1% after being stimulated by AngII and this upregulation could be inhibited by losartan which was an inhibitor of AT1 receptor. PLC inhibitor (U73122) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059) could partly inhibit PDGF receptor-βupregulation induced by AngII. These results suggested that AngII could upregulate PDGF receptor-βin myocyte by its AT1 receptor and this effect was at least partly dependent on PLC and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

  15. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  16. 褪黑素对肾血管性高血压大鼠肾脏损伤的影响及机制%Protective effects of melatonin against kidney injury of renovascular hypertensive rats and related mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文娟; 王利华; 李荣山; 李璐; 乔晞; 邵珊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against kidney injury in reno-hyper-tensive rats (two kidneys one clip model, 2K1C) and relevant mechanisms. Methods Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Wistar rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. The model rats were randomized into untreated 2K1C group and MT-treated 2K1C group (n=8, respectively). Another 8 rats were selected as controls in the sham operation group. After 8 weeks of follow-up, we monitored their blood pressure. Kidney histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malon-dialdehyde (MDA) contents were detected by colorimetric method. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide syn-thase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in renal tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Results ① Four weeks after surgery, increased aortic pressure was present in 2K1C rats as compared with those in the sham operation group, and treatment with MT attenuated the increase (all P<0. 05). ② Rats subjected to 2K1C displayed markedly worsened renal histological changes compared with sham controls. In contrast, MT significantly attenuated morphological damage (all P<0. 01).③2K1C hypertension resulted in increased MDA content and decreased SOD activity. MT pretreatment significantly reversed the above changes. ④a Renal iNOS expression was up-regulated in 2K1C rats, while eNOS expression significantly down-regulated. MT inhibited the upregulation of iNOS and the downregulation of eNOS in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats. Conclusion Melatonin could exert protection against hypertension-induced renal tubulointerstitial injury, at least partly, by inhibiting iNOS expression and increasing eNOS expression.④%目的 观察褪黑素(MT)抗氧化应激作用对两肾一夹(2K1C)高血压大鼠肾损害

  17. The imperatorin derivative OW1, a new vasoactive compound, inhibits VSMC proliferation and extracellular matrix hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Tao; He, Jianyu; He, Huaizhen; He, Langchong, E-mail: helc@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Chronic hypertension induces vascular remodeling. The most important factor for hypertension treatment is reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. OW1 is a novel imperatorin derivative that exhibits vasodilative activity and antihypertensive effects in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. It also inhibited vascular remodeling of the thoracic aorta in a previous study. Here, the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of OW1 on arterial vascular remodeling were investigated in vitro and in 2K1C hypertensive rats in vivo. OW1 (20 μM, 10 μM, 5 μM) inhibited Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and ROS generation in vitro. OW1 also reversed the Ang II-mediated inhibition of α-SMA levels and stimulation of OPN levels. Histology results showed that treatment of 2K1C hypertensive rats with OW1 (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg per day, respectively for 5 weeks) in vivo significantly decreased the number of VSMCs, the aortic cross-sectional area (CSA), the media to lumen (M/L) ratio, and the content of collagen I and III in the mesenteric artery. Western blot results also revealed that OW1 stimulated the expression of α-SMA and inhibited the expression of collagen I and III on the thoracic aorta of 2K1C hypertensive rats. In mechanistic studies, OW1 acted as an ACE inhibitor and affected calcium channels. The suppression of MMP expression and the MAPK pathway may account for the effects of OW1 on vascular remodeling. OW1 attenuated vascular remodeling in vitro and in vivo. It could be a novel candidate for hypertension intervention. - Highlights: • OW1, an imperatorin derivative, attenuates vascular remodeling caused by hypertension. • OW1 inhibits VSMC proliferation and media layer hypertrophy. • OW1 acts as an ACE inhibitor and affects calcium channels. • Suppression of MMPs expression and MAPK pathway may account for the effects of OW1 on vascular remodeling.

  18. Attenuated renal response to moxonidine and rilmenidine in one kidney-one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Penner, S. B.; Smyth, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    1. I1 non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, such as moxonidine, increase urine flow rate and sodium excretion following infusion into the renal artery. The functions of these agonists in genetic and acquired models of hypertension have not been determined. 2. We therefore studied the renal effects of two known non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, rilmenidine and moxonidine, in 1K-1C hypertensive and 1K-sham normotensive rats. Rilmenidine (0, 3, 10, 30 nmol kg-1 min-1) or moxonidine (0, 1, 3, 10 nmol kg-1 min-1) was infused directly into the renal artery (30 gauge needle) of 1K-sham normotensive and 1K-1C hypertensive rats. 3. In 1K-sham normotensive rats, rilmenidine and moxonidine produced dose related increases in urine flow rate, sodium excretion and osmolar clearance. Both rilmenidine and moxonidine failed to increase urine flow rate, sodium excretion and osmolar clearance in 1K-1C hypertensive rats to the same extent as in 1K-sham animals. At comparable doses, rilmenidine had no effect, while moxonidine (3 and 10 nmol kg-1 min-1) did result in a small increase in urine volume and osmolar clearance which was less than that observed in the 1K sham control animals. 4. These studies indicate that the renal effects of non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor stimulation are diminished in 1K-1C hypertensive rats compared with 1K-sham normotensive rats. Whether this decrease in activity of the natriuretic non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptors contributes to the increase in blood pressure in the 1K-1C acquired model of hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:8032642

  19. Attenuated renal response to moxonidine and rilmenidine in one kidney-one clip hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, P; Penner, S. B.; Smyth, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    1. I1 non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, such as moxonidine, increase urine flow rate and sodium excretion following infusion into the renal artery. The functions of these agonists in genetic and acquired models of hypertension have not been determined. 2. We therefore studied the renal effects of two known non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, rilmenidine and moxonidine, in 1K-1C hypertensive and 1K-sham normotensive rats. Rilmenidine (0, 3, 10, 30 nmol kg-1 min-1) o...

  20. Chronic hypertension aggravates heat stress-induced brain damage: possible neuroprotection by cerebrolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2010-01-01

    Whole body hyperthermia (WBH) aggravates brain edema formation and cell damage in chronic hypertensive rats compared with normotensive animals. In this investigation, we examined the influence of cerebrolysin on WBH-induced edema formation and brain pathology in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Rats subjected to 4 h WBH at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator showed breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation and cell injuries in several parts of the brain. These effects were further aggravated in chronic hypertensive rats (two-kidney one clip model (2K1C), for 4 weeks) subjected to WBH. Pretreatment with cerebrolysin (5 mL/kg, 24 h and 30 min before heat stress) markedly attenuated the BBB dysfunction and brain pathology in normal animals. However, in hypertensive animals, a high dose of cerebrolysin (10 mL/kg, 24 h and 30 min before heat stress) was needed to attenuate WBH-induced BBB dysfunction and brain pathology. These observations indicate that heat stress could affect differently in normal and hypertensive conditions. Furthermore, our results suggest that patients suffering from various chronic cardiovascular diseases may respond differently to hyperthermia and to neuroprotective drugs, e.g., cerebrolysin not reported earlier.

  1. Cuminum cyminum, a dietary spice, attenuates hypertension via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO pathway in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Saranya, Ramesh Babu; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Ranju, Vijayan; Sathiya, Sekar; Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Thiyagarajan, Lakshmi Kantham; Venkhatesh, Jayakothanda Ramaswamy; Babu, Chidambaram Saravana; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan

    2013-01-01

    Cuminum cyminum (CC) is a commonly used spice in South Indian foods. It has been traditionally used for the treatment and management of sleep disorders, indigestion, and hypertension. The present study was carried out to scientifically evaluate the anti-hypertensive potential of standardized aqueous extract of CC seeds and its role in arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, inflammation, and oxidative stress in renal hypertensive rats. Renal hypertension was induced by the two-kidney one-clip (2K/1C) method in rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma nitrate/nitrite, carotid-eNOS, renal-TNF-α, IL-6, Bax, Bcl-2, thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1) mRNA expressions were studied to demonstrate the anti-hypertensive action of CC. Cuminum cyminum was administered orally (200 mg/kg b.wt) for a period of 9 weeks; it improved plasma nitric oxide and decreased the systolic blood pressure in hypertensive rats. It also up-regulated the gene expression of eNOS, Bcl-2, TRX1, and TRXR1; and down-regulated Bax, TNF-α, and IL-6. These data reveal that CC seeds augment endothelial functions and ameliorate inflammatory and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. The present report is the first of its kind to demonstrate the mechanism of anti-hypertensive action of CC seeds in an animal model of renovascular hypertension.

  2. Xiaoxianggou attenuates atherosclerotic plaque formation in endogenous high Ang II ApoE(-/-) mice via the inhibition of miR-203 on the expression of Ets-2 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wencheng; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yan, Hui; Li, Shan; Zhu, Weiguo; Fan, Fangyan; Zhu, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes responsible for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment with multi-targets has shown prospects for the therapeutic effect on atherosclerosis. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether xiaoxianggou has benefit for reducing the atherosclerotic plaque area in endogenous high Ang II ApoE(-/-) mice and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Endogenous high Ang II ApoE(-/-) mice model was generated by using two kidney one clip (2K1C). All mice were treated by intragastric administration with xiaoxianggou two times a week for 16 weeks. En face plaque area was analyzed by oil-red O staining. Serum anti-OxLDL antibodies were measured by ELISA assay. Expression of miR-203 and Ets-2 were evaluated using qRT-RCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. This study revealed that xiaoxianggou treatment dose-dependently reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area and serum autoantibodies against oxLDL, elevated miR-203 expression and reduced Ets-2 expression in endogenous high Ang II ApoE(-/-) mice. In primary arterial ECs, Xiaoxianggou reverses the reduced miR-203 expression and the elevated Ets-2 expression induced by AngII, which was further recovered by miR-203 inhibitor. Additionally, miR-203 regulated the expression of Ets-2 by targeting Ets-2-3' UTR. Moreover, miR-203 inhibitor reversed the reduction of atherosclerotic lesion area induced by Xiaoxianggou. These findings present that xiaoxianggou plays an anti-atherosclerotic role in endogenous high Ang II ApoE(-/-) mice model, which is partly due to its antioxidant actions against atherosclerosis and the inhibition of miR-203 on the expression of Ets-2 in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Cydonia oblonga Mill. leaf extracts or captopril on blood pressure and related biomarkers in renal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-ting; Abdurahman, Adil; Abdusalam, Elzira; Yiming, Wuliya; Abliz, Parida; Aji, Qimangul; Issak, Mehray; Iskandar, Guldiyar; Moore, Nicholas; Umar, Anwar

    2014-05-14

    Cydonia oblonga Mill. (COM) is used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. In a previous study COM leaf extracts were found to be active in renal hypertensive rats (RHR). The present study tests the dose-dependence of the effect of ethanol leaf extracts on hypertension and on biomarkers associated with blood pressure control, such as angiotensin-II (AII), plasma renin activity (PRA), apelin-12 (A), endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO), compared to captopril. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, model, captopril 25 mg/kg, COM leaf extract 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg (n=10 each). Drugs were administered orally daily for eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before treatment and every 2 weeks. Blood and kidney samples were collected after the last treatment to measure AII, PRA, A, ET and NO. RHR had increased blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, ET and decreased NO. Treatment with captopril reduced blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, and ET, though not quite to normal values. COM leaf extracts significantly and dose-dependently reduced blood pressure, AII, A, RA and ET, whereas NO was increased. The highest dose of COM had the same effects as captopril. The effects of COM extracts on blood pressure and biomarkers were dose-dependent and at the highest dose similar to those of captopril. This suggests an action of COM on the renin-angiotensin system, which could explain its antihypertensive effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antihypertensive and endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of aqueous extract of Cistus ladaniferus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmokhtar, Mounia; Bouanani, Nour Elhouda; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohamed; Matéo, Philippe; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

    2009-11-06

    Cistus ladaniferus L. (Cistaceae) is a medicinal plant originated from the Mediterranean region which exerts different pharmacological effects. In the present study, our goal was to examine whether the plant possessed antihypertensive properties. Aqueous extract of Cistus leaves (AEC, 500mg/kg/day) reduced systemic blood pressure (SBP) in two animal models of hypertension, the l-NAME and renovascular two kidney-one clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. In the former, AEC prevented the increase in SBP when co-administered with l-NAME during four weeks (164+/-3mm Hg in l-NAME vs. 146+/-1mm Hg in l-NAME+AEC, p<0.001). In the latter, AEC reversed the increase in SBP when administered during four weeks after installation of the hypertension (146+/-5mm Hg with AEC vs. 179+/-6mm Hg without, p<0.05). AEC treatment also reversed the endothelial dysfunction observed in both animal models of hypertension. A direct effect on cardiac and vascular tissue was also tested by examining the contractile effects of AEC in rat isolated aortic rings and Langendorff perfused hearts. AEC (10mg/L) had no effect on left ventricular developed pressure and heart rate in isolated perfused heart. However, AEC produced a strong relaxation of pre-contracted rat aortic rings (80+/-2% relaxation, n=25). When the rings were denuded from endothelium or were incubated with 1mM Nomega-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), the relaxant effect of AEC was lost. We conclude that C. ladaniferus possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to an endothelium-dependent vasodilatory action.

  5. The Profile of the Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines TNF-a,IL-6, IL-10 and Captopril Intervention in Reno-hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhongchen; Liu Fengying

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To observe the profile of the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-o) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and evaluate the effects of angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor-Captopril on them in renohypertensive rats. Methods Using reformed two-kidney-one-clip (2K 1C ) method, renal hypertensive rats (RHR) were obtained by ligating abdominal aorta.30 Wistar rats were randomized into three groups:sham-operation group (A)、 model control group ( B ) and captopril group (C). All rats were killed after being given the trial drugs 5 weeks, ELISA assays were used to detect the levels of IL-6 and IL-10, the levels of TNF-alpha were measured with radioimmtmoassays.hypertrophy was aggravated in group B significantly,the ratio of left ventricle and body weight(LV/BW) was 0.00318 ±0.00030 (B)and 0.00256 ±0.00040 (A)respectively(P < 0.001 ), the levels of IL-6 and TNF-o increased significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002respectively), whereas the levels of IL-10 were not compared with group B, the LV/BW was 0.00266 ±0.00018 (C) and 0.00318±0.00030 (B) respectively(P < 0.001), the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α decreased significantly ( P < 0.01), whereas the levels of IL-10were not changed between the two groups (P > 0.05);Conclusions Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-captopril can lower the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α effectively,but can not increase the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, it suggests that captopril may have a feature to prevent or slow the development of hypertensive complications by means of lowering the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not by increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  6. The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplicio, Janaina A.; Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats. PMID:27096521

  7. The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simplicio, Janaina A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências e Tecnologia - Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), Franca, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.

  8. Risk-Adjusted Analysis of Relevant Outcome Drivers for Patients after More Than Two Kidney Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros Kousoulas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients suffering end-stage renal disease, but as the long-term renal allograft survival is limited, most transplant recipients will face graft loss and will be considered for a retransplantation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the patient and graft survival of the 61 renal transplant recipients after second or subsequent renal transplantation, transplanted in our institution between 1990 and 2010, and to identify risk factors related to inferior outcomes. Actuarial patient survival was 98.3%, 94.8%, and 88.2% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Actuarial graft survival was 86.8%, 80%, and 78.1% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Risk-adjusted analysis revealed that only age at the time of last transplantation had a significant influence on patient survival, whereas graft survival was influenced by multiple immunological and surgical factors, such as the number of HLA mismatches, the type of immunosuppression, the number of surgical complications, need of reoperation, primary graft nonfunction, and acute rejection episodes. In conclusion, third and subsequent renal transplantation constitute a valid therapeutic option, but inferior outcomes should be expected among elderly patients, hyperimmunized recipients, and recipients with multiple operations at the site of last renal transplantation.

  9. Synergistic effects of atenolol and amlodipine for lowering and stabilizing blood pressure in 2K1Crenovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Gang LING; Li-ping XU; Ding-feng SU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To test the synergistic effects of atenolol and amlodipine on lowering blood pressure (BP) and reducing blood pressure variability (BPV) in 2-kidney, one-clip(2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. Methods: Forty-eight 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. They were respectively given 0.8% carboxymethylcellulose sodium (control), atenolol (10.0 mg/kg),amlodipine (1.0 mg/kg), and combined atenolol and amlodipine (low dose: 5.0+0.5mg/kg; intermediate dose: 10.0+ 1.0 mg/kg; high dose: 20.0+2.0 mg/kg). The drugs were given via a catheter in a gastric fistula. BP was recorded for 25 h from 1 h before drug administration to 24 h after administration. Results: Compared with BP before medication, all 3 doses of combined atenolol and amlodipine significantly decreased the BP at 24 h after administration, except for the low dose on diastolic BP. Compared with the control group, all 3 doses of combined atenolol and amlodipine significantly reduced the average BP levels for the 24 h period after administration; furthermore, the high and intermediate doses also significantly decreased the BPV levels for the same period. The q values calculated by probability sum analysis for systolic and diastolic BP for the 24 h period after administration were 2.29 and 1.45, respectively, and for systolic and diastolic BPV for the same period they were 1.41 and 1.60, respectively. Conclusion: There is significant synergism between atenolol and amlodipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats.

  10. Effect of ROS in PVN mediate sympathetic overactivity in hypertension rats%室旁核中活性氧在高血压大鼠交感神经活动过度增强中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坤; 李艳; 王烈成; 钟明奎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) in paraventricular nucleus ( PVN ) mediated sympathetic overactivity in two-kindney, one-clip ( 2K1C ) hypertension rats. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, sham-operated group ( Sham ) and operation group ( 2K1C ), according to the technique of Goldblatt 2K1C established hypertension model. The conscious noninvasive method with tail cuff was performed in rats to record the systolic blood pressure ( SBP ). Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ), heat rate ( HR ) and renal sympathetic nerve activity ( RSNA ) were recorded in vivo on powerlab data-acquisiton systems. The paraventricular nucleus ( PVN ) was injected by brain stereotaxic instrument according to the Paxinos and Watson rat atlas. Results The SBP, MAP and RSNA were significantly enhanced in 2K1C compared to the Sham group. In both 2K1C and Sham groups, bilateral PVN microinjection of the superoxide anion scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethy-lpiperidinel-oxyl ( Tempol ) ( 0. 2 mol/L ) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophe-none ( APO ) ( 0. 01 mol/L ) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride ( DPI ) ( 0. 01 mol/L ) significantly decreased MAP and RSNA, but the MAP response of 2K1C was greater than that of Sham. Whereas, The SOD inhibitor diethyldi-thiocarbamic acid silver salt ( DETC ) ( 0. 1 mol/L ) could augment MAP and RSNA in both groups, but the MAP was significantly higher in 2K1C than that of Sham. Conclusion The data suggest that ROS in PVN takes part in sympathetic nerve overactivity and the development of 2K1C hypertension.%目的 研究室旁核(PVN)中活性氧(ROS)在两肾一夹(2K1C)高血压大鼠交感神经活动过度增强的作用及机制.方法 将雄性SD大鼠随机分成假手术(Sham)组和两肾一夹(2K1C)组,每组20只.根据Goldblatt方法复制2K1C肾血管性高血压大鼠模型,无创套尾法测大鼠尾动脉收缩压(SBP),在体记录平均动脉压(MAP

  11. Effects of valsartan and spironolactone on the expression of c-myc in the left ventricle of renovascular hypertension rats.%缬沙坦与螺内酯对肾血管性高血压大鼠左室c-myc表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣; 刘宇飞; 曲鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the roles of the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and mechanical load in the expression of c-myc in hypertrophied myocardium of hypertension. Methods Two-kidney,one-clip (2KlC) renovascular hypertension was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomized into untreated hypertension group (H group), spironolactone group (gorged spironolactone 50 mg/kg·day, S group), valsartan group (gorged valsanan 30 mg/kg·day, V group), and spironolactone plus valsartan group (gorged spironolactone 50 mg/kg·day and valsartan 30m g/kg·day at the same time, S+V group). Sham-operated rats served as controls (C group). The changes of heart structure and function in all groups were observed with echocardiogram. Left ventricle concentration of angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) and ALD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to examine the protein expression of c-myc. Results After 8 weeks treatment, carotid systolic pressure, .MESS (meridian end systolic stress), LVPWd(left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastolic), IVSd (interventricular septal thickness at end diastolic) in V group and S-V group were decreased significantly compared with those in H group and S group (P<0.05). The left ventricle concentration of Ang Ⅱ was much lower in S group, V group and S-V group than that in It group (p<0.05). The expression of c-myc was much higher in H group and S group than that in C group, V group and S+V group (P<0.01). The expression of c-myc was positively related to carotid systolic pressure after 8 weeks treatment (r=0.848, P<0.01). Significant correlation was also present between MESS and the expression of c-myc (r=0.580,P<0.01). No correlation was found between Ang Ⅱ and the expression ofc-myc. Conclusion The increasing of mechanical load is an important factor inducing the persistent expression of c-myc in left ventricle cardiomyocytes of renovascular hypertension rats. The persistent

  12. 缬沙坦与螺内酯对肾血管性高血压大鼠心肌中TGF-β1表达的影响%Effects of valsartan and spironolactone on the expression of TGF-β1 in the myocardi-um of renovascular hypertension rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣; 刘宇飞; 曲鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the roles of valsartan and spironolactone on the myocardial fibrosis and the expression of TGF-β1 during the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in renovascular hypertension rats.Methods Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomized into untreated hypertension group (H group), spironolactone group (spironolactone 50 mg . kg-l·d-1,S group), valsartan group (valsartan 30 mg . kg-l·d-1, V group), and spironolactone plus valsartan group (spironolactone 50 mg·kg-l· d-l and valsartan 30 mg·kg-l · d-l at the same time, S+V group). Sham-operated rats served as controls (C group). The changes of heart structure and function in all groups were observed with echocardiogram. Left ventricle concentration of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and ALD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. The Woessner' s method was used to estimate the collagen content in left ventricle. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to examine the protein expression of TGF-β1. Results After 8 weeks treatment, carotid systolic pressure, MESS (meridian end systolic stress ), LVPWd (left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastolic) , IVSd (interventricular septal thickness at end diastolic) in V group and S+V group were decreased significantly compared with those in H group and S group (P<0.05). The left ventricle concentration of Ang Ⅱ and ALD was much lower in S group, V group and S+V group than those in H group (P<0.05).The collagen content, PVCA and CVF in H group were much higher than those in other groups(P<0.05).The expression of TGF-β1 was much higher in H group and S group than that in C group, V group and S+V group (P<O.O1). Conclusion The positive immunoreactivity of TGF-β1 is much higher in left ventricle cardiomyocytes and interstitial cells of renovascular hypertension rats. Both ATI receptor antagonist and ALD receptor antagonist can reduce myocardial fibrosis and the expression

  13. 血管周围脂肪组织在肾性高血压中的作用%The function of perivascular adipose tissue in renal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史吉莹; 刘唐威; 陈蒙华; 谢露; 黎静; 杨晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血管周围脂肪组织(PVAT)在肾性高血压发生、发展中的的作用.方法 用两肾一夹型(左侧肾动脉狭窄,右侧肾保留)建立肾性高血压大鼠模型,将20只SD大鼠随机均分为假手术组和肾性高血压组(RH),术前及术后8周末检测大鼠尾动脉血压、心率,术后8周检测动脉环不带血管外周脂肪组织的裸血管环[F(-)]和保留血管外周脂肪组织的血管环[F(+)]对苯肾上腺素(PHE)及乙酰胆碱的反应性;免疫组化法检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的表达;光镜下观察PVAT中脂肪细胞和血管结构,并计算脂肪细胞的体积、胸主动脉中层壁厚(MT)、血管内径(LD)及MT/LD.结果 假手术组和RH组中带有脂肪的与无脂肪的胸主动脉比较,前者对PHE的收缩反应下降(P<0.05),而假手术组对乙酰胆碱的舒张反应,在浓度为10-5 mol/L和10-4 mol/L上,F(+)和F(-)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),F(+)舒张反应性较F(-)高;RH组只有在10-4 mol/L浓度上,F(+)较F(-)舒张反应性高(P<0.05).RH组的血管NOS表达较假手术组降低.PVAT中脂肪细胞形态与大小、两组的动脉结构无明显区别.结论 PVAT对血管舒缩有调节功能;在RH组PVAT这种调节作用减弱;PVAT可能成为干预高血压的新靶点.%Objective To investigate the roles of the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in renal hypertension. Methods Renal hypertension rat mode was established with two kidney one clip (2K1C) technique. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided equally into sham group (SH) and renal hypertension group (RH). Vasomotoricity of aorta with PVAT or without PVAT from the 2 groups of rats in response to phenylephrine (PHE) and acetylcholine ( Ach) was tested after model established for 8 weeks. The expression of NOS was assayed by immunohistochemis-try. Caudal arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), microscopic changes in adipose cells and vascular structure and intima media thickness (MT), lumen diameter (LD

  14. OVER-EXPRESSION OF EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED KINASE IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL OF HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) was involved in changes of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) under hypertension. Methods Two-kidney one clip Wistar hypertensive rats (WHR) were sacrificed and their right kidneys were harvested 4 weeks after surgery. The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were divided into 4, 8, and 16 weeks old groups (SHR4w, SHR8w, and SHR16w), respectively. The control group were sham operated age-matched Wistar rats. Immunohistochemical technique and Western blotting were applied to study ERK1/2 protein expression in VSMC of the renal vascular trees in WHR, SHR, and control rats. Results Blood pressure in two-kidney one clip WHR obviously increased at one week after surgery, and reached to 198.00 ± 33.00 mm Hg at the end of experiment, significantly higher than that in the control rats ( P < 0. 01 ). Blood pressure in SHR4w ( 108.00 ± 11.25 mm Hg) was similar to that in the controls. However, it rose to 122.25 ± 21.75 mm Hg in SHR8w, and even up to 201.75 ± 18.00 mm Hg in SHR16w, which were significantly higher than that of both the SHR4w and the controls ( P < 0. 01 ). The rate and degree of glomerular fibrosis in WHR were significantly higher than controls (P < 0. 05 ). Hyaline degeneration of the afferent arterioles was found in WHR. In contrast, either fibrosis of glomerulus or hyaline degeneration of the arterioles or protein casts was not observed in SHR4w, SHR8w,and SHR16w. Immunohistochemical staining results showed expression of ERK1 was similar to that of ERK2. The positive rates of ERK2 staining in VSMC of afferent arterioles, interlobular, interlobar, and arcuate arteries in two-kidney one clip WHR were significantly higher (7. 09% ± 1.75%, 14. 57% ± 4. 58%, 29.44% ± 7. 35%, and 13.63% ±3.85%, respectively) than that of the controls( P < 0. 01 ). The positive rates of ERK2 staining in VSMC at afferent arterioles, interlobular, interlobar, and arcuate arteries in SHR

  15. 莫索尼定与可乐定对肾性高血压大鼠动脉压及心率作用的比较%Effects of moxonidine versus clonidine on arterial pressure and heart rate in renal-hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 王玉琴; 朱卫忠

    2006-01-01

    相近;连续小剂量口服莫索尼定降压百分率与可乐定相仿,心率减慢作用弱而短暂.②麻醉肾性高血压大鼠,一次口服莫索尼定降压作用与剂量相关;莫索尼定3~10倍剂量与可乐定降压百分率差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).结论:大剂量一次口服给药,莫索尼定对清醒肾性高血压大鼠的降压作用呈剂量依赖性,其10倍剂量与可乐定作用相当;对麻醉肾性高血压大鼠莫索尼定3~10倍剂量与可乐定降压相当.小剂量连续口服给药,莫索尼定和可乐定等剂量对肾性高血压大鼠的降压作用相当.%BACKGROUND: Moxonidine is the second-generation high-selective central antihypertensive drug, while clonidine is the first-generation antihypertensive drug that is used in clinic with many side effects.OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics between moxonidine and clonidine in renal-hypertensive rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, Nantong University.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted in Medical College, Nantong University between September and December 2004. Totally 110 SD rats aged 60 days with the body mass of (180±30) g were used in the study.METHODS: Left renal artery stenosis in SD rats was established by inserting silver clip with the inner diameter of 0.2 mm or 0.25 mm, while the right renal artery was not received, so as to establish two-kidney one-clip(2K-1C) renal hypertensive models. ①Changes of blood pressure and heart rate in awake rats with renal hypertension were determined with arteria caudilis indirect manometric method, oral administration once or consecutively. The experiment of depressurization with once oral administration:The rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups with 10 rats in each group:1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg moxonidine hydrochloride groups, 1 mg/kg clonidine hydrochloride group were considered as positive control group,while saline group as

  16. Cardiac and renal effects induced by different exercise workloads in renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of exercise training (Ex without (Ex 0% or with a 3% workload (Ex 3% on different cardiac and renal parameters in renovascular hypertensive (2K1C male Fisher rats weighing 150-200 g. Ex was performed for 5 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. Ex 0% or Ex 3% induced similar attenuation of baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP, 119 ± 5 mmHg in 2K1C Ex 0%, N = 6, and 118 ± 5 mmHg in 2K1C Ex 3%, N = 11, vs 99 ± 4 mmHg in sham sedentary (Sham Sed controls, N = 10 and heart rate (HR, bpm (383 ± 13 in 2K1C Ex 0%, N = 6, and 390 ± 14 in 2K1C Ex 3%, N = 11 vs 371 ± 11 in Sham Sed, N = 10,. Ex 0%, but not Ex 3%, improved baroreflex bradycardia (0.26 ± 0.06 ms/mmHg, N = 6, vs 0.09 ± 0.03 ms/mmHg in 2K1C Sed, N = 11. Morphometric evaluation suggested concentric left ventricle hypertrophy in sedentary 2K1C rats. Ex 0% prevented concentric cardiac hypertrophy, increased cardiomyocyte diameter and decreased cardiac vasculature thickness in 2K1C rats. In contrast, in 2K1C, Ex 3% reduced the concentric remodeling and prevented the increase in cardiac vasculature wall thickness, decreased the cardiomyocyte diameter and increased collagen deposition. Renal morphometric analysis showed that Ex 3% induced an increase in vasculature wall thickness and collagen deposition in the left kidney of 2K1C rats. These data suggest that Ex 0% has more beneficial effects than Ex 3% in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  17. Influence of renovascular hypertension on the distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the stomach and heart of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Żaneta; Janiuk, Izabela

    2015-11-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with serious dysfunction of the cardiovascular system and digestive system. Given the relevant role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the regulation of digestion process, control of blood pressure and heart rate as well as cardio- and gastro-protective character of the peptide, it appeared worthwhile to undertake the research aimed at immunohistochemical identification and evaluation of VIP-positive structures in the pylorus and heart of hypertensive rats. Up to now, this issue has not been investigated. The experimental model of hypertension in rats according to Goldblatt (two-kidney one clip model of hypertension) was used in the study. The experimental material (pylorus and heart) was collected in the sixth week of the study. VIP-containing structures were evaluated using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. The analysis of the results showed a significant increase in the number of immunoreactive VIP structures and in the intensity of immunohistochemical staining in the stomach and in the heart of hypertensive rats. Our findings indicate that VIP is an important regulator of cardiovascular and digestive system in physiological and pathological conditions. However, to better understand the exact role of VIP in hypertension further studies need to be carried out.

  18. Ang II enhances noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings thus contributing to the up-regulation of metalloprotease-2 in aortic dissection patients' aorta wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECT: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II could enhance noradrenaline (NA release from sympathetic nerve endings of the aorta thus contributing to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 during the formation of aortic dissection (AD. METHODS: Ang II, NA, MMP-2, MMP-9 of the aorta sample obtained during operation from aortic dissection patients were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and ELISA and compared with controls. Isotope labelling method was used to test the impact of exogenous Ang II and noradrenaline on the NA release and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression on Sprague Dawley (SD rat aorta rings in vitro. Two kidneys, one clip, models were replicated for further check of that impact in SD rats in vivo. RESULTS: The concentration of Ang II, MMP-2, 9 was increased and NA concentration was decreased in aorta samples from AD patients. Exogenous Ang II enhanced while exogenous NA restrained NA release from aortic sympathetic endings. The Ang II stimulated NA release and the following MMP-2 up-regulation could be weakened by Losartan and chemical sympathectomy. Beta blocker did not influence NA release but down-regulated MMP-2. Long term in vivo experiments confirmed that Ang II could enhance NA release and up-regulate MMP-2. CONCLUSIONS: AD is initiated by MMP-2 overexpression as a result of increased NA release from sympathetic nervous endings in response to Ang II. This indicates an interaction of RAS and SAS during the formation of AD.

  19. Consequences of reversal of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy by captopril on left ventricular pumping ability and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoça, M A; Cezaretti, M L; Bessa, A M; Casarini, D; Almeida, J B; Amorim, M P; Ramos, O L

    1987-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy can be reversed by treatment of hypertension with captopril but the consequences of this regression are not yet fully described. We studied the maximal capacity of the hypertrophied and hypertrophy-reversed ventricle to generate pressure during transient total occlusion of the aorta, and also the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure required to meet this maximal effort. Two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt (renal hypertensive rats; RHR) hypertension was induced in 17 Wistar rats, eight of which were treated with captopril (RHR-C: 50 mg/kg given orally) from the fourth to the eighth week. Sham-operated controls (SC) remained untreated, or were treated with similar doses of captopril (SC-C). Significantly lower heart weights were found in RHR-C than in RHR (2.88 +/- 0.15 versus 2.38 +/- 0.04; P less than 0.001). During transient total occlusion of the aorta, the maximal intraventricular pressure developed in RHR-C was not significantly different from that in RHR, but left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly less in RHR-C than in RHR (21.4 +/- 2.2 versus 34.3 +/- 3.8; P less than 0.01). The analysis of pressure-volume characteristics of the hypertrophied left ventricles and those in which hypertrophy was reversed revealed similar compliances between these two groups. Our data suggest that there was a mechanical improvement in the heart function after reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  20. Management of renal artery stenosis: What does the experimental evidence tell us?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; Al-Suraih; Joseph; Peter; Grande

    2014-01-01

    Optimal management of patients with renal artery stenosis(RAS) is a subject of considerable controversy. There is incontrovertible evidence that renal artery stenosis has profound effects on the heart and cardiovascular system in addition to the kidney. Recent evidence indicates that restoration of blood flow alone does not improve renal or cardiovascular outcomes in patients with renal artery stenosis. A number of human and experimental studies have documented the clinical, hemodynamic, and histopathologic features in renal artery stenosis. New approaches to the treatment of renovascular hypertension due to RAS depend on better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying the development of chronic renal disease in these patients. Several groups have employed the two kidney one clip model of renovascular hypertension to define basic signaling mechanisms responsible for the development of chronic renal disease. Recent studies have underscored the importance of inflammation in the development and progression of renal damage in renal artery stenosis. In particular, interactions between the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, and inflammation appear to play a critical role in this process. In this overview, results of recent studies to define basic pathways responsible for renal disease progression will be highlighted. These studies may provide the rationale for novel therapeutic approaches to treat patients with renovascular hypertension.

  1. Combined aliskiren and L-arginine treatment has antihypertensive effects and prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction in a model of renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Santuzzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is a key player in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension, a condition associated with endothelial dysfunction. We investigated aliskiren (ALSK and L-arginine treatment both alone and in combination on blood pressure (BP, and vascular reactivity in aortic rings. Hypertension was induced in 40 male Wistar rats by clipping the left renal artery. Animals were divided into Sham, 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C hypertension, 2K1C+ALSK (ALSK, 2K1C+L-arginine (L-arg, and 2K1C+ALSK+L-arginine (ALSK+L-arg treatment groups. For 4 weeks, BP was monitored and endothelium-dependent and independent vasoconstriction and relaxation were assessed in aortic rings. ALSK+L-arg reduced BP and the contractile response to phenylephrine and improved acetylcholine relaxation. Endothelium removal and incubation with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased the response to phenylephrine in all groups, but the effect was greater in the ALSK+L-arg group. Losartan reduced the contractile response in all groups, apocynin reduced the contractile response in the 2K1C, ALSK and ALSK+L-arg groups, and incubation with superoxide dismutase reduced the phenylephrine response in the 2K1C and ALSK groups. eNOS expression increased in the 2K1C and L-arg groups, and iNOS was increased significantly only in the 2K1C group compared with other groups. AT1 expression increased in the 2K1C compared with the Sham, ALSK and ALSK+L-arg groups, AT2 expression increased in the ALSK+L-arg group compared with the Sham and L-arg groups, and gp91phox decreased in the ALSK+L-arg group compared with the 2K1C and ALSK groups. In conclusion, combined ALSK+L-arg was effective in reducing BP and preventing endothelial dysfunction in aortic rings of 2K1C hypertensive rats. The responsible mechanisms appear to be related to the modulation of the local renin-angiotensin system, which is associated with a reduction in endothelial oxidative stress.

  2. Hypotensive acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy on hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, J C; De Moraes, T F; Buzinari, T C; Cárnio, E C; Parizotto, N A; Rodrigues, G J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on arterial pressure in hypertensive and normotensive rats with application in an abdominal region. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were treated with PBM. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during and after PBM application. The nitric oxide (NO) serum concentration was measured before and after PBM application. Vascular reactivity study was performed in isolated thoracic aortas. Aluminum gallium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser was used, at 660nm wavelength and 100mW optical output. The PBM application induced a decrease of SAP in 2K-1C rats. In 2K rats, the PBM application had no effect on SAP, DAP and MAP. Moreover, the magnitude of hypotensive effect was higher in 2K-1C than in 2K rats. The PBM application induced a decrease of HR in 2K-1C and 2K, with higher effect in 2K-1C rats. In 2K-1C, the hypotensive effect induced by PBM was longer than that obtained in 2K rats. PBM application induced an elevation of NO concentration in serum from 2K-1C and 2K rats, with higher effect in 2K-1C. In isolated aortic rings PBM effect is dependent of NO release, and is not dependent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. Our results indicate that the abdominal acute application of PBM at 660nm is able to induce a long lasting hypotensive effect in hypertensive rats and vasodilation by a NO dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NO donors-relaxation is impaired in aorta from hypertensive rats due to a reduced involvement of K(+) channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Daniella; de Lima, Renata Galvão; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria

    2011-10-24

    To examine the vasodilatation induce by the NO donors, [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO](3+) (TERPY) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and to compare their effects in aortic rings from hypertensive 2K-1C and normotensive 2K rats. Vascular reactivity was performed in aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe 100nM). We have analyzed the maximal relaxation (Emax) and potency (pD(2)) of NO donors. Potency of SNP was greater than TERPY in both arterial groups. The vasodilatation induced by TERPY was greater in 2K than in 2K-1C, and it was inhibited by sGC inhibitor ODQ in 2K and in 2K-1C aortic rings. ODQ did not alter the efficacy to SNP, but it reduced its potency in 2K and 2K-1C. The blockade of K(+) channels reduced the potency of TERPY only in aortic rings of 2K. On the other hand, the potency of SNP was reduced in both 2K and 2K-1C. The combination of ODQ and TEA reduced the relaxation induced by TERPY and SNP in 2K and reduced the efficacy to SNP in 2K-1C aortic rings but it had no additional effect on the TERPY relaxation in 2K-1C aortas. The production of cGMP induced by TERPY was greater than that produced by SNP, which was similarly increased in 2K and 2K-1C. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase inhibition only impaired the relaxation induced by SNP in 2K aortic rings. Taken together, our results provide evidences that in this model of hypertension, impaired K(+) channels activation by TERPY and SERCA activation by SNP may contribute to decreased vasodilatation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Chelko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in isolated occipital arteries (OAs from sham-operated (SHAM and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, and plasma renin concentrations than SHAM rats. The contractile responses to AII were markedly diminished in both proximal and distal segments of OAs from 2K-1C rats as compared to those from SHAM rats. The responses elicited by AVP were substantially greater in distal than in proximal segments of OAs from SHAM rats and that AVP elicited similar responses in OA segments from 2K-1C rats. The responses elicited by 5-HT were similar in proximal and distal segments from SHAM and 2K-1C rats. These results demonstrate that continued exposure to circulating AII and AVP in 2K-1C rats reduces the contractile efficacy of AII but not AVP or 5-HT. The diminished responsiveness to AII may alter the physiological status of OAs in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of density and distribution of CART-immunoreactive structures in gastrointestinal tract of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) throughout the organism, multiplicity of functions fulfilled by that peptide, and the collected evidence confirming CART contribution to blood pressure regulation prompted us to undertake the research aiming to identify, localize, and assess changes in CART-immunopositive structures of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) of rats with renovascular hypertension. The two-kidney one-clip model of arterial hypertension was used to evaluate the location and density of CART-containing structures in the stomach (cardia, fundus, and pylorus), duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of hypertensive rats. The study was carried out on the GI tract of 20 rats. Ten rats were subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure and after a 6-week period each of them developed stable hypertension. An immunohistochemical localization of CART was performed on paraffin GI tract sections from all the study animals. CART was detected in the extensive population of neurons, particularly within the myenteric plexuses all along the GI tract, and also in neuroendocrine cells, being especially numerous in the stomach and a few in the small intestine. The hypertension significantly increased the density of CART-positive structures in the rat GI tract. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the density of CART-immunoreactive structures but also the staining intensity. As this study provides novel findings, we are planning further molecular examinations to better understand the impact of hypertension on the functioning and activity of CART in the GI tract.

  6. Effect of Pinggan-Maitong tables on nitric oxide, endothelin of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simailahong Mayinuer; Jian-Ping Wang; Jing-Wen Sun; Jun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Pinggan-Maitong tables on nitric oxide, endothelin of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess.Methods:Hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess were established by adopting the method of two kidney one clip and irrigation clothing monkshood. A total of 75 rats models were established successfully. They were randomly divided into blank control group, captopril group, low dose hepatic vein group, middle dose hepatic vein group, high dose hepatic vein group, with 15 cases in each group. They were only given 2 mL/100 g physiological saline, 10 mg/mL concentration of captopril solution, 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL concentration of hepatic vein through solution to fill the stomach respectively, for four weeks. Tail arterial blood pressure, serum NO, endothelin 1 (ET-1), angiotensinⅡ (AngⅡ), plasma aldosterone (ALDO) and cardiac function index of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF)%, short axial shortening rate (FS)% were compared between groups before and after treatment.Results:The tail artery blood pressure, ET-1, AngⅡ in blank control group after treatment were significant rise, ALDO, NO significantly reduced, EF%, FS% had no significant change, while the tail artery blood pressure, ET-1, AngⅡ, ALDO in other four groups were significantly reduced, NO, EF%, FS% were significant rise. The tail artery blood pressure, ALDO in middle or high dose hepatic vein group were significantly lower than the captopril control group, NO, EF%, FS% were significantly higher than the captopril control group, the AngⅡ in hepatic vein on high dose group was significantly lower than the captopril control group.Conclusions:Pinggan-Maitong tables can reduce the blood pressure of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess. It can reverse left ventricular hypertrophy, which may related to adjusting the serum NO, ET-1, AngⅡ, ALDO.

  7. Moderate exercise training does not worsen left ventricle remodeling and function in untreated severe hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissiere, Julien; Eder, Véronique; Machet, Marie-Christine; Courteix, Daniel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Exercise training and hypertension induced cardiac hypertrophy but modulate differently left ventricle (LV) function. This study set out to evaluate cardiac adaptations induced by moderate exercise training in normotensive and untreated severe hypertensive rats. Four groups of animals were studied: normotensive (Ctl) and severe hypertensive (HT) Wistar rats were assigned to be sedentary (Sed) or perform a moderate exercise training (Ex) over a 10-wk period. Severe hypertension was induced in rat by a two-kidney, one-clip model. At the end of the training period, hemodynamic parameters and LV morphology and function were assessed using catheterism and conventional pulsed Doppler echocardiography. LV histology was performed to study fibrosis infiltrations. Severe hypertension increased systolic blood pressure to 202 +/- 9 mmHg and induced pathological hypertrophy (LV hypertrophy index was 0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and HT-Sed groups, respectively) with LV relaxation alteration (early-to-atrial wave ratio = 2.02 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.12). Blood pressure was not altered by exercise training, but arterial stiffness was reduced in trained hypertensive rats (pulse pressure was 75 +/- 7 vs. 62 +/- 3 mmHg in HT-Sed and HT-Ex groups, respectively). Exercise training induced eccentric hypertrophy in both Ex groups by increasing LV cavity without alteration of LV systolic function. However, LV hypertrophy index was significantly decreased in normotensive rats only (0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and Ctl-Ex groups, respectively). Moreover, exercise training improved LV passive filling in Ctl-Ex rats but not in Ht-Ex rats. In this study, exercise training did not reduce blood pressure and induced an additional physiological hypertrophy in untreated HT rats, which was slightly blunted when compared with Ctl rats. However, cardiac function was not worsened by exercise training.

  8. The complex regulation of tanshinone IIA in rats with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Han, Bing; Yu, Tao; Peng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases. However, in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH), the signaling pathways of tanshinone IIA in inhibition of remodeling and cardiac dysfunction remain unclear. Two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertensive rats (n = 32) were randomized to receive tanshinone IIA (5, 10, 15 mg/kg per day) or 5% glucose injection (GS). Sham-operated rats (n = 8) received 5%GS as control. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed by using an echocardiography system. Histological determination of the fibrosis and apoptosis was performed using hematoxylin eosin, Masson's trichrome and TUNEL staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP2) protein expressions in rat myocardial tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated by a Langendorff perfusion method. After 48 h culture, the supernatant and cardiomyocytes were collected to determine the potential related proteins impact on cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Compared with the sham rats, the heart tissues of H-LVH (5%GS) group suffered severely from the oxidative damage, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In the H-LVH group, tanshinone IIA treated decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis as confirmed by the reduction of TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and the down-regulation of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, plasma apelin level increased with down-regulation of APJ receptor. Tanshinone IIA suppressed cardiac fibrosis through regulating the paracrine factors released by cardiomyocytes and the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that tanshinone IIA could improve heart function by enhancing myocardial contractility, inhibiting ECM deposition

  9. The anti-hypertensive effect of insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone in two sorts of hypertensive rat%罗格列酮对2种高血压大鼠的降压作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军; 张延斌; 程仁力; 周维东

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察胰岛素增敏剂罗格列酮(rosiglitazone,RSG)对胰岛素抵抗高血压大鼠及两肾一夹肾血管性高血压大鼠血压的影响,探讨其作用机制.方法 用10%果糖水喂养雄性SD大鼠制备胰岛素抵抗高血压大鼠(insulin resistance hypertensive rat,IRHR)模型,同时用两肾一夹法制备肾血管性高血压大鼠(two-kidney, one-clipped renovascular hypertensive rat,RHR)模型,观察RSG对2组大鼠的降压作用,通过检测空腹血糖(fasting blood glucose,FBG)、空腹胰岛素(fasting serum insulin,FINS)、瘦素(leptin,LP)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)及计算胰岛素敏感性指数(insulin sensitivity index,ISI)等指标,从胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)/高胰岛素血症(hyperinsulinemia,HIS)角度探讨RSG可能的降压机制.结果 RSG处理后IRHR组大鼠收缩压(systolic blood pressure,SBP)、FINS、LP和TG与处理前相比明显降低,ISI明显升高(P0.05).RSG处理后RHR组大鼠与处理前相比SBP、FINS、LP、TG、ISI和FBG与RHR组相比无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 RSG可明显降低IRHR模型的血压而对RHR模型无明显降压作用.其机制主要通过改善IR/HIS以及高LP血症起降血压作用.

  10. Mesenteric Responsiveness To Angiotensin I, II And Captopril During Renovascular Hypertension Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi A M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension etiology is not completely known, it seems that rennin-Angiotensin system has an important role in its etiology, Thus better recognition of this system and its activity changes or vascular reaction changes to different parts of this system during progressive hypertension can be more effective in better recognition of the disease progress and treatment."nMaterials and Methods: In this study responsiveness of mesenteric vessels of Goldblatt two kidney- one clip (2k-lc renovascular hypertensive rats to angiotensin / and II with and with out captopril during a time of two , four , six and eight weeks after hypertension induction was investigated and compared with control and surgical sham groups."nResults: This study shows that vascular responsiveness to angiotensin // in animals that passed four weeks of their hypertension , (p< 0.05 and in the sixth and eight week of post induction hypertension (p< 0.01 and p< 0.001 has a significant different with both sham and control groups. Also it has been observed that an increased reaction to angiotensin II with an increased significant rate of arterial hypertension in hypertensive group. In the other hand in spite of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme by captopril in animals that have been eight weeks hypertension , on the contrary to other groups reactive to angiotensin /."nConclusion: Results of this study show that vessels reaction to angiotensin /and II increased due to six to eight weeks post induction renal hypertension. Captopril does not inhibite mesenteric vessels reaction to Angiotensin / in hypertensive Rats after eight weeks. Try to completely inhibit production of angiotensin II maybe a hopful way in controlling essential hypertension.

  11. Natriuretic peptides buffer renin-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Theo; Staffel, Janina; Schreiber, Andrea; Valletta, Daniela; Schweda, Frank

    2014-06-15

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cardiac natriuretic peptides [atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] are opposing control mechanisms for arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, an inverse relationship between plasma renin concentration (PRC) and ANP exists in most circumstances. However, PRC and ANP levels are both elevated in renovascular hypertension. Because ANP can directly suppress renin release, we used ANP knockout (ANP(-/-)) mice to investigate whether high ANP levels attenuate the increase in PRC in response to renal hypoperfusion, thus buffering renovascular hypertension. ANP(-/-) mice were hypertensive and had reduced PRC compared with that in wild-type ANP(+/+) mice under control conditions. Unilateral renal artery stenosis (2-kidney, 1-clip) for 1 wk induced similar increases in blood pressure and PRC in both genotypes. Unexpectedly, plasma BNP concentrations in ANP(-/-) mice significantly increased in response to two-kidney, one-clip treatment, potentially compensating for the lack of ANP. In fact, in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A(-/-) mice), which is the common receptor for both ANP and BNP, renovascular hypertension was markedly augmented compared with that in wild-type GC-A(+/+) mice. However, the higher blood pressure in GC-A(-/-) mice was not caused by disinhibition of the renin system because PRC and renal renin synthesis were significantly lower in GC-A(-/-) mice than in GC-A(+/+) mice. Thus, natriuretic peptides buffer renal vascular hypertension via renin-independent effects, such as vasorelaxation. The latter possibility is supported by experiments in isolated perfused mouse kidneys, in which physiological concentrations of ANP and BNP elicited renal vasodilatation and attenuated renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II.

  12. The complex regulation of tanshinone IIA in rats with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

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    Hui Pang

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases. However, in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH, the signaling pathways of tanshinone IIA in inhibition of remodeling and cardiac dysfunction remain unclear. Two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertensive rats (n = 32 were randomized to receive tanshinone IIA (5, 10, 15 mg/kg per day or 5% glucose injection (GS. Sham-operated rats (n = 8 received 5%GS as control. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed by using an echocardiography system. Histological determination of the fibrosis and apoptosis was performed using hematoxylin eosin, Masson's trichrome and TUNEL staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP2 protein expressions in rat myocardial tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated by a Langendorff perfusion method. After 48 h culture, the supernatant and cardiomyocytes were collected to determine the potential related proteins impact on cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Compared with the sham rats, the heart tissues of H-LVH (5%GS group suffered severely from the oxidative damage, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM deposition. In the H-LVH group, tanshinone IIA treated decreased malondialdehyde (MDA content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis as confirmed by the reduction of TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and the down-regulation of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, plasma apelin level increased with down-regulation of APJ receptor. Tanshinone IIA suppressed cardiac fibrosis through regulating the paracrine factors released by cardiomyocytes and the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that tanshinone IIA could improve heart function by enhancing myocardial contractility, inhibiting ECM

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC prevented the progression of renovascular hypertension, improved renal function and architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Oliveira-Sales

    Full Text Available Renovascular hypertension induced by 2 Kidney-1 Clip (2K-1C is a renin-angiotensin-system (RAS-dependent model, leading to renal vascular rarefaction and renal failure. RAS inhibitors are not able to reduce arterial pressure (AP and/or preserve the renal function, and thus, alternative therapies are needed. Three weeks after left renal artery occlusion, fluorescently tagged mesenchymal stem cells (MSC (2×10(5 cells/animal were injected weekly into the tail vein in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Flow cytometry showed labeled MSC in the cortex and medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC prevented a further increase in the AP, significantly reduced proteinuria and decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in 2K-1C rats. Renal function parameters were unchanged, except for an increase in urinary volume observed in 2K-1C rats, which was not corrected by MSC. The treatment improved the morphology and decreased the fibrotic areas in the clipped kidney and also significantly reduced renal vascular rarefaction typical of 2K-1C model. Expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α angiotensinogen, ACE, and Ang II receptor AT1 were elevated, whereas AT2 levels were decreased in the medulla of the clipped kidney. MSC normalized these expression levels. In conclusion, MSC therapy in the 2K-1C model (i prevented the progressive increase of AP, (ii improved renal morphology and microvascular rarefaction, (iii reduced fibrosis, proteinuria and inflammatory cytokines, (iv suppressed the intrarenal RAS, iv decreased sympathetic hyperactivity in anesthetized animals and v MSC were detected at the CNS suggesting that the cells crossed the blood-brain barrier. This therapy may be a promising strategy to treat renovascular hypertension and its renal consequences in the near future.

  14. Intermedin in paraventricular nucleus attenuates sympathetic activity and blood pressure via nitric oxide in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Bo; Sun, Hai-Jian; Chen, Dan; Liu, Tong-Yan; Han, Ying; Wang, Jue-Jin; Tang, Chao-Shu; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family, which shares the receptor system consisting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This study investigated the effects of IMD in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure and its downstream mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham operation. Acute experiments were performed 4 weeks later under anesthesia. IMD mRNA and protein were downregulated in 2K1C rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD caused greater decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats, which were prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin receptor antagonist AM22-52 or nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and attenuated by selective neuronal NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine hydrochloride or endothelial NO synthase inhibitor N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine dihydrochloride. AM22-52 increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats but not in sham-operated rats, whereas calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 had no significant effect. CRLR and RAMP3 mRNA, as well as CRLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 protein expressions, in the PVN were increased in 2K1C rats. Microinjection of IMD into the PVN increased the NO metabolites (NOx) level in the PVN in 2K1C rats, which was prevented by AM22-52. Chronic PVN infusion of IMD reduced, but AM22-52 increased, blood pressure in conscious 2K1C rats. These results indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits sympathetic activity and attenuates hypertension in 2K1C rats, which are mediated by adrenomedullin receptors (CRLR/RAMP2 or CRLR/RAMP3) and its downstream NO.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, I; Kasacka, I

    2015-04-13

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of CART-Containing Cells in Urinary Bladder of Rats with Renovascular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, I.; Kasacka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  17. Role of TGF-β1/Smads pathway in carotid artery remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats and prevention by Enalapril and Amlodipine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ling Chen; Qian-Hui Shang; Wei Hu; Chan Liu; Wan-Heng Mao; Hua-Qing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad2/3 and Smad7 expressions in carotid artery remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats, and also the therapeutic effect of Enalapril and Amlodipine. Methods The renovascular hypertensive rat (RHR) models with "two-kidney and one-clip" were established, including model group (n = 6), sham-operated group (n = 6), Enalapril group (10 mg/kg per day, n = 6), Amlodipine group (5 mg/kg per day, n = 6) and combination group (Amlodipine 2.5 mg/kg per day + Enalapril 5mg/kg per day, n = 6). The medication were continuous administrated for six weeks. Carotid artery morphological and structural changes in the media were observed by HE staining, Masson staining and immuno histochemical staining. Media thickness (MT), MT and lumen diameter ratio (MT/LD), and the expression levels of media α-smooth muscle actin (α-actin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Smad7 in carotid arteries were measured. Results The media of carotid arteries in RHR model group was significantly thickened, the volume of smooth muscle cell was increased, and the array was in disorder; MT, MT/LD, the proliferation index of smooth muscle cell and collagen fiber area percentage of carotid arteries in the model group were significantly higher than those in the sham-operated group (P < 0.01). Compared to sham-operated group, the model group had significantly higher expressions of TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 (P < 0.05) and lower Smad7 expression. Both Enalapril and Amlodipine improved smooth muscle hypertrophy and collagen deposition, reduced RHR carotid MT, MT/LD, proliferation index of smooth muscle cell, collagen fiber area percentage and the expressions of TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 (P < 0.05), increased Smad7 expression (P < 0.05). Moreover, the combination treatment of Enalapril and Amlodipine had significantly better effects than single Amlodipine group (P < 0.05), but not

  18. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  19. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide system in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youqin Cheng; Daiqin Wu; Guang Yang; Xiaoying Li; Dayan Huang; Bin Geng; Chaoshu Tang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthases/H2S pathway in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension.Methods Wistar rats were subdivided into 4 groups:(1) 2-kidney,1-clip (2K-1C group,n=7),(2) control (n=7),(3)sham (n=7),and (4) 2K-1C plus sodium hydrosulfide (NariS) (NariS-treated group,n=7).The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by a tail-cuff method using a pulse transducer once a week.Four weeks later,all rats were killed and the concentration of plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S),the activity of the H2S syntha.ses in the kidneys on both sides,the plasma angiotensin Ⅱ concentration,and the left-to-whole heart weight ratio were measured.Results The SBP was significantly increased in the 2K-IC group (185.4± 14.0mmHg) comparing with those in the sham group (112.9±6.5mmHg,,or the NariS-treated group(134.8±9.5mmHg) (both P<0.01).At 4 weeks,the angiotensin Ⅱ concentration in the plasma was increased in the 2K-1C and NariS-treated group,comparing with the control and the sham group (306.92±7.03 pg/ml and 240.73±13.22 pg/ml vs 122.6±25.49 pg/ml and 125.95±10.55 pg/ml,respectively,both P<0.05).The plasma H2S concentration and the activity of H2S synthases in the left kidney were decreased in the 2K-1C group comparing with those in the sham and the control groups.There was no difference of the activity of the H2S synthases in the right kidneys among the 4 groups.The left-to-whole heart weight ratio was increased in the 2K-1C and the NariS-treated group camparing with that in the sham and natural control groups.Conclusions Dysfunction of the H2S synthases/H2S pathway was involved in the 2K-1C-induced renovascular hypertension in rat.Exogenous administration of H2S donor can attenuate the development of hypertension.These findings suggest that the H2S synthases/H2S pathway participates in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension.

  1. PPARδ binding to heme oxygenase 1 promoter prevents angiotensin II-induced adipocyte dysfunction in Goldblatt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, K; Puri, N; Kim, D H; Hinds, T D; Stechschulte, L A; Favero, G; Rodella, L; Shapiro, J I; Jude, D; Abraham, N G

    2014-03-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates adipogenic response with adipocyte hypertrophy by increasing oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) agonist in attenuation of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore a potential mechanistic link between PPARδ and the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and to elucidate the contribution of HO-1 to the adipocyte regulatory effects of PPARδ agonism in an animal model of enhanced RAS, the Goldblatt 2 kidney 1 clip (2K1C) model. We first established a direct stimulatory effect of the PPARδ agonist (GW 501516) on the HO-1 gene by demonstrating increased luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with a luciferase-HO-1 promoter construct. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated animals, 2K1C rats and 2K1C rats treated with GW 501516, in the absence or presence of the HO activity inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP). 2K1C animals had increased visceral adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased inflammatory cytokines, increased circulatory and adipose tisssue levels of renin and Ang II along with increased adipose tissue gp91 phox expression (Padipose tissue HO-1 and adiponectin levels (Padipocytes (Padipose tissue dysregulation, which is abated by PPARδ-mediated upregulation of the heme-HO system. These findings highlight the pivotal role and symbiotic relationship of HO-1, adiponectin and PPARδ in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissues.

  2. Anti-lipotoxic action of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet%芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向起; 杨解人

    2012-01-01

    This study is to observe anti-lipotoxic effect of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Thirty-four complex model rats were induced by two-kidney, one-clip method and on high-fat and refined-carbohydrate diet for thirteen weeks. From the fifth week, intragastric administration of sesamin (120, 60 and 30 mg·kg-1·d-1) lasted for eight weeks. Blood pressure (BP), blood fat (BF), blood glucose (BG), free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (Ins), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined. Pathological changes of pancreas, perirenal fat and liver were semiquantitatively analyzed. In sesamin (120 and 60 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, it was found that there were decrease of levels of BP, BF, BG, TNF-α, IL-6 and FFA, improvement of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, alleviation of body weight, humid weight of fat, liver and pancreas and their organ index, and reduction of islet cell hyperplasia and amount of lipid droplet vacuoles in lipocyte and hepatocyte. It is implied that sesamin had anti-lipotoxic effect and its mechanism may be closely associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance via reducing lipidoses in hepatocyte and inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-a and IL-6.%观察芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用.两肾一夹术和高脂高糖饮食13周诱导复合模型大鼠34只,于第5周开始连续灌胃给予芝麻素(120、60及30 mg·kg-1·d-1)8周.测定血压、血脂、血糖、游离脂肪酸、胰岛素、TNF-α和IL-6水平;半定量分析胰腺、肾周脂肪、肝脏病理学改变.结果发现,芝麻素(120及60 mg.kg-1·d-1)能降低模型大鼠血压、血脂、血糖、TNF-α、IL-6和FFA水平;改善胰岛素抵抗和糖耐量异常;减轻体重、内脏脂肪、胰腺和肝脏湿重及其脏器指数;减少胰岛细胞增生和脂肪及肝脏细胞中脂滴空泡的数目.提示芝麻素具有抗脂毒作用,其机制可能与肝细

  3. 芝麻素对代谢综合症大鼠心肌NT、NF-κB和MMP-9蛋白表达的影响%Sesamin represses protein expression of nitrotyrosine, NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in myocardium of metabolic syndrome rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥; 杨解人; 张明义; 吴向起

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨芝麻素改善代谢综合症(metabolic syndrome,MS)大鼠心肌重构的作用机制.方法 采用两肾一夹术伴高脂高糖饮食制备MS大鼠模型,灌服不同剂量芝麻素(120、60、30 mg·kg-1·d-1)8周后处死动物,称全心湿重和左心室湿重,测血清总抗氧化能力(total antioxidant capability,T-AOC),Western blot检测心肌硝基酪氨酸(nitrotyrosine,NT)、核因子-κB(NF-κB)和基质金属蛋白酶-9(matrix metalloproteinase-9,MMP-9)蛋白表达,HE和Masson染色观察心肌病理变化并测定胶原容积分数.结果 与模型组相比,60、120 mg·kg-1芝麻素组全心湿重降低,T-AOC升高,心肌NT、NF-κB和MMP-9蛋白表达降低.120 mg·kg-1芝麻素组左心室湿重和胶原容积分数降低,心肌病理损伤明显改善.结论 芝麻素具有改善MS大鼠心肌重构的作用,其机制除抗氧化应激外,还与下调NF-κB和MMP-9蛋白表达有关.%Aim To investigate the possible in vivo protective effects of sesamin on myocardial remodeling in metabolic syndrome ( MS ) rats.Methods MS rat model was induced by operation of two-kidneys with one-clip and fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.sesamin ( 120, 60 and 30 mg ·kg -1· d-1 ) was orally administered in MS rats.Eight weeks later.rats were sacrificed, heart wet weight ( HWW ) and left ventricle wet weight ( LVWW ) were recorded , total-antioxidative activity ( T-AOC ) in serum was measured, and protein expression of nitrotyrosine ( NT ), NF-KB and matrix metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP-9 ) in myocardium was detected by Western blot.In addition, pathological changes in myocardium were observed with HE and Masson staining and collagen volume fraction ( CVF ) was measured.Results Compared with MS rats, treatment with 120 and 0 mg·kg-1 sesamin decreased HWW.enhanced T-AOC, and reduced NT, NF-KB and MMP9 protein expression.Treatment with 120 mg· kg-1 sesamin decreased LVWW and CVF.and obviously ameliorated myocardial pathologic lesions

  4. The Nuclear Factor kappaB Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Cardiac Remodelling and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Up-Regulation in Renovascular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Stefany B A; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Imbalanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is involved in hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-кB) with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can prevent MMP up-regulation. We suggested that treatment with PDTC could prevent 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) hypertension-induced left ventricular remodelling. Sham-operated controls or 2K1C rats with hypertension received either vehicle or PDTC (100 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored every week. Histological assessment of left ventricles was carried out with haematoxylin/eosin sections, and fibrosis was quantified in picrosirius red-stained sections. Oxidative stress was evaluated in heart samples with the dihydroethidium probe. Cardiac MMP activity was determined by in situ zymography, and cardiac MMP-2 was assessed by immunofluorescence. 2K1C surgery significantly increased systolic blood pressure in the 2K1C vehicle. PDTC exerted antihypertensive effects after 2 weeks of treatment. Histology revealed increased left ventricular and septum wall thickness associated with augmented myocyte diameter in hypertensive rats, which were reversed by treatment with PDTC. Hypertensive rats developed pronounced cardiac fibrosis with increased interstitial collagen area, increased cardiac reactive oxygen species levels, gelatinase activity and MMP-2 expression. PDTC treatment decreased these alterations. These findings show that PDTC modulates myocardial MMP-2 expression and ameliorates cardiac remodelling in renovascular hypertension. These results suggest that interfering with MMP expression at transcriptional level may be an interesting strategy in the therapy of organ damage associated with hypertension.

  5. Experimental Study of Turbulent Mixing and Selectivity of Competing Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    expressions available in a standard text ( Levenspiel , 1962): cA cA k2/k1 cA ( R 1-k/k (4) 2- 1 AO CAO and CB = CBO - 2 (CAo - CA) + CR (5) Once again...117 Lee, J. and R. S. Brodkey. "Light Probe for the Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations." Rev. Sci. Instr., 34, 1086 (1963). - Levenspiel , 0...44, 255 (1966). Spielman, L. A. and 0. A. Levenspiel . "A Monte Carlo Treatment for Reacting and Coalescing Dispersed Phase Systems." Chem. Eng. Sci

  6. Ruthenium Complex Improves the Endothelial Function in Aortic Rings From Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Rodrigues, Carla Nascimento Dos Santos; Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; Moraes, Thiago Francisco de; Silva, Roberto Santana da; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-06-29

    The endothelium is a monolayer of cells that extends on the vascular inner surface, responsible for the modulation of vascular tone. By means of the release of nitric oxide (NO), the endothelium has an important protective function against cardiovascular diseases. Verify if cis- [Ru(bpy)2(NO2)(NO)](PF6)2 (BPY) improves endothelial function and the sensibility of conductance (aorta) and resistance (coronary) to vascular relaxation induced by BPY. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) Wistar rats were used. For vascular reactivity study, thoracic aortas were isolated, rings with intact endothelium were incubated with: BPY(0.01 to10 µM) and concentration effect curves to acetylcholine were performed. In addition, cumulative concentration curves were performed to BPY (1.0 nM to 0.1 µM) in aortic and coronary rings, with intact and denuded endothelium. In aorta from 2K-1C animals, the treatment with BPY 0.1µM increased the potency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation and it was able to revert the endothelial dysfunction. The presence of the endothelium did not modify the effect of BPY in inducing the relaxation in aortas from 2K and 2K-1C rats. In coronary, the endothelium potentiated the vasodilator effect of BPY in vessels from 2K and 2K-1C rats. Our results suggest that 0.1 µM of BPY is able to normalize the relaxation endothelium dependent in hypertensive rats, and the compound BPY induces relaxation in aortic from normotensive and hypertensive rats with the same potency. The endothelium potentiate the relaxation effect induced by BPY in coronary from normotensive and hypertensive rats, with lower effect on coronary from hypertensive rats. O endotélio é uma monocamada de células que se estende sobre a superfície interna vascular, responsável pela modulação do tônus vascular. Por meio da liberação de óxido nítrico (NO), o endotélio tem uma função protetora importante contra doenças cardiovasculares. Verificar se o cis- [Ru (BPY)2 (NO2) (NO

  7. Effects of Irbesartan on changes of ATPase activity and Ang Ⅱ in brain of renal hypertensive rats%肾性高血压大鼠脑ATP酶活性和血管紧张素Ⅱ水平及厄贝沙坦的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽兵; 商黔惠; 姜黔峰; 吴芹; 袁萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of Irbesartan on the activities of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, Ca2+ - ATPase and the level of An-giotensin Ⅱ ( Ang Ⅱ )in brain of renal hypertensive rats(RHRs). Methods Renovascular hypertension was induced by two kidney-one clip method. Eighteen renovascular hypertensive rats were randomly divided into RHR Model, Irbesartan treated ( 50 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ) , and discontinuation groups,each group had 6 cases. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before and after using irbesartan. ATPase activity and Ang Ⅱ content were determined by spectrophotometry or radioimmunoassay in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus from RHR after 8 week treatment. Results Blood pressure of RHR was significantly higher than that of control group, Irbesartan significantly decreased blood pressure of RHR. The activities of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, Ca2+ -ATPase in cerebral cortex and hippocampus from RHR were significantly lower than those of control group( P < 0. 01); Irbesartan did not change the activity of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, but significantly increased the activity of Ca2+ -ATPase. Ca2+ -ATPase activity was decreased after discontinuation. The plasma and brain Ang Ⅱ level of RHR was significantly higher than those of control group,Irbesartan increased Ang Ⅱ level of plasma,cerebral cortex and hippocampus of RHR. After discontinuation, Ang Ⅱ level of plasma had no evident alteration, Ang Ⅱ level of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of RHR were significantly decreased. There was a significant negative correlation between Ang Ⅱ and the activity of Ca2+ -ATPase in RHR brain. Conclusions Irbesartan may impact on the activity of Ca2+-ATPase and the level of Ang Ⅱ in RHR brain, and the decreased Ca2+-ATPase activity may be related to local increased Ang Ⅱ , which might be one of the mechanisms of the rebound of hypertension.%目的 探讨厄贝沙坦对肾性高血压大鼠(RHR)脑Na+,K+-ATPase、Ca2+ -ArPase及血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)的影响.方法 采用两肾

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: YUR-uh-turz) bladder urethra (say: ... busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the bathroom can ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  11. Involvement of bradykinin B2 and muscarinic receptors in the prolonged diuretic and antihypertensive properties of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, Thiago Buno Lima; Barboza, Lorena Neris; Araújo, Valdinei de Oliveira; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2016-10-15

    Although Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltr.) Michel are used in Brazilian folk medicine as a diuretic drug, to date, no study has evaluated the mechanisms involved in this activity after prolonged administration in rats. Evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the prolonged diuretic activity of ethanol soluble fraction obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus (ES-EG) and to assess its relationship with hypotensive and antihypertensive activity using normotensive rats and those with renovascular hypertension (2K1C). The diuretic effects of ES-EG (30-300 mg/kg; p.o.) were compared with hydrochlorothiazide in a repeated-dose treatment for 7 days. The urinary volume and sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate contents, conductivity, pH and density were estimated in sample collected in 24 h for 7 days. Plasma sodium, potassium, total protein, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin, nitrite, acetylcholinesterase concentration and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were measured in samples collected at the end of the experimental period (seventh day). Using pharmacological antagonists or inhibitors, the involvement of bradykinin, prostaglandin, acetylcholine and nitric oxide (NO) in ES-EG-induced diuresis was determined. In addition, activities of erythrocytary carbonic anhydrase and renal Na+/K+/ATPase were evaluated in vitro. ES-EG increased diuresis similarly to hydrochlorothiazide and also presented HCO3-sparing effects and increased serum nitrite levels. Moreover, the intraduodenal administration of ES-EG induces significant hypotensive and antihypertensive effects in 2K1C rats. Previous treatment with HOE-140, indometacin and atropine fully avoided the diuretic effect of ES-EG, and including L-NAME pre-administration, it prevented the hypotensive and hypertensive activity induced by ES-EG. In addition, the association between HOE-140 and atropine or indometacin and L-NAME fully inhibited the hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of ES

  12. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...... approximately 0.1 to 10 mHz the spectra were 1/f and without distinct peaks. The slopes were not significantly different among the groups and ranged from -1.03 to -1.61. At frequencies > 10 mHz, power continued to decrease but with a lower slope. A peak centered at approximately 100 mHz was present in both...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension....

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells and chronic renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B; Boim, Mirian A

    2016-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is the main cause of renovascular hypertension and results in ischemic nephropathy characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, microvascular loss, and fibrosis with consequent functional failure. Considering the limited number of strategies that effectively control renovascular hypertension and restore renal function, we propose that cell therapy may be a promising option based on the regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of stem cells. This review addresses the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension known as 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C). Significant benefits of MSC treatment have been observed on blood pressure and renal structure of the stenotic kidney. The mechanisms involved are discussed.

  14. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  15. Development of renal atrophy in murine 2 kidney 1 clip hypertension is strain independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sonu; Boyilla, Rajendra; Zaia, Paula J; Ghossan, Roba; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    The murine 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) model has been used to identify mechanisms underlying chronic renal disease in human renovascular hypertension. Although this model recapitulates many of the features of human renovascular disease, strain specific variability in renal outcomes and animal-to-animal variation in the degree of arterial stenosis are well recognized limitations. In particular, the C57BL/6J strain is considered to be resistant to chronic renal damage in other models. Our objectives were to determine strain dependent variations in renal disease progression and to identify parameters that predict renal atrophy in murine 2K1C hypertension. We used a 0.20mm polytetrafluoroethylene cuff to establish RAS in 3 strains of mice C57BL/6J (N=321), C57BLKS/J (N=177) and129Sv (N=156). The kidneys and hearts were harvested for histopathologic analysis after 3days or after 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11 or 17weeks. We performed multivariate analysis to define associations between blood pressure, heart and kidney weights, ratio of stenotic kidney/contralateral kidney (STK/CLK) weight, percent atrophy (% atrophy) and plasma renin content. The STK of all 3 strains showed minimal histopathologic alterations after 3days, but later developed progressive interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and inflammation. The STK weight negatively correlated with maximum blood pressure and % atrophy, and positively correlated with STK/CLK ratio. RAS produces severe chronic renal injury in the STK of all murine strains studied, including C57BL/6J. Systolic blood pressure is negatively associated with STK weight, STK/CLK ratio and positively with atrophy and may be used to assess adequacy of vascular stenosis in this model.

  16. Evaluation of Stress Distribution on Implant-Retained Auricular Prostheses: The Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed A; Santiwong, Peerapong; Wonglamsam, Amornrat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Chanthasopeephan, Teeranoot

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stress distribution around two craniofacial implants in an auricular prosthesis according to the removal forces. Three attachment combinations were used to evaluate the stress distribution under removal forces of 45 and 90 degrees. Three attachment designs were examined: (1) a Hader bar with three clips; (2) a Hader bar with one clip and two extracoronal resilient attachments (ERAs); and (3) a Hader bar with one clip and two Locators. The removal force was determined by means of an Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute. All three designs were created in three dimensions using SolidWorks. The applied removal force and the models were then introduced to finite element software to analyze the stress distribution. The angle of removal force greatly affected the magnitude and direction of stress distribution on the implants. The magnitude of stress under the 45-degree removal force was higher than the stress at 90 degrees. The combination of the 1,000-g retention clip and 2,268-g retention Locator exhibited the highest stress on the implant flange when the removal force was applied at 45 degrees. The removal angle greatly influences the amount of force and stress on the implants. Prosthodontists are encouraged to inform patients to remove the prosthesis at 90 degrees and, if possible, use a low-retentive attachment to reduce stress.

  17. 芪参益气滴丸对肾性高血压大鼠心肌纤维化及CTGF表达的影响%Effects of Qishenyiqi drop pills on myocardial fibrosis and expression of connective tissue growth factor in renovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束长城; 魏万林; 张灵; 田国祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Qishenyiqi drop pills(QS) on myocardial fibrosis and connective tissue growth factor expression in rats with renovascular hypertension.Methods Forty male Wistar rats, weighing about 200 g each, they were randomly divided into four groups (n =10) : negative control group (SHAM) , operation group (2K1C) , OS large-dose group(2KlC + QS 250 mg) ,and QS small-dose group(2KlC + QS 125 mg).Four weeks after surgery, rats in the QS large-dose group received 250 mg o kg-1 o d-1 ,and those in the QS small-dose group received 125 mg o kg-1 o d-1 by gavage while the same dose of saline was administered to the SHAM group and 2K1C group for 8 weeks until the end of the experiment.After 8 weeks of treatment, systolic blood pressure( SBP) was measured by tail-cuff, collagen volume fraction ( CVF) was detected by Van Gieson , and superoxidase dismutase ( SOD) , glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-PX) , and reactive oxygen species ( ROS) in the left ventricular myocardium were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA).The expression of connective tissue growth factor ( CTGF) in the left ventricular myocardium was detected by irnmunohistochemistry and Western blot.Results Twelve weeks after surgery,the results showed that the blood pressure, the ratio of left ventricle mass to body mass( LVM/BM) in 2K1C group and QS large-dose group and small-dose group were significantly increased (P <0.01) compared with the SHAM group.However,compared with the operation group, the ratio of LVM/BM and CVF were significantly decreased in the QS large-dose group and small-dose group -while the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were increased and the levels of ROS and CTGF in heart were significantly decreased. The effect on systolic blood pressure of rats was not obvious.Conclusion QS can inhibit the development of myocardial fibrosis induced by renal hypertension in rats. The possible mechanisms may be due to their antioxidant properties and decreasing

  18. Limitations of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Mortensen, Klaus Leth; Kamper, Anne-Lise;

    2008-01-01

    Four cases are presented, immunosuppressed by at least three different mechanisms: one HIV-positive patient with a CD4 count of 0.29 x 10(6)/ml, one malnourished patient, and two kidney-transplanted patients. All patients had a negative interferon (IFN)-gamma test for suspected tuberculosis (TB...

  19. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  20. Tulip bundle technique and fibrin glue injection: unusual treatment of colonic perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocciaro, Filippo; Curcio, Gabriele; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Spada, Marco; Petri, Sergio Li; Traina, Mario

    2011-02-28

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male who experienced an iatrogenic sigmoid perforation repaired combining three endoscopic techniques. The lesion was large and irregular with three discrete perforations, therefore, we decided to close it by placing one clip per perforation, and then connecting all the clips with two endoloops. Finally we chose to use a fibrin glue injection to obtain a complete sealing. Four days after the colonoscopy the patient underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy due to evidence of a large polyp of the caecum with high grade dysplasia and focal carcinoma in situ. Inspection of the sigma showed complete repair of the perforation. This report underlines how a conservative approach, together with a combination of various endoscopic techniques, can resolve complicated iatrogenic perforations of the colon.

  1. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether renovascular hypertension alters vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the influence of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol on vasodilatation. One-kidney one-clip hypertensive Sprague–Dawley rats, treated...... with either vehicle or tempol (from weeks 5 to 10 after placement of the clip), and uninephrectomized control rats were investigated. In renal hypertensive rats systolic blood pressure increased to 171±6 mmHg (n=10), while in tempol-treated rats systolic blood pressure remained normal (139±7 mmHg, n=5......). In isolated pressurized mesenteric small arteries NO-mediated dilatation was obtained by increasing flow rate and EDHF-mediated dilatation by acetylcholine. In arteries from hypertensive rats, flow-induced dilatation was blunted, as compared to normotensive and tempol-treated rats, while acetylcholine...

  2. Tulip bundle technique and fibrin glue injection:Unusual treatment of colonic perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filippo Mocciaro; Gabriele Curcio; Ilaria Tarantino; Luca Barresi; Marco Spada; Sergio Li Petri; Mario Traina

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male who experienced an iatrogenic sigmoid perforation repaired combining three endoscopic techniques.The lesion was large and irregular with three discrete perforations, therefore,we decided to close it by placing one clip per perforation,and then connecting all the clips with two endoloops.Finally we chose to use a fibrin glue injection to obtain a complete sealing.Four days after the colonoscopy the patient underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy due to evidence of a large polyp of the caecum with high grade dysplasia and focal carcinoma in situ .Inspection of the sigma showed complete repair of the perforation.This report underlines how a conservative approach,together with a combination of various endoscopic techniques,can resolve complicated iatrogenic perforations of the colon.

  3. Top-down and Middle-down Protein Analysis Reveals that Intact and Clipped Human Histones Differ in Post-translational Modification Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Sidoli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    . Using top-down and middle-down protein analysis by mass spectrometry, we report histone H2B and H3 N-terminal tail clipping in human hepatocytes and demonstrate a relationship between clipping and coexisting PTMs of histone H3. Histones H2B and H3 undergo proteolytic processing in primary human...... hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2/C3A when grown in spheroid (3D) culture, but not in a flat (2D) culture. Using tandem mass spectrometry we localized four different clipping sites in H3 and one clipping site in H2B. We show that in spheroid culture clipped H3 proteoforms are mainly...

  4. Circulating inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive cation transport in malignantrenal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.

    1986-03-01

    The role of circulating humoral agents in the pathogenesis of vascular wall Na depletion in malignant hypertension (MHT) was investigated. Plasma was collected from 33 male F344 rats with malignant one-kidney, one clip HT and 22 normotensive control rats. MHT developed spontaneously and was characterized by inactivity, weight loss, edema, anemia or hemoconcentration, hyperkalemia, and renal insufficiency. For bioassay, monolayers of quiescent vascular smooth muscle cells from F344 rats were incubated in deproteinized or whole plasma for measurement of /sup 86/Rb uptake with or without 2 mM ouabain or 1 mM furosemide. Compared to controls, ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was reduced from 8.2 +- 2.0 nmol/mg protein min/sup -1/ (mean +- SD) to 5.2 +- 1.4 in deproteinized plasma (p < 0.01, N = 12) and from 6.6 +- 1.9 to 4.0 +- 0.3 in whole plasma (p < 0.05, N=5) of rats with MHT, due in part to a reduction in furosemide-sensitive uptake (p < 0.01, N = 6). There were no differences in ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake of cells between groups. In rats with MHT the increased Na content of the aorta that characterizes benign one-kidney, one clip HT was reversed, and bladder wall Na content was reduced (p < 0.001, N = 9). In MHT, a furosemide-like, ouabain-insensitive cation transport inhibitor in blood and urine may be the cause of vascular wall Na loss and of natriuresis that triggers the syndrome.

  5. New nitric oxide donors based on ruthenium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Lunardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors produce NO-related activity when applied to biological systems. Among its diverse functions, NO has been implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Despite the great importance of NO in biological systems, its pharmacological and physiological studies have been limited due to its high reactivity and short half-life. In this review we will focus on our recent investigations of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes as NO-delivery agents and their effects on vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. The high affinity of ruthenium for NO is a marked feature of its chemistry. The main signaling pathway responsible for the vascular relaxation induced by NO involves the activation of soluble guanylyl-cyclase, with subsequent accumulation of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. This in turn can activate several proteins such as K+ channels as well as induce vasodilatation by a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+. Oxidative stress and associated oxidative damage are mediators of vascular damage in several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. The increased production of the superoxide anion (O2- by the vascular wall has been observed in different animal models of hypertension. Vascular relaxation to the endogenous NO-related response or to NO released from NO deliverers is impaired in vessels from renal hypertensive (2K-1C rats. A growing amount of evidence supports the possibility that increased NO inactivation by excess O2- may account for the decreased NO bioavailability and vascular dysfunction in hypertension.

  6. Solute clearance effect of citrate anticoagulation hemodialysate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the solute clearance effect of the new concentrated anticoagulation hemodialysate of citrate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding. Methods Forty-two kidney failure patients with high risk of bleeding were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B) according to their hemodialysis manners. Patients in Group A were hemodialyzed with bicarbonate hemodialysate with low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) anticoagulation and those in Group B with the new citrate anticoag...

  7. Practical uses of a quantitative renal scintillation camera study. [/sup 131/I tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueschen, A.J.; Lloyd, L.K.

    1976-10-01

    A quantitative renal scintillation camera study has been described for the evaluation of total renal function and the split function of the two kidneys by a noninvasive technic. It requires no patient preparation, is not affected by bowel gas, and no allergic reactions have been reported. Six cases are reported to illustrate its usefulness with renal tumors, neurogenic bladders, pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, congenital anomalies, and renal insufficiency.

  8. Effect of losartan on the expression of angiotensin-coverting enzyme 2 mRNA and protein in renovascular hypertensive rats%氯沙坦对肾性高血压大鼠血管中ACE2 mRNA和蛋白质表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 田海红; 秦旭平; 郑兴; 陈临溪

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)在两肾一夹高血压大鼠(2K1C)血管中的表达以及氯沙坦对其干预后ACE2 mRNA和蛋白质表达水平的影响.方法 建立两肾一夹高血压大鼠模型,用夹尾法测定血压.在实验结束时,使用磷酸盐缓冲溶液对大鼠进行灌注,再用4%多聚甲醛在体灌注,剪取胸主动脉,10%福尔马林中保存进行形态学分析.RT-PCR和Wester-blot分别测定血管组织中ACE2 mRNA及蛋白质表达水平.结果 肾动脉狭窄大鼠血压较假手术大鼠明显升高(P<0.01),肾性高血压大鼠较正常大鼠ACE2显著降低(P<0.01).氯沙坦能剂量依赖性的显著降低血压(P<0.05),减少大鼠主动脉管壁厚度(P<0.01),剂量依赖性地增加ACE2 mRNA 和蛋白质的表达(P<0.05).结论 氯沙坦降低血压和逆转高血压血管重构的机制可能与增加ACE2表达有关.

  9. Interplay between connexin40 and nitric oxide signaling during hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Loïc; Alonso, Florian; Mazzolai, Lucia; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Connexins (Cxs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contribute to the adaptation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells to hemodynamic changes. To decipher the in vivo interplay between these proteins, we studied Cx40-null mice, a model of renin-dependent hypertension which displays an altered endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta because of reduced eNOS levels. These mice, which were either untreated or subjected to the 1-kidney, 1-clip (1K1C) procedure, a model of volume-dependent hypertension, were compared with control mice submitted to either the 1K1C or the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) procedure, a model of renin-dependent hypertension. All operated mice became hypertensive and featured hypertrophy and altered Cx expression of the aorta. The combination of volume- and renin-dependent hypertension in Cx40-/- 1K1C mice raised blood pressure and cardiac weight index. Under these conditions, all aortas showed increased levels of Cx40 in endothelial cells and of both Cx37 and Cx45 in smooth muscle cells. In the wild-type 1K1C mice, the interactions between Cx40 and Cx37 with eNOS were enhanced, resulting in increased NO release. The Cx40-eNOS interaction could not be observed in mice lacking Cx40, which also featured decreased levels of eNOS. In these animals, the volume overload caused by the 1K1C procedure resulted in increased phosphorylation of eNOS and in a higher NO release. The findings provide evidence that Cx40 and Cx37 play an in vivo role in the regulation of eNOS.

  10. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Bleeding with the Over-the-Scope Clip: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Tiwary, Indrajit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) is a device used for endoscopic closure of perforations, leaks and fistulas, and for endoscopic hemostasis. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of OTSC. Methods Between October 2013 and November 2015, 12 patients underwent OTSC placement by an experienced endoscopist. OTSC was used for the closure of gastrointestinal (GI) leaks and fistula in six patients, three of which were iatrogenic (esophageal, gastric, and duodenal) and three of which were inflammatory. In six patients, OTSC was used for hemostasis of non-variceal upper GI bleeding. Endoscopic tattooing using India ink was used to assist the accurate placement of the clip. Results All subjects except one with a colonic defect experienced immediate technical success as well as long-term clinical success, during a mean follow-up of 6 weeks. Only one clip was required to close each of the GI defects and to achieve hemostasis in all patients. There were no misfirings or complications of clips. The procedure was well tolerated, and patients were hospitalized for an average of 8 days (range, 3 to 10). Antiplatelet therapy was continued in patients with GI bleeding. Conclusions In our experience, OTSC was safe and effective for the closure of GI defect and to achieve hemostasis of non-variceal GI bleeding. PMID:27802375

  11. Memory-guided attention during active viewing of edited dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuch, Christian; König, Peter; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Films, TV shows, and other edited dynamic scenes contain many cuts, which are abrupt transitions from one video shot to the next. Cuts occur within or between scenes, and often join together visually and semantically related shots. Here, we tested to which degree memory for the visual features of the precut shot facilitates shifting attention to the postcut shot. We manipulated visual similarity across cuts, and measured how this affected covert attention (Experiment 1) and overt attention (Experiments 2 and 3). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants actively viewed a target movie that randomly switched locations with a second, distractor movie at the time of the cuts. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were able to deploy attention more rapidly and accurately to the target movie's continuation when visual similarity was high than when it was low. Experiment 3 tested whether this could be explained by stimulus-driven (bottom-up) priming by feature similarity, using one clip at screen center that was followed by two alternative continuations to the left and right. Here, even the highest similarity across cuts did not capture attention. We conclude that following cuts of high visual similarity, memory-guided attention facilitates the deployment of attention, but this effect is (top-down) dependent on the viewer's active matching of scene content across cuts.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ROLES OF ENDOGENOUS OUABAIN IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between endogenous ouabain and the pathogenesis of hyper- tension. Methods ① Sixteen Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups, and then the rats were injected with ouabain in dosage of 20μg/kg. d and normal saline (NS), respectively. The indirect systolic blood pressure of all the rats were recorded once a week. ②) Twenty-five lk1c (one kidney and one clipped) hypertensive rats were established and injected randomly with anti-ouabain antibody, normal rabbit IgG and normal saline, respectively. The direct blood pressure of all the lklc hypertensive rats were recorded by cannulated carotid artery for 3h after administration. Results The systolic blood pressure of rats injected with ouabain began to increase 2 weeks after ouabain administration and increased significantly at 6 weeks compared with NS group (17.7±1.2)kPa vs .(15.4±1.1)kPa, P< 0. 01). Anti-ouabain antibody could significantly decrease the blood pressure of 1 k1c rats, while the normal rabbit IgG could not. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that endogenous ouabain might be one of the pathogenetic factors of hypertension.

  13. Gesture discrimination in primary progressive aphasia: the intersection between gesture and language processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sunaert, Stefan; Fannes, Katrien; Dupont, Patrick; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2010-05-05

    The issue of the relationship between language and gesture processing and the partial overlap of their neural representations is of fundamental importance to neurology, psychology, and social sciences. Patients suffering from primary progressive aphasia, a clinical syndrome characterized by comparatively isolated language deficits, may provide direct evidence for anatomical and functional association between specific language deficits and gesture discrimination deficits. A consecutive series of 16 patients with primary progressive aphasia and 16 matched control subjects participated. Our nonverbal gesture discrimination task consisted of 19 trials. In each trial, participants observed three video clips showing the same gesture performed correctly in one clip and incorrectly in the other two. Subjects had to indicate which of the three versions was correct. Language and gesture production were evaluated by means of conventional tasks. All participants underwent high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Ten of the primary progressive aphasia patients showed a significant deficit on the nonverbal gesture discrimination task. A factor analysis revealed that this deficit clustered with gesture imitation, word and pseudoword repetition, and writing-to-dictation. Individual scores on this cluster correlated with volume in the left anterior inferior parietal cortex extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Probabilistic tractography indicated this region comprised the cortical relay station of the indirect pathway connecting the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal cortex. Thus, the left perisylvian temporoparietal area may underpin verbal imitative behavior, gesture imitation, and gesture discrimination indicative of a partly shared neural substrate for language and gesture resonance.

  14. [Dissolution therapy of struvite calculi with solution G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, M; Maeda, O; Matsumiya, K; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Oka, T; Sonoda, T

    1988-07-01

    In 6 patients (9 kidneys) irrigation with Solution G in the renal pelvis was performed for the dissolution of their infectious stones. Staghorn calculi larger than 30 mm in diameter were observed in all patients. In two kidneys all stones were dissolved and the rest were dissolved into small fragments that constituted no problem in those kidneys. Irrigation was done with no major side effects or complications. The dissolution of infectious stones with Solution G is another possible treatment that could be first chosen among percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and other treatments.

  15. Residual kidney function after donor nephrectomy. Assessment by {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamscho, N.; Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Berner, U.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wilhelm, A.; Gossmann, J.; Scheuermann, E.H. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Aim: We evaluated the long-term residual renal function after donor nephrectomy using {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycin (MAG3)-clearance. Donors, methods: Altogether 49 kidney donors were examined using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance after nephrectomy for donation to a relative (m:f=11.38; age 55{+-}27 years). The donors were examined 16{+-}8 years postoperatively (1.5-26 years). 42 donors (86%) showed normal creatinine values, whereas the other seven (14%) exhibited slightly elevated levels. 20 donors were examined pre- and postoperatively and compared intraindividually. The kidney function was compared to the age adapted normal values of healthy persons with two kidneys (67-133% of age related mean). Results: After nephrectomy all donors showed a normal perfusion, good secretion, merely physiological intrarenal transit and a normal elimination from the kidneys. The {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance was 69{+-}15% of the normal mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys regardless of the gender. 20 donors with a preoperative examination showed a significantly reduced total renal function from 84{+-}15% of the mean normal value preoperatively to 60{+-}15% postoperatively (p<0.005). 15 donors of this group exhibited a significant functional increase of the residual kidney from 40% initially to 60% after nephrectomy (p=0.003). No correlation was found between the initial {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance measured prior to nephrectomy and the clearance levels after nephrectomy. Also, no correlation between the preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance and the postoperative serum creatinine values could be observed. Althogether, 22% of the donors (11/49) developed arterial hypertension 10{+-}8 years after donation (1-23 years). This corresponds to the normal age prevalence of hypertension in the carriers of two kidneys. Three donors suffered from arterial hypertension prior to the operation. Conclusion: Kidney donors with normal or slightly elevated creatinine values postoperatively

  16. Reasons why Thai patients with chronic kidney disease use or do not use herbal and dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud Despite a high prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement use (HDS) in pre-dialysis patients, the reasons are unknown as to why they decide to use HDS. Objectives of the cross-sectional and qualitative studies were to determine reasons for the use and non-use of HDS in Thai patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).\\ud \\ud METHODS:\\ud This prospective study recruited 421 patients with stage 3-5 CKD from two kidney clinics in Thailand, and 357 were followed up regarding their ...

  17. A Case of Unicornuate Uterus with Atypical Located Hyperstimulated Ovary after in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Angelova Angelova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of a congenital Mullerian anomaly, uterus unicornis with missing right fallopian tube. An in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET procedure was done and presently is known that the patient has left fallopian tube and left ovary, two kidneys, and right ovary is missing. No diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were done, only hysterosalpingography (HSG before the IVF procedure.  Several days after the follicular puncture of the left ovary the patient was urgently admitted to the hospital for specialized gynaecology in Varna. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed right ovary atypically located immediately next to the liver and with emerging theca-lutein cysts.

  18. Severe dengue in the early postoperative period after kidney transplantation: two case reports from Hospital Geral de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelson Hugo Félix Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dengue is an arbovirosis that ranges from an asymptomatic presentation to a more severe disease, which is characterized by a vascular leakage syndrome where abdominal pain is a major symptom. Transplant recipients are immunosuppressed and are less likely to develop a severe form of the disease because of a reduction in immune-mediated responses that trigger plasma extravasation events. Herein, we report two cases of severe dengue in the early postoperative period of two kidney transplant recipients. Considering the severity of the cases, we emphasize the importance of dengue screening immediately before transplantation in areas endemic for the disease.

  19. Effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Byeong Hwa; KIM Cuk Seong; KIM Hoe-Suk; PARK Jin-Bong; NAM Ki Yeul; CHANG Seok Jong

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of crude saponin and nonsaponin fraction of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the blood pressure and nitric oxide (NO) production in the conscious rats and cultured endothelial cell line, FCV 304 cells. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in the conscious rats. Nitric oxide levels and the expression of nitric oxide synthase were measured by a spectrophotometric assay using Griess reagents and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric-oxide synthase activity was measured based on the conversion rate of [3H]arginine to [3H]citmlline. RESUITS: Systolic blood pressure was decreased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, iv) of KRG in the conscious control and one-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive (1K, 1C-GBH) rats. The hypotensive effect induced by crude saponin of KRG reached maximum at 2 - 4 min and slowly recovered after 20 min to the initial level in both groups. Crude saponin of KRG induced tacliycardia in the conscious rats but induced bradycardia in the anesthetized rats. In contrast to crude saponin of KRG, hypotensive effect induced by saponin-free fraction was minimal. Nitric oxide concentrations were increased by the treaunent of crude saponin in conscious rats as well as in the cultured FCV 304 cells. The protein expression level of endothelial constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, ip for 3 d). However, nitric-oxide synthase activity was increased by crude saponin of KRG in the aortic homogenate of rats. CONCLUSION: The hypotensive effect of red ginseng is mainly due to saponin fraction of KRG in the conscious rats, and this effect may be due to an increase in the nitric-oxide production by KRG.

  20. Spatiotemporal characteristics of atrial fibrillation electrograms: A novel marker for arrhythmia stability and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaimani, Shivshankar; Brooks, Anthony G; Kuklik, Pawel; Twomey, Darragh J; Franklin, Samantha; Noschka, Erik; Chapman, Darius; Pathak, Rajeev K; Mahajan, Rajiv; Sanders, Prashanthan; Lau, Dennis H

    2017-02-01

    Sequentially mapped complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) and dominant frequency (DF) sites have been targeted during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, these strategies have yielded variable success and have not been shown to correlate consistently with AF dynamics. Here, we evaluated whether the spatiotemporal stability of CFAE and DF may be a better marker of AF sustenance and termination. Eighteen sheep with 12 weeks of "one-kidney, one-clip" hypertension underwent open-chest studies. A total of 42 self-terminating (28-100 s) and 6 sustained (>15 min) AF episodes were mapped using a custom epicardial plaque and analyzed in 4-s epochs for CFAE, using the NavX CFE-m algorithm, and DF, using a Fast Fourier Transform. The spatiotemporal stability index (STSI) was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient of consecutive AF epochs. A total of 67,733 AF epochs were analyzed. During AF initiation, mean CFE-m and the STSI of CFE-m/DF were similar between sustained and self-terminating episodes, although median DF was higher in sustained AF (p=0.001). During sustained AF, the STSI of CFE-m increased significantly (p=0.02), whereas mean CFE-m (p=0.5), median DF (p=0.07), and the STSI of DF remained unchanged (p=0.5). Prior to AF termination, the STSI of CFE-m was significantly lower (pCFE-m (p=0.14) or the STSI of DF (p=0.06). Spatiotemporal stabilization of CFAE favors AF sustenance and its destabilization heralds AF termination. The STSI of CFE-m is more representative of AF dynamics than are the STSI of DF, sequential mean CFE-m, or median DF.

  1. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H;

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven...... arterial blood pressure by 49% and decreased TRBF by 12%, providing an increase in renal vascular resistance of 69%. Dynamic analysis showed autoregulation of renal blood flow in the frequency range ... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  2. Diuresis renography; A simultaneous comparison between sup 131 I-hippuran and sup 99 Tc sup m -MAG sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvid-Jacobsen, K.; Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    In 20 patients investigated for unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction diuresis renography was performed simultaneously with {sup 131}I-hippuran and {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-MAG{sub 3} using a gamma camera with dual isotope facilities. Furosemide was administered routinely 20 min after radionuclide injection. No significant differences were found in fractional share between the two kidneys, time to maximal activity, residual activity at 20 and 30 min, or rate of emptying after furosemide administration. The MAG{sub 3} curves showed, however, better counting statistics and on scintigrams with MAG{sub 3} more anatomic details (extent of dilation and site of obstruction) could be seen. It is concluded, that MAG{sub 3} is superior to hippuran in the evaluation of patients with possible unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction by diuresis renography. (orig.).

  3. Transmission of donor melanoma to multiple organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Stiff, G; Steel, A; Savage, P; Devlin, J; Griffiths, D; Portman, B; Mason, M; Jurewicz, W A

    2004-03-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the most common tumour responsible for donor-derived post transplantation malignancies. We report the varied presentation and outcome of three graft recipients (two kidney and hepatic) who developed metastatic melanoma following cadaveric organ transplantation from a single multiorgan donor. Two of the recipients presented with symptomatic metastatic lesions and the third patient, despite being carefully monitored, developed evidence of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Two of the patients died as a direct result of their melanomas. The recipients of corneal and cardiac grafts remain disease-free. We conclude that despite careful screening, donor-derived tumours remain a not uncommon clinical entity. The identification of a lesion in one recipient should prompt immediate examination and investigation of the remaining recipients of multiorgan donations.

  4. Numerical simulations of expanding supershells in dwarf irregular galaxies. II. Formation of giant HI rings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, E I; Basu, Shantanu

    2004-01-01

    We perform numerical hydrodynamic modeling of various physical processes that can form an HI ring as is observed in Holmberg I. Three energetic mechanisms are considered: multiple supernova explosions (SNe), a hypernova explosion associated with a gamma ray burst (GRB), and the vertical impact of a high velocity cloud (HVC). The total released energy has an upper limit of 10^54 ergs. We find that multiple SNe are in general more effective in producing shells that break out of the disk than a hypernova explosion of the same total energy. As a consequence, multiple SNe form rings with a high ring-to-center contrast K 45 deg) the HI image is characterized by two kidney-shaped density enhancements and a mild central depression.

  5. Munchausen syndrome by proxy with massive proteinuria and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulinski, Tim; Lhopital, Caroline; Cloppet, Henri; Feït, Jean-Patrick; Bourlon, Isabelle; Morin, Denis; Cochat, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with acute abdominal pain. Massive proteinuria of 10 g/1.73 m(2) per day was detected on standard urinalysis. There was no peripheral edema. Serum concentrations of total proteins, lipids, and creatinine and immunological investigations were normal. Two kidney biopsies revealed no abnormalities. Several weeks later he was admitted for intestinal hemorrhage with significant anemia. Endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and small bowel (via laparotomy) were normal. Electrophoresis of urine proteins revealed the unusual finding of an albumin fraction of 99.4%. During a routine check-up in the outpatient clinic fresh urine samples were obtained while the boy's mother was absent. These were all negative for protein. The mother, who was a nurse, finally confessed to adding human albumin to the urine samples.

  6. Comparison of two pig intestinal brush border peptidases with the corresponding renal enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, O; Sjöström, H; Danielsen, Erik Michael;

    1979-01-01

    -glutamyl-transferase was found to be identical to that of the kidney enzyme. The electrophoretic mobilities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from the two organs differed greatly. The difference was almost abolished by treatment with neuraminidase, suggesting that the variation in mobility was due to different contents of sialic acid......Intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase IV and gamma-glutamyltransferase were compared to the corresponding kidney enzymes with respect to immunological and electrophoretic properties. The influences of selected effectors on the two enzymes were also studied. The two kidney peptidases exhibited...... the reaction of total identity with the corresponding intestinal enzymes in immunodiffusion. Furthermore, the intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase IV and gamma-glutamyl transferase showed the same inhibition patterns as the corresponding kidney enzymes and the acceptor specificity of the intestinal gamma...

  7. Assessment of various parameters in the estimation of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lythgoe, M.F.; Gordon, I.; Khader, Z.; Smith, T.; Anderson, P.J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that should be assessed from virtually every dynamic renogram. With the introduction of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3), a tracer with a high renal extraction, the estimation of DRF might hopefully become accurate and reproducible both between observers in the same institution and also between institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different parameters on the estimation of DRF. To this end we investigated two groups of children: group A, comprising 35 children with a single kidney (27 of whom had poor renal function), and group B, comprising 20 children with two kidneys and normal global function who also had an associated {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA). The variables assessed for their effect on the estimation of DRF were: different operators, the choice of renal regions of interest (ROIs), the applied background subtraction, and six different techniques for analysis of the renogram. The six techniques were based on: linear regression of the slopes in the Rutland-Patlak plot, matrix deconvolution, differential method, integral method, linear regression of the slope of the renograms, and the area under the curve of the renogram. The estimation of DRF was less dependent upon both observer and method in patients with two normally functioning kidneys than in patients with a single kidney. The inter-observer comparison among children in either group was not dependent on either ROI or background subtraction. However, in patients with poor renal function the method of choice for the estimation of DRF was dependent on background subtraction, though not ROI. In children with two kidneys and normal renal function, the estimation of DRF from the 24 techniques gave similar results. Methods that produced DRF values closest to expected results, from either group of children, were the Rutland-Patlak plot and matrix deconvolution methods

  8. Nephron Deficiency and Predisposition to Renal Injury in a Novel One-Kidney Genetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexiang; Johnson, Ashley C; Williams, Jan M; White, Tiffani; Chade, Alejandro R; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Ruisheng; Roman, Richard J; Lee, Jonathan W; Kyle, Patrick B; Solberg-Woods, Leah; Garrett, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    Some studies have reported up to 40% of patients born with a single kidney develop hypertension, proteinuria, and in some cases renal failure. The increased susceptibility to renal injury may be due, in part, to reduced nephron numbers. Notably, children who undergo nephrectomy or adults who serve as kidney donors exhibit little difference in renal function compared with persons who have two kidneys. However, the difference in risk between being born with a single kidney versus being born with two kidneys and then undergoing nephrectomy are unclear. Animal models used previously to investigate this question are not ideal because they require invasive methods to model congenital solitary kidney. In this study, we describe a new genetic animal model, the heterogeneous stock-derived model of unilateral renal agenesis (HSRA) rat, which demonstrates 50%-75% spontaneous incidence of a single kidney. The HSRA model is characterized by reduced nephron number (more than would be expected by loss of one kidney), early kidney/glomerular hypertrophy, and progressive renal injury, which culminates in reduced renal function. Long-term studies of temporal relationships among BP, renal hemodynamics, and renal function demonstrate that spontaneous single-kidney HSRA rats are more likely than uninephrectomized normal littermates to exhibit renal impairment because of the combination of reduced nephron numbers and prolonged exposure to renal compensatory mechanisms (i.e., hyperfiltration). Future studies with this novel animal model may provide additional insight into the genetic contributions to kidney development and agenesis and the factors influencing susceptibility to renal injury in individuals with congenital solitary kidney.

  9. 高血压脑病动物模型的脑灌注成像研究%Perfusion-weighted imaging in hypertensive encephalopathy: animal model study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波; 吕翠; 刘奉立; 于国华; 巴茂文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨高血压脑病兔动物模型的磁共振灌注加权成像(PWI)动态变化.材料与方法:选择健康成年新西兰大白兔20只,随机分成对照组和观察组两组,每组10只.对照组(A组)采用双肾单夹型改良法建立慢性高血压模型作为对照,观察组(B组)肌肉注射重酒石酸间羟胺建立急性高血压动物模型.采用GE Signa HD 3.0T磁共振成像设备,在不同时间点行脑PWI扫描,动态对比观察前、中、后不同部位脑组织脑血容量(CBV)、脑血流量(CBF)、平均通过时间(MTT)变化情况.结果:PWI检查显示脑后部血流灌注变化最明显,前部、中部变化较小;病变区CBV、CBF先逐渐上升,在第9d达到最高峰,晚于平均动脉压(MAP)在第6d达到最高峰,然后逐渐下降至基本正常水平;MTT的变化不明显.结论:高血压脑病发病过程中rCBF先增加后下降,其高峰晚于MAP高峰.%Objective: To investigate the dynamic changes of hypertensive encephalopathy in animal models by perfusion weighted imaging(PWI). Methods: Twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group(group A) and study group(group B), 10 cases in each group. A modified Gloidblatt 2K1C were used in rabbits to establish chronic hypertension model for control group, and intramuscular injection of Metaraminol Bitartrate to induce acute hypertension in the study group. Routine MRI scanning and PWI of brain were performed in rabbit models on the 3.0T MRI scanner. The values of CBV, CBF and MTT were calculated in selected region of interest (ROI) at workstation, and were compared among anterior, middle and posterior brain regions. Results: The changes of CBF were most marked in posterior brain regions. The CBV, CBF increased after injection of Metaraminol Bitartrate and reached the peak on the ninth day, later than MAP which reached the peak on the sixth day, and then decreased to a basically normal level after drug withdrawal for one week. The change

  10. The Study of the Combined Effects of Irbesartan and Emodin on Ventricular Structure and Function of Rats with Renovascular Hypertensive%厄贝沙坦与大黄素联合应用对肾性高血压大鼠心脏结构与功能影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓红; 刁雪红; 刘丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the hypertrophic left ventricular structure and function by high-frequency ultrasound in renovascular hypertensive rat, connected with myocardial expression of transforming growth facter-betal (TGF-β1) and Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) as well as to explore the combined effects of Irbesartan and Emodin on left ventricular remodeling and its probable mechanism. Methods 60 SD rats were divided randomly into five groups, each group with 12 rats. Sham-operation was selected as control group (A group), the other four groups were made into 2KlC hypertensive rats models and then subdivided into renovascular hypertension rats group (B group), Emodin group (C group), Irbesartan group (D group), Irbesartan + Emodin group (E group). Left ventricular cavity indexs were recorded with echocardiography. Systolic pressure (SBP) and bodyweight were monitored. Myocardial expression of TGF-β1 mRNA level and myocardial concentrations of Ang Ⅱ were examined. Results After 8 weeks' treatment,SBP, IVSTd, LVPWTd and myocardial expression of TGF-β1 in C, D, E groups significantly decreased than those in B group(P<0. 05), especially in E group. Myocardial concentrations in Ang Ⅱ of C, D, E groups significantly decreased,especially in D, E groups. Conclusions Echocardiography combined with molecular biology and immunology technology can be used as an effective way to accurately evaluate the effects of Irbesartan + Emodin in inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1 and Ang Ⅱ and reverse the left ventricular remodeling.%目的 应用高频超声结合心肌转化生长因子β1,(TGF-β1)与血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)的水平综合评价厄贝沙坦和大黄素合用与单用对左室重构的影响及其可能机制.方法 60只SD大鼠随机分成5组,每组12只.设假手术组(A组)做为对照,另4组制作二肾一夹(2K1C)肾性高血压动物模型,分为:高血压对照组(B组)、大黄素组(C组)、厄贝沙坦组(D组)、厄贝

  11. Roles of HDAC2 and HDAC8 in Cardiac Remodeling in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats and the Effects of Valproic Acid Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Fang; Cao, Shan-Shan; Fang, Wei-Jin; Song, Ying; Luo, Xue-Ting; Wang, Hong-Yun; Wang, Jian-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity is associated with the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated the effects of a HDACs inhibitor, valproic acid sodium (VPA), on cardiac remodeling and the differential expression of HDACs in left ventricles (LVs) of renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in rats by the two-kidney two-clip (2K2C) method. Cardiac remodeling, heart function and the differential expression of HDACs were examined at different weeks after 2K2C operation. The effects of VPA on cardiac remodeling, the expressions of HDACs, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in LV were investigated. The expressions of atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain, HDAC2 and HDAC8 increased in LV of 2K2C rats at 4, 8, 12 weeks after operation. Cardiac dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were markedly attenuated by VPA treatment in 2K2C rats. Further studies revealed that VPA inhibited the expressions of HDAC2, HDAC8, TGF-β1 and CTGF in LV of 2K2C rats. In summary, these data indicate that HDAC2 and HDAC8 play a key role in cardiac remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats and that VPA attenuates hypertension and cardiac remodeling. The effect of VPA is possibly exerted via decreasing HDAC2, HDAC8, TGF-β1 and CTGF expressions in LV of 2K2C rats.

  12. [Horseshoe kidney: not a simple fusion anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccetta, Francesco; Caroppo, Maurizio; Musio, Fernando; Mudoni, Anna; Accogli, Antonella; Zacheo, Maria Dolores; Burzo, Domenica; Bramato, Daniele; Carluccio, Giancamillo; Nuzzo, Vitale

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is a congenital anatomical defect of the kidney that occurs in 0,25% of the population and is generally characterized by the fusion of the lower poles of the two kidneys through an isthmus and to which may be associated with urogenital and renal vascular anomalies. Asymptomatic in 1/3 of the cases and, most of time, accidentally discovered during a radiological examination, promotes nephrolithiasis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis. We report two cases of patients with kidney horseshoe, characterized by the abrupt onset of a septic state with oligo-anuric acute renal failure, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, rapid decay of the general conditions, with detection of nephrolithiasis, hydronephrosis and acute pyelonephritis and whose clinical management resulted in a significant and synergistic nefro-urology involvment. The kidney horseshoe not represent so only a simple fusion anomaly but rather an important anatomical condition that, once diagnosed, it would be worthy of a careful clinical, radiological and laboratory surveillance, in order to prevent the potential complications that may be also particularly severe.

  13. Donor-estimated GFR as an appropriate criterion for allocation of ECD kidneys into single or dual kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snanoudj, R; Rabant, M; Timsit, M O; Karras, A; Savoye, E; Tricot, L; Loupy, A; Hiesse, C; Zuber, J; Kreis, H; Martinez, F; Thervet, E; Méjean, A; Lebret, T; Legendre, C; Delahousse, M

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that dual kidney transplantation (DKT) improves outcomes for expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys. However, no criteria for allocation to single or dual transplantation have been assessed prospectively. The strategy of DKT remains underused and potentially eligible kidneys are frequently discarded. We prospectively compared 81 DKT and 70 single kidney transplant (SKT) receiving grafts from ECD donors aged >65 years, allocated according to donor estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): DKT if eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min, SKT if eGFR greater than 60 mL/min. Patient and graft survival were similar in the two groups. In the DKT group, 13/81 patients lost one of their two kidneys due to hemorrhage, arterial or venous thrombosis. Mean eGFR at month 12 was similar in the DKT and SKT groups (47.8 mL/min and 46.4 mL/min, respectively). Simulated allocation of kidneys according to criteria based on day 0 donor parameters such as those described by Remuzzi et al., Andres et al. and UNOS, did not indicate an improvement in 12-month eGFR compared to our allocation based on donor eGFR.

  14. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  15. Kidney Transplantation From a Donor With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossidis, A; Lim, M A; Palmer, M; Levine, M H; Naji, A; Bloom, R D; Abt, P L

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, >100 000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. Given the paucity of organs available for transplant, expansion of eligibility criteria for deceased donation is of substantial interest. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is viewed as a contraindication to kidney donation, perhaps because SCD substantially alters renal structure and function and thus has the potential to adversely affect multiple physiological processes of the kidney. To our knowledge, transplantation from a donor with SCD has never been described in the literature. In this paper, we report the successful transplantation of two kidneys from a 37-year-old woman with SCD who died from an intracranial hemorrhage. Nearly 4 mo after transplant, both recipients are doing well and are off dialysis. The extent to which kidneys from donors with SCD can be safely transplanted with acceptable outcomes is unknown; however, this report should provide support for the careful expansion of kidneys from donors with SCD without evidence of renal dysfunction and with normal tissue architecture on preimplantation biopsies. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of five penicillins in muscle, liver and kidney from slaughtered animals using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kazuhiro

    2003-02-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of five penicillins (ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin and cloxacillin) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Mass spectral acquisition was done in the negative ion mode by applying selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The five penicillins were extracted with water, and the extracted solution was cleaned up on a C18 cartridge. Phenethicillin was added as an internal standard, and the extract was diluted with water for injection into the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The recoveries of the five penicillins were in the range of 77.3-99.8% from muscle, liver and kidney fortified at 10-250 ng/g. The detection limits for ampicillin were 6 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 15 ng/g in liver. For penicillin G and penicillin V, the detection limits were 2 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 5 ng/g in liver. For oxacillin and cloxacillin, the detection limits were 4 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 10 ng/g in liver. Twenty-three muscle, fourteen liver and twenty-two kidney samples from the markets were analyzed by this method. No penicillins were detected in any sample.

  17. The Dominican Republic conjoined twins: ischiopagus, tetrapus, omphalophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, H K; Spackman, T J; Chait, A

    1978-05-01

    Alta and Clara, the Dominican Republic conjoined twins (ischiopagus, omphalopagus, tetrapus) were evaluated prior to separation with plain films, vaginograms, arteriograms, intravenous pyelogram, barium enema, and upper gastrointestinal series with small bowel follow-through. The clear demonstration of their internal anatomy allowed the surgeons to plan the operative approach and to make a reasonable judgment regarding viability of each baby. Each twin had a semicircular pelvis which joined the other to form a complete ring. There were a few hepatic arterial twigs from Alta which crossed the midline, proving at surgery to be a small bridge of tissue connecting the two livers. Clara's superior mesenteric arteries supplied the majority of the small bowel. Portal venous drainage was separate for each twin. Each baby had two kidneys in normal position with the bladders laterally placed. Each bladder received one ureter from each twin. Two separate small bowels joined proximal to the single colon which terminated in an anus related to Clara's pelvic structures. Following separation, each baby did well. Their postoperative anatomy is described.

  18. Autopsy findings in patients on postcardiotomy centrifugal ventricular assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J J; Walls, J T; Boley, T M; Schmaltz, R A; Demmy, T L

    1992-01-01

    Reported experience with ventricular assist devices (VAD) routinely includes the rate of thromboembolic events, which is commonly calculated from clinically evident findings. Fifty-four patients have had postcardiotomy circulatory support with the Sarns centrifugal device at our institution. We have reviewed 43 patients who failed to survive VAD support to compare the thromboembolism rate diagnosed clinically to that determined at autopsy. In the 35 patients who had no autopsy, there was one clinically apparent thromboembolic event (2.3%). In eight similar patients who had autopsy, there was no clinically apparent thromboembolism. Five of these eight patients (63%) had acute thromboembolic infarcts determined at autopsy. Three had evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism, two cerebrovascular infarction, two liver infarcts, two splenic infarcts, two kidney infarcts, and one each gastric, pancreatic, prostate, adrenal, cervical, and ileal infarcts. All had left and/or right ventricular infarctions. It is concluded that patients dying following VAD have commonly suffered perioperative myocardial infarction. When evaluating complications associated with VAD, one should consider that the true incidence of thromboembolic events is underestimated by clinical findings.

  19. Duplicated Collecting System in a Series of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belde KASAP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a series of children with duplicated collecting system (DCS and associated problems. MATERIAL and METHODS: The data of patients with DCS between 1996 and 2011 was reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: DCS was reported in 59 (M/F:18/41 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 81.5±41.3 (3- 159 months, mean follow-up duration was 32.2±29.1 (3-130 months. Presenting symptoms were urinary tract infection in 33, nocturnal enuresis in three, diurnal enuresis in two, kidney stones in three and miscellaneous in the rest of the patients. The diagnostic modalities were magnetic resonance urography in three, voiding cystourography in fi ve and intravenous pyelography in the rest. Twentyfour (41% had right-sided, 24 (41% had left-sided and 11 (18% had bilateral DCS in a total of 70 renal units. Insertion of ureters into the bladder could be demonstrated in 33 units (20 incomplete, 13 complete. Vesicoureteral refl ux was found in 16, and ureterocele was found in four renal units. There was refl ux to both moieties in two patients. Surgical interventions included partial nephrectomy in two, ureteroureterostomy in one and anti-refl ux surgery in three of the patients. One patient had Noonan Syndrome and another had atrial septal defect. CONCLUSION: This series was reported to emphasize the clinical and anatomical problems associated with DCS.

  20. Renal Function Recovery after Nephrectomy or Nephron-Sparing Surgery in Children with Unilateral Renal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Denis A; Ceccanti, Silvia; Cozzi, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Children with unilateral renal tumor (URT) and preoperative renal dysfunction (PRD) may benefit from nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). To test this hypothesis, we studied the outcome of baseline renal function after nephrectomy or NSS among children with URT. Materials and Methods Retrospective records review of children with URT who underwent nephrectomy (25 children) or NSS (11 children) at our institution. We analyzed the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes over time among patients, stratified by both preoperative renal function (with or without PRD) and surgical extent (NSS vs. nephrectomy). The primary end point was evaluation of compensatory recovery of preoperative eGFR after surgery. Only children older than 2 years at surgery were included in the study. Renal dysfunction was defined as an eGFR  100 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, achieved or maintained two-kidney eGFR values (T-KEV) (p = 0.01). After NSS, four adolescent patients with PRD and seven without PRD achieved or maintained T-KEV. Conclusion The majority of children with URT and low baseline eGFR present with an impaired renal function recovery after nephrectomy and may benefit from NSS. Collaborative studies are needed to support present findings. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Doppler ultrasound in kidney diseases: a key parameter in clinical long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Leonardo; Andrulli, Simeone

    2016-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound has been extensively used in detecting reno-vascular diseases, showing to be a non-invasive, safe, low cost and repeatable tool. The Renal Resistive Index (RRI) [(peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity] is a semi-quantitative index derived by Doppler evaluation of renal vascular bed. Normally RRI is in the range of 0.47-0.70, it increases with aging and, usually, it shows a difference between the two kidneys less than 5-8 %. RRI is an important prognostic marker in chronic kidney diseases (CKD), both in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney diseases, because, in longitudinal prospective studies, it significantly correlated with hemodynamic (ABPM, SBP, DBP, pulse pressure) and histopathological parameters (glomerular sclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, interstitial infiltration). In acute kidney injury (AKI) RI is a valid tool in differentiating between pre-renal and renal failure and in predicting renal response to vaso-active agents. In addition a RRI >0.74 can predict the onset of AKI in septic patients. Renal Resistive Index is a useful marker in allograft diseases because it has been widely showed a correlation with histological lesions during worsening of renal function, both in acute rejection and in chronic allograft nephropathy. Recent studies suggest its role in the risk of new onset diabetes after transplantation and it could be one of the parameters to evaluate to shift or withdrawal immunological and/or hypertensive therapy.

  2. Frequency of Leptospira spp. in sheep from Brazilian slaughterhouses and its association with epidemiological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis that infects livestock, including sheep as the carriers to other animals and humans. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sheep from two slaughterhouses in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and its association with epidemiological variables. Serum samples from 182 sheep were evaluated for Leptospira spp. antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Results indicated 34/182 (18.68%; CI95% 13.70-24.98% positive serum samples, mainly to the serovar Copenhageni (17/34; 50%; CI95% 33.99-66.01%. Bacterial growth in the Fletcher medium was detected for 13/34 (38.24%; CI95% 23.87-55.08% animals, and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and sequencing for only two kidney samples from two animals. Thus, treatment and vaccination of sheep, besides rodent control, can be useful to prevent the infection in the studied region since sheep are important Leptospira spp. carriers, and its transmission to slaughterhouse workers is mainly through the manipulation of visceral tissues.

  3. Cholesterol-crystal embolism presenting with delayed graft function and impaired long-term function in renal transplant recipients: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliquett Rainer U

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Impaired renal function and/or pre-existing atherosclerosis in the deceased donor increase the risk of delayed graft function and impaired long-term renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Case presentation We report delayed graft function occurring simultaneously in two kidney transplant recipients, aged 57-years-old and 39-years-old, who received renal allografts from the same deceased donor. The 62-year-old donor died of cardiac arrest during an asthmatic state. Renal-allograft biopsies performed in both kidney recipients because of delayed graft function revealed cholesterol-crystal embolism. An empiric statin therapy in addition to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was initiated. After 10 and 6 hemodialysis sessions every 48 hours, respectively, both renal allografts started to function. Glomerular filtration rates at discharge were 26 ml/min/1.73m2 and 23.9 ml/min/1.73m2, and remained stable in follow-up examinations. Possible donor and surgical procedure-dependent causes for cholesterol-crystal embolism are discussed. Conclusion Cholesterol-crystal embolism should be considered as a cause for delayed graft function and long-term impaired renal allograft function, especially in the older donor population.

  4. 成人双侧先天性幼稚型分叶肾畸形1例观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯鹏; 吴长初; 杨宇翔; 杨萌; 彭灿; 曾洪波; 伏辉

    2012-01-01

      采用体质人类学非测量性观察法与形态学测量法对标本库一例男性成人标本进行考察:肾的位置与形态异常,左右两肾肾门都约在第2腰椎体水平。双肾呈多发性分叶,左肾14叶,右肾12叶。右肾后面有部分实质性发育缺损。体质测量数据显示偏小,但无明显异常。该例标本应属成人双侧先天性幼稚型分叶肾畸形。%  The physical anthropology not measuring sexual observation method and morphology measurement method to a male patient specimens library of adult specimen investigation:renal position and shape anomaly, two kidney doors are about in the second lumbar body level. Double kidney is multiple points leaf, left kidney 14 leaf, right renal 12 leaf. Right kidney behind some substantial development defect. Physical measurement data showed that partial smal, but no obvious anomaly. This example specimens should be belong to adult bilateral congenital infantilism points leaf renal malformations.

  5. MRI and suspected acute pyelonephritis in children: comparison of diffusion-weighted imaging with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivier, Pierre-Hugues [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Universite de Rouen, INSERM U1096, Rouen, Cedex (France); CHU Charles Nicolle, Service d' imagerie pediatrique et foetale, INSERM U1096, Rouen CEDEX (France); Sallem, Asmaa [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Beurdeley, Marion; Leroux, Julien; Liard, Agnes [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de chirurgie pediatrique, Rouen, Cedex (France); Lim, Ruth P. [Austin Health, Radiology Department, Heidelberg, Victoria (Australia); Caudron, Jerome; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Universite de Rouen, INSERM U1096, Rouen, Cedex (France); Coudray, Cyril [G. E. Healthcare, Velizy Villacoublay Cedex (France); Michelet, Isabelle [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de pediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) against the reference standard of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (Gd-T1-WI) in children. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 5.7 years) with suspected acute pyelonephritis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including DWI and (the reference standard) Gd-T1-WI. Each study was read in double-blinded fashion by two radiologists. Each kidney was graded as normal or abnormal. Sensitivity and specificity of DWI were computed. Agreement between sequences and interobserver reproducibility were calculated (Cohen κ statistic and the McNemar tests). Thirty-two kidneys (41 %) had hypo-enhancing areas on Gd-T1-W images. The sensitivity and specificity of DWI were 100 % (32/32) and 93.5 % (43/46). DWI demonstrated excellent agreement (κ = 0.92,) with Gd-T1-W, with no significant difference (P = 0.25) in detection of abnormal lesions. Interobserver reproducibility was excellent with DWI (κ = 0.79). DWI enabled similar detection of abnormal areas to Gd-T1-WI and may provide an injection-free means of evaluation of acute pyelonephritis. (orig.)

  6. Transpondo limites com doadores falecidos: transplantes bem-sucedidos com rins de doador com creatinina sérica igual a 13,1 mg/dL Overcoming limits with deceased donors: successful renal transplantations from a donor with serum creatinine of 13.1 mg/dL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Klein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Doadores falecidos não limítrofes com insuficiência renal aguda podem ser uma opção segura para aumentar a oferta de rins para transplante. A avaliação histológica é fundamental para o estabelecimento do prognóstico funcional desses enxertos. Dois transplantes renais foram realizados com rins provenientes de um doador falecido jovem com insuficiência renal aguda severa sem comprometimento estrutural do parênquima renal. Ambos os enxertos apresentaram atraso de funcionamento no período pós-operatório, embora um deles com boa diurese inicial não tenha necessitado diálise. Função renal adequada foi observada a partir do 30º dia após o transplante. A insuficiência renal aguda severa no doador falecido não é fator de risco independente para a evolução em curto prazo do enxerto renal e não deve ser considerada contra-indicação absoluta para a realização do transplante.Non-expanded deceased donors with acute kidney failure can be a safe option to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation. Histological evaluation is fundamental to establish the functional prognosis of those grafts. Two kidney transplantations were performed from a young deceased donor with severe acute kidney failure and no structural change in the renal parenchyma. Both patients had postoperative delayed graft function, but one of them, who had good initial urinary volume, required no dialysis. Adequate renal function was present at day 30 after transplantation. Severe acute kidney failure in deceased donors is not an independent risk factor for short-term outcome of renal graft and should not be considered an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  7. Irradiation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Impact of breathing on motions and variations of volume of the tumor, liver and upper abdominal organs; L'irradiation des carcinomes hepatocellulaires: impact de la respiration sur les mouvements et variations de volume de la tumeur, du foie et des organes intra-abdominaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubas, A.; Mornex, F.; D' Hombres, A.; Lorchel, F.; Chapet, O. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service de Radiotherapie-oncologie Rhone-Alpes, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Merle, P. [Hopital de l' Hotel-Dieu, Service d' Hepatogastroenterologie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2008-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the amplitude of motion and the variations of volume of the tumor, the liver and upper abdominal organs induced by breathing during the irradiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (H.C.C.). Material and methods: Two scanners were performed in inhale and in exhale not forced in 20 patients with a H.C.C.. The liver (left/right lobes), the tumor, the duodenum, the two kidneys and the pancreas were delineated on each acquisition. The superposition of the two spirals made it possible to measure the displacements and variations of volume of these structures in the cranio caudal (C.C.), lateral (Lat), and anteroposterior (A.P.) directions. Results:The mean displacement of the tumour in C.C., Lat and A.P. was of 19.7 {+-} 8.3 mm, 4.5 {+-} 2.3 mm, and 8.9 {+-} 6.5 mm. The greatest amplitude of movement was obtained in C.C. for the right and left hepatic lobes (19 {+-} 6.5 mm, 10 {+-} 5.6 mm), the duodenum(12.6 {+-} 6.4 mm), the kidneys right and left (15.5 {+-} 6.1 mm, 16.2 {+-} 10 mm) and the pancreas (13.2 {+-} 6 mm). No significant variation of volume was observed for these organs. Conclusion: The movements of the tumour, the liver and the abdominal organs, induced by breathing are significant. The respiratory gating appears essential in particular with the development of new techniques of irradiation such as the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) or the stereotactic body radiation therapy (S.B.R.T.). (authors)

  8. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

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    Shu-Wei Song

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  9. The combination of urinary IL - 6 and renal biometry as useful diagnostic tools to differentiate acute pyelonephritis from lower urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Sherif; Zakaria, Mostafa; Raafat, Mona; Seief, Hadeel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of renal ultrasound (RUS) and urinary IL-6 in the differentiation between acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). This prospective study was carried out at the Pediatric and urology outpatient and inpatient departments of Cairo University Children's Hospital as well as October 6 University Hospital and it included 155 children between one month and fourteen years old with positive culture UTI. Patients were categorized into APN and LUTI based on their clinical features and laboratory parameters. Thirty healthy children, age and sex matched constituted the control group. Children with positive urine cultures were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Before treatment, urinary IL-6 was measured by enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA), and renal ultrasound (RUS) was done. CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 and RUS were repeated on the 14th day of antibiotic treatment to evaluate the changes in their levels in response to treatment. UIL-6 levels were more significantly higher in patients with APN than in patients with LUTI (24.3±19.3pg/mL for APN vs. 7.3±2.7pg/mL in LUTI (95% CI: 2.6-27.4; p20pg/mL and serum CRP >20μg/mL were highly reliable markers of APN. Mean renal volume and mean volume difference between the two kidneys in the APN group were more than that of the LUTI and control groups (Purinary IL-6 levels have a highly dependable role in the differentiation between APN and LUTI especially in places where other investigations are not available and/ or affordable. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  10. Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measured between anterior and posterior image processing using Gates’ method in an ectopic pelvic kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Baojun; Liang, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of an ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior image processing using Gates’ method of renal dynamic imaging. Methods A total of 10 patients were studied retrospectively, with a single ectopic kidney in the pelvic cavity and a contralateral kidney at its normal anatomical position confirmed by ultrasound, computed tomography, renal dynamic imaging, etc. All images of ectopic kidneys were processed, and GFRs were measured using anterior and posterior Gates’ method of renal dynamic imaging, respectively. The contralateral normal kidney was only processed on posterior imaging. The total GFRant of one patient, which was equal to the sum of the GFR of a normal kidney on posterior imaging and the GFR of an ectopic kidney on anterior imaging, was compared with the total GFRpost of two kidneys on posterior imaging, with the GFRtwo-sample from the two-sample method, and with the estimated GFR in the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. All correlation analyses were carried out between GFRs obtained from three methods, and all patients were followed up. For statistical analysis, nonparametric rank tests were used, Bland-Altman graphs were plotted. Results The mean GFR of the ectopic kidney on anterior imaging was 27.48±12.24 ml/min/1.73 m2. It was higher than the GFR (10.71±4.74 ml/min/1.73 m2) on posterior imaging (t=−2.803, P0.05), but there were statistical differences in the accuracy within 10% of the total GFRant and that of the total GFRpost (Pectopic pelvic kidney in renal dynamic imaging. PMID:26867167

  11. On-line MR imaging for dose validation of abdominal radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glitzner, M.; Crijns, S. P. M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Kontaxis, C.; Prins, F. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    For quality assurance and adaptive radiotherapy, validation of the actual delivered dose is crucial. Intrafractional anatomy changes cannot be captured satisfactorily during treatment with hitherto available imaging modalitites. Consequently, dose calculations are based on the assumption of static anatomy throughout the treatment. However, intra- and interfraction anatomy is dynamic and changes can be significant. In this paper, we investigate the use of an MR-linac as a dose tracking modality for the validation of treatments in abdominal targets where both respiratory and long-term peristaltic and drift motion occur. The on-line MR imaging capability of the modality provides the means to perform respiratory gating of both delivery and acquisition yielding a model-free respiratory motion management under free breathing conditions. In parallel to the treatment, the volumetric patient anatomy was captured and used to calculate the applied dose. Subsequently, the individual doses were warped back to the planning grid to obtain the actual dose accumulated over the entire treatment duration. Ultimately, the planned dose was validated by comparison with the accumulated dose. Representative for a site subject to breathing modulation, two kidney cases (25 Gy target dose) demonstrated the working principle on volunteer data and simulated delivery. The proposed workflow successfully showed its ability to track local dosimetric changes. Integration of the on-line anatomy information could reveal local dose variations  -2.3-1.5 Gy in the target volume of a volunteer dataset. In the adjacent organs at risk, high local dose errors ranging from  -2.5 to 1.9 Gy could be traced back.

  12. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Scambler, Peter J; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-12-15

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, the bl/bl bud fails to invade metanephric mesenchyme which undergoes involution, events replicated in organ culture. The expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and growth-differentiation factor 11 was defective in bl/bl renal primordia in vivo, whereas, in culture, the addition of either growth factor restored bud invasion into the mesenchyme. Mutant primordia also showed deficient expression of Hoxd11 and Six2 transcription factors, whereas the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4, an anti-branching molecule, was upregulated. In wild types, Fras1 was also expressed by nascent nephrons. Foetal glomerular podocytes expressed Fras1 transcripts and Fras1 immunolocalized in a glomerular BM-like pattern. On a mixed background, bl mutants, and also compound mutants for bl and my, another bleb strain, sometimes survive into adulthood. These mice have two kidneys, which contain subsets of glomeruli with perturbed nephrin, podocin, integrin alpha3 and fibronectin expression. Thus, Fras1 protein coats branching UB epithelia and is strikingly upregulated in the nephron lineage after mesenchymal/epithelial transition. Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli.

  13. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  14. Binding of synthetic double-stranded DNA by serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with renal histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, C R; Grishman, E; Spiera, H; Deesomochok, U

    1977-03-01

    Detection of antibody to double-stranded DNA by direct binding assays has proved useful in clinical management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent confusion regarding specificity of these antibodies for SLE appears to be due, at least in part, to contamination of natural DNA preparations with nondouble-stranded DNA antigens. Measurement of binding of a synthetic, self-complementary DNA copolymer (dAT) rather than of natural DNA (KB) has been shown to obviate some of these difficulties, apparently because of freedom of dAT from nondouble-stranded DNA antigens. Among the advantages found in this way was a higher degree of specificity of antibodies to double-stranded DNA for clinically-judged active lupus nephritis than had been suspected. Since activity of nephritis is difficult to assess clinically, histologic data were sought to confirm these observations. Thirty-two kidney specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy. The degree of histologic activity and the amount and location of glomerular electron-dense deposits were semiquantitated blindly. The binding of both dAT and KB DNA was measured by the ammonium sulfate method. Correlation with the amount of electron-defense deposits was highly significant for dAT binding and somewhat less so for KB DNA binding as determined by both parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Significant correlation with histologic activity was found for dAT but not KB DNA binding. These results are consistent with previous data and suggest that dAT binding may provide a useful, noninvasive means of clinically assessing both nephritis activity and the intensity of glomerular immune-complex deposition as reflected by the amount of electron-dense deposits. If it can be confirmed that the latter provides long-term prognostic information, then dAT binding (and perhaps its reponse to therapy) may also prove of value in this regard.

  15. Renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system in the kidney and novel potential drugs for salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto; Majima, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    A large variety of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and others, are prescribed to hypertensive patients, with good control of the condition. In addition, all individuals are generally believed to be salt sensitive and, thus, severe restriction of salt intake is recommended to all. Nevertheless, the physiological defense mechanisms in the kidney against excess salt intake have not been well clarified. The present review article demonstrated that the renal (tissue) kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is ideally situated within the nephrons of the kidney, where it functions to inhibit the reabsorption of NaCl through the activation of bradykinin (BK)-B2 receptors localized along the epithelial cells of the collecting ducts (CD). Kinins generated in the CD are immediately inactivated by two kidney-specific kinin-inactivating enzymes (kininases), carboxypeptidase Y-like exopeptidase (CPY), and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Our work demonstrated that ebelactone B and poststatin are selective inhibitors of these kininases. The reduced secretion of the urinary kallikrein is linked to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension, whereas potassium ions and ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers ameliorate salt-sensitive hypertension by accelerating the release of renal kallikrein. On the other hand, ebelactone B and poststatin prolong the life of kinins in the CD after excess salt intake, thereby leading to the augmentation of natriuresis and diuresis, and the ensuing suppression of salt-sensitive hypertension. In conclusion, accelerators of the renal kallikrein release and selective renal kininase inhibitors are both novel types of antihypertensive agents that may be useful for treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  16. Effects of soluble phosphate fertilizer on Zn/Cd phytoextraction and nutrient accumulation of Sedum alfredii H. in co-contaminated soil%可溶性磷肥对重金属复合污染土壤东南景天提取锌/镉及其养分积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄化刚; 李廷强; 朱治强; 王凯; 杨肖娥

    2012-01-01

    -contaminated paddy soils. The addition of phosphates increase dry matter yield significantly at the phosphorus ( P ) supply level of P205 352 mg/kg ( P 〈 0. 05 ). The shoot P and Zn concentrations are enhanced significantly (P 〈 0.05 ), while the Cd concentration is decreased with the increase of phosphate levels. The phosphate application reduces N, the secondary nutrients (Ca, Mg and S) and micronutrients (Mn, Fe and Cu) concentrations, while the potassium (K) concentration has no significant effect except for NaH2PQ treatment at P205 352 mg/kg. The total carbon concentration of shoots is increased at the high P level. The addition of P increases the amounts of Zn phytoextracted by Sedum alfredii at 88 and 352 mg/kg P205, significantly, and increases Cd significantly only at higher P levels (P 〈 0.05 ) after one clipping. The highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd was observed in case of KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 treatments at P205 352 mg/kg. These results suggest that application of P fertilizers can increase bio-fixed amount of carbon, enhance removal of Zn and Cd from co-contaminated soils by Sedum alfredii, and shorten the time needed for accomplishing remediation goals.

  17. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FOR PROCESS TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, John S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BobbittIII, John T. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Reigel, Marissa [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Babu, Suresh S. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing has garnered significant levels of interest in recent years as a primary manufacturing method. While the general technology has been around for over 20 years, with increased computing capacity, higher powered directed energy sources, e.g., lasers and electron beams, it is coming of age as a viable technique for high value added, low production quantity components. The Savannah River National Laboratory is interested in AM as a technique to build hydrogen isotope separation components called Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns. The TCAP operates from cryogenic to moderate temperatures in a cyclic manner and is a pressure boundary. The current technique for fabricating TCAP columns is to form a flat coil of 0.375 to 0.5 inch diameter tube and braze two coils together. During the brazing operation, the two nested coils often move and this movement results in gaps between the coils. Since one coil contains the working fluid, i.e., liquid nitrogen, and the other the process fluid, hydrogen isotopes, these gaps result in poor heat transfer. Additive manufacturing is being explored as a replacement technology since the adjacent tubes can be fabricated simultaneously and in intimate contact and they can also share a common wall to improve heat transfer. AM allows designers to develop unique tube structures that overcome several of the shortcomings of the coil and braze technique, such as the braze gap in fabrication and slow cooling during operation. Simple test samples with various internal geometries were designed and built from Type 316L stainless steel using a laser powder bed process. Three test article geometries that were built include a simple tube, a pair of stacked tubes, and a tube partially surrounded by two kidney shaped tubes with cooling fins that would extend into the process fluid, these tube sections incorporated thermowells or heat trace channels, selectively. The test samples will be subjected to heat transfer

  19. GFRs measured by gates' method according to 5 background sites: comparison with GFR measured by I-125-lothalamate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Seok; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Chung Ho; Lee, Sung Young; Sohn, Hyung Seon; Baik, Jun Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [School of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to assess how the background site affects the Gates' glomerular filtration rate(GFR) measurement using Tc-99m-DTPA in correlation with GFR by I-125-iothalamate method. The study populations were 63 adults with 39 men and 24 women aged from 20 to 59 yrs (mean = 37.9 yrs). The following five background regions of interest were used in measurement of GFR using Gates' method: 1) lower side of each kidney(subrenal), 2) around each kidney(circumferential), 3) upper side of each kidney(suprarenal), 4) lateral side of each kidney(lateral), 5) between the two kidney(inter-renal). We also measured GFR using I-125-iothalamate in each subject. The two studies were separated by 1 to 3 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups by renal depth. Group 1 with renal depth{>=}7 cm and group 2 with renal depth < 7 cm. We calculated the means and standard deviations of the GFRs measured by two studies. And we statistically analyzed the correlation and differences among GFRs by Gates' method and the GFR by iothalamate method with correlation analysis. The GFRs Gates' method using suprarenal and inter-renal background correction showed better correlation with the GFR measured by I-125-iothalamate. And GFRs measured by Gates' method showed statistically significant correlation with the GFR measured by I-125-iothalamate in the group with renal depth < 7 cm. But GFRs measured by Gates' method did not show statistically significant correlation with the GFR measured by I-125-iothalamate in the group with renal depth {>=}7 cm. GFRs measured with Gates' method showed higher correlation with the GFR measured by I-125-iothalamate when the regions of interest were placed over the suprarenal and inter-renal backgrounds. And GFRs measured with Gates method showed statistically significant correlation with the GFR measured by I-125-iothalamate in the group with renal depth < 7 cm.

  20. Interest of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in the exploration of non-functional kidneys in the intravenous urography; report of 20 cases; Interet de la scintigraphie au {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA dans l'exploration des reins etiquetes muets a l'urographie intraveineuse: a propos de 20 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghfir, I.; Ouboukdir, R.; Ben Rais, N. [Hopital Ibn Sina, CHU de Rabat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire de Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction The renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA constitutes a non-invasive and functional method that is of appreciable interest in the qualitative study of renal parenchyma and the evaluation of the separate renal function. Material and methods We report, through this work, the observation of 20 patients presenting a unilateral renal muteness to the intravenous urography (I.V.U.). A {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was carried out among all our patients by means of a gamma-camera with large field equipped with a parallel collimator of weak energy and high-resolution. The evaluation of images obtained consisted of a qualitative study of parenchyma as well as an estimate of the functional value separated from the two kidneys obtained by the calculation of geometric mean. Results On the 20 studied cases, the sex-ratio was equal to 1.16; the average age was 29.72 years with extremes spanning from 18 months to 70 years. The renal muteness reported on intravenous urography was due among 12 patients (60% of cases) to a lithiasis origin, in six patients (30% of cases), to an ureteral-pelvic junction, in one patient (5% of cases), to a chronic pyelonephritis and in another patient (5% of cases) to a mega urethra. The separated renal function of the non functional kidneys to the I.V.U., obtained from the renal {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy varied from 11% to 31% with an average of 20.6%. Discussion Through our series, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy allowed to alleviate the limits of I.V.U. in the evaluation of the precise functional value of pathologic kidneys. Indeed, in the 20 studied cases where the I.V.U. had reported a renal muteness, the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy allowed a better appreciation of the renal function which varied from 11% to 31% thus calling into question the accuracy of I.V.U. in the exploration of renal function at an advanced stage of uropathy. (N.C.)

  1. 胰腺癌调强放疗对Cystatin C分泌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹明; 孙新臣; 杨焱; 葛晓林; 穆庆霞; 王沛沛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of the serum level change of Cystatin C in the patients of pancreatic carcinoma before and after the intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and to explore the relationship between the change of concentration of Cystatin C and the radiation doze of the two kidneys. Methods 21 pancreatic carcinoma patients were enrolled, each patient was given simultaneouse chemotherapy with Gemcitabline, the change of Cystatin before and after the radiotherapy measured. Regression analysis was applied to Cystain concentration and the DVH index of the radiation dose on kidney. [mediam 0.52mg/L;range (0.17~1.00) mg/L](P0.05). The correlated analysis showed:the serum level of Cystatin C was only correlated to Dmax(Gy)(P=0.032). Conclusions The Cystatin C concentraton was significally higher than those without radiology, which is only related to the Dmax of the radiation dose of kidney, but is not related to the other kidney indice.%目的:评价胰腺癌调强放疗前后胰腺癌患者血清半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂C(Cystatin C)的变化,并对血清中Cystatin C浓度的改变与双侧肾脏的受照射剂量之间的关系进行研究。方法共纳入21例胰腺癌患者,每位患者给予包括吉西他滨的同步放化疗治疗,放疗前和放疗后测定血清Cystatin C变化。对于Cystatin C升高患者的Cystatin C浓度和肾脏照射剂量的DVH参数进行回归分析。结果21例行放疗的胰腺癌患者中,有8例Cystatin C升高;整组患者与照射前比较,放疗后患者血清中的Cystatin C[中位0.74mg/L;范围(0.22-3.12)mg/L]明显高于放疗前[中位0.52mg/L;范围(0.17~1.00)mg/L](P0.05);相关性分析表明:其血清中的Cystatin C浓度与仅与Dmax(Gy)(P=0.032)有相关性。结论胰腺癌放疗的Cystatin C浓度明显高于未受照射者,仅与肾脏受照射剂量的Dmax相关,而与其他肾脏剂量参数指标无相关关系。

  2. Expression of Na+-K+-ATPase and calcineurin mRNA in myocardial tissue of renovascular hypertensive rats and irbesartan intervention%肾性高血压大鼠心肌Na+-K+-ATP酶和钙调神经磷酸酶mRNA表达及厄贝沙坦的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁萍; 商黔惠; 吴芹; 秦瑶; 姜黔峰; 胡威

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the expressions of Na + -K + -ATPase and calcineurin (CaN) mRNA and their activities in left ventricular myocardial tissue of renovascular hypertensive rats ( RHR), and the effects of intervention with Irbesartan. Methods The renovascular hypertension was induced by “two kidney-one clip” method. RHR were randomly divided into two groups: RHR model group (n = 7), Irbesartan treated group (50 mg · kg- 1 · d - 1, n = 7), and sham operation group ( n = 7) as control. Blood pressure was measured at pre-operation and after operation. After eight weeks of administration, the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was detected. Real time PCR assay was employed to determine the mRNA levels of ANP, Na+ -K + -ATPase α1 subunit and CaN in left ventricular ( LV), and the activities of Na+ -K + -ATPase and CaN in LV were measured by biochemistry and enzymology. Results Compared with the sham operation group,the blood pressure, LVMI, CaN activity, and the levels of ANP and CaN mRNA were increased in RHR group, the Na + -K + -ATPaseα1 subunit mRNA level and its activity were decreased in RHR. After treatment with Irbesartan, the blood pressure, LVMI and the level of ANP mRNA were significantly decreased. Irbesartan depressed CaN mRNA level (P < 0. 05 ) and its activity, while up-regulated the mRNA level of Na + -K + -ATPase α1 subunit ( P < 0. 05 ) and Na+ -K + -ATPase activity. Conclusions The mRNA levels of Na + -K + -ATPaseα1 subunit and CaN and their activities may be related to the occurrence and reverse of left ventricular hypertrophy, and the change of Na + -K + -ATPase and CaN activities may be partially ascribed to the mRNA levels.%目的 观察肾性高血压大鼠(RHR)左心室肌组织Na+-K+-ATP和钙调神经磷酸酶(CaN) mRNA的表达及其活性以及厄贝沙坦干预.方法 采用两肾一夹制造肾性高血压模型,造模成功大鼠随机分为模型组和厄贝沙坦组(50 mg·kg-1·d-1),每组7只;另设假手术组大鼠7

  3. 盆腔异位肾肾动态显像前后位像GFR测定值的差异比较%Comparing the difference of measured GFR of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保军; 赵德善

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较分析盆腔异位肾肾动态显像前、后位像肾小球滤过率(GFR)测定值的差异.方法 回顾性分析10例盆腔异位肾患者的肾动态显像GFR测定结果,分别进行前位异位单肾处理和后位双肾处理,将后位像处理所获正常肾脏GFR与前位像处理所获异位肾GFR相加,获得总肾GFR,并与后位像处理所获双肾GFR和双血浆法GFR测定结果进行比较和相关性分析,并进行了相应随访.采用配对t检验法和双变量相关分析检验法对数据进行统计学分析.结果 10例盆腔异位肾患者前位像处理所获异位肾GFR[(27.48± 12.24) ml/(min· 1.73 m2)]较后位像处理所获异位肾GFR [(10.71±4.74) ml/(min· 1.73 m2)]高出46%,二者间差异有统计学意义(t=5.481,P<0.01).前位像处理所获总GFR与双血浆法GFR差异无统计学意义(t=-2.238,P>0.05),二者的相关性较好(r=0.704,P<0.05);后位像处理所获总GFR与双血浆法GFR差异有统计学意义(t=4.629,P<0.01),二者的相关性较差(r=0.576,P>0.05).结论 在肾动态显像中,前位像处理所获GFR较后位像更能真实地反映盆腔异位肾的功能状况.%Objective To compare and analyze the difference of measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging.Methods There were 10 patients collected retrospectively,with ectopic kidneys in pelvic cavity confirmed by ultrasound,CT,renal dynamic imaging and other imaging modalities.All images of ectopic kidneys in renal dynamic imaging were processed by anterior and posterior methods respectively.The ectopic kidney was only processed in anterior imaging,ectopic kidney and contralateral normal kidney were processed in posterior imaging.Total GFR equalled the sum of GFR of normal kidney in posterior imaging and GFR of ectopic kidney in anterior imaging,was compared with total GFR of two kidneys in posterior imaging and GFR in two

  4. 高热量高蛋白饮食诱导GK大鼠糖尿病肾病模型的建立%Establishment of a GK Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy Induced by High-Calorie and High-Protein Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐孝平; 寿旗扬; 陈方明; 周卫民; 蔡月琴; 陈民利

    2012-01-01

    目的 运用高热量高蛋白饮食诱导GK大鼠2型糖尿病肾病模型的建立,并探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 28周龄GK大鼠24只,随机分成对照组、模型组,每组各12只,模型组给予高热量高蛋白饮食,对照组给予正常饮食,共8周.于第0、4、8周观察24 h尿微量白蛋白、24h尿蛋白、尿肌酐、尿微量白蛋白/尿肌酐比值水平;于第0、8周观察空腹血糖和血清肌酐、尿素氮、总胆固醇、甘油三脂、一氧化氮水平;实验结束时取双肾称重并计算肾肥大指数,取肾组织观察病理形态学变化,检测肾组织钠钾ATP酶活性.结果 与对照组比,模型组大鼠24 h尿微量白蛋白、24 h尿蛋白、尿微量白蛋白/尿肌酐比值、空腹血糖、总胆固醇、甘油三脂、一氧化氮、肾肥大指数水平和肾组织钠钾ATP酶活性显著提高,模型组肾小球体积增大,系膜基质增生,基底膜增厚明显.结论 运用高热量高蛋白饮食诱导GK大鼠可成功建立2型糖尿病肾病模型.血糖血脂的上升是糖尿病肾病形成的重要因素,同时钠钾ATP酶活性增强进一步损伤肾小管功能,一氧化氮升高促使肾小球高灌注、高滤过,也是加速GK大鼠肾病形成的原因.%Objective To establish a CK rat model of type 2 diabetic nephropathv induced by high-calorie and high-protein diet, and to explore its possible mechanism of action. Methods A total of 24 28-week old CK rats were randomly divided into normal group and model group, 12 in each group. The normal rats were given normal diet while the model rats were fed a high-calorie and high-protein diet for 8 weeks. 24 h-U-ALB, 24 h-U-TP, Ucr, U-ALB/Ucr were determined at week 0, 4, and 8. FBG, Scr, BUN, TC, TG, NO were measured at week 4 and 8. The rats were sacrificed 8 weeks later, and the two kidneys of each rat were taken and weighed to calculate the kidney hypertrophy index. The renal pathological changes were examined and the Na+ K+ -ATPase

  5. Long-time effects of TanshinoneⅡ A on Collagen I expression in rats with renovascular hypertension%丹参酮ⅡA对肾性高血压大鼠心肌胶原代谢影响的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方健; 王浩奎

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of Tsn the protein level of Collagen Ⅰ and the mRNA levels of Collagen Ⅰ in rats with renovascular hypertension. Methods 2K2C operation was made to SD rats to establish hypertension and LV fibrosis model. Five groups of rats were established from the 4th week after 2K2C : ( 1) sham-operated group treated for 6 weeks with placebo(0. 5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium ,solvent for Tsn and Valstarn) ; (2) a group with 2K2C hypertension treated for 6 weeks with placebo(0. 5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium) ; (3) a group with 2K2C hypertension treated for 6 weeks with Tsn (70 mg · kg -1 · d-1) ; (4) a group with 2K2C hypertension treated for 6 weeks with Tsn (35 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ) ; (5) a group with 2K2C hypertension treated for 6 weeks with Valsartan (26.7 mg · kg-1 · d-1) . Placebo, Tsn and Valsartan were given by gavage. We measured the protein of Collagen Ⅰ by Western blot analysis , mRNA levels of Collagen Ⅰ, MMP-2 ,MMP-9 .TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by RT-PCR. Results In contrast to sham-operated group , the mRNA and protein levels of Collagen Ⅰ in 2K2C untreated group were significantly increased. Tsn 70 mg · kg-1 ,35 mg · kg-1 and Valsartan 26. 7 mg· kg - 1 did not suppress the increase in mRNA levels , however , they significantly decreased the protein levels. Conclusion Tsn decreased the Collagen I content on the level of post transtricption or translation.%目的 研究丹参酮Ⅱ A(Tanshinone Ⅱ A,Tsn)对两肾两夹(two-kidney two-clip,2K2C)肾性高血压大鼠心肌I型胶原基因表达、蛋白含量的影响.方法 制作两肾两夹肾性高血压大鼠模型,Tsn 70 mg·kg-1·d-1(高剂量)和35 mg·kg-1·d-1(低剂量)、缬沙坦(Valsartan)26.7 mg·kg-1·d-1连续灌胃给药6周,Western Blot检测心肌组织I型胶原(collagen type I,Collagen I)蛋白表达;RT-PCR检测心肌组织Collagen I水平.结果 Tsn高剂量组、低剂量组和缬沙坦组Collagen I蛋白含量明显低于两肾