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Sample records for two-hundred parasitic helminths

  1. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

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    Víctor H. Salazar-Castañon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-third of the world’s population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host’s immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host’s immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host’s susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  2. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

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    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  3. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

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    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  4. Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.

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    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

    2012-04-01

    Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites.

  5. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

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    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  6. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  7. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

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    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  8. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

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    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of dogs and associated risk factors in Adama Town,. Central Ethiopia ... Keywords: Adama, Ancylostoma spp, Helminth parasites, Risk factors,. Toxocara canis ..... infections in relation to HIV/AIDS status, diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. BMC.

  10. Helminth Parasites and the Modulation of Joint Inflammation

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    Chelsea E. Matisz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop better therapeutics for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, of which musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are particularly prevalent and debilitating. Helminth parasites are accomplished masters at modifying their hosts' immune activity, and so attention has focused on rodent-helminth model systems to uncover the workings of the mammalian immune response to metazoan parasites, with the hope of revealing molecules and/or mechanisms that can be translated into better treatments for human autoimmune and idiopathic disorders. Substantial proof-of-principal data supporting the concept that infection with helminth parasites can reduce the severity of concomitant disease has been amassed from models of mucosal inflammation. Indeed, infection with helminth parasites has been tried as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, and there are case reports relating to other conditions (e.g., autism; however, the impact of infection with parasitic helminths on musculoskeletal diseases has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the view that such a strategy should be applied to the amelioration of joint inflammation and review the literature that supports this contention.

  11. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

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    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  12. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

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    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  13. Studies on the parasitic helminths of slaughtered animals in Iraq. I. Parasitic helminths of the liver of herbivores.

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    Wajdi, N; Nassir, J K

    1983-12-01

    The livers and lungs of 580 sheep, 160 goats, 418 cattle, 50 camels and 48 buffaloes slaughtered in Baghdad in April-July, 1981 were examined for helminth parasites; 14.3% of the sheep, 0.6% of the goats, 18.2% of the cattle, 72.0% of the camels and 8.3% of the buffaloes were infected with trematodes and cestodes. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of sheep in Iraq for the first time.

  14. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

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    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  15. The Incidence of Helminth Parasites in Donkeys

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    G.B. Shrikhande

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%, Parascaris sp. (29.26%, Strongyloides sp. (24.39%, Trichonema sp. (15.85%,Oxyuris sp. (8.53%, Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%, Entamoeba sp. (8.53%, Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%, and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 224-224

  16. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

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    Alexis Ribas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  17. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

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    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  18. Helminths parasitizing Columbina picui (Columbiformes: Columbidae) in Brazil.

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    Coimbra, Marco A A; Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Krüger, Cristiane; Muller, Gertrud

    2009-08-01

    Columbina picui (picui ground-dove) is a small, diurnal columbid bird that lives, in couples or flocks, in open areas in the countryside and urban centers. The species occurs in Brazil and other countries in South America. The aim of this study was to identify the helminths that parasitize C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Thirty-four specimens were necropsied; in each case, the organs were isolated and examined separately. The nematodes and their prevalences were: Ascaridia columbae (26.5%) and Ornithostrongylus iheringi (11.8%) in the small intestine; Dispharynx nasuta in the proventriculus (5.9%) and gizzard (2.9%); and a Dispharynx sp. (2.9%) in the proventriculus. This is the first report of D. nasuta parasitizing C. picui in Brazil and the first record of A. columbae and O. iheringi infecting C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  19. The helminth parasite proteome at the host-parasite interface - Informing diagnosis and control.

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    van der Ree, Anna M; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation.

  20. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

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    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  1. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

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    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  2. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

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    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  3. Parasitic helminths and HIV-1 infection: the effect of immunomodulatory antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, E.E.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In many regions of the world co-infection with parasitic helminths and HIV-1 is common. Both pathogens have major implications for the host immune system, helminths possess immunomodulatory properties whilst HIV-1 infects and kills immune cells. Currently very little is known regarding what effects

  4. Patterns of distribution of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of Mexico.

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    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In order to draw patterns in helminth parasite composition and species richness in Mexican freshwater fishes we analyse a presence-absence matrix representing every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins. We examine the distributional patterns of the helminth parasites with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country, and in doing so we identify areas of high diversity and point out the biotic similarities and differences among drainage basins. Our dataset allows us to evaluate the relationships among drainage basins in terms of helminth diversity. This paper shows that the helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico can characterise hydrological basins the same way as fish families do, and that the basins of south-eastern Mexico are home to a rich, predominantly Neotropical, helminth fauna whereas the basins of the Mexican Highland Plateau and the Nearctic area of Mexico harbour a less diverse Nearctic fauna, following the same pattern of distribution of their fish host families. The composition of the helminth fauna of each particular basin depends on the structure of the fish community rather than on the limnological characteristics and geographical position of the basin itself. This work shows distance decay of similarity and a clear linkage between host and parasite distributions.

  5. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

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    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  6. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

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    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  7. IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum.

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    Bell, R G

    1996-08-01

    This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is

  8. Helminth parasites of Caspian kilka (genus Clupeonella) as bioindicators of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayoumi, Razieh

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, intestinal helminth parasite fauna of 398 specimens of three species of kilkas, C. engrauliformis (N= 92), C. grimmi (N= 136) and C. cultriventris (N= 170) from Babolsar harbor were investigated. Five parasite species were found including: Corynosoma strumosum (Acanthocephala), Pronoprymna ventricosa (Trematoda), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Raphidascaris sp. (Nematoda) and Anisakis sp. (Nematoda). The highest prevalence and abundance were observed...

  9. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  10. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  11. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

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    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  12. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, eithe...

  13. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  14. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G. (Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Murrell, K.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species.

  15. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  16. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis.

  17. Parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of six species of owls (Strigiformes) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, David; Molina, Rafael; Castellà, Joaquim; Kinsella, John M

    2004-03-01

    A survey was carried out in Catalonia, Spain to determine the prevalence of parasitic helminths infesting the digestive tract of nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes). One hundred birds belonging to six owl species were examined. The number of birds examined ranged between three and 30. The overall level of infestation was 65% and the most frequent helminths present were nematodes, followed by trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans. Strigiformes showing the highest levels of infestation were little owls (Athene noctua), 86.7% of which were infested. Helminths with the highest prevalence were Synhimantus spp., intestinal capillarids, Brachylaima spp., cestodes and Centrorhynchus aluconis.

  18. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  19. Host parasite communications-Messages from helminths for the immune system: Parasite communication and cell-cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Gillian; Buck, Amy H; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-07-01

    Helminths are metazoan organisms many of which have evolved parasitic life styles dependent on sophisticated manipulation of the host environment. Most notably, they down-regulate host immune responses to ensure their own survival, by exporting a range of immuno-modulatory mediators that interact with host cells and tissues. While a number of secreted immunoregulatory parasite proteins have been defined, new work also points to the release of extracellular vesicles, or exosomes, that interact with and manipulate host gene expression. These recent results are discussed in the overall context of how helminths communicate effectively with the host organism.

  20. Helminth Parasites of Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor in Northern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic pathogens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to prepare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in North of Iran.Ten (four males and six females road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.All the examined hedgehogs (100% were infected with parasitic helminth as following: two hedgehogs (20% were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40% harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10% host had Hymenolepis erinacei and three (30% of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of helminth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since, this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedgehog parasitic diseases.

  1. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  2. Helminth parasites of Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Pisces: Goodeidae) in the upper Lerma River sub-basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nava, Petra; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Soto-Galera, Eduardo; Cruz, Blanca Jaimes

    2004-08-01

    Thirteen helminth species were recorded during a helminthological examination of 754 Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Meek) (Pisces: Goodeidae) collected from 20 localities in the upper Lerma River sub-basin on the highland plateau of Mexico. The study constitutes a complete and extensive inventory of the helminth parasites of this freshwater fish species across its entire current geographic distribution. The collected species included one adult trematode, three metacercariae, one monogenean, one adult cestode, three metacestodes, three nematode larvae and one cystacanth. The records of the metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. and Ochetosoma brevicaecum, the larvae of the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Falcaustra sp. and the cystacanth of Polymorphus brevis are all new records for G. multiradiatus. The metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. were the most widespread and prevalent species in the sample, being collected from 15 of the 20 sampling localities, with a prevalence of 3.2-72.2%. The data indicate the helminth parasite community of G. multiradiatus to be relatively poor when compared with the helminth communities of freshwater fish from other parts of Mexico. This community is subject to colonization by generalist helminth species, mostly transported by birds. A further component of this community consists of helminth species that have been introduced anthropogenically.

  3. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  4. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  5. Migration and parasitism: habitat use, not migration distance, influences helminth species richness in Charadriiform birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, J.S.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Piersma, T.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Habitat use and migration strategies of animals are often associated withspatial variation in parasite pressure, but how they relate to one another is notwell understood. Here, we use a large dataset on helminth species richness ofCharadriiform birds to test whether higher habitat diversity and

  6. Migration and parasitism : Habitat use, not migration distance, influences helminth species richness in Charadriiform birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S.; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Piersma, Theunis; Thieltges, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Habitat use and migration strategies of animals are often associated with spatial variation in parasite pressure, but how they relate to one another is not well understood. Here, we use a large dataset on helminth species richness of Charadriiform birds to test whether higher habitat diversity

  7. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus

  8. Vegetables contamination by Parasitic Helminth Eggs in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reashnaa Loganathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil-transmitted helminth infection is known to be a serious issue in South East Asia when the farmers use night soil and contaminated water for their plants. In Indonesia, some of the farmers still use human feces and sometimes also mixed it with urine from the latrines as fertilizers. On the contrary, in Malaysia these contamination occured at a lower rate due to strict rules by the authorities.The objective of this study was to identify the helminth eggs in vegetables from traditional markets in Indonesia and Malaysia. Methods: Three traditional markets were selected by non-random sampling, namely Pasar Ampang in Malaysia and 2 traditional markets in Indonesia, i.e Pasar Tanjungsari and Jatinangor. Cabbages and lettuce were bought from 15 different vegetable sellers per market. The samples were examined at the laboratory of the Medical Faculty, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method to obtain the specimen was in accordance with Khairul Anwar and Ramachandran. This study was carried out from July to October 2014. The collected data was analyzed by percentage and frequency tabulation. Result: Most of the samples are contaminated by helminth eggs. In Pasar Ampang, 13.3% in cabbage and 6.7% in lettuce. In Pasar Tanjung Sari, 46.7% in cabbage and 40% in lettuce. Moreover, in Pasar Jatinangor, 33.3% in cabbage and 26.7% in lettuce. Most of the helmint eggs were Ascaris lumbricoides. Conclusions: The helminthes eggs contamination is higher in Indonesian traditional markets compared to in Malaysia.

  9. Helminth parasites of the blue-footed booby on Isla Isabel, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Carmona-Isunza, María Cristina; la Mora, Alejandra Núñez-de; Drummond, Hugh

    2011-08-01

    A survey of the helminth fauna of the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, on Isla Isabel, off the Pacific coast of México, is presented. Eight parasite species were found: 4 digeneans (Galactosomum puffini , Mesostephanus microbursa, Opisthometra planicollis, and Renicola thapari), 3 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Porrocaecum sp., and Tetrameres sp.), and 1 cestode (Tetrabothrius sp). All these species are reported for the first time in the blue-footed booby, and they represent 8 new locality records as well. Species accumulation curves suggest these 8 parasite species comprise the total helminth fauna of this population of boobies. The most frequent and abundant parasite was R. thapari, inhabiting the kidney of its host. In male boobies, a significant negative correlation was found between abundance of R. thapari and host body condition.

  10. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  11. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  12. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  13. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  14. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.

  16. A check list of the helminths of guineafowls (Numididae) and a host list of these parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Published and personal records have been compiled into a reference list of the helminth parasites of guineafowls. Where data on other avian hosts was available these have been included for completeness' sake and to give an indication of host range. The parasite list for the Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, includes five species of acanthocephalans, all belonging to a single genus, three trematodes belonging to three different genera, 34 cestodes representing 15 genera, and 35 nematodes belonging to 17 genera. The list for the Crested guineafowls, Guttera edouardi, contains a single acanthocephalan together with 10 cestode species belonging to seven genera, and three nematode species belonging to three different genera. Records for two cestode species from genera and two nematode species belonging to a single genus have been found for the guineafowl genus Acryllium. Of the 70 helminths listed for N. meleagris, 29 have been recorded from domestic chickens.

  17. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

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    Morales-Serna F. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB and Banderas Bay (BB, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans. Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa as well as the infracommunity indices varied significantly between MB and BB, and among dry and rainy seasons; however, no clear seasonal patterns were observed. Pseudoterranova larvae appeared frequently in MB, possibly because of the presence of the California sea lion in this locality. Similarity analysis did not show a clear separation of parasite species composition between both localities, which suggest that fish samples came from a single population of L. guttatus.

  18. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  19. The Seasonal Distribution of Rudd Fish (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758)Helminthes Parasites Living in Terkos Lake

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRTAS, Murat; ALTINDAG, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study that was carried out from September, 2009 to August, 2010 was to determine the seasonal distribution of rudd fish (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758) helminthes inhabiting the Terkos lake. During the study examined 166 fish rudd, Dactylogyrus difformis from Monogenia, Ligula intestinalis plerocercoid from Cestoda, Asymphylodora markesvitschi Diplostomulum spathaceum metacerceria from Digenia, Piscicola geometra from Hirudinea were parasited.87% with 137 fish recorded th...

  20. The guest playing host: colonization of the introduced Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus, by helminth parasites in southeastern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, C D; Font, W F

    2001-12-01

    Parasite surveys of exotic hosts offer the opportunity to examine parasite colonization on different scales (i.e., host individual, host population, host species, and new geographic locality). Ten helminths (Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Mesocestoides lineatus, Oochoristica javaensis, Haematoloechus varioplexus, Mesocoelium monas, Telorchis corti, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia leidyi, Skrjabinoptera sp., and a larval acuariid nematode) were recovered from the exotic Mediterranean gecko Hemidactylus turcicus, in southeastern Louisiana. Only 1 exotic parasite, O. javaensis, colonized a new geographic locality, but 7 local helminths colonized a new host species. Helminth communities of H. turcicus were similar in structure to what has been hypothesized or observed for lizards. Thus, communities were composed of generalists and were depauperate (i.e., colonization of individual geckos or host populations was rare for most of the helminths); however, there was significant variation in community structure among local habitats. Although the gecko's behavioral and physiological attributes predict colonization by monoxenous helminths, only 2, C. variabilis and O. leidyi, were recovered. Eight heteroxenous helminths, 2 of which (the acuariid and O. javaensis) were the most widely distributed and abundant, were the better colonizers. The gecko's generalist diet may have exposed it to a diverse parasite fauna and thus been important in determining the helminths that could colonize.

  1. High prevalence of helminth parasites in feral cats in Majorca Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Casanova, Joan Carles

    2009-12-01

    Feral cats are widespread in the countryside of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Since they are not subject of sanitary control, they can act as reservoir of parasites of veterinary and zoonotic interest. The main organs of 58 wild-trapped cats in 16 different areas from Majorca were analyzed by helminths. All the cats were parasitized, and eight species of helminths were retrieved (mean = 3.4 species per cat, with 74% of the cats harboring three or more species). Seven of them presented a prevalence >20%: Joyeuxiella pasqualei (76%), Diplopylidium acanthotetra (60%), Dipylidium carracidoi (33%), Taenia taeniaeformis (22%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (91%), and Toxocara cati (35%) in the gastrointestinal tract, and Oslerus rostratus (24%) in lungs. The A. tubaeforme prevalence and intensity (mean = 30, up to 396) is the highest recorded for a population of cats. Prevalence and abundance of J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra were strongly associated, secondary to the use of the same intermediary host (geckos). Other positive associations found are probably related to host susceptibility. Abundance of D. acanthotetra, T. cati, and A. tubaeforme and the number of species per host were negatively correlated with cat body condition (assessed by the kidney fat index). Females were more frequently parasitized by A. tubaeforme than males, and adult females were more heavily infested by J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra than cats from other groups. These and other findings are discussed in relation with host ecology. Feral cats serve as reservoirs of helminths in the countryside of Majorca and their populations should be controlled.

  2. microRNAs of parasitic helminths - Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control.

  3. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  4. Immunological reactions caused by helminthes and diagnosis of parasites using different methods

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    LEDIA VASJARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are one of the causer agents of the type I reactions of hypersensitivity. In this article will review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. The parasitic worms are an important risk factor for anaphylaxy reaction, but this could be explained by an enhanced ability of atopics to produce IgE. The human immune response to helminth infections is associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis. The involvement of immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis which are caused by worms in the gastro-intestinal tract are associated with anaphylaxy response. For this study, faeces were collected primary in children aged 1-15 years old, because the worms are most frequent in these ages. Through the coproscopic method were analyzed as biological materials, the feces of 300 children for the presence of protozoa’s eggs, helminthes larva, trophosoids, cists, etc. We have taken the photo of the positive cases. The analysis have been done in the Parasitological Laboratory of the Institute of Public Health, Tirana through the method of concentration with floatation in sulphat zinc; the permanent color as Ziehln-Neelsen stain, Giemsa stain, Blu-metilen, etc. We have used the color methods and blood striche to diagnose the eosiniphilia presence. To determine the IgE are used the EIA kits. The level of the eosinophyle and IgE in the blood is performed in 152 individes who had been positive cases by helminths.

  5. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vazquez-Hurtado, Gabriela; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamin; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Favila, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites. PMID:28004635

  6. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites.

  7. Predictors of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes Helminth Parasite Diversity in the Provinces of Spain

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    Miquel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the viscera of 321 red foxes collected over the last 30 years in 34 of the 47 provinces of peninsular Spain, and identified their helminth parasites. We measured parasite diversity in each sampled province using four diversity indices: Species richness, Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's species diversity index, and inverse Simpson's index. In order to find geographical, environmental, and/or human-related predictors of fox parasite diversity, we recorded 45 variables related to topography, climate, lithology, habitat heterogeneity, land use, spatial situation, human activity, sampling effort, and fox presence probability (obtained after environmental modelling of fox distribution. We then performed a stepwise linear regression of each diversity index on these variables, to find a minimal subset of statistically significant variables that account for the variation in each diversity index. We found that most parasite diversity indices increase with the mean distance to urban centres, or in other words, foxes in more rural provinces have a more diverse helminth fauna. Sampling effort and fox presence probability (probably related to fox density also appeared as conditioning variables for some indices, as well as soil permeability (related with water availability. We then extrapolated the models to predict these fox parasite diversity indices in non-sampled provinces and have a view of their geographical trends.

  8. [Parasitic helminths of flying starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.) in their nesting area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J

    1987-10-01

    1.150 flying starlings and 226 pulli have been necropsied and their helminth parasites collected. Localities where the birds has been captured are given in table 1 and the map. Flying birds are parasited in the proportion of 97.1%. There are three trematodes species, eight cestodes, six nematodes and one acanthocephalan (table 2). Differences are noted according with the locality, the season and the age of the bird. Pulli are parasited by 47% with a very important difference between the two places. The number of parasitic species is lesser: one trematode, two cestodes and three nematodes. The helminthological fauna of belgian starlings seems common but more important and much varied that in the birds hibernating in North Africa.

  9. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  10. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of local chickens from selected communities in Nsukka region of south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idika, I K; Obi, C F; Ezeh, I O; Iheagwam, C N; Njoku, I N; Nwosu, C O

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of local chickens in Nsukka region of Southeastern Nigeria was studied using 125 free range local birds purchased from four communities in Nsukka zone namely, Obollo-afor, Orba, Nsukka urban and Owerre Eze-orba. The birds were sacrificed humanely and their oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and caecum examined for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. Worms when present were isolated and identified using standard parasitological procedures. The study identified four species of cestodes namely Raillietina echinobothridia, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus and Choanotaenia infundibulum and two species of nematodes namely, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Results obtained showed 96.8 % prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in the birds with cestodes being the more prevalent class (70.4 %). Raillietina spp was the most prevalent cestode encountered and A. galli the most prevalent nematode. Prevalence rates of infections recorded 14.4 % for nematode species, 26.4 % for cestodes and 56 % for mixed infections of nematodes and cestodes. It was concluded that local chickens are common in the area and could serve as a potential source of helminth infections to intensively managed birds in the study area.

  12. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  13. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  14. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  15. In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Frederik; Rahn, Anna K; Dittmar, Janine; Erin, Noémie; Rieger, Jennifer K; Haase, David; Samonte-Padilla, Irene E; Lange, Joseph; Jakobsen, Per J; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Kurtz, Joachim; Bakker, Theo C M; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Kalbe, Martin; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-01-01

    Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. Generalist parasites, infective for a number of host species, might be unable to adapt optimally to the immune system of a certain host species, while specialist parasites might display high levels of adaptation to a particular host species. The degree of adaptations may further differ between sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations. Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). In vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to S. solidus antigens from six European populations, with S. solidus prevalence from parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. Generalist parasites seem to maintain their ability to infect different host species at the costs of relatively higher immunogenicity compared to specialist parasites. In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. Antigens from Norwegian (prevalence 30-50%) and Spanish (40-66%) S. solidus induced generally higher in vitro responses compared to S. solidus from two German (<1%) populations. Likewise, leukocytes from

  16. Blunting the knife: development of vaccines targeting digestive proteases of blood-feeding helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Ranjit, Najju; Loukas, Alex

    2010-08-01

    Proteases are pivotal to parasitism, mediating biological processes crucial to worm survival including larval migration through tissue, immune evasion/modulation and nutrient acquisition by the adult parasite. In haematophagous parasites, many of these proteolytic enzymes are secreted from the intestine (nematodes) or gastrodermis (trematodes) where they act to degrade host haemoglobin and serum proteins as part of the feeding process. These proteases are exposed to components of the immune system of the host when the worms ingest blood, and therefore present targets for the development of anti-helminth vaccines. The protective effects of current vaccine antigens against nematodes that infect humans (hookworm) and livestock (barber's pole worm) are based on haemoglobin-degrading intestinal proteases and act largely as a result of the neutralisation of these proteases by antibodies that are ingested with the blood-meal. In this review, we survey the current status of helminth proteases that show promise as vaccines and describe their vital contribution to a parasitic existence.

  17. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  18. The helminth parasites of the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and their effect on host condition in Dunas de Mira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vingada, J

    2007-09-01

    The present study focuses on the helminth parasite community of the wild rabbit in a sand dune area in Portugal over a 5-year period. The influence of host sex and year on the composition of the helminth community is assessed, along with the potential effect of the detected helminths on host body condition. The basic structure of the helminth community comprises Mosgovoyia ctenoides, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae and Passalurus ambiguus. Mean intensities of G. strigosum varied between years. General G. strigosum intensities were also found to vary according to both year and host sex, but not according to the interaction of both factors. When assessing the effect of helminths on rabbit body condition (expressed by the kidney fat index), higher burdens of M. ctenoides, a cestode that presents a relatively large body mass, were found to induce a reduction in rabbit condition.

  19. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, either in single or in mixed infections (p > 0.05). The mixed infection involving Crenosoma striatum and P. clausa occurred significantly more frequently than other mixed infection (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in prevalence among seasons, with the highest prevalence in summer and spring especially among P. clausa and C. striatum (p < 0.05).

  20. Host pharmacokinetics and drug accumulation of anthelmintics within target helminth parasites of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2017-07-01

    Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy. It focuses on the anthelmintics used in cattle and sheep for which published information on the overall topic is available; benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and monepantel. Physicochemical properties, such as water solubility and dissolution rate, determine the ability of anthelmintic compounds to accumulate in the target parasites and consequently final clinical efficacy. The transcuticular absorption process is the main route of penetration for different drugs in nematodes and cestodes. However, oral ingestion is a main route of drug entry into adult liver flukes. Among other factors, the route of administration may substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of anthelmintic molecules and modify their efficacy. Oral administration improves drug efficacy against nematodes located in the gastroinestinal tract especially if parasites have a reduced susceptibility. Partitioning of the drug between gastrointestinal contents, mucosal tissue and the target parasite is important to enhance the drug exposure of the nematodes located in the lumen of the abomasum and/or small intestine. On the other hand, large inter-animal variability in drug exposure and subsequent high variability in efficacy is observed after topical administration of anthelmintic compounds. As it has been extensively demonstrated under experimental and field conditions, understanding

  1. Parasitic helminths of the wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in different bioclimatic zones in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Del Castillo, A; Abreu, N; Figueruelo, E; Piñero, J; Casanova, J C

    2003-12-01

    Faunistic and ecological analyses of the wild rabbit helminth fauna were undertaken in Tenerife island (Canary Islands). Rabbits were collected between 1998 and 2000 in seven bioclimatic zones in Tenerife selected by orientation and altitude. Five parasite species were identified, three cestodes (Taenia pisiformis (larvae), Andrya cuniculi and Mosgovoyia ctenoides) and two nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus). Taenia pisiformis presented an irregular distribution with significant differences in prevalences between the zones. Andrya cuniculi was only found in two zones and there were no significant differences in prevalence values. Mosgovoyia ctenoides presented a wide distribution with significant prevalences, which were higher in northern compared to southern zones. Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was absent in the low southern zones of the island. Passalurus ambiguus was found in all zones with no significant difference in the prevalence of infection. The differences in prevalences are likely to be explained by abiotic factors in the case of T. retortaeformis, and by the absence of definitive and intermediate hosts in the case of T. pisiformis and A. cuniculi, respectively. All parasite species in Tenerife are common helminths in the Iberian Peninsula, from which their rabbit hosts originated. No significant differences were recorded in the mean intensities of infection of any of the parasite species identified.

  2. Habitat fragmentation alters the properties of a host-parasite network: rodents and their helminths in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Pilosof, Shai; Claude, Julien; Krasnov, Boris R; Cosson, Jean-François; Chaval, Yannick; Ribas, Alexis; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Blasdell, Kim; Herbreteau, Vincent; Dupuy, Stéphane; Tran, Annelise

    2015-09-01

    1. While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host-parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host-parasite networks. 2. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species from seven localities of South-East Asia. We analysed the effects of rapid deforestation on connectance and modularity of helminth-parasite networks. We estimated both the degree of fragmentation and the rate of deforestation through the development of land uses and their changes through the last 20 to 30 years in order to take into account the dynamics of habitat fragmentation in our statistical analyses. 3. We found that rapid fragmentation does not affect helminth species richness per se but impacts host-parasite interactions as the rodent-helminth network becomes less connected and more modular. 4. Our results suggest that parasite sharing among host species may become more difficult to maintain with the increase of habitat disturbance. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  3. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  4. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  5. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  6. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  7. Helminth parasites of Lemniscomys striatus (striped grass mouse and Cricetomys gambianus (giant African rat in Nsukka, Nigeria

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    Ezeudu Terry Adaeze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the helminth profile of Lemniscomys striatus (L. striatus and Cricetomys gambianus (C. gambianus in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria, and their zoonotic potentials and public health risk. Methods: A total of 63 rodents were captured during the study period, of which 54 (85.7% were L. striatus and 9 (14.3% were C. gambianus. Following evisceration, various organs from the rodents (the lungs, liver, stomach, small intestines and large intestines were split open and thoroughly examined under a stereomicroscope. The liver samples were subjected to histopathological processing and examination. Results: No helminth parasite was found in C. gambianus while 44 (81.5% of L. striatus were infected with one or more species of helminth parasites. And 10 (18.5% and 34 (63% of L. striatus had mixed and single infections, respectively. Three helminth species were recovered during the study. Two nematodes [Capillaria hepatica (C. hepatica and Protospirura spp.] and one cestode parasite (Hymenolepis spp. were found at prevalence rates of 3.7%, 14.8% and 81.5%, respectively. Histopathology revealed the typical characteristic bipolar plugs of C. hepatica ova. There were also massive areas of degenerative necrosis of hepatocytes, fibrous encapsulation of C. hepatica ova and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusions: Two out of the three helminths (C. hepatica and Hymenolepis spp. recovered in this study are of serious zoonotic importance and thus pose great public health risk to the community.

  8. Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites Community of Fish Species in a Niger Delta Tidal Creek, Nigeria

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    Anthony Ekata Ogbeibu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pool of fish species in a Niger Delta tidal creek, Buguma Creek, Nigeria, collected monthly from November 2004 to June 2006, at flood tides, were examined for gastrointestinal helminth parasites. The fish species were caught with hooks and lines and cast nets. Only nematode parasites were encountered in the study. Of the 1,149 fish specimens examined, 213 (representing 18.5% were infected with various nematodes parasites. Dasyatis margarita had the highest prevalence rate of 66.7% (2 infected out of 3 examined, followed by Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus senegalensis with a prevalence of 41.7% (10 infected out of 24, while the least infected were Arius gigas and Pomadasys jubelini with prevalence of 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. No infection was recorded in Elops lacerta, Gobius sp., Lutjanus agennes, L. goreensis, Argyrosomus regius, Sphyraena guachancho, S. sphyraena, Cynoglossus senegalensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis, Liza falcipinnis, Mugil cephalus, and M. curema. The nematode parasites, Capillaria zederi, and Aplectana hamatospicula had the highest prevalence of 33.3% in D. margarita. Laurotravassoxyuris sp. also had the same prevalence in Trichiurus lepturus. Goezia sigalasi had the second highest prevalence of 12.5% in P. (Fonticulus elongatus which had the highest number examined, due to its high dominance in the water.

  9. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  10. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Protection against the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E.; David, John R; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF−/− BALB/c mice. MIF−/− mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF+/+ mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen cells f...

  11. Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Eldeen Y.M.H; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

    2012-01-01

    Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine was significantly ...

  12. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  13. Parasite contamination (helminth eggs) in sludge treatment plants: definition of a sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Philippe G; Schwartzbrod, Janine

    2003-03-01

    The use of sludge in agriculture must be carried out according to many guidelines, especially regarding a precise knowledge of the pathogenic microorganisms it contains. The control of the produced sludge requires a sampling strategy that is representative of the contamination present in the sludge. Thus, we evaluated the distribution of helminth eggs in sludge to determine how to sample and at what frequency. Two plants were studied, firstly we studied sludge that was undergoing biological treatment (anaerobic digestion, prolonged aeration), secondly we evaluated the dehydration step (centrifugation and filter press). The helminth egg concentrations were measured over short periods (between 5 minutes and 7 hours) and for periods of over 24 hours (7 to 28 days). The results showed that there was much homogeneity in periods of less than 7 hours, thus it was advisable to take grab samples. An appropriate sample weight was 30 g dry matter, because this allowed an analysis in triplicate when testing treatment processes according to standards of France, (less than 3 viable eggs/10 g dry matter). Determination of the egg concentration in the plants during periods of over 24 hours showed that the parasite flow was stable. In some cases, large variations were due to the treatment processes (storage or thickening, mixing of different sludges). These results have been confirmed with the study of 6 other plants during a one year period. Thus, the recommended sampling frequency can be limited to every 3 to 6 months, by adapting the sampling methods to the characteristics of the plant.

  14. Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F H

    1984-01-01

    To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin.

  15. Helminth parasites in Chaunus marinus and Cranopis valliceps (Anura: Bufonidae) from Lagunas Yalahau, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espínola-Novelo, Juan Francisco; Guillén-Hernández, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Eight helminth taxa were found parasitizing Chaunus marinus (n = 40) and Cranopsis valliceps (n = 40) from the Parque Estatal Lagunas Yalahau, Yucatan, Mexico. Seven taxa (2 digeneans: Langeronia macrocirra, Mesocoelium monas; 1 acanthocephalan: Oncicola sp.; 3 nematodes: Rhabdias füleborni, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cruzia morleyi; and a nematode larva) were found in C. marinus, while 4 taxa (all nematodes: Rhabdias fuelleborni, Aplectana itzocanensis, Ozwaldocruzia sp., and a nematode larva) were present in C. valliceps. Nematodes, particularly A. iztocanensis, showed high prevalence, mean abundance, and mean intensity values for both species of amphibians. The occurrence of R. fuelleborni, M. monas, L. macrocirra, and C. morleyi in these amphibians from the Yucatan Peninsula confirms their neotropical distribution, while the presence of A. itzocanensis increases its geographical distribution, suggesting a preference by neotropical, rather than neartic areas.

  16. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  17. Cross-disciplinary approaches for measuring parasitic helminth viability and phenotype

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    Emily Peak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic worms (helminths within the Phyla Nematoda and Platyhelminthes are responsible for some of the most debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations across the globe. As no subunit vaccine for any parasitic helminth is close to being developed, the frontline strategy for intervention is administration of therapeutic, anthelmintic drugs. Worryingly, and unsurprising due to co-evolutionary mechanisms, many of these worms are developing resistance to the limited compound classes currently being used. This unfortunate reality has led to a renaissance in next generation anthelmintic discovery within both academic and industrial sectors. However, a major bottleneck in this process is the lack of quantitative methods for screening large numbers of small molecules for their effects on the whole organism. Development of methodologies that can objectively and rapidly distinguish helminth viability or phenotype would be an invaluable tool in the anthelmintic discovery pipeline. Towards this end, we describe how several basic techniques currently used to assess single cell eukaryote viability have been successfully applied to parasitic helminths. We additionally demonstrate how some of these methodologies have been adopted for high-throughput use and further modified for assessing worm phenotype. Continued development in this area is aimed at increasing the rate by which novel anthelmintics are identified and subsequently translated into everyday, practical applications.Vermes parasíticos (helmintos dos filos Nematoda e Platelmintos são responsáveis por algumas das doenças infecciosas crônicas e mais debilitantes das populações humana e animal em todo o globo. Já que nenhuma vacina está prestes a ser desenvolvida para nenhum parasita helmíntico, a frente estratégica de intervenção é a administração de drogas terapêuticas anti-helmínticas. De maneira preocupante, e não surpreendente devido a mecanismos

  18. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  19. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  20. Helminths infection patterns in a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus) population from a semiarid neotropical area: associations between female reproductive allocation and parasite loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Conrado A B; Ávila, Robson W; Bezerra, Castiele H; Passos, Daniel C; Melo, Gabriela C; Zanchi-Silva, Djan

    2014-12-01

    This study reports helminth infection patterns of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus from an area of semiarid caatinga in northeastern Brazil (Ceará state). The lizard population was parasitized by 8 helminth species, and the species composition of the component community resembles that found for other Neotropical lizards. The prevalence of parasites was higher for males compared with females, whereas no relation was found between intensity of infection of 2 parasites (Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera lutzi) and the lizards body size. For reproductive females, parasite infection intensity was negatively correlated to reproductive investment.

  1. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17β-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

  2. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana C. van Wyk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus, eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou, three gemsbok (Oryx gazella, one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii, one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus, six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host–parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  3. Inventarisasi Cacing Parasitik pada Ikan Kembung di Perairan Teluk Banten dan Pelabuhan Ratu (THE HELMINTH PARASITES INVENTORY OF RASTRELLIGER SP. FROM BANTEN BAY AND PELABUHAN RATU BAY

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    Forcep Rio Indaryanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of health and disease in a fish is important as parasitism plays a central role in fishbiology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that allmarine fishes are infected with parasites. The aims of the research were to inventory the helminth parasitesof Rastrelliger sp. from Banten Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu Bay. As many as 25–30 of fish samples werecollected using gill net and examined for helminth parasites. The helminth parasitic calculated intensityand prevalence. The helminth parasites of Rastrelliger sp. were found Lechitocladium angustiovum (digenea:Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (digenea: Lepocreadiidaeand Anisakis typica (nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. L. angustonum was dominancehelminth parasites found in fish. There was no difference on parasites found in R. kanagurta and R.brachysoma wich were of Restrellinger genus. The location not appear have no significant after on helminthparasitic infection as they have a same genetic stock. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetipewith Anisakis typical and was not zoonotic parasite categories.

  4. Parasitic helminths of veterinary importance in cattle, sheep and goats on communal farms in the northeastern Free State, South Africa

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    A.M. Tsotetsi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to record and determine intensities, seasonal incidence and distribution of helminth parasites of veterinary importance that occur in cattle, sheep and goats in the northeastern Free State. The study was conducted at Harrismith and Kestell and in Qwa-Qwa from March 2000 to May 2001. Cattle of various breeds (including Bonsmara, Simmentaler and Friesian, Merino sheep and Angora goats were sampled. Faecal samples were analysed using the McMaster and Visser sieve techniques for egg counts and faecal cultures for 3rd-stage nematode larvae identification. Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were the dominant nematode genera found to be infecting the animals. The socioeconomic status of the farmers in the study area was determined through a questionnaire survey aimed at recording their management strategies. It indicated that 81 % of farmers take care of their livestock by feeding them with supplements. The low to moderate faecal egg counts from cattle showed that helminth infections in this region are still under control even though helminthosis seems to be a problem in small-stock, since EPG counts of more than >1000 were found. Cattle farmers in this region are encouraged to continue with good animal husbandry practices that have ensured that helminth infections rates are kept low. Small-stock farmers are, however, encouraged to control helminth infections in their sheep and goats by anthelmintic treatment.

  5. Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes--a potential novel vector of pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Salisbury, Vyv; Humphrey, Tom J; Stafford, Kathryn; Perkins, Sarah E

    2009-12-21

    Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we determine the potential for bacteria to be associated with parasitic helminths. After culturing helminths from fecal samples obtained from livestock the external bacteria were removed. Two-hundred parasitic helminths from three different species were homogenised and the bacteria that were internal to the helminths were isolated and cultured. Eleven different bacterial isolates were found; of which eight were indentified. The bacteria identified included known human and cattle pathogens. We concluded that bacteria of livestock can be isolated in parasitic helminths and that this suggests a mechanism by which bacteria, pathogenic or otherwise, can be transmitted between individuals. The potential for helminths to play a role as pathogen vectors poses a potential livestock and human health risk. Further work is required to assess the epidemiological impact of this finding.

  6. Structure and Dynamics of the French upper Rhône ecosystems XII. An inventory of helminth fish parasites from the upper Rhône river (France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, van Marion J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven species of helminth parasites (five acanthocephalans, five cestodes and one trematode) are reported from altogether sixteen fish hosts in the Rhône River, N.E. of Lyon. The most common parasite is Pomphorhynchus laevis, which occurs in all fish species examined. Echinorhynchus borealis seems

  7. Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B

    1988-07-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were collected monthly over a 10-yr period and the incidence of myxomatosis and the size of helminth populations were recorded. Myxomatosis occurred annually, always as an epidemic in the latter half of the year and was associated with both an increase in the percentage of animals infected and the size of the infections of the nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus and the cestode Mosgovoyia pectinata. It is suggested that myxomatosis had the effect of reducing the rabbits' overall immune response to infection and that due to the regular annual occurrence of myxomatosis, the resulting increase in the size of helminth infections must be considered an integral part of the population dynamics of these parasites.

  8. Helminth parasites of the African lizard Agama agama (Squamata: Agamidae, in Lagos, Nigeria

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    G.O Adeoye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Agama agama, the agamid rainbow lizard, has been reported to serve as transport and reservoir host to several protozoan and helminth parasites. We randomly sampled 310 specimens between May and July, 2005, at Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E and 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E.They harboured four species of nematodes: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris sp.; one of Cestoda, Oochoristica agamae; one of Trematoda, Mesocoelium monas; and one of Pentastomida, Raillietiella sp. Strongyluris brevicaudata had the highest prevalence of infection (82.3 %, followed by P. awokoyai (74.5 %, Raillietiella (10.3 %, Capillaria sp. (8.4 % and O. agamae (7.4 %. M. monas and Oxyuris sp. had low prevalences: 1.61 % each. Raillietiella sp. and Capillaria sp. can cause localized inflammation and intestinal infections in humans. The prevalence of infection was higher in larger adult lizards. Prevalence in males was 97.6 % (94.1 % in females. in four of the helminth species, intensity of infection was higher in male lizards. Parasite intensity was highest in the rectum, followed by the intestine (pLa lagartija Agama agama actúa como medio de transporte y hospedero para varios protozoos y helmintos parásitos. Capturamos 310 lagartijas, muestreadas aleatoriamente, entre mayo y julio 2005, en Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E y 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E. Hallamos cuatro especies de nematodos: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria y Oxyuris; un céstodo intestinal, Oochoristica agamae; un trematodo, Mesocoelium monodi; y un pentastómido, Raillietiella. S. brevicaudata tuvo la mayor prevalencia de infección (82.26 %, seguida por P. awokoyai (74.52 %, Raillietiella (10.32 %, Capillaria (8.38 % y O. agamae (7.41 %. M. monodi y Oxyuris tuvieron baja prevalencia con 1.61 % cada uno. Raillietiella y Capillaria causan inflamaci

  9. Helminth Parasites of Amphibians and Reptiles From the Ucayali Region, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris T. McAllister; Charles R. Bursey; Paul S. Freed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Twenty individual amphibians representing 9 species within 6 families and 44 individual reptiles representing 15 species within 8 families from the Ucayali Region, Peru, were examined for helminths. Seven (35...

  10. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  11. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

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    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  12. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  13. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil

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    A. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  15. REMOVAL OF HELMINTH PARASITIC EGGS FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS AT SHIMOGA

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    M. SHANTHALA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth ova removal rates from waste stabilization pond effluents under tropical conditions ofShimoga using both laboratory and field modal ponds was undertaken. The helminthes were removedto the tune of 100% from laboratory model batch system ponds within 15 days of detention timeand it was only 65% in case of laboratory model continuos flow system ponds. The observation infield model ponds revealed an average 90% removal with 10 days retention time. A 100% removalcan not be expected both in continuous flow system laboratory model and field pond systems asthese receive daily fresh load of helminth eggs through influent sewage. The helminth ova are usallyremoved from waste stabilization ponds systems through sedimentation process. It is because thehelminth eggs attached to the suspended solids and when these solids settle to the bottom, the eggsare also removed from pelagic water. In the present study eggs of 4 helminth species viz. Ascarislumbricoides, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis wereencountered. Their rate of ova removal in batch system ponds was 99%, 97.4%, 94.9% and 98.8%for respective species. Presence of these ova in the sewage water indicates the prevalence of infectionin city population.

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  17. Helminth Parasites of Juvenile Green Turtles Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, M R; Silva, R J

    2015-12-01

    The present study offers a parasitological analysis of juvenile individuals of the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) found on the Brazilian coast between 2004 and 2011. Helminths were found in 90 out of 136 individuals (66.2%, CI = 57.7-74.0). In total, 29,411 helminths were collected, belonging to the families Brachycoeliidae, Cladorchiidae, Microscaphidiidae, Pronocephalidae, Rhytidodidae, and Spirorchiidae. Mean species richness was 4.74 (CI = 4.03-5.46), the mean intensity was 327 (CI = 223-489), and the mean abundance was 216 (CI = 146-339). This study also reports new geographical records for: Angiodictyum longum, Angiodictyum parallelum, Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens, Pyelosomum cochlear, Schizamphistomum scleroporum, Cymatocarpus solearis, and Neospirorchis sp. This is the first analysis of helminth composition in juveniles of green turtles.

  18. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  19. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhchali, Mohammad; Tehrani, Ali-Asghar; Ghoreishi, Mozafar

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%), Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%), and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%). All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid-gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05).

  20. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758 from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%, Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%, and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%. All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid- gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05.

  1. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  2. Spatial structure of the helminth parasite communities of the tonguefish, Symphurus plagiusa, from the Campeche coast, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Pech, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

    2012-09-01

    The goals of this paper were to determine whether the helminth communities of the blackcheek tonguefish, Symphurus plagiusa, exhibit a spatial structure and, if so, to determine the relative influence of selected environmental and spatial variables. The parasite communities of tonguefish and environmental data (e.g., temperature, salinity, oxygen) were sampled monthly over a network of 37 stations over 1 year (February 2006 to January 2007). Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used. Spatial variables were generated using the analysis of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices (PCNM) method. A total of 1,010 flatfishes and nine helminth taxa were collected. For the environmental variables, hierarchical cluster analyses produced groups of stations associated with the Yucatan dry, rainy and winter seasons. At the infracommunity level, there was no group formation as indicated by ANOSIM and NMDS nor association with environmental or spatial variables. At the component community level, there was significant group formation, and RDA analyses of core, satellite and all species produced significant associations with environmental variables. However, model fit improved substantially (from 17-52% to 49-83% of explained variance) when the spatial variables (variables generated with PCNM method) were added. Thus, the helminth component communities of S. plagiusa were affected by associated environmental variables and unknown ecological processes captured by the spatial variables acting at different spatial scales over time. In contrast, at the infracommunity level there was apparently a very fine spatial grain, where the numerical dominance of core species resulted in biased group formation. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

    2011-03-01

    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

  4. Community of helminth parasites of thorny toad Rhinella Spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chero, Jhon; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Cruces, Celso; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Iannacone, José; Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM). Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Sáez, Gloria; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Alvariño, Lorena; Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM). Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), Lima; Luque, José; Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Curso de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro – UFRRJ, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro; Morales, Víctor; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Ricardo Palma (URP), Lima

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the community of metazoan parasites of thorny toad Rhinella spinulosa of Peru and elucidate whether sex and the total length of the hosts amphibians are structuring their communities of parasites. Ninety specimens of R. spinulosa were acquired during May 2009 to October 2010. The body cavity, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, lungs and muscles were examined to search for metazoan parasites. Seven taxa of metazoan parasites were collected: one digenean [Gor...

  5. Helminth parasites of the eurasian badger (Meles meles L.) in Spain: a biogeographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Motjé, M

    2001-04-01

    Eighty-five Eurasian badgers, Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758), from four mainland biogeographic Spanish areas were analysed for helminths. Seventeen helminth species were found: Brachylaima sp., Euparyphium melis and Euryhelmis squamula (Trematoda), Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. (Cestoda) and Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma melesi, Mastophorus muris, Molineus patens, Pearsonema plica, Physaloptera sibirica, Strongyloides sp., Trichinella sp., Uncinaria criniformis and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti (Nematoda). In the Mediterranean area, Aonchotheca putorii, M. patens, Strongyloides sp., and U. criniformis were more prevalent in the occidental part, whereas Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. cestodes showed higher values on the continental slope. Metastrongyloid species (Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma melesi) were only detected in the occidental Mediterranean area. In contrast, spirurid species (Mastophorus muris and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti) were almost restricted to the continental Mediterranean area. Helminthological differences between areas may result from the badger diet, abiotic factors and biocenosis present in each biogeographic area.

  6. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Khumalo, M P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-867%), Tetrameres american (53.3-66.7%) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8%) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40%) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3%) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  7. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  8. Phylogeny determines the role of helminth parasites in intertidal food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulin, R.; Krasnov, B.R.; Pilosof, S.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    1.Parasites affect interactions among species in food webs and should be considered in any analysis of the structure, dynamics or resilience of trophic networks.2.However, the roles of individual parasite species, such as their importance as connectors within the network, and what factors determine

  9. The prevalence and abundance of helminth parasites in stray dogs from the city of Queretaro in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, G J; García, M P; García, A; Guerrero, M J; Mosqueda, J

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of helminth species in stray dogs, from the capital city of the state of Queretaro, was evaluated. A total of 378 dogs were captured and examined for the presence of helminths from January to December 2008. The results showed that 275 (72.8%) of examined dogs were infected with one or more helminth species. Single infections were observed in 139 (50.5%) of infected dogs and 136 (49.5%) harboured mixed infections. Out of the 378 dogs examined, 208 (55.2%) presented nematodes and 182 (48.1%) cestodes. The prevalences (confidence interval) and mean intensities of infection ( ± SD) of nematodes and cestodes encountered were: Ancylostoma caninum 42.9% (37.9-47.8) and 22.1 ( ± 34.3); Toxocara canis 15.1% (11.8-19.0) and 8.3 ( ± 15.0); Spirocerca lupi 4.5% (2.7-7.1) and 3.9 ( ± 4.8); Toxascaris leonina 2.3% (1.1-4.5) and 4.8 ( ± 3.5); Physaloptera praeputialis 1.9% (0.8-3.8) and 9.7 ( ± 14.9); Dirofilaria immitis 1.3% (0.4-3.1) and 5.6 ( ± 2.1); Oslerus osleri 0.3% (0.0-1.6) and 5 ( ± 0.0); Dipylidium caninum 44.9% (40.0-50.0) and 18.1 ( ± 27.7); Taenia spp. 6.9% (4.7-9.9) and 6.9 ( ± 7.1). There were no significant differences in prevalences observed either between female (68.5%) and male (76.8%) or between young (70.6%) and adult (74.2%) animals. No differences were observed in the ANOVA test for the mean intensity of infection of any of the parasites (P>0.05).

  10. Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1 to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%. The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development.

  11. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems.

  12. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-06-02

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats.

  13. Cytokine and chemokine responses to helminth and protozoan parasites and to fungus and mite allergens in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Christian J; Komander, Karl; Hegewald, Jana; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gantin, Richard G; Soboslay, Peter T; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Köhler, Carsten

    2013-07-15

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, endemic populations are often infected concurrently with several intestinal and intravascular helminth and protozoan parasites. A specific, balanced and, to an extent, protective immunity will develop over time in response to repeated parasite encounters, with immune responses initially being poorly adapted and non-protective. The cellular production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in response to helminth, protozoan antigens and ubiquitous allergens were studied in neonates, children, adults and the elderly. In children schistosomiasis prevailed (33%) while hookworm and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was found in up to half of adults and the elderly. Mansonella perstans filariasis was only present in adults (24%) and the elderly (25%). Two or more parasite infections were diagnosed in 41% of children, while such polyparasitism was present in 34% and 38% of adults and the elderly. Cytokine and chemokine production was distinctively inducible by parasite antigens; pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokine IL-19 was activated by Entamoeba and Ascaris antigens, being low in neonates and children while IL-19 production enhanced "stepwise" in adults and elderly. In contrast, highest production of MIP-1delta/CCL15 was present in neonates and children and inducible by Entamoeba-specific antigens only. Adults and the elderly had enhanced regulatory IL-27 cytokine responses, with Th2-type chemokines (MCP-4/CCL13, Eotaxin-2/CCL24) and cytokines (IL-33) being notably inducible by helminth- and Entamoeba-specific antigens and fungus-derived allergens. The lower cellular responsiveness in neonates and children highlighted the development of a parasite-specific cellular response profile in response to repeated episodes of exposure and re-infection. Following repeated exposure to parasites, and as a consequence of host inability to prevent or eliminate intestinal helminth or protozoa infections, a repertoire of immune responses

  14. Parasite-derived microRNAs in host serum as novel biomarkers of helminth infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Hoy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection.We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to profile miRNA expression in the livers of mice infected with S. mansoni at 7 weeks post-infection. Thirty-three mouse miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected compared to naïve mice (>2 fold change, p<0.05 including miR-199a-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-214 and miR-21, which have previously been associated with liver fibrosis in other settings. Five of the mouse miRNAs were also significantly elevated in serum by twelve weeks post-infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from serum confirmed the presence of these miRNAs and further revealed eleven parasite-derived miRNAs that were detectable by eight weeks post infection. Analysis of host and parasite miRNA abundance by qRT-PCR was extended to serum of patients from low and high infection sites in Zimbabwe and Uganda. The host-derived miRNAs failed to distinguish uninfected from infected individuals. However, analysis of three of the parasite-derived miRNAs (miR-277, miR-3479-3p and bantam could detect infected individuals from low and high infection intensity sites with specificity/sensitivity values of 89%/80% and 80%/90%, respectively.This work identifies parasite-derived miRNAs as novel markers of S. mansoni infection in both mice and humans, with the potential to be used with existing techniques to improve S. mansoni diagnosis. In contrast, although host miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver during infection their abundance levels in serum are variable in human patients and may be useful in cases of extreme pathology but likely hold limited value for detecting prevalence of infection.

  15. Parasite-Derived MicroRNAs in Host Serum As Novel Biomarkers of Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anna M.; Lundie, Rachel J.; Ivens, Alasdair; Quintana, Juan F.; Nausch, Norman; Forster, Thorsten; Jones, Frances; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Buck, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methods/Principal Findings We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to profile miRNA expression in the livers of mice infected with S. mansoni at 7 weeks post-infection. Thirty-three mouse miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected compared to naïve mice (>2 fold change, p<0.05) including miR-199a-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-214 and miR-21, which have previously been associated with liver fibrosis in other settings. Five of the mouse miRNAs were also significantly elevated in serum by twelve weeks post-infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from serum confirmed the presence of these miRNAs and further revealed eleven parasite-derived miRNAs that were detectable by eight weeks post infection. Analysis of host and parasite miRNA abundance by qRT-PCR was extended to serum of patients from low and high infection sites in Zimbabwe and Uganda. The host-derived miRNAs failed to distinguish uninfected from infected individuals. However, analysis of three of the parasite-derived miRNAs (miR-277, miR-3479-3p and bantam) could detect infected individuals from low and high infection intensity sites with specificity/sensitivity values of 89%/80% and 80%/90%, respectively. Conclusions This work identifies parasite-derived miRNAs as novel markers of S. mansoni infection in both mice and humans, with the potential to be used with existing techniques to improve S. mansoni diagnosis. In contrast, although host miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver during infection their abundance levels in serum are variable in human patients and may be useful in cases of extreme pathology but likely hold limited value for detecting prevalence of infection. PMID:24587461

  16. Helminth Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park

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    G.B. Shrikhande

    Full Text Available The health status of Zoo animals varies with different factors such as management, feeding, environment, sanitation and season. The fecal sample of two male and three female white tiger, Four male and three female tiger and one female Wolf was examined for parasites as per standard technique. The faecal sample of one white tiger was found positive for Spirometra sp., Faecal sample of six tigers were positive for Toxoascaris sp. and fecal sample one wolf was positive for Paragonimus sp. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 207-207

  17. Parasitas gastrointestinais em cães institucionalizados no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Intestinal parasitic helminths in institutionalized dogs of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de parasitas gastrointestinais em cães recolhidos e mantidos em instituto público de medicina veterinária no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Amostras de fezes frescas foram coletadas em março de 2004 e analisadas pelos métodos de flutuação de Willis e centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose. De 204 amostras, 45,6% estavam positivas para helmintos gastrointestinais.The occurrence of intestinal parasitic helminths in dogs from a public institute of veterinary medicine in Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Samples of fresh feces were collected in March 2004 and analyzed by Willis and centrifugal-flotation in sucrose solution methods. Of 204 samples, 45.6% were positive for helminths.

  18. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park.

  19. Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Taylor B; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason P; Clark, Richard J; Miles, John J

    2017-01-01

    Helminths have evolved to become experts at subverting immune surveillance. Through potent and persistent immune tempering, helminths can remain undetected in human tissues for decades. Redirecting the immunomodulating "talents" of helminths to treat inflammatory human diseases is receiving intensive interest. Here, we review therapies using live parasitic worms, worm secretions, and worm-derived synthetic molecules to treat autoimmune disease. We review helminth therapy in both mouse models and clinical trials and discuss what is known on mechanisms of action. We also highlight current progress in characterizing promising new immunomodulatory molecules found in excretory/secretory products of helminths and their potential use as immunotherapies for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  20. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  1. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, in the Chihuahuan Desert of Mexico: inventory and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    As part of an ongoing inventory of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes in Mexico, 570 individual fish were collected between Apr 2008 and Oct 2011 in 26 localities along the Cuatro Ciénegas region in Coahuila State, northern Mexico. Seventeen species of hosts, mostly corresponding to Nearctic freshwater elements, were studied. A total of 8324 individual worms were collected during this survey, representing 25 species of helminths, of which 9 were digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, 9 nematodes and 1 cestode. Most of the records in this checklist represent new host or locality records. The information provided in this checklist may be helpful for our understanding of the biodiversity and historical biogeography of this host-parasite system, because in the Cuatro Ciénegas region occur a Nearctic freshwater fish fauna, along with Neotropical and endemic elements, and from a biogeographical point of view, this may represent a transitional area. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

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    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  3. Helminth parasites of atherinopsid freshwater fishes (Osteichthyes: Atheriniformes from central Mexico Helmintos parásitos de aterinópsidos de agua dulce (Osteichthyes: Atheriniformes del centro de México

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    Georgina Lira-Guerrero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Between May 1997 and September 1998, 270 atherinopsids belonging to 7 fish species were analyzed for helminths in 6 lakes located in central Mexico. In addition, a database with all the available previous records of helminth parasites of atherinopsids was built. Based on both information sources, we analyze the composition of the helminth fauna parasitizing atherinopsid freshwater fishes from central Mexico, in order to determine some general species compositional patterns. The helminth fauna parasitizing this fish family in central Mexico is composed by 10 digeneans, 13 cestodes, 1 acanthocephalan, and 8 nematodes (24 of them as larval stage. Individual species richness ranged from 1 to 22 helminth species. Feeding habits of the hosts are identified as the main factor in determining helminth species composition (22 of them are acquired through ingestion. Helminth species composition of almost all host species was dominated by generalist helminth species. Only 2 specialist species were found: Allocreadium mexicanum and Spinitectus osorioi, representing the core helminth fauna of this group of fishes. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the parasite fauna in freshwater fishes is largely circumscribed by higher levels of monophyletic host taxa.Entre mayo de 1997 y septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron 270 aterinópsidos pertenecientes a 7 especies de peces en busca de helmintos, en 6 lagos del centro de México. Basados en esta información y en los registros previos sobre helmintos en este grupo de hospederos, se construyó una base de datos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar dicha información, para establecer algunos patrones generales acerca de la composición de los helmintos que los parasitan. Treinta y dos especies de helmintos infectan a los peces de esta familia (10 digéneos, 13 cestodos, 1 acantocefalo y 8 nematodos, 24 de ellas en estado larvario. Los hábitos alimenticios de los aterinópsidos determinan la composici

  4. Helmintos parásitos de Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Lima, Perú Helminth parasites of Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Lima, Peru

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    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.

  5. Helminth infections and intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian Wang; Yue Cao; Hai Ning Shi

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates an inverse correlation between the incidence of certain immune-mediated diseases,including inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD),and exposure to helminths.Helminth parasites are the classic inducers of Th2 responses.The Th2-polarized T cell response driven by helminth infection has been linked to the attenuation of some damaging Th1 driven inflammatory responses,preventing some Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases in the host,including experimentally induced colitis.Helminth parasites(the porcine whipworm,Trichurissuis)have been tested for treating IBD patients,resulting in clinical amelioration of the disease.As a result,there is a great deal of interest in the research community in exploring the therapeutic use of helminth parasites for the control of immune-mediated diseases,including IBD.However,recent studies have provided evidence indicating the exacerbating effects of helminths on bacterial as well as non-infectious colitis in animal models.Therefore,a better understanding of mechanisms by which helminths modulate host immune responses in the gut may reveal novel,more effective and safer approaches to helminth-based therapy of IBD.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  6. Helminth parasites of Natal long-fingered bats, Miniopterus natalensis (Chiroptera : Miniopteridae, in South Africa : research communication

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    K. Junker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminth community infecting Miniopterus natalensis was studied at two localities, the De Hoop Nature Reserve (DHNR (n = 57, Western Cape Province and Pretoria (n = 12, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Hosts from the DHNR had formed part of an earlier, unrelated study and were all pregnant females. A single hymenolepidid cestode species, the nematodes Molinostrongylus ornatus and Litomosa chiropterorum together with nematodes of the subfamily Capillariinae were present at both study sites, while a single digenean, Allassogonoporus sp., was only found in hosts from the DHNR. The prevalence of helminth infections was high at both localities, 68.4 % in the DHNR and 77.7 % in Pretoria, whereas the mean intensity of infection was low at the DHNR (3.76 ± 3.15, but higher in Pretoria (10.4 ± 9.9. Molinostrongylus ornatus and, to a lesser extent L. chiropterorum, were the main contributors to the higher intensities in Pretoria. The species richness ranged from 0 to 4 at both localities.

  7. Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Miles

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminths have evolved to become experts at subverting immune surveillance. Through potent and persistent immune tempering, helminths can remain undetected in human tissues for decades. Redirecting the immunomodulating “talents” of helminths to treat inflammatory human diseases is receiving intensive interest. Here, we review therapies using live parasitic worms, worm secretions, and worm-derived synthetic molecules to treat autoimmune disease. We review helminth therapy in both mouse models and clinical trials and discuss what is known on mechanisms of action. We also highlight current progress in characterizing promising new immunomodulatory molecules found in excretory/secretory products of helminths and their potential use as immunotherapies for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack.

  9. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Brennan, Gerard P.; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular “machinery” required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack. PMID:26486420

  10. [Experimental investigations on the effectiveness of fenbendazole in parasitic helminths of the stomach, intestines and lung of cattle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düwel, D; Kirsch, R

    1975-01-01

    Helminth-free bulls were injected artificially with Ostertagia ostertagi (120 000 L3), Cooperia oncophora (240000 L3), Haemonchus spec. (1 000 L3) and/or Dictyocaulus viviparus (60 L3/kg) orally or intraruminally. The animals were treated with fenbendazole during the prepatent period or after having reached maturity. The effect of 5 mg fenbendazole/kg p.o. on 3-d, 10-d- and adult stages of Ostertagia ostertagi, Haemonchus spec. and Cooperia oncophora ranges between less than 94% and 100%. Particularly noticeable was the effect on 10-d-old Ostertagia ostertagi with less than 94%. 5 mg/kg fenbendazole orally removed nearly 100% of 6-d-, 13-d-, and adult stages of Dictyocaulus viviparus. Fenbendazole may be administered as a drench or as medicated feed. The safety of the compound permits the administration of excessively high doses without clinical signs.

  11. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  12. Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to

  13. Patterns of association, nestedness, and species co-occurrence of helminth parasites in the greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and the Etosha National Park, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellis, K Joel; Negovetich, N J; Esch, G W; Horak, I G; Boomker, J

    2003-10-01

    The helminth parasites of the greater kudu from the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and the Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, were examined to determine the major patterns of spatial and demographic variation in community structure and to evaluate nonrandomness in parasite community assembly. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination procedures were used to test for differences in parasite community composition between hosts of the 2 parks and between hosts of different demographic groups within KNP. Infracommunities within KNP were also examined for patterns of nonrandomness using 2 null models, i.e., nestedness and species co-occurrence. Infracommunities of KNP and ENP were significantly different from each other, as were infracommunities of different host demographic groups within KNP. Parasite species in the greater kudu from KNP displayed significant levels of nestedness and were found to co-occur less frequently than expected by chance; however, this lack of co-occurrence was significant only when all demographic groups were considered. When restricted to any particular age class, co-occurrence patterns could not be distinguished from random. Overall, these data suggest that biogeography and host demographics are important factors in determining community organization of helminth parasites in the greater kudu.

  14. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths in raccoons in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, Amy E; Henke, Scott E; Pence, Danny B

    2009-01-01

    Raccoons (n=590) were collected from October 1999 to August 2003 from 35 counties across Texas, and gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth parasites. Prevalence was calculated and differences in mean abundance were examined among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes. Twenty different species of helminths (13 nematodes, two cestodes, two acanthocephalans, and three trematodes) were positively identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of 590 raccoons in Texas. Five of the 20 helminth species collected (Physaloptera rara, Placoconus lotoris, Molineus barbatus, Atriotaenia procyonis, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens) had a prevalence >20%. The total number of individuals of these five species (n=22,777) accounted for over 86% of the total number of individuals of all helminth species (n=26,426) collected. Subsequent analyses were based on these five helminths. Mean abundance differed among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes for all five parasites evaluated. This study is the most comprehensive statewide survey ever done of gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons across Texas. The five most prevalent helminths identified have all been reported in at least one previous survey, indicating that these parasites are not new to Texas and that raccoons are not naïve to the effects these parasites have on them. It may be helpful to wildlife rehabilitators, trappers, wildlife biologists, and other professionals to be aware of parasite abundance in raccoons from different areas of the state, as frequent human-raccoon interactions occur, and some of these parasites could be harmful to humans and domestic animals.

  16. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  17. Helminth infections and allergies in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoah, Abena Serwaa

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a global rise in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders. Several epidemiological studies conducted in countries endemic for parasitic worms (helminths) have reported an inverse association between the presence of helminth infections and allergic d

  18. Extracellular Vesicles from a Helminth Parasite Suppress Macrophage Activation and Constitute an Effective Vaccine for Protective Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Gillian; McCaskill, Jana L; Borger, Jessica G; Simbari, Fabio; Robertson, Elaine; Millar, Marissa; Harcus, Yvonne; McSorley, Henry J; Maizels, Rick M; Buck, Amy H

    2017-05-23

    Recent studies have demonstrated that many parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet little is known about the specific interactions of EVs with immune cells or their functions during infection. We show that EVs secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are internalized by macrophages and modulate their activation. EV internalization causes downregulation of type 1 and type 2 immune-response-associated molecules (IL-6 and TNF, and Ym1 and RELMα) and inhibits expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit ST2. Co-incubation with EV antibodies abrogated suppression of alternative activation and was associated with increased co-localization of the EVs with lysosomes. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with EV-alum generated protective immunity against larval challenge, highlighting an important role in vivo. In contrast, ST2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to infection, and they are unable to clear parasites following EV vaccination. Hence, macrophage activation and the IL-33 pathway are targeted by H. polygyrus EVs, while neutralization of EV function facilitates parasite expulsion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  20. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  1. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  2. Helminth Parasites of Conventionally Maintained Laboratory Mice: II- Inbred Strains with an Adaptation of the Anal Swab Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide Gonçalves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens recovered from inbred mice strains, namely C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10, CBA, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He, conventionally maintained in two institutional animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed and compared, regarding their prevalences and mean intensities.Three parasite species were observed: the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata and the cestode Vampirolepis nana. A modification of the anal swab technique is also proposed for the first time as an auxiliary tool for the detection of oxyurid eggs in mice

  3. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multicellular organism that is generally visible to the naked eye in its adult stages. Helminths can be ... with parasites such as Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium . (Also see " coccidian " and " sporulation .") Back To Top P Parasite: ...

  5. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  6. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  7. [Helminths in chickens in Sudan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khawad; el-Badawi; Eisa, A M

    1977-09-01

    The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens, 6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found: Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as polyinfections.

  8. Occurrence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths inZenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847 trap-captured from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Taroda

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths from naturally infected Zenaida auriculatacaptured in Londrina, Paraná State. Two hundred and one Eared doves were trapped and the gastrointestinal and renal helminths were collected and identified according to morphological structures. One hundred and sixteen (57.71% doves were parasitized by helminths with specific prevalences forOrnithostrongylus quadriradiatus in 50 doves (24.88%,Ascaridia columbae in 47 (23.38%, Paratanaisia bragai and P. confusa in 34 (16.92%,Tetrameres fissispina in 17 (8.46%, Synhimantus nasuta in 14 (6.47%, Brachylaima mazzantii in 4 (1.99% and Raillietina allomyodes in 2 doves (1.00%. Seventy four/201 (37.00% birds were infected with only one species, and 96/201 (48.00% pigeons were infected with nematodes. The association between different classes of helminths occurred in 40/201 (20.00% animals. The results showed statistically differences between the presence of nematode (p = 0.00001 and trematode species (p ≤ 0.05 in the doves, and there was an association between the local of capture and the presence of trematodes and A. columbae (p ≤ 0.05. This study is the first to report the infection of Z. auriculata from Brazil with O. quadriradiatus, A. columbae, T. fissispina, S. nasuta, R. allomyodes, P. bragai and P. confusa.

  9. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  10. Resistência parasitária em helmintos de eqüídeos e propostas de manejo Parasite resistance on helminths of equids and management proposal’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Beltrão Molento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os eqüinos apresentam uma grande variedade de parasitas em sua fauna helmíntica, e algumas espécies/gêneros são de relevada importância, como: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. e Strongylus spp. O controle destas infecções depende principalmente da utilização de produtos antiparasitários de forma supressiva ou estratégica e, em menor escala, de forma curativa. O tratamento supressivo é o fator mais importante na promoção da seleção de organismos resistentes, prejudicando a sustentabilidade de qualquer programa sanitário. As formas de detecção da resistência parasitária são onerosas e as mais comuns expressam resultados imprecisos. Entretanto, estas técnicas servem para monitorar a evolução e determinar os organismos envolvidos. A combinação de drogas é uma ferramenta que deve ser utilizada com muita cautela, pois esta alternativa não garante uma redução significativa de organismos resistentes aos compostos envolvidos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar formas de planejamento que auxiliem a melhorar a condição sanitária, o bem-estar dos animais e preserve o efeito tóxico dos produtos antiparasitários.Equines harbour a variety of parasitic organisms on their helminth fauna and there are a few species/genus of interest, such as: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. and Strongylus spp. The control of these infections relies mostly on the suppressive or strategic usage of antiparasitic compounds, and to a less extent on curative/salvage treatments. Suppressive treatment is the most important factor regarding the selection of resistant organisms, causing the impairment of sanitary programs. Detection methods of parasite resistance are expensive and the most common ones express variable results. Although, these techniques allow monitoring the evolution and the determination of which organisms are involved. Drug combination is a

  11. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  12. Role of T cell TGF beta signaling in intestinal cytokine responses and helminthic immune modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonization with helminthic parasites down-regulates inflammation in murine colitis and improves activity scores in human inflammatory bowel disease. Helminths induce mucosal regulatory T cells, which are important for intestinal immunologic homeostasis. Regulatory T cell function involves cytoki...

  13. Parasitic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  14. Helminths of the digestive tract in Buteo buteo (Falconiformes: Falconidae) in Bursa Province of Northwest Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL, Mehmet; GİRİŞGİN, Ahmet Onur; BİRLİK, SEZEN; YILDIRIMHAN, HİKMET SAMİ; ŞENLİK, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Raptors can be parasitized by numerous helminth species due to their feeding behavior. When the parasite load is high, the bird's life can be affected. A total of 21 common buzzards, Buteo buteo, from different districts of Bursa, in Northwest Turkey, were examined for helminth infections. The results of the postmortem examination revealed that 15 of 21 buzzards (71.43%) harbored 1 or more helminth species. Seven species/genera of helminths were detected at the following prevalence r...

  15. Research Progress on Serine Proteinase Inhibitor(Serpin)in Parasitic Helminth%寄生性蠕虫丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖文燕; 王君玮; 付宝权

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor,also called Serpin belongs to a proteinase enzymes distributed ubiquitously in organisms. The construction,function of Serpins and the research progress on Serpins in parasitic helminthes were briefly reviewed in this article,pointing out that Serpin could be the candidate molecule in parasitic helminth diagnostics and vaccine.%丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂(Serpin)是一种蛋白水解酶,广泛存在于生物体中。本文论述了丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂的分类、结构、功能及在寄生性蠕虫中的研究进展。指出通过对Serpin的研究,有望使其作为寄生性蠕虫病诊断和疫苗的候选分子,为寄生性蠕虫病防治奠定基础。

  16. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, D.I.; Bray, R.A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B.B.; Scholz, T.; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pojmanska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, A.; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, F.; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E.T.; de Jong, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  17. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, D.I.; Bray, R.A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B.B.; Scholz, T.; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pojmanska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, A.; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, F.; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E.T.; de Jong, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fa

  18. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  19. Glycoconjugates in host-helminth interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Salinger Prasanphanich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development and diagnostics.

  20. Glycoconjugates in Host-Helminth Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development, and diagnostics. PMID:24009607

  1. The Analysis of Community Ecology of Parasitic Helminths of Domestic Waterfowl in Longyan City, Fujian%龙岩市家养水禽寄生蠕虫的群落生态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永康

    2011-01-01

    2008-2010年对闽西山区(龙岩市所辖的7个县市区)进行家养水禽寄生蠕虫的种类调查,剖检309只水禽,其中阳性水禽202只,共检出寄生于家养水禽体内的蠕虫18种.统计结果:寄生蠕虫总感染率达到65.37%,各种寄生蠕虫的感染程度不同,感染率和感染强度位居首位的是裂刺四棱线虫,分别达到46.93%和13.46条(虫),其次是卷棘口吸虫、美丽膜壳绦虫、福建单睾绦虫,其感染率和感染强度分别为10.68%和10.12条、10.68%和6.58条、9.06%和6.36条.感染率和感染强度最小的是细背孔吸虫和大多形棘头虫,其感染率和感染强度分别为0.32%和1.00条、0.97%和1.67条,其余12种寄生蠕虫的居于一般程度的感染状态.阳性水禽以同时感染1~3种寄生蠕虫的情况较为普遍.在寄生蠕虫群落中,优势种为裂刺四棱线虫和卷棘口吸虫,次优势种为美丽膜壳绦虫、福建单睾绦虫、冠双盔绦虫、鸭对体吸虫、似椎低颈吸虫、分歧单睾绦虫、楔形前殖吸虫、东方次睾吸虫、鸭瓣口线虫、台湾束首线虫.除了细背孔吸虫和大多形棘头虫属于随机分布外,其他16种蠕虫属于聚集分布.%After the random sample of 309 domesticated waterfowl were anatomied and checked in Longyan City, where is in western mountainous areas of Fujian Province from 2008-2010, the results showed that there were 18 species of parasitic helminth were checked in 202 positive domestic waterfowl, which the infection rate of parasitic helminth was 65.37% .There was more differences bescause everyone parasitic helminth infected different levels in domestic waterfowl. The highest infection rate and intensity were Tetrameres fissispinus, the infection rate and intensity of which were 46.93% and 13.46 individual, respectively. The second were Echinostoma revolution, Hymenolepis venusta and Aploparaksis fukienensis, the infection rate of which were 10.68%, 10.68% and 9.06%, and the

  2. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  3. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths infections in children in São Tomé and Príncipe: do we think Giardia when addressing parasite control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Baptista-Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Dinamene; Rodrigues, Rúben; Neves, Edgar; Lima, António; Garrido, Eduardo; Afonso, Guilherme; Zaky, Ahmed; Telles de Freitas, Paulo; Atouguia, Jorge; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis prevalence is commonly as high as soil-transmitted helminths (STH), nevertheless is not considered for large-scale chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA) due to its short incubation period and frequent reinfections, its control being associated to improving access to water and sanitation. A study enrolling 444 children attending preschools was conducted in May 2011 during a deworming campaign. Faecal samples were obtained and analysed through microscopy of wet mounting and after Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques. The majority of children were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite (86.7%, 385 of 444). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (56.3%, 250 of 444 and 52.5%, 233 of 444, respectively) were the most frequent parasites followed by G. duodenalis infecting 41.7% (185 of 444) of the children. The present work aimed at obtaining updated information concerning intestinal parasite infections in children attending preschools in São Tomé and Príncipe and to contribute for the adequate management of the enteric infections.

  4. [Check list of the helminths in the respiratory system of domesticated animals in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay

    2006-01-01

    Helminths of the respiratory system make up an important part of the parasitic diseases found in domestic animals. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on these helminths in Turkey. In this article, a check list and the prevalence rates of helminths of respiratory system found in domestic animals in Turkey has been given.

  5. [Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei in Transbaikalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepina, N A; Baldanova, D R

    2010-01-01

    Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei from Transbaikalia has been studied in 2003-2007. Eleven species of parasites Nematoda were found in this host, namely Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Oswaldocruzia yezoensis Morishita, 1926, Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Raphidascaris acus, larvae, Aplectana acuminata (Schrank, 1788), Aplectana multipapillosa Ivanitzky, 1940, Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), Cosmocercoids pulcher (Wilkie, 1930), and Spiroxis contortus (Rudolphi, 1819). Morhometric characters of the helminthes are given. Parasites belonging to Monogenea, Cestoda, Trematoda, and Acanthocephala were not found in 382 examined specimens of Bufo raddei.

  6. Helminths of introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Brazil: does population age affect parasite richness? Helmintos de pardais (Passer domesticus introduzidos no Brasil: a idade da população afeta a riqueza de parasitos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Calegaro-Marques

    Full Text Available Species introductions have altered host and parasite diversity throughout the world. In the case of introduced hosts, population age appears to be a good predictor of parasite richness. Habitat alteration is another variable that may impact host-parasite interactions by affecting the availability of intermediate hosts. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a good model to test these predictions. It was introduced in several parts of the world and can be found across rural-urban gradients. A total of 160 house sparrows from Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were necropsied. Thirty house sparrows (19 % were parasitized with at least one out of five helminth species (Digenea: Tamerlania inopina Freitas, 1951 and Eumegacetes sp.; Eucestoda: Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907 Fuhrmann, 1932; Nematoda: Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 and Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi Strom, 1937. Overall, there was no difference in prevalence and intensity of infection of any parasite species, parasite richness and community diversity between adult males and females and adults and juveniles. The number of infected sparrows among seasons, the richness of helminths and the abundance of species were also similar between rural and urban landscapes. Only the prevalence of C. passerina varied seasonally (p=0.0007. A decrease in the number of parasite species from the original range of P. domesticus (13 to its port of entrance in Brazil, the city of Rio de Janeiro (nine, to Porto Alegre (five is compatible with the hypothesis that host population age is a good predictor of parasite richness.A introdução de espécies tem alterado a diversidade dos parasitos e seus hospedeiros em todo o mundo. No caso dos hospedeiros introduzidos, a idade da população parece ser um bom preditor da riqueza parasitária. A alteração do habitat é outra variável que pode ter impacto sobre as interações parasito-hospedeiro, pois

  7. An overview of the Helminth fauna of Anserini

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents a listing of helminthes from Anserini based on numerous studies. Provides a description of parasite locations within reported hosts. Provides a way to...

  8. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  9. Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. C. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  10. A Survey of Gastrointestinal Helminthes of Local Chickens in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State

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    Edem Effiong Asukwo Offiong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural Poultry as practiced by the rural population is both for consumption and for income generation during festive seasons. The practice of allowing the birds to scavenge for food in the neighbourhood exposes them to disease. This research was an active surveillance of worms which parasitize these rural birds using saturated the salt floatation method. Two hundred sterile samples of the faeces of 200 rural birds were collected randomly from 10 villages in Abak Local government Area. These were transported immediately for analysis in the laboratory using floatation method with saturated salt solution. Viewing with X10 microscope it was discovered that out of the 200 samples examined for helminthes, Ascaris gallinarium was found in 92 samples or (46%, Heterakis Spp was seen with 62 0r 31% positions, Capillaria Spp was 58 or 29% and Strongyles Spp was 46 or 23%. The least was Raillietina Spp which was found in only 22 (11%. This study to the best of my knowledge is the first attempt to research into the types of worm parasites found in local birds, though it has been conducted in other parts of Nigeria and the World over. It was concluded that there is a light prevalence of helminthes in Abak in rural birds, which will lead to high loses. This we advice for educate the rural community in better husbandry practice to preserve the rural poultry population.

  11. Polyclonal and Specific Antibodies Mediate Protective Immunity against Enteric Helminth Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, Kathy D.; Stoel, Maaike; Stettler, Rebecca; Merky, Patrick; Fink, Katja; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schaer, Corinne; Massacand, Joanna; Oderrnatt, Bernhard; Oettgen, Hans C.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Hengartner, Hans; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-helminth immunity involves CD4(+) T cells, yet the precise effector mechanisms responsible for parasite killing or expulsion remain elusive. We now report an essential role for antibodies in mediating immunity against the enteric helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), a natural murine parasit

  12. Freqüência de helmintos em gatos de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Frequency of helminthes parasites in cats of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.D. Mundim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Necropsies in 50 cats, males and females of different ages were performed from August 2000 to December 2001. Forty five (90% of them had parasites. Eleven cats (22% had single infection, 34 (75.6% multiple infection, and only 5 (10% were free of infection. The parasitic frequencies were as follow: Platynosomum fastosum (40%, Ancylostoma braziliensis (38%, Physaloptera praeputialis (34%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (18%, Dipylidium caninum (14%, Ancylostoma caninum (14%, Toxocara mistax (14%, Toxocara canis (10%, Trichuris campanula (6%, Toxascaris leonina (4%, Spirometra mansonoides (4%, Taenia taeniaeformis (4% e Trichuris vulpis (2%.

  13. Dog-associated husbandry practices favouring the spread of zoonotic pathogens with reference to helminth and arthropod parasites in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N jong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the most common animal species kept around households and are also known to be source of diseases of importance to human health. The aim of this study was to determine some characteristics of dog population and husbandry practices that favour the spread of zoonotic parasites in Yaounde, Cameroon. Three hundred and twenty-two households owning at least one dog were recruited into the study. Information on dog and household characteristics as well as potential risk factors for the transmission of dog-related zoonotic parasites was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Over three-quarters of the households (76% owned one dog each while 62% (200/322 kept dogs strictly for security reasons. Eighty four per cent (270/322 of the dogs owned were of local breed type and dominated by male dogs (64%. Twenty five per cent (80/320 of households left their dogs permanently free while 84% (240/320 declared negligence in disposing dog’s faeces. Dogs in 35.5% (114/320 of the households rarely or have never been consulted by a veterinarian. Although 242 (75% respondents were aware of zoonotic diseases, only 51 (21% of these knew parasites from dogs may infect human beings. The provision of a defecation site for dogs and access to living quarters were associated with household head’s level of education and care taker category, respectively. The current dog husbandry practices in Yaounde are likely to favour the spread of dog-related zoonotic diseases. Further investigations to determine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites, educational intervention as well as routine veterinary care are necessary to reduce the risk exposures to zoonotic parasites from dogs.  

  14. Acquired immune heterogeneity and its sources in human helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, C D; Maizels, R M; Mutapi, F

    2011-02-01

    Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The 'trade-off' between immunity and immunopathology inherent in host immune responses occurs on a background of genetic polymorphism, variable exposure patterns and infection history. For the parasite, variation in life-cycle and antigen expression can influence the effector responses directed against them. This is particularly apparent when comparing gastrointestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths. Furthermore, insights into the impact of anti-helminthic treatment and co-infection on acquired immunity suggest that immune heterogeneity arises not from hosts and parasites in isolation, but also from the environment in which immune responses develop. Large-scale differences observed in the epidemiology of human helminthiases are a product of complex host-parasite-environment interactions which, given potential for exposure to parasite antigens in utero, can arise even before a parasite interacts with its human host. This review summarizes key differences identified in human acquired immune responses to nematode and trematode infections of public health importance and explores the factors contributing to these variations.

  15. Notes on helminth parasites of tuna fishes (Scombridae in Brazil Notas sobre los helmintos parásitos del atún (Scombridae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.

  16. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  17. [Modulation of inflammatory cells in helminth infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F

    1997-01-01

    In this review, different mechanisms by which helminthic parasites modulate the activities of inflammatory cells are considered. Examples are presented of parasitic products interfering with lymphocytes and their products such as antibodies, then modifying both regulation and effector response of the immune system. Furthermore, examples of interference on the complement system are illustrated. Parasites such as Ancylostoma caninum produce factors such as the neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) capable of inhibiting the neutrophil-endothelium adhesion, whereas Trichinella spiralis produces a glycoprotein, the 45gp, which inhibits different neutrophil functions. Parasites are also able to modulate the function of the monocytes-macrophages which in some infections play a crucial role; the modulation of NO synthesis is also relevant to the host-parasite relationship. Finally, the different anti-oxidant systems of helminthic parasites are described. The comprehension of such evasion mechanisms of the immune response is necessary to develop vaccines and new drugs, but it is also useful to clarify the contribution of parasites to immune system evolution.

  18. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  19. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres,Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.04.020 Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of di...

  20. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Native Turkeys in Amol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RanjbarBahadory Sh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.

  1. SmSak, the second Polo-like kinase of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni: conserved and unexpected roles in meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavy Long

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinases (Plks are a family of conserved regulators of a variety of events throughout the cell cycle, expanded from one Plk in yeast to five Plks in mammals (Plk1-5. Plk1 is the best characterized member of the Plk family, homolog to the founding member Polo of Drosophila, and plays a major role in cell cycle progression by triggering G2/M transition. Plk4/Sak (for Snk (Serum-inducible kinase akin kinase is a unique member of the family, structurally distinct from other Plk members, with essential functions in centriole duplication. The genome of the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni contains only two Plk genes encoding SmPlk1 and SmSak. SmPlk1 has been shown already to be required for gametogenesis and parasite reproduction. In this work, in situ hybridization indicated that the structurally conserved Plk4 protein, SmSak, was largely expressed in schistosome female ovary and vitellarium. Expression of SmSak in Xenopus oocytes confirmed its Plk4 conserved function in centriole amplification. Moreover, analysis of the function of SmSak in meiosis progression of G2-blocked Xenopus oocytes indicated that, in contrast to SmPlk1, SmSak cannot induce G2/M transition in the absence of endogenous Plk1 (Plx1. Unexpectedly, meiosis progression was spontaneously observed in Plx1-depleted oocytes co-expressing SmSak and SmPlk1. Molecular interaction between SmSak and SmPlk1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins. These data indicate that Plk1 and Plk4 proteins have the potential to interact and cross-activate in cells, thus attributing for the first time a potential role of Plk4 proteins in meiosis/mitosis entry. This unexpected role of SmSak in meiosis could be relevant to further consider the function of this novel Plk in schistosome reproduction.

  2. Sclerodistomoides pacificus Kamegai, 1971 (Sclerodistomoididae Gibson & Bray, 1979) and Tetrochetus coryphaenae Yamaguti, 1934 (Accacoeliidae Odhner, 1911), two rarely reported digeneans from Tylosurus acus imperialis (Rafinesque) (Belonidae), and a list of helminth parasites of Tylosurus acus (Lacépède).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-05-01

    Two rarely reported digenean parasites are redescribed: Sclerodistomoides pacificus Kamegai, 1971 (Sclerodistomoididae Gibson & Bray, 1979) from the gall bladder and Tetrochetus coryphaenae Yamaguti, 1934 (Accacoeliidae Odhner, 1911) from the digestive tract of the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Rafinesque) off Tunisia. Sclerodistomoides pacificus and T. coryphaenae represent new host and geographical records for T. a. imperialis off the Tunisian coast. A complete list of the helminth parasites found in T. a. imperialis and those reported from other subspecies of Tylosurus acus (Lacépède) throughout their wide distributional range is presented. It includes data for T. a. acus (Lacépède), T. a. imperialis, T. a. melanotus (Bleeker) and T. a. rafale Collette & Parin and comprises 46 parasite taxa. Among these, 15 species were recorded from T. a. imperialis off Tunisia.

  3. Spatial variability of helminth parasites and evidence for stock discrimination in the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847), off the coast of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, M; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2016-05-01

    Three digeneans - Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910), Aphanurus stossichii (Monticelli, 1891) and Lecithochirium sp. - and one tetraphyllidean cestode larva were used as biological tags to discriminate the stock of Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847). In total, 579 fish were examined in five zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte and Kelibia in the north, Mahdia in the east, Gabes and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses used for the separation of S. aurita allowed for the identification of two discrete stocks. Sardinella aurita from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis clumped together as a single stock. Parahemiurus merus and A. stossichii were the most important species in determining the location of sampled fish from these regions. Specimens from Mahdia and Gabes were grouped as one stock characterized by the presence of Lecithochirium sp. and larvae of the Tetraphyllidea. These results were corroborated by comparing the parameters of prevalence and mean abundance of parasites among zones. The separation of S. aurita between localities after pooling specimens from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis and separately pooling those from Mahdia and Gabes also allowed the identification of two discrete stocks, one in offshore waters from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis characterized by the digeneans P. merus and A. stossichii and one in inshore waters from Mahdia and Gabes characterized by Lechithochirium sp. and tetraphyllidean larvae.

  4. Helminth infection during pregnancy: insights from evolutionary ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell AD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aaron D Blackwell Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract: Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Here, I review studies of helminth infections during pregnancy, and ask the following questions: Do helminths affect maternal health or pregnancy outcomes? Are there consequences of maternal infection for infants? What are the effects of antihelminth treatment during pregnancy? The evidence suggests that the answers to these questions depend on the particular helminth species in question, maternal nutritional status, and the presence or absence of comorbid infection with other species, such as malaria. Moreover, there may also be unexpected consequences of treatment, as maternal infections can affect the priming of infant immune systems, with potential effects on infants later in life. These complex interactions suggest that a consideration of the evolutionary history of human–helminth interactions, as well as the ecological context of infections, can help to clarify an understanding of these host–parasite interactions and provide direction for future investigations. Keywords: review, helminths, pregnancy, filariasis, schistosomiasis

  5. Pattern of parasitic infections in anurans from a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminth parasites of anurans from Ijala Ikeren, a mangrove-contiguous ... and the other in the mucosa of stomach) and an unidentified intestinal nematode. ... a low diversity of amphibians which habour a low number of parasite species, ...

  6. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guernier, Vanina; Brennan, Bradley; Yakob, Laith; Milinovich, Gabriel; Clements, Archie C. A; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J

    2017-01-01

    .... We put forward the hypothesis that gastrointestinal infections with parasitic worms, such as helminths, induce an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, which, in turn, can detrimentally manifest in brain development...

  7. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Moreau

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  8. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  9. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  10. Helminth genomics: The implications for human health.

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    Paul J Brindley

    Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.

  11. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  12. Intestinal parasites in HIV-seropositive patients in the Continental Region of Equatorial Guinea: its relation with socio-demographic, health and immune systems factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive people and its association with clinical and socioeconomic factors has been investigated on the mainland of Equatorial Guinea, in order to define the precise measures for improvement of their quality of life. In August 2010, 273 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative were recruited. A sample of faeces, T-CD4+ cell counts, and clinical, socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from each patient. Stool samples were analysed by microscopy and immunochromatography. Data were analysed by Pearson's χ2 test and the risk of each factor was measured by odds ratio bivariate analysis. Two hundred and ten (76.9%) HIV-positive participants were infected by intestinal parasites and 16 parasite species were identified; 246 (48.9%) were pathogenic helminths, 159 (22.9%) pathogenic protozoa and 142 (28.2%) opportunistic protozoa. Trichuris trichiura, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia duodenalis were the most prevalent parasites; 52 (86.7%) of HIV-negative participants were parasitized. HIV was related to co-infection by Entamoeba spp., E. nana and Blastocystis hominis. The high rates of parasitic infections found highlights the urgent need of environmental sanitation, health education and water distribution actions, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasites.

  13. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoono...

  14. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela

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    Viviana Salas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni, 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa, and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle. This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70% and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research.

  15. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Brennan, Bradley; Yakob, Laith; Milinovich, Gabriel; Clements, Archie C A; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J

    2017-01-10

    Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. We put forward the hypothesis that gastrointestinal infections with parasitic worms, such as helminths, induce an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, which, in turn, can detrimentally manifest in brain development. Factors supporting this hypothesis are: 1) research focusing on intelligence and school performance in school-aged children has shown helminth infections to be associated with cognitive impairment, 2) disturbances in gut microbiota have been shown to be associated with important cognitive developmental effects, and 3) helminth infections have been shown to alter the gut microbiota structure. Evidence on the complex interactions between extrinsic (parasite) and intrinsic (host-derived) factors has been synthesised and discussed. While evidence in favour of the helminth-gut microbiota-central nervous system hypothesis is circumstantial, it would be unwise to rule it out as a possible mechanism by which gastrointestinal helminth infections induce childhood cognitive morbidity. Further empirical studies are necessary to test an indirect effect of helminth infections on the modulation of mood and behaviour through its effects on the gut microbiota.

  16. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Nausch; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Nicholas Midzi; Takafira Mduluza; Francisca Mutapi

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Understanding how immune responses are generated is critical for vaccine development. There are comparatively few studies on the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system in generating protective immune responses. Infections with helminth parasites, a cause of neglected tropical diseases, have a huge collective impact on public health in affected developing countries. Helminths are associated with a complex type 2 immune response mediated by cytokines characterist...

  17. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  18. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHODS......: A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized...... to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. RESULTS: Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly...

  19. Neuropeptides in helminths: occurrence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Nikki J; Maule, Aaron G

    2010-01-01

    Nematode neuropeptide systems comprise an exceptionally complex array of approximately 250 peptidic signaling molecules that operate within a structurally simple nervous system of approximately 300 neurons. A relatively complete picture of the neuropeptide complement is available for Caenorhabditis elegans, with 30 flp, 38 ins and 43 nlp genes having been documented; accumulating evidence indicates similar complexity in parasitic nematodes from clades I, III, IV and V. In contrast, the picture for parasitic platyhelminths is less clear, with the limited peptide sequence data available providing concrete evidence for only FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) and neuropeptide F (NPF) signaling systems, each of which only comprises one or two peptides. With the completion of the Schmidtea meditteranea and Schistosoma mansoni genome projects and expressed sequence tag datasets for other flatworm parasites becoming available, the time is ripe for a detailed reanalysis ofneuropeptide signalingin flatworms. Although the actual neuropeptides provide limited obvious value as targets for chemotherapeutic-based control strategies, they do highlight the signaling systems present in these helminths and provide tools for the discovery of more amenable targets such as neuropeptide receptors or neuropeptide processing enzymes. Also, they offer opportunities to evaluate the potential of their associated signaling pathways as targets through RNA interference (RNAi)-based, target validation strategies. Currently, within both helminth phyla, theflp signaling systems appear to merit further investigation as they are intrinsically linked with motor function, a proven target for successful anti-parasitics; it is clear that some nematode NLPs also play a role in motor function and could have similar appeal. At this time, it is unclear if flatworm NPF and nematode INS peptides operate in pathways that have utility for parasite control. Clearly, RNAi-based validation could be a starting point for

  20. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  1. Chemistry and pharmacology of neglected helminthic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllner, A; Helfer, A; Kotlyar, D; Oswald, J; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Neglected helminthic diseases cause many social, economic and health care challenges in developing countries. The high number of patients suffering from these parasitic infections and the lack of sufficient treatment options represent severe problems. Research on new drugs and therapies to meet this urgent requirement has to be intensified. This review focuses on infections caused by four helminthic parasites, which have been declared as neglected diseases by the World Health Organization: namely drancunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchoceriasis, and schistosomiasis. They show a considerable overlap in their world-wide prevalence and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, treatment is not without complications. The most efficient lymphatic filariasis drug, diethylcarbamazine, causes severe adverse effects in onchocerciasis patients and completely fails in the treatment of drancunculiasis. In this review, we discuss these incongruities at the molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, established or investigational drug combination regimens are highlighted. In the past years, progress has been made in the area of schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis. The molecular biology of underlying mechanisms, signalling pathways and related targets affected by drug therapy are discussed in detail. Finally, successful treatment strategies and remaining future challenges are summarized.

  2. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-09-03

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.

  3. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, RL; Smith, JL; Jasrasaria, R; Brooker, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use di...

  4. Helminth communities of four commercially important fish species from Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Vidal-Martínez, V M; González-Solís, D; Caballero, P I

    2007-03-01

    The relative importance of ecology and evolution as factors determining species richness and composition of the helminth communities of fish is a matter of current debate. Theoretical studies use host-parasite lists, but these do not include studies on a temporal or spatial scale. Local environmental conditions and host biological characteristics are shown to influence helminth species richness and composition in four fish species (Eugerres plumieri, Hexanematichthys assimilis, Oligoplites saurus, and Scomberomorus maculatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. With the exception of H. assimilis, the helminth communities had not been previously studied and possible associations between environmental and host biological characteristics as factors determining helminth species richness and composition using redundancy analysis (RDA) are described. Thirty-four helminth species are identified, with the highest number of species (19 total (mean = 6.3 +/- 2.1)) and the lowest (9 (4.0 +/- 1.0)) occurring in H. assimilis and S. maculatus, respectively. The larval nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were not only the helminth species shared by all four host species but also were the most prevalent and abundant. Statistical associations between helminth community parameters and local ecological variables such as host habitat use, feeding habits, mobility, and time of residence in coastal lagoons are identified. Phylogeny is important because it clearly separates all four host species by their specialist parasites, although specific habitat and feeding habits also significantly influence the differentiation between the four fish species.

  5. Helminths isolated from the digestive tract of diurnal raptors in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, D; Molina, R; Adelantado, C; Kinsella, J M

    2004-01-03

    The prevalence of parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of 119 diurnal raptors (Falconiformes), which had died in a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Catalonia, was studied. The birds belonged to 13 species, with 100 of them (84 per cent) being kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). Ninety-five of the birds (79.8 per cent) were infected with helminths. Nematodes were the most frequently found helminth (75.6 per cent), followed by trematodes, cestodes and ancanthocephalans. All the buzzards and sparrowhawks and 92 per cent of the goshawks were infected, but only 59 per cent of the kestrels were infected.

  6. Composición taxonómica de los helmintos parásitos de ictalúridos y heptaptéridos (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes de México, con una hipótesis de homología biogeográfica primaria Taxonomic composition of the helminth parasites of ictalurids and heptapterids (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes in Mexico, with a hypothesis of biogeographical primary homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rosas-Valdez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ictaluridae y Heptapteridae (Siluriformes son 2 familias de peces dulceacuícolas de origen neártico y neotropical, respectivamente, distribuidas en México. Esto genera un interés particular en el estudio de sus helmintos parásitos desde el punto de vista biogeográfico. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo presentar la información bibliográfica así como los resultados del trabajo de campo realizado en los últimos años, sobre los helmintos parásitos de estos peces y utilizar dicha información para describir patrones de estas asociaciones huésped-parásito que contribuyan al entendimiento de su historia biogeográfica. En conjunto, ambas familias de peces están parasitadas por 89 especies de helmintos, incluyendo 49 en estado adulto y 40 formas larvarias, y sólo 2 se presentan en ambos estados. Se utilizó el análisis de trazos (panbiogeografía para analizar la distribución de 16 de estas especies, con el objeto de generar una hipótesis biogeográfica de la asociación. La hipótesis señala que los asociados tienen una historia biogeográfica en común y en el caso de algunas especies de Ictalurus, la composición taxonómica de sus helmintos es resultado, en parte, de los eventos de especiación de sus huéspedes. También se corrobora el patrón observado en relación con los helmintos de peces dulceacuícolas de México, sobre la circunscripción de ciertas especies de helmintos a sus respectivas familias de huéspedes y el intercambio limitado entre ellos, aun ocurriendo en simpatría.Ictaluridae and Heptapteridae (Siluriformes are 2 families of freshwater fishes distributed in Mexico, with a nearctic and neotropical origin, respectively. This generates a particular interest in the study of its parasitic helminths from the biogeographical point of view. In this study we present a checklist of the helminth parasites of these freshwater fishes, obtained from bibliographical sources as well as field work conducted during

  7. Richness and diversity of helminth communities in tropical freshwater fishes: Empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Dick, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Published information on the richness and diversity of helminth parasite communities in tropical freshwater fishes is reviewed in response to expectations of species-rich parasite communities in tropical regions. Location: Areas covered include the tropics and some subtropical areas. In addition, the north temperate area of the nearctic zone is included for comparison. Methods: Data from 159 communities in 118 species of tropical freshwater fish, summarized from 46 published studies, were used for this review. Parasite community descriptors used in the analyses included component community richness and calculated mean species richness. Data from 130 communities in 47 species of nearctic north temperate freshwater fish were summarized from 31 studies and used for comparison. Results: The component helminth communities of many tropical freshwater fish are species-poor, and considerable proportions of fish from certain parts of the tropics, e.g. West African drainages, are uninfected or lightly infected. Mean helminth species richness was low and equaled or exceeded 2.0 in only 22 of 114 communities. No single group of helminths was identified as a dominant component of the fauna and species composition was variable among and within broader geographical areas. The richest enteric helminth assemblages were found in mochokid and clariid catfish with a mixed carnivorous diet, whereas algal feeders, herbivores and detritivores generally had species-poor gut helminth communities. Comparisons indicated that certain areas in the north temperate region had higher helminth species richness in fishes than areas in the tropics. Main conclusions: Expectations of high species richness in helminth communities of tropical freshwater fishes are not fulfilled by the data. Direct comparisons of infracommunities and component communities in host species across widely separated phylogenetic and geographical lines are inappropriate. Examination of latitudinal differences in richness

  8. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

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    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  9. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields.

  10. A cross analysis of proficiency at detecting helminths: The 2012 national competition parasitic disease control%2012年全国寄生虫病防治技术竞赛成绩分析报告:蠕虫检测能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧炜; 李石柱; 张丽; 王强; 付青; 柳伟; 诸廷俊; 陈颖丹; 祝红庆

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the overall proficiency with which personnel at different levels detect helminths at institutions working to control parasitic diseases and to improve the overall ability to detect helminthiasis.Methods Competitors were teams of 4 personnel from institutions to control parasitic diseases in each province (competitors had not participated in the 2011 competition,<45 years of age,and at least 2 were from county-level institutions).The competition included preparing slides of stool samples using the Kato-Katz method and identifying common helminth eggs (Schistosoma japonicum,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura,Enterobius vermicularis,Clonorchis sinensis,and Paragonimus westermani) using microscopy.Results One hundred and twenty competitors from 30 provinces had an average score for slide preparation of 6.9 points (perfect score:10.0 points).One hundred and two of the competitors passed,accounting for 85.00 %.This figure decreased from the passing rate in 2011.The average score for microscopic identification of common helminth eggs was 23.0 points (perfect score:50.0 points).Thirty-eight competitors passed,accounting for 31.67%.This figure increased from the passing rate in 2011 (P<0.05).The rate of helminth detection was 53.38% on average,but Taenia solium and Fasciolopsis buski were detected at the low rates of 48.51% and 39.08%.Competitors did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in terms of gender,age,job title,institutional level,or district (P>0.05).Competitors from provinces engaged in schistosomiasis control had better results (P<0.05) for slide preparation and microscopic identification of common helminth eggs compared to competitors from other provinces.Conclusion The overall level of proficiency at detecting parasitic diseases was low.Furthermore,results indicated significant differences in proficiency at identifying different species of parasites.Therefore,awareness of key parasitic diseases must be heightened

  11. Effects of Parasitic Infections on Erythrocyte Indices of Camels in Nigeria

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    Jalailudeen Lawal Rabana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and effect of parasitic infection on erythrocyte indices in trade camels slaughtered in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Two hundred adult one humped camels comprised of 87 (43.5 % males and 113 (56.5 % females were examined for helminths and hemoparasites at their slaughter time according to the standard procedures. An overall prevalence of 79 % for single and mixed infections was observed. Examination of faecal samples from camels shows 82 (41 % were harbouring different nematodes, mostly Strongyle, Strongyloides and Hemonchus species. Buffy coat and thin smear examination of blood samples showed Babesia and Anaplasma species. More females (44.5 % than males (34.5 % were positive for various parasitic infections. But the percentage was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Packed cell volume (PCV, mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red blood cell counts were significantly (P < 0.01 affected in the infected camels compared to the non-infected ones. Parasite infection in camels leads to macrocytic anaemia.

  12. Human lagochilascariasis-A rare helminthic disease.

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    Dulcinea Maria Barbosa Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariasis is a parasitic disease caused by a helminth of the order Ascaroidea, genus Lagochilascaris that comprises 6 species, among which only Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909, is implicated in the human form of the disease. It is remarkable that the majority of cases of human lagochilascariasis in the Americas have been reported in Brazil. The natural definitive hosts of this parasite seem to be wild felines and canines. Lagochilascariasis is mostly a chronic human disease that can persist for several years, in which the parasite burrows into the subcutaneous tissues of the neck, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid. L. minor exhibits remarkable ability to migrate through the tissues of its hosts, destroying even bone tissue. Fatal cases have been described in which the parasite was found in the lungs or central nervous system. Treatment is often palliative, with recurrence of lesions. This paper summarizes the main features of the disease and its etiologic agent, including prevalence, life cycle, clinical course, and treatment.

  13. Frequency and intensity of infection by helminths in cattle slaughtered at the abattior, of the northwest of region state of São Paulo, Brazil/ Freqüência e intensidade parasitária de helmintos gastrintestinais em bovinos abatidos em frigorífico da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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    Luis Gustavo Ferraz Lima

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitary gastrointestinal helminths frequency and intensity were studied in 48 female bovines, with different zebu and taurine crossbreeding degrees, ages ranging between 24 and 30 months, from eight counties in the Northwest of São Paulo State, slaughtered at Frigorífico Montenegro, Araçatuba, São Paulo (Brazil and four animals were monthly necropsied over one year. The identified gastrointestinal helminth species were: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus similis, Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Among the 48 animals, 21 (43,8% were carrying Haemonchus spp. The Haemonchus similis and the Haemonchus placei species were identified isolated at an equivalent rate (10,4%, being simultaneous infection registered in 22,9% of the cases. In small intestine, 26 bovines (54,2% showed Cooperia punctata. Ten male Cooperia pectinata were identified in only one bovine that also carried 310 Cooperia punctata. In the large intestine, 20 bovines (41,7% showed Oesophagostomum radiatum. Mixed infections occurred in 52,1% of the animals, simple infections in 12%, and 22,9% of the bovines did not have gastrointestinal helminths.A freqüência e a intensidade parasitária de helmintos gastrintestinais foram estudadas em 48 bovinos, fêmeas, com diferentes graus de cruzamento de raças zebuínas e taurinas, de faixa etária entre 24 a 30 meses, provenientes de oito municípios da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo e abatidos no Frigorífico Montenegro, Araçatuba, SP, sacrificando-se quatro animais mensalmente, ao longo de um ano. As espécies de helmintos identificadas foram: Cooperia punctata, Cooperia pectinata, Haemonchus similis, Haemonchus placei e Oesophagostomum radiatum. Dos animais examinados, 21 (43,8% estavam parasitados por Haemonchus spp. As espécies H. similis e H. placei foram identificadas isoladamente em igual proporção (10,4% em dez bovinos, sendo que a infecção simultânea foi registrada em outros 11

  14. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    number of people who are exposed or infected worldwide. Carcinogenesis associated with helminth infections is a complex process, which may involve several different mechanisms, but chronic inflammation is a key feature. Host immune responses and immunopathological processes mediate inflammatory responses...... and any failure in the control of the immunological components involved in this response can lead to chronic inflammation. This may generate a microenvironment that might be conducive to the initiation and development of cancer. Inflammatory cells generate free radicals and nitrogen species, which can...

  15. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  16. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,

  17. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations, additio

  18. Immune regulation during parasitic infections : from bench to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, Linda Judith

    2013-01-01

    Helminth parasites are able to induce immune regulation in their host. Suppression of the host immune system is beneficial for both the parasite, by inhibiting anti-parasite immunity, and for the host, by preventing tissue damage due to excessive inflammation. There are indications that in countrie

  19. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

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    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  20. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E

    2013-03-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  1. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  2. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  3. Successful vaccination of immune suppressed recipients using Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines in helminth infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac; Paterson, Yvonne; Allen, Kelsey; Harn, Donald

    2013-04-12

    Vaccines for HIV, malaria and TB remain high priorities, especially for sub-Saharan populations. The question is: will vaccines currently in development for these diseases function in populations that have a high prevalence of helminth infection? Infection with helminth parasites causes immune suppression and a CD4+ Th2 skewing of the immune system, thereby impairing Th1-type vaccine efficacy. In this study, we conduct HIV vaccine trials in mice with and without chronic helminth infection to mimic the human vaccine recipient populations in Sub-Saharan Africa and other helminth parasite endemic regions of the world, as there is large overlap in global prevalence for HIV and helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate that Listeria monocytogenes functions as a vaccine vector to drive robust and functional HIV-specific cellular immune responses, irrespective of chronic helminth infection. This observation represents a significant advance in the field of vaccine research and underscores the concept that vaccines in the developmental pipeline should be effective in the target populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HelmCoP: an online resource for helminth functional genomics and drug and vaccine targets prioritization.

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    Sahar Abubucker

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes. Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of approaches will meet them all. New information such as helminth genomics, functional genomics and proteomics coupled with innovative bioinformatic approaches provide fundamental molecular information about these parasites, accelerating both basic research as well as development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and new drugs. To facilitate such studies we have developed an online resource, HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention, built by integrating functional, structural and comparative genomic data from plant, animal and human helminthes, to enable researchers to develop strategies for drug, vaccine and pesticide prioritization, while also providing a useful comparative genomics platform. HelmCoP encompasses genomic data from several hosts, including model organisms, along with a comprehensive suite of structural and functional annotations, to assist in comparative analyses and to study host-parasite interactions. The HelmCoP interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, allows users to search for multi-factorial combinations of properties and serves readily accessible information that will assist in the identification of various genes of interest. HelmCoP is publicly available at: http://www.nematode.net/helmcop.html.

  5. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

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    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  6. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

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    José M Correia da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g. oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc. metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e. urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.

  7. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Escobedo, Galileo; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells) is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells. PMID:22187522

  8. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nava-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  9. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment.

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    Norman Nausch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.

  10. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  11. Helminths of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia from a rock outcrop area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, L A; Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J

    2005-12-01

    The helminth fauna of 291 Hemidactylus mabouia (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) from a rock outcrop area in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. Five species were recovered, namely one unidentified species of centrorhynchid acanthocephalan (present only as cystacanths) and the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, P. largitor (Oxyuroidea: Pharingodonidae), Physaloptera sp. (Spiruroidea: Physalopteridae) and one indeterminate species of Acuariidae (Acuaroidea), with the latter two forms present only as larvae. Infection rates tended to increase with host size, but appeared to be unaffected by season. Hemidactylus mabouia shared most of its helminth fauna with two other sympatric lizard hosts, Mabuya frenata and Tropidurus itambere. The helminth assemblage of the H. mabouia population appears to have been entirely acquired by this exotic gecko from the local helminth species pool, rather than possessing any species from the parasite faunas of the original African populations.

  12. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  13. Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Estrada, A; Telletxea, I

    2003-06-01

    Between 1992 and 1996, 587 wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from 16 Spanish provinces were examined to study the variations of helminth communities in this game species across a broad geographical area. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites. Dicrocoelium sp.. Rhabdometra nigropunctata, and Cheilospirura gruweli were the most common species, whereas Raillietina bolivari, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Tetrameres sp., and Capillaria anatis were the most rare. Subulura suctoria, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis tenuicaudata, Capillaria contorta, Trichostrongylus tenuis, and Raillietina tetragona occurred with intermediate frequencies. The abundance of C. gruweli, S. suctoria, H. tenuicaudata, T. tenuis, and R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature, whereas the abundance of Dicrocoelium sp. was directly correlated to latitude and inversely correlated to yearly mean temperature. The abundance of R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and yearly mean humidity. The number of helminths per partridge and the number of helminth species per partridge were lower in young birds than in adults. Partridge body condition was inversely correlated to abundance of C. contorta. Richer infracommunities were linked to richer component communities. At the infracommunity level, total number of helminths per partridge and number of helminth species per partridge were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature. At the component community level, both species richness and diversity (Simpson's index) were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to mean temperature. Across the broad geographical range of the study area, the helminth parasite communities of red-legged partridges had marked geographical variation in their structure. Our results suggest that this variation is determined by the distribution of both intermediate and definitive hosts

  14. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

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    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  15. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  16. Prevalence of Helminth Infections in Dairy Animals of Nestle Milk Collection Areas of Punjab (Pakistan

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    M.K. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research project was to document the prevalent helminths of dairy animals of Nestle milk collection areas of Punjab (Pakistan. For this purpose, seven high milk-producing areas of Punjab province including Farooqa, Kot Adu, Dunya Pur, Layyah, Mor Mandi, Shorkot and Jalapur were selected. The animals were randomly selected and screened for parasitic eggs through standard coprological examination procedures. The helminth species found prevalent in the study areas included; Ascaris vitulorum, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Ostertagia circumcinta, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichostrongylus spp. The possible determinants associated with the prevalence of these parasites were also studied in this project. The results of this study provided a basic epidemiological data for planning a wide scaled helminth control program in the above-mentioned high producing areas of Pakistan.

  17. [The co-occurence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp. and helminth infections in small rodent populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Kuliś, Karolina; Siński, Edward

    2004-01-01

    During long-term (1998-2000) studies on rodent parasite populations in Mazury lake district there were collected and analyzed data on co-occurrence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp.) and helminths. There were performed 178 autopsies of common vole Microtus arvalis, 85 autopsies of yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and 386 autopsies of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. Positive effect of helminth infections was found in C. glareolus. Voles infected with nematode Heligmosomum mixtum showed higher prevalence of C. parvum and Giardia spp. than voles infected with Heligmosomoides glareoli. The host age took part in these interactions and positive effect of co-occurrence was mainly observed in voles older than 3 months. The other intrinsic (host sex) or extrinsic (season and year of study) factors influenced interactions between parasites. Presented results revealed that helminth infections may facilitate chronic infections of intestinal protozoa in rodent populations.

  18. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

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    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/- or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/- displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb, whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3 by macrophages (MΦ and myofibroblasts (MF within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  19. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  20. Heavy Metal Bioabsorption Capacity of Intestinal Helminths in Urban Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIMOORI, Salma; SABOUR YARAGHI, Aliakbar; MAKKI, Mahsa Sadat; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; NAZMARA, Shahrokh; ROKNI, Mohhamad Bagher; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; SALAHI MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; RAKHSHANPOUR, Arash; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues. Methods We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes —Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris). The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES). Results A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue) for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents. PMID:25988090

  1. Heavy metal bioabsorption capacity of intestinal helminths in urban rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Teimoori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues.We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes -Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris. The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES.A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively.This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents.

  2. The helminth fauna of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen species of birds of prey in Netherlands were examined for helminth parasites: Accipitriformes - Accipiter gentilis (15 birds), A. nisus (9), Aquila pomarina (1), Buteo buteo (56), B. lagopus (4), Circaetus gallicus (2), Circus aeruginosus (2), C. cyaneus (3), Pernis apivorus (5);

  3. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified

  4. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  5. Soil transmitted helminths and associated factors among schoolchildren in government and private primary school in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debalke, Serkadis; Worku, Amare; Jahur, Nejat; Mekonnen, Zeleke

    2013-11-01

    Soil transmitted helminth infections are among the most common human infections. They are distributed throughout the world with high prevalence rates in tropical and sub-tropical countries mainly because of lack of adequate sanitary facilities, inappropriate waste disposal systems, lack of safe water supply, and low socio-economic status. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to June 2012 to determine and assess the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and their associated factors among government and private primary school children. Stool samples were collected from 369 randomly selected children and examined microscopically for eggs of soil transmitted helminth following McMaster techniques. Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% respectively. T. trichiura was the most common soil transmitted helminth in both schools while hookworm infections were identified in government school students only. Type of school and sex were significantly associated with soil transmitted helminth. Soil contamination rate of the school compounds was 11.25% with predominant parasites of A. lumbricoides. Higher prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infection was found among government school students. Thus, more focus, on personal hygiene and sanitary facilities, should be given to children going to government schools.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites.

  7. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  8. Controle biológico de helmintos parasitos de animais: estágio atual e perspectivas futuras Biological control of helminth parasites of animals: current stage and future outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Mota

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico é um método desenvolvido para diminuir uma população de parasitas pela utilização de antagonista natural. A administração de fungos nematófagos aos animais domésticos é considerada uma promissora alternativa na profilaxia das helmintíases gastrintestinais parasitárias. Os fungos nematófagos desenvolvem estruturas em forma de armadilhas, responsáveis pela captura e destruição dos estágios infectantes dos nematóides. Os fungos dos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia e Monacrosporium têm demonstrado eficácia em experimentos laboratoriais e no campo no controle de parasitos de bovinos, eqüinos, ovinos e suínos. Diversas formulações fúngicas têm sido avaliadas, no entanto, ainda não há nenhum produto comercial disponível. A associação dos grupos de pesquisa e o envolvimento das indústrias poderão colaborar para o sucesso na implementação desta forma de controle.Biological control is a non-chemical alternative method with its main goal to reduce the amount of parasite population using natural antagonists. The administration of nematophagous fungi to animals has been considered an alternative in gastrointestinal helminthiasis prophylaxis. The nematophagous fungi produce trap-shaped structures, which are responsible for capturing and destroying the free-living stages of nematodes. The genera Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia and Monacrosporium has been shown efficacy in laboratory and field experiments against cattle, equine, ovine and swine parasites. Several fungi formulations have been evaluated, but there is so far no commercial product available. The association of research groups with industry could improve the successful implementation of this control method.

  9. Estudo comparativo dos helmintos parasitos de peixes do rio Mogi Guassu, coletados nas excursões realizadas entre 1927 e 1985 Comparative study of helminth parasites of fishes from Mogi Guassu river, collected during expeditions between 1927 and 1985

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    Anna Kohn

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho abrange o parasitismo por nematóides, acantocéfalos, trematódeos e cestóides de 1027 peixes pertencentes a 45 espécies do rio Mogi Guassu, examinados nos anos de 1927, 1946, 1947, 1962, 1983 e 1985, como uma contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna parasitária em 58 anos. São relacionadas 32 espécies de nematóides, 21 de trematódeos, três de acantocéfalos e duas de cestóides. São referidos novos hospedeiros para Cucullanus pinnai, Spirocamallanus inopinatus e Travnema travnema, para o trematódeo Pararhipidocotyle jeffersoni e para o acantocéfalo Gorytocephalus spectabilis. São apresentadas medidas adicionais de Creptotrema lynchi, tabelas, gráficos e a lista dos hospedeiros examinados e seus parasitos.This paper concerns the parasitism of Nematoda, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Cestoda from 1027 fishes of 45 species from Mogi Guassu river, examined in the years 1927, 1946, 1947, 1962, 1983 and 1985 as a contribution to the knowledge of the parasitological fauna in 58 years. Thirty two species of nematodes, 21 of trematodes, 3 of acanthocephalans and 2 of cestodes are reported. New hosts are presented for the nematodes Cucullanus pinnai, Spirocamallanus inopinatus and Travnema travnema, for the trematode Pararhipidocotyle jeffersoni and for the acanthocephalan Gorytocephalus spectabilis. New measurements for the trematode Creptotrema lynchy, tables, graphics and a list of the examined hosts with their parasites are presented.

  10. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  11. Symbiotic bacteria of helminths: what role may they play in ecosystems under anthropogenic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2016-11-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are a common feature of many animals, particularly invertebrates, from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These bacteria have increasingly been recognized as performing an important role in maintaining invertebrate health. Both ecto- and endoparasitic helminths have also been found to harbour a range of bacterial species which provide a similar function. The part symbiotic bacteria play in sustaining homeostasis of free-living invertebrates exposed to anthropogenic pressure (climate change, pollution), and the consequences to invertebrate populations when their symbionts succumb to poor environmental conditions, are increasingly important areas of research. Helminths are also susceptible to environmental stress and their symbiotic bacteria may be a key aspect of their responses to deteriorating conditions. This article summarizes the ecophysiological relationship helminths have with symbiotic bacteria and the role they play in maintaining a healthy parasite and the relevance of specific changes that occur in free-living invertebrate-bacteria interactions under anthropogenic pressure to helminths and their bacterial communities. It also discusses the importance of understanding the mechanistic sensitivity of helminth-bacteria relationships to environmental stress for comprehending the responses of parasites to challenging conditions.

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alamneh Abera; Endalkachew Nibret

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren inTilili town, northwestEthiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving385 schoolchildren was conducted betweenNovember2011 toFebruary2012.Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method.Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors.Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique.Data were analyzed usingSPSS16.0 statistical software.Results:Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of44.2%(170 of385 schoolchildren).The predominant parasites wereAscaris lumbricoides(A. lumbricoides)153(39.7%) andTrichuris trichiura(T. trichiura)30(7.8%).One hundred thirty five(35.1%) had single infectionsand35(9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which32(8.4%) were double infections and3(0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables.Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly(P<0.05).Conclusions: intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area.

  13. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon Mok; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

  14. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  15. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  16. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

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    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  17. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs.

  18. Development of prevention and treatment strategies for parasites in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic infections are likely to be more important in organic and other free-range hens than in birds kept indoors. Several workpackages of QLIF aim at improving prevention and therapy of helminth (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) and arthropod (Dermanyssus gallinae) parasites of laying hens. This paper is a summary of the work undertaken in the first 3 years of QLIF.

  19. Intestinal helminths of Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae from three environments in Yucatán (Mexico, with a checklist of its parasites in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region Helmintos intestinales de Lutjanus griseus (Peciformes: Lutjanidae recolectados en tres ambientes de Yucatán (México, con una lista de sus parásitos en las regiones del golfo de México y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Argáez-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of intestinal helminth parasites of the gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus, collected at the estuarine coastal lagoon of Celestún and off the coast of the localities of Chelem and Progreso (Yucatán, Mexico is presented together with a checklist of gray snapper intestinal helminths in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribben region. Twenty helminth species were found at the Yucatán localities. Eigth of these have previously been reported in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean region and 12 are new records for L. griseus, which increases the number of species recorded for gray snapper in the region to 44. Only 8 helminth species were recorded from fishes collected inside the coastal lagoon, while all 20 were found in fishes from offshore. Differences in species composition and infection parameters of each helminth species between both habitats are presented and discussed, together with similarities in species composition of the intestinal helminth fauna of L. griseus from Yucatán with those reported for the same host species in the Atlantic coast of USA, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean regions.En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del análisis helmintológico de los tractos digestivos de pargos Lutjanus griseus colectados en la laguna costera de Celestún y en la zona marina frente a las localidades de Chelem y Progreso (Yucatán, México junto con una lista de los helmintos intestinales registrados para esta especie de hospedero en el golfo de México y la región del Caribe. Veinte especies de helmintos fueron recuperadas en las localidades de Yucatán. Solamente 8 de éstas se han registrado previamente en el golfo de México y el mar Caribe. Doce especies de helmintos son nuevos registros para L. griseus, incrementando así a 44 el número de especies para este hospedero en la región. Solo 8 especies de helmintos se recuperaron de los peces colectados en la laguna costera, mientras que todas las 20 especies se encontraron en

  20. Parasites of wild houbara bustards in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Bailey, T A; Nothelfer, H B; Gibbons, L M; Samour, J H; Al Bowardi, M; Osborne, P

    1996-03-01

    Seven free-living houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueeni) wild-caught in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were examined for helminth parasites. Of five birds investigated post mortem, one was free of gastrointestinal helminths. Two other birds expelled worms following clinical examination and anthelmintic treatment. This is the first report of the parasites of free-living, as opposed to captive, houbara bastards in the UAE. In infested wild birds, fewer species of helminths were recovered than had been found in captive birds and those species present had also been found in captive houbaras. Despite heavy worm burdens, the infested birds were in good condition. Two species of cestodes (Otiditaenia conoideis, Hispaniolepis falsata), two of acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus lancea, Mediorhynchus taeniatus) and two of nematodes (Hartertia rotundata, Allodapa sp.) were recovered. Histopathological examination of tissue samples from the intestine of three birds revealed no significant pathological changes attributable to the presence of parasites but only localized responses at the sites of parasite attachment.

  1. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%).

  2. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Transmitted Helminth (STH infections in elementary school.Methods: A cross sectional study with purposive sampling method was carried out in a primary school children in a area of a Yogyakarta health Center from October to December 2009. Stool was examined by using the Kato Katz method and pupils were interviewed by questionnaires.Results: Two hundred and eleven subjects participated in this study, and 52 subjects (24.6% had STH infection. The most frequent STH infection was Trichuris trichiura, and the least was mixed infection (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hookworm. The highest risk (2.8-fold occurred among those with a habit of fingernail biting compared to those who did not bite fingernails [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 2.80; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.22-4.04]. No hand washing before meals as well as no hand washing with soap after passing stool also increased the risk of STH infection by 2.2-fold.Conclusion: Fingernail biting and no hand washing before meals as well as no hand washing with soap after passing stool increased the risk of STH infections. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6. 

  3. Enteric helminths of juvenile and adult wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in eastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Jared W; Applegate, Roger D; Zelmer, Derek A

    2003-01-01

    Viscera of 49 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) collected in the spring of 2001 and 23 wild turkeys collected in the fall and winter of 2001-02 from 12 counties in eastern Kansas were examined for enteric helminths. Four cestode species, two trematode species, one nematode species, and one acanthocephalan species were identified. Two cestode and two trematode species present in the spring sample also were present in the fall and winter sample. Parasite prevalence was similar to previous studies of enteric helminths of wild turkeys except for the low numbers of nematode species and individuals recovered in the present study.

  4. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination.

  5. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

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    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  7. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  8. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE AND INCIDENCE OF FOOD BORN HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN MAN, IN IRAN

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    H.A. Neshat

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.

  10. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  11. Patogenia da anemia na Ancilostomose: portadores de parasitos - relação entre a atividade do helminto e a deficiencia de ferro na genese da doença Pathogenesis of Anaemia in Hookworm Disease: Parasite carriers: - Relationship between the activity of the helminth and iron deficiency in the genesis of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-07-01

    parasite worm. Finally, the secondary action of the helminth is discussed with regard to the preponderant influence of food, laying stress on the essential importance of the richness of diet in iron.

  12. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zain Siti N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential

  13. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  14. Modern Sound of Themes “War” and “Peace” in the Poem "Two Hundred Ten Steps" By R. I. Rozhdestvenskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ya. Sipkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the thematic content of the poem "Two hundred and ten steps" by R.I. Rozhdestvenskiy in the context of the literary process of the 1970s. The scientific novelty of the test material is the first time in the domestic literary study one of the most important poems in the work of R.I.Rozhdestvenskiy. Chapter explores the poem on the themes of war and peace. The article reveals the moral and aesthetic principles of the poet, his attitude to topical issues of global importance.

  15. Helminths of the Lizard Salvator merianae (Squamata, Teiidae) in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A A M; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    The lizard Salvator merianae is a widely distributed species in South America, occurring from southern Amazonia to the eastern Andes and northern Patagonia. Studies on the parasitic fauna of this lizard have revealed that it is a host for helminths in various Brazilian biomes. The present work provides new parasitological data on the gastrointestinal nematodes associated with the lizard S. merianae. Sixteen specimens were analyzed from nine different locations in a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. Five species of nematodes were identified. Oswaldofilaria petersi was first recorded as a parasite of the S. merianae, thus increasing the knowledge of the fauna of parasites that infect large Neotropical lizards.

  16. Assessment of helminth biodiversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA based metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryusei; Hino, Akina; Tsai, Isheng J; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.

  17. Assessment of helminth biodiversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA based metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.

  18. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  19. This Gut Ain't Big Enough for Both of Us. Or Is It? Helminth-Microbiota Interactions in Veterinary Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Laura E; Jenkins, Timothy P; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2017-08-01

    Gastrointestinal helminth parasites share their habitat with a myriad of other organisms, that is, the commensal microbiota. Increasing evidence, particularly in humans and rodent models of helminth infection, points towards a multitude of interactions occurring between parasites and the gut microbiota, with a profound impact on both host immunity and metabolic potential. Despite this information, the exploration of the effects that parasite infections exert on populations of commensal gut microbes of veterinary species is a field of research in its infancy. In this article, we summarise studies that have contributed to current knowledge of helminth-microbiota interactions in species of veterinary interest, and identify possible avenues for future research in this area, which could include the exploitation of such relationships to improve parasite control and delay or prevent the development of anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2002-06-01

    Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns.

  1. Pathogenic helminths in the past: Much ado about nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long tradition on the extent to which Romanisation has improved human health, some recent studies suggest that Romanisation in general, and Roman sanitation in particular, may not have made people any healthier, given that in Roman times gastrointestinal parasites were apparently widespread, whilst in the present day such parasites rarely cause diseases. Unfortunately, this novel claim neglects the empirical evidence that worldwide infections in over 1.5 billion people are caused by ubiquitous foodborne nematodes. Therefore, many may wonder if fossil remains of soil-transmitted helminths have been reported in ancient sanitation infrastructures. Beneficial access to improved sanitation should always be prioritized, hence how can historical sanitation efforts have ever been harmful? In this short article, a strong plea for caution is given, asking for an augmented nematological record and showing that there is not any evidence against Roman sanitation, neither in the past nor in the present.

  2. Immunity to helminths: resistance, regulation, and susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grencis, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a highly successful group of pathogens that challenge the immune system in a manner distinct from rapidly replicating infectious agents. Of this group, roundworms (nematodes) that dwell in the intestines of humans and other animals are prevalent worldwide. Currently, more than one billion people are infected by at least one species, often for extended periods of time. Thus, host-protective immunity is rarely complete. The reasons for this are complex, but laboratory investigation of tractable model systems in which protective immunity is effective has provided a mechanistic understanding of resistance that is characterized almost universally by a type 2/T helper 2 response. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has also provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide.

  3. Iron deficiency anaemia associated with helminths and asymptomatic malaria infections among rural school children in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Olufemi Akanni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the relative contribution of causes of anaemia in the rural communities and evaluate the association between parasitic infections and anaemia. Methods: A total of 292 blood and stool samples of aged 1-15 years school children were collected and analyzed using direct smear saline preparation and concentration methods for examination of ova of parasites in the stool samples with thick and thin blood films stained using Giemsa and Leishman stains as described by World Health Organization. Serum was estimated using ELISA test kit by Syntron Bioresearch, Inc., USA. Results: The overall prevalence rate of parasitic infection was 66.4% with four species of intestinal helminth identified. Ascaris lubricoides (50.0% was the most common followed by hookworm (8.9%, Trichuris trichiura (6.2% and Schistosoma mansoni (1.4%. The mean haemoglobin level of plasmodium positive school children without intestinal helminth infection (10.8 g/dL was slightly higher than those with intestinal helminth (10.0 g/dL. The mean serum ferritin of plasmodium positive without intestinal helminth (23.7 g/L was also higher than those with helminth (22.5 g/ L and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Age and gender also made no significant differences in the distribution of the infections. However, there was a significant effect on weight and height by intestinal helminth infections (P<0.05. Conclusions: It is recommended that the public be adequately health educated on the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infection. A periodic mass treatment of school children with iron supplementation is advocated.

  4. The Helminths Causing Surgical or Endoscopic Abdominal Intervention: A Review Article

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    Erdal UYSAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helminths sometimes require surgical or endoscopic intervention. Helminths may cause acute abdomen, mechanical intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforation, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and appendicitis. This study aimed to determine the surgical diseases that helminths cause and to gather, analyze the case reports, case series and original articles about this topic in literature.Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective observational study. In order to determine the studies published in literature, the search limits in PubMed database were set to 1 Jan 1957 and 31 Mar 2016 (59 yr, and the articles regarding Helminth-Surgery-Endoscopy were taken into examination. Among 521 articles scanned, 337 specific ones were involved in this study.Results: The most common surgical pathology was found to be in Ascaris lumbricoides group. Enterobius vermicularis was found to be the parasite that caused highest amount of acute appendicitis. Anisakiasis was observed to seem mainly because of abdominal pain and mechanical intestinal obstruction. Strongyloides stercoraries causes duodenal pathologies such as duodenal obstruction and duodenitis. Taenia saginata comes into prominence with appendicitis and gastrointestinal perforations. Fasciola hepatica exhibits biliary tract involvement and causes common bile duct obstruction. Hookworms were observed to arise along with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and anemia. Trichuris trichiuria draws attention with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical intestinal obstruction.Conclusion: Helminths may lead to life-threatening clinic conditions such as acute abdomen, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, and hemorrhages. There is a relationship between surgery and helminths. It is very important for surgeons to consider and remember helminths in differential diagnoses during their daily routines.

  5. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  6. INFECTION RATE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF VARIOUS HELMINTHS IN GOATS IN AND AROUND LAHORE

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    M. IJAZ, M. S. KHAN, M. AVAIS, K. ASHRAF1, M. M. ALI AND SAIMA2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located in Lahore were examined coprologically for the presence of helminths. The result revealed that an overall infection rate of GIT helminths was 63.33% in goats. When compared the class wise infection rate, highest infection rate of nematodes (42.67% was observed, followed by trematodes (16.67% and cestodes (4%. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was observed to be 62, 96 and 98% at day 3, 7 and 14 of treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was higher than Albendazole (46, 83 and 94% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Lowest efficacy of garlic powder against helminth parasites was observed (13, 28 and 34% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. It was concluded that Ricobendazole is the most effective drugs against helminths in goats.

  7. Helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 in the south of Espírito Santo State in Brasil

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    Binoti E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to an inadequate knowledge about threats to the sea turtle, we aimed to evaluate the helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas which had died on the southern coast of Espirito Santo, Brasil and described the associated tissue pathological lesions. Retrospective and prospective studies on turtle parasites were conducted and tissues samples were collected. 106 of 212 of sea turtles (50 % were parasitized, and 47 of 106 of infected animals 43.0 % (47/106 were in poor health condition. Seven trematoda families covering 19 different helminths species were identified. Turtles were inhabited with one or more species of parasites, and there was no significant association between parasitism and weakness of the animals. Trematode eggs, with or without giant cells in tissues of various organs were observed.

  8. Livestock Helminths in a Changing Climate: Approaches and Restrictions to Meaningful Predictions

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    Ross S. Davidson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a driving force for livestock parasite risk. This is especially true for helminths including the nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Nematodirus battus, and the trematode Fasciola hepatica, since survival and development of free-living stages is chiefly affected by temperature and moisture. The paucity of long term predictions of helminth risk under climate change has driven us to explore optimal modelling approaches and identify current bottlenecks to generating meaningful predictions. We classify approaches as correlative or mechanistic, exploring their strengths and limitations. Climate is one aspect of a complex system and, at the farm level, husbandry has a dominant influence on helminth transmission. Continuing environmental change will necessitate the adoption of mitigation and adaptation strategies in husbandry. Long term predictive models need to have the architecture to incorporate these changes. Ultimately, an optimal modelling approach is likely to combine mechanistic processes and physiological thresholds with correlative bioclimatic modelling, incorporating changes in livestock husbandry and disease control. Irrespective of approach, the principal limitation to parasite predictions is the availability of active surveillance data and empirical data on physiological responses to climate variables. By combining improved empirical data and refined models with a broad view of the livestock system, robust projections of helminth risk can be developed.

  9. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminthes of canids in chaharmahal and bakhtiari province of iran.

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    Reza Nabavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal helminthic infections of canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, the central western part of Iran.Forty nine canid species including, dogs, jackals, foxes and wolves were included in this study. The contents of their alimentary canal were inspected in order to isolate and identify the parasitic helminthes of this system. To identify the worms, the Soulsbey and Anderson identification key and light microscopy were used.Based on necropsy findings, 35 (71.4% of examined animals were infected with at least one helminth. The prevalence of identified worms was as follows: Mesocestoides lineatus (55.1%, Joyeuxiella echinorinchoides (26.5%, Taenia hydatigena (12.2%, T. multiceps (8.2%, T. ovis (2%, Dipylidium caninum (2% and Spirura spp. (2%. No significant difference was noticed between the sampling areas, age and helminth infection. Only a significant difference was observed for prevalence of T. multiceps in wolf (25%, dog (21.4%, jackal and fox (0%, respectively (P < 0.05.The canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari harbor several parasites that some kind of them have zoonotic importance and may pose a threat to community health specially in rural areas.

  10. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran

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    Aida VAFAE ESLAHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran.Methods: Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs (Canis familiaris, 11 golden jackals (Canis aureus and 12 stray cats (Felis catus were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation.Results: About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66% were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophyma renale, Dipylidum caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera, Joyuxiella spp., Spirometra spp. are reported herein.Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, E. granulosus, D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.

  11. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Isabella M; Sebastian, Aswathy; Hao, Han; Katani, Robab; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračan, Romana; Buršić, Moira; Mladineo, Ivona; Kučinić, Mladen; Lazar, Bojan; Lacković, Gordana

    2012-07-25

    We analysed the intestinal helminth community of 70 loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with a curved carapace length ranging from 25 to 85.4 cm, recovered dead in neritic foraging habitats in the Adriatic Sea in 1995 to 2004. The overall prevalence of infection was high (70.0%), with a mean abundance of 36.8 helminth parasites per turtle. Helminth fauna comprised 5 trematodes (Calycodes anthos, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus) and 3 nematodes (Sulcascaris sulcata, Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium sp.), with 6 taxa specific for marine turtles. In terms of infection intensity and parasite abundance, O. amphiorchis was the dominant species (mean intensity: 49.8; mean abundance: 12.8), followed by R. gelatinosus (30.5 and 8.3, respectively) and P. irroratus (23.5 and 7.0, respectively), while larval Anisakis spp. exhibited the highest prevalence (34.3%). The intensity of helminth infection ranged from 1 to 302 (mean: 52.6 ± 69.1) and was not correlated with the size of turtles; this relationship held for all species, except R. gelatinosus (rS = 0.556, p sea turtles in recruited neritic grounds and the diversity of their benthic prey.

  13. Helminth fauna of Leptodactylus syphax (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Caatinga biome, northeastern Brazil.

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    Lins, Aline Gouveia de Souza; Aguiar, Aline; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Firmino da Silva, Lidiane Aparecida; Ávila, Robson Waldemar; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Leptodactylus syphax is distributed in central, southeastern and northeastern Brazil, eastern Bolivia and southern Paraguay, occupying open areas and rock outcrops, in rock cavities and termite burrows. We collected 21 frogs from the Caatinga region of the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil, and 7,021 helminths were recovered from 18 of these hosts (overall prevalence = 85.7%). Six helminth taxa were recovered, as follows: Aplectana membranosa (n = 3,756); Schrankiana formosula (n = 3,176); larvae of Physaloptera sp. (n = 43); unidentified nematode larvae (n = 7); digenean metacercariae of Lophosicyadiplostomum sp. (n = 2); and cystacanths of Acanthocephala (n = 37). The similarity of helminth composition between L. syphax from the Caatinga and other species of the L. fuscus group showed that some anurans were clustered according to parasite species and others according to geographic locality. This study presents new helminth records for the Neotropical region, thus helping in understanding the pattern of species distribution, and it increases the knowledge of parasites associated with amphibians.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes in owned dogs in Kerman city, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mirzaei; Majid Fooladi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To survey the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminthes in dogs presented to theVeterinary faculty of theUniversity ofKerman betweenMay andNovember2011.Methods:A total of70 fecal samples were evaluated by the fecal sedimentation method.Results:The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes was7.14%.The parasites most frequently detected were Toxocara canis (T. canis)(4.3%);Toxascaris leonina (T. leonina)(1.4%) andTeania spp.(1.4%). The age distribution of intestinal parasites in dogs showed that the dog less than1 year old had a higher overall prevalence than those dogs over12 months of age but there was not significant (P>0.05).Also there was no significant difference in the prevalence between male(7.7%) and female(6.5%) dogs(P>0.05).Conclusions:It is thought that the reduction in the frequency of the dogs with those helminthes may be mainly a result of the improvement in breeding environment and the routine use of antihelmintics.The significance of zoonotic diseases caused by intestinal helminthes makes it necessary for us to know the infection status of domestic dogs and to take measures for further control.It is concluded that veterinarians have an important role in educating dog owners of these potential risks and means forpreventing or minimizing zoonotic transmission.

  15. Strategic management of pastures to control helminths and coccidia of calves in organic systemAvaliação da carga parasitária de helmintos e protozoários em bezerros manejados em sistema orgânico

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    Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts elimination in calves’ feces kept in organic system production. The study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2009. Coproparasitological examinations were carried biweekly of 18 calves in pastures rotating system on Embrapa Agrobiology.The egg counting average data had been submitted to the Kruskal Willis test and the larvae counting percentile values to the qui-square test. The average counting of eggs per gram of faces (EGF varied of 250 the 800, characterizing low and moderate infection. Animals with inferior age the six months had presented superior results of EGF (P O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da eliminação de ovos de helmintos e protozoários nas fezes de bezerros mantidos em sistema orgânico de produção. De janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2009, foram realizados quinzenalmente exames coproparasitológicos de 18 bezerros manejados em sistema rotativo de pastagens na Embrapa Agrobiologia. Os dados médios de contagem de ovos foram submetidos ao teste de Kruskal Willis e os valores percentuais da contagem de larvas ao teste de qui-quadrado. A contagem média de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG variou de 250 a 800, caracterizando infecção leve a moderada. Animais com idade inferior a seis meses apresentaram OPG significativamente superiores (p<0,005 aos de faixa etária entre seis e doze meses. Os maiores graus de infecção foram observados no final da primavera e verão. Nos exames coprológicos foram identificados os seguintes gêneros: Haemonchus (73%, Trichostrongylus (24% e Oesophagostomum (3%. As práticas de manejo adotadas em sistema orgânico de produção foram capazes de manter os animais em níveis moderados de infecção por helmintos e protozoários, indicando que há controle parasitário pelo uso do sistema rotativo de pastos.

  16. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

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    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  17. Migratory CD103+ dendritic cells suppress Helminth-driven Type 2 immunity through constitutive expression of IL-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batf3-dependent CD103+ and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the development of type 1 immune responses. However, their role in type 2 immunity remains unclear. We found that Th2 cell responses were enhanced in Batf3-/- mice responding to helminth parasite antigens (Ag). As a r...

  18. Variation in the helminth community structure of Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in two sub-regions of the Brazilian Pantanal: the effects of land use and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R; Gentile, R; Rademaker, V; D'Andrea, P; Herrera, H; Freitas, T; Lanfredi, R; Maldonado, A

    2010-09-01

    The Pantanal is a large ecosystem located in South America. This preserved area is seasonally flooded due to abundant rainfall during the summer and the subsequent overflow of the Paraguai River. In this paper, we examine the helminth community structure in the wild rodent Thrichomys pachyurus during the wet and dry seasons in two locations of the preserved and cattle ranching areas in the Southern Pantanal. We identified 12 species of helminth, and, although we did not find any differences in species richness between locations within the Pantanal, we found that richness was higher during the wet season. Helminth species were largely aggregated in both farm locations and during seasons. The most common helminth species were more abundant during the dry season than during the wet season, which may have been due to the increased habitat availability and rodent population increase. The intensity of the infection also followed the same pattern for most helminths. The trichostrongylids (Heligmostrongylus crucifer, H. almeidai and Pudica cercomysi) were dominant at both farm locations. The land use of each area was not correlated with helminth diversity. However, species composition of the helminth community of T. pachyurus differed between locations and may be correlated with environmental differences between the habitats. The seasonality of the Pantanal was highly correlated with helminth parasitism in T. pachyurus.

  19. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  20. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, F Javier; Montero, Francisco E; Georgiev, Boyko B; Raga, Juan A

    2004-04-01

    We examined the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 2 Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, stranded on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Information regarding intestinal parasites of this species is provided for the first time. Six helminth taxa were identified. Thirty type II larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. were found in the stomach and the intestine of both hosts; 2 type I larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in the intestine of 1 host. One juvenile of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum was found in the intestine; the metacestode Scolex pleuronectis was found mainly in the terminal colon and the anal crypts of both hosts; adult cestodes of Tetrabothrius sp., which may represent a new species, were collected from the duodenum of 1 host. Composition of the intestinal parasitic community is similar to that of other oceanic cetaceans, which mostly include species of Bolbosoma and tetrabothriids (Cestoda).

  2. Mapping and modelling helminth infections in ruminants in Europe: experience from GLOWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014 funded under the European Commission’s (EC seventh framework programme (FP7. Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area.

  3. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.

  4. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation : consequences and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well

  5. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  6. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  7. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  8. Nitric Oxide and Respiratory Helminthic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Muro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology and in mammalian hosts. In this paper we review four issues related to interaction of NO and lung helminthic diseases. Firstly, we evaluated data available on the NO synthesis and release by helminths and their biological role. Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources. Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths. Lastly, the deleterious consequences of increased production of NO during helminthic human infection are detailed.

  9. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ditgen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed.

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Hembram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%, Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%, Raillietina tetragona (46.25%, Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%, and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%. Both single (19.15% as well as mixed (80.85% infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88% followed by winter (66.66% and least in summer season (41.81%. Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23% than males (56.67%. Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77% than adults (51.30% to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was observed.

  11. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  13. Intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and common dolphin Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ruth; Giovannini, Anna; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2013-06-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean. Eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans Synthesium tursionis, Brachycladium atlanticum, and Pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode Anisakis sp., and the cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri, Diphyllobothrium sp., Strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. Brachycladium atlanticum, S. triangularis , and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids are new host records. No T. forsteri had previously been reported in Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins. Three species of helminths were recorded in the common dolphin, i.e., the digenean Synthesium delamurei (which was a new host record), and the cestodes T. forsteri and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. The intestinal helminth communities of bottlenose and common dolphins are depauperate, similar to that of other cetacean species, but those from bottlenose dolphins harbored a higher number of helminth species. This study supports the notion that oceanic cetaceans, such as common dolphins, have a comparatively poorer helminth fauna than that of neritic species, such as bottlenose dolphins, because the likelihood of parasite recruitment is decreased.

  14. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird, Mus musculus (House Mice and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster: A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiholah ZAREI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran.Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites.Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8 %, Capillaria hepatica (18.1%, Syphacia frederici (14.2%, Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%, Trichuris rhombomidis (2%, Heligmosomom sp. (2%, Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%, Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%; Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6% Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3% tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%, Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%, Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%, Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%, and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%.Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health.

  15. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird), Mus musculus (House Mice) and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster): A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855

  16. Host-parasite interactions in the European shore crab Carcinus maenas and their implications for the invasion success of this introduced species

    OpenAIRE

    Zetlmeisl, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    In the invasive crab Carcinus maenas, parasite loss during its introduction was previously suggested as a main reason for invasion success. This hypothesis was examined by analysing parasite impacts on individual fitness. However, I found little support for it. Apart from the effect of parasitic castrators the crabs were mostly unaffected by the more common helminth parasites. A major regulatory role of parasites in the home range or parasite release during the invasion a...

  17. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  18. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  19. P-glycoprotein in helminths: function and perspectives for anthelmintic treatment and reversal of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Blackhall, William; Kaminsky, Ronald; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2003-09-01

    Infestation with parasitic helminths is a common problem in human populations of third world countries and is ubiquitous in livestock and other domestic animals. The cell-membrane efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), appears to contribute to anthelmintic resistance. Pgp have been identified from both phyla of parasitic helminths, Platyhelmintha and Nematoda, and alterations in expression levels and allele frequencies of Pgp in anthelmintic-resistant populations have been observed in nematodes. Localisation of Pgp has been studied in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus using specific monoclonal antibodies or lectins. Reversing agents used in human studies, such as the calcium-channel blocker verapamil (VPL), appear to have similar effects in helminths as they do in human cancer cells: the efficacy of drug treatment is increased in drug-resistant parasites when reversing agents are co-administered with the anthelmintic. The functional role of the Pgp glycosylation was also studied using a lectin specific for the alpha-mannosyl residues and showed that resistance can be associated with a decreased affinity of the lectin for Pgp sites and that up to 50% reversion in the resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) can be obtained using this lectin. Furthermore, the current knowledge on the role of Pgp in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in the parasitic protozoan genus Trypanosoma is discussed. In some Trypanosoma species it was shown that drug resistance was associated with reduced uptake and in other ones with increased efflux. Several trypanosome Pgp-coding sequences have been described. In contrast to earlier data, most recent observations, based on experimentally overexpressed Pgp in Trypanosoma brucei, indicate a possible involvement in the mechanism of drug resistance in this parasite.

  20. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia:a cross sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Aklilu Ambachew; Halima Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Results:Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0%(33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5%(9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9%and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (P< 0.000 1) higher aneamia prevalence compared to individuals without any infection. Conclusions:Prevalence of malaria and soil transmitted helminths is high and the disease is still major health problem in the study area. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H; Bakht, M; Saghafi, H; Shahsavari, T

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 5.92 %. Entamoeba coli was the most common parasite followed by Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis. About 5.15 % of samples contained a single parasite and 0.76 % contained multiple parasites. In this study, the prevalence of intestinal parasites especially helminthic infections was low. The study aimed to estimate prevalence of intestinal parasites in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran.

  2. Heavy metal pollution across sites affecting the intestinal helminth communities of the Egyptian lizard, Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M F M

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of heavy metal pollution across sites and some biological factors on helminth communities infecting the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. The possibility of heavy metal accumulation by such helminths was also investigated. A total of 202 C. ocellatus were collected from three different sites (industrial, rural, and urban systems) in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during summer 2009. The lizards were classified according to their sex and size and were examined for the intestinal helminths. Heavy metal levels were detected in the intestinal tissue of the lizards and the recovered helminths. Species richness was 6, 5, and 3 in rural, urban, and industrial systems, respectively. Significant site variations regarding infection prevalence, intensity, and abundance were encountered at different levels. Some noticeable effects of the host size were found. The significant differences found between the metal levels of the intestinal tissues and the recovered helminths and the other relations found in this study may be indications for a possible metals accumulation capacity by helminths. The cestode Oochoristica tuberculata could be a promising biomonitor for Cu and Pb, while the intestinal nematodes were less sensitive to the pollution. Differences in the accumulation capacity may be attributed to the intensity of infection, parasite species, and metal. The observed patterns of distribution and occurrence of helminths and the metals accumulation capacity reflect the need for more studies since this study proposes the model intestinal helminth/C. ocellatus as another promising bioindication system in the terrestrial habitat, especially in areas where the lizard C. ocellatus are available.

  3. Study on parasitic helminths infecting three fish species from Koka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 145 (46.0%) African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), and 73 (23.2%) Nile tilapia ... significant (P>0.05) relationship between infections and size (body length) categories. ... was detected in 11.34% of B. intermedius from intestine and body cavity.

  4. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  5. Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Meshkekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps. They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in the rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.After recognition of the helminthes' types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5% were female and 18(15% were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33% of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16% were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5% was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16% was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%, Heterakis spumosa (17.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (7.5% and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%. The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.

  6. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  7. Point-of-care mobile digital microscopy and deep learning for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Oscar; Linder, Nina; Ngasala, Billy; Mårtensson, Andreas; Linder, Ewert; Lundin, Mikael; Moilanen, Hannu; Suutala, Antti; Diwan, Vinod; Lundin, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Microscopy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of neglected tropical diseases. As resource limited, rural areas often lack laboratory equipment and trained personnel, new diagnostic techniques are needed. Low-cost, point-of-care imaging devices show potential in the diagnosis of these diseases. Novel, digital image analysis algorithms can be utilized to automate sample analysis. Evaluation of the imaging performance of a miniature digital microscopy scanner for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma haematobium, and training of a deep learning-based image analysis algorithm for automated detection of soil-transmitted helminths in the captured images. A total of 13 iodine-stained stool samples containing Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs and 4 urine samples containing Schistosoma haematobium were digitized using a reference whole slide-scanner and the mobile microscopy scanner. Parasites in the images were identified by visual examination and by analysis with a deep learning-based image analysis algorithm in the stool samples. Results were compared between the digital and visual analysis of the images showing helminth eggs. Parasite identification by visual analysis of digital slides captured with the mobile microscope was feasible for all analyzed parasites. Although the spatial resolution of the reference slide-scanner is higher, the resolution of the mobile microscope is sufficient for reliable identification and classification of all parasites studied. Digital image analysis of stool sample images captured with the mobile microscope showed high sensitivity for detection of all helminths studied (range of sensitivity = 83.3-100%) in the test set (n = 217) of manually labeled helminth eggs. In this proof-of-concept study, the imaging performance of a mobile, digital microscope was sufficient for visual detection of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma haematobium. Furthermore, we show that deep

  8. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  9. Detection of selected intestinal helminths and protozoa at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuni, M; Mohamed, Z; Ahmad, M; Zakaria, N Z; Noordin, R

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of a number of important human infections in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected helminths and protozoan infections among patients admitted with gastrointestinal disorders at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR. In addition microscopic examination was also performed following direct smear, zinc sulphate concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques; and the presence of protozoan parasites was confirmed using trichrome and acid-fast stains. Of the 225 faecal samples analysed, 26.2% were positive for intestinal parasites by the multiplex real-time PCR, while 5.3% were positive by microscopy. As compared to microscopy, the multiplex real-time PCR detected 5.8 and 4.5 times more positives for the selected helminth and protozoan infections respectively. Among the selected helminths detected in this study, hookworm was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, while Ascaris lumbricoides was detected the most by microscopy. Meanwhile, among the selected protozoa detected in this study, Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, however microscopy detected equal number of cases with E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. This study showed that real-time PCR can be used to obtain a more accurate prevalence data on intestinal helminths and protozoa.

  10. The checkered puffer (Spheroides testudineus) and its helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Yucatan coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Marcogliese, David J

    2009-03-15

    The suitability of using helminth communities as bioindicators of environmental quality of the Yucatan coastal lagoons status was tested on the checkered puffer (Spheroides testudineus) in four coastal lagoons along the Yucatan coast. The concentration of chemical pollutants in sediments, water quality parameters, helminth infracommunity characteristics, as well as fish physiological biomarkers, including EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and catalase activities, were measured. Results from sediment analyses demonstrated the presence of hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at varying concentrations, some of which exceeded the Probability Effect Level (PEL). Significant negative associations among organochlorine pesticides, infracommunity characteristics and fish physiological responses were observed in most of the lagoons. Results suggest that EROD activity and parasite infracommunity characteristics could be useful tools to evaluate the effects of chemical pollutants on the fish host and in the environment. Importantly, certain parasites appear to influence biomarker measurements, indicating that parasites should be considered in ecotoxicological studies.

  11. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P J; Elliot, A D; Algar, D; Brazell, R I

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the gastrointestinal parasites present in feral cats on Christmas Island, with particular interest in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Faecal and serum samples were collected from 28 and 25 cats respectively that were trapped as part of an ongoing eradication program being run on Christmas Island by the Department of Environment and Conservation. Faecal samples were screened microscopically for helminth and protozoan parasites. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to T gondii using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a latex agglutination test (LAT). The most common helminth parasites detected were Toxocara cati (present in 15 of 28 faecal samples), Strongyloides sp (13/28), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, (7/28), an unidentified capillarid (6/28) and Ancylostoma sp (4/28). Based on serology, T gondii was the most common parasite detected (protozoan or otherwise) with antibodies detected in 24 serum samples by IFA and 23 serum samples by LAT. Cats on Christmas Island harbour many of the helminth and protozoan parasites reported from feral cats elsewhere in Australia. The high seroprevalence of T gondii in these cats indicates a high level of exposure to the parasite in this environment.

  13. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKHORI MAHNI, Maryam; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; RAEISI, Ahmad; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; TARIGHI, Fatemeh; KAMRANRASHANI, Bahare

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections have a worldwide distribution. High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in individuals with low socioeconomic status and environmental conditions was found. No study has ever been conducted on the prevalence of these infections in Jiroft. Therefore, in this study prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was evaluated in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: A total of 1060 individuals from rural and urban areas of Jiroft were sampled accidentally, during 2013–2014. Fresh stool samples were collected from all individuals and examined by formalin ether concentration and agar plate culture. Direct examination was performed on watery samples. Results: Out of 1060 individuals, 563 (53.1%) and 497 (46.9%) people were from rural and urban areas, respectively. In general, 297 individuals (28%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The prevalence of infection for protozoa and helminthes infections were 27.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The most prevalent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis (13.7%) and Giardia lamblia (7.8%), and that of helminth was Hymenolepis nana (1.1%). Conclusion: Intestinal protozoan parasites were more prevalent than helminth parasites. Source of water supply and personal hygiene were important factors in the distribution of parasites in the study area. PMID:28096858

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam BARKHORI MAHNI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections have a worldwide distribution. High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in individuals with low socioeconomic status and environmental conditions was found. No study has ever been conducted on the prevalence of these infections in Jiroft. Therefore, in this study prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was evaluated in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran.Methods: A total of 1060 individuals from rural and urban areas of Jiroft were sampled accidentally, during 2013-2014. Fresh stool samples were collected from all individuals and examined by formalin ether concentration and agar plate culture. Direct examination was performed on watery samples.Results: Out of 1060 individuals, 563 (53.1% and 497 (46.9% people were from rural and urban areas, respectively. In general, 297 individuals (28% were infected with intestinal parasites. The prevalence of infection for protozoa and helminthes infections were 27.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The most prevalent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis (13.7% and Giardia lamblia (7.8%, and that of helminth was Hymenolepis nana (1.1%.Conclusion: Intestinal protozoan parasites were more prevalent than helminth parasites. Source of water supply and personal hygiene were important factors in the distribution of parasites in the study area.

  15. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    K. Junker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations.

  16. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  17. Gastrointestinal helminths of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Inés Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about parasitic organisms in Antarctica is scarce and fragmentary. The study reported here adds to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae (Sphenisciformes, from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Bahia Esperanza (Hope Bay and Avian Island (Antarctica. Thirty-five freshly dead specimens (20 chicks and 15 adults were collected from December 2007 to December 2014 and examined for internal macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda, Parorchites zederi, and two Nematoda, Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres sp. Immature Tetrabothrius sp. were found in hosts from Avian Island. Helminth communities are known to be related to host feeding behaviours. Low parasite richness observed in Adélie penguins could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species, which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  18. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis does not affect allergen-specific cytokine responses despite a parasite-specific cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, C.D.; Mutapi, F.; Nausch, N.;

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic helminths have been shown to reduce inflammation in most experimental models of allergic disease, and this effect is mediated via cytokine responses. However, in humans, the effects of controlled helminth infection on cytokine responses during allergy have not been studied....

  19. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities.

  20. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  1. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  2. A Cross Analysis on the Capability of Examining Helminths: National Technique Competition for Parasitic Disease Diagnosis in 2011%2011年全国寄生虫病防治技术竞赛成绩分析报告:蠕虫检测能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 陈家旭; 陈朝; 王立英; 周晓农; 李石柱; 王强; 付青; 柳伟; 祝红庆; 许静; 陈颖丹; 陈韶红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the comprehensive capability of helminth detection among professionals at different level of parasitic disease control institutions and promote the overall strength of diagnosis. Methods Four professionals from each parasitic diseases control institutions were selected as contestant (age40), job title (the junior, intermediate, and senior), institution level (provincial, municipal, and county level) (P>0.05). By Kato-Katz slide-making and film-reading, the scores in contestants from provinces with schistosomiasis control task (12.1±1.7, 32.1±11.5, respectively) were better than contestants from other provinces (11.1 ±1.8, 18.1±10.5, respectively). The scores in contestants from western (18.4±1 1.4) were lower than those from eastern (25.2±12.4) and central (24.1 + 13,1) for film-reading. Conclusion The overall capability of parasitic disease examination is unbalanced among regions, and evidently there is a need to strengthen the capacity of phthogen detection in the disease control programs.%目的 通过竞赛了解当前我国各级疾控机构寄生虫病防治专业人员的蠕虫检测能力,从而推动各级疾控机构的能力建设.方法 2011年9月以省(区、市)为单位,每省选送各级疾控机构的在职专业技术人员4名(年龄<45周岁,县级不少于2名).竞赛内容包括粪便标本改良加藤厚涂片制作(每参赛选手30 min内制作完成5张涂片;计满分为15分,9分为及格)和11种常见蠕虫卵镜检鉴别(每张标本片含1种或1种以上蠕虫卵;镜检10张,每张5 min;计满分为60分,36分为及格).结果 来自30个省(市、区)的119名参赛选手中,改良加藤厚涂片制片成绩,平均为11.4分,及格者111人,占93.3%; 11种常见蠕虫卵镜检读片成绩,平均为22.0分,及格者20人,占16.8%.不同性别、年龄(≤30岁、31~40岁和>40岁)、专业技术职称(初级、中级和高级)、来源单位的级别(省级、市

  3. A WHOLE-GENOME ASSOCIATION STUDY OF MAJOR DETERMINANTS FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN ANGUS BREED

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most cattle-producing areas of the world, infection by helminth parasites (particularly gastrointestinal nematodes) is considered to be a primary cause of production loss. QTL for parasite indicator traits in cattle are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection. Fecal egg count (FEC) d...

  4. [The new generations of vaccines against parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, H

    2000-01-01

    The protection of humans and domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major goal, especially in light of developing of drug resistant strains in many parasite species. "Classic" vaccines are based on attenuated infective stages of protozoan and helminth parasites. Although such vaccines are effective in confering host immunity against several protozoan (coccidiosis, giardiosis, toxoplasmosis) diseases and one helminth (dictyocaulosis) they are very unstable and expensive. Recombinant techniques enable to obtain protective antigens quickly and in considerable quantities, cultivating of the bacteria and purification of the recombinant protein is less expensive than the maintenance of host animals and isolation of the protective antigens from harvested parasites. Moreover, the cloned protective antigens may be deprived of epitopes responsible for immunopathology. However, at present only one anti-parasite recombinant protein vaccine is commercially available (TickGARD). Such a situation may result from that many protective parasitic antigens cannot be expressed in bacteria or yeast in anative from. DNA vaccines present many advantages over protein ones. Firstly, the antigenic proteins synthesised within the host cell possess an appropriate molecular structure and undergo a post-translational modifications specific for a native protein. The next advantage of DNA vaccines is that DNA is easier to handle and more resistant than proteins to temperature changes. DNA vaccines are likely to induce novel mechanisms of immune response, which may be beneficial in case of parasitic invasions. Costs of DNA vaccines are comparable, and may be even lower, in comparison to recombinant protein vaccines. The main obstacle preventing the use of DNA vaccines is still lack of the complete knowledge concerning mechanisms of their action. Vaccines based on transgenic plants (=edible vaccines), expressing the protective parasitic antigens, present another promising approach

  5. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  6. Sustainable helminth control of ruminants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-07-31

    Widespread anthelmintic resistance, at least amongst the important nematode parasites of small ruminants, threatens the sustainability of these livestock industries throughout both the developed and developing world. The exacerbation of this problem over the last decade or so, has provided the impetus for research into non-chemotherapeutic parasite control alternatives, such as host genetic resistance, grazing management, worm vaccines and biological control. Although some of these options provide practical benefits if currently adopted, or exciting prospects for the future, collectively they are unlikely to dispense with the need for the timely intervention of effective anthelmintic treatment. The issue of sustainability of helminth control practices therefore rests with the preservation of anthelmintic effectiveness through the implementation of principles of integrated pest management. Herein lies the difficulty-putting the principles into practice. Much of the research into sustainable nematode parasite control of ruminants has been done in the developed rather than the developing world, and the efforts to transfer this information to livestock owners has also been commensurately greater in the former. However the need for research and technology transfer is much more urgent in the developing world because of the lack of scientific and financial resources, the greater dependence on livestock industries and the much greater severity of the problem of anthelmintic resistance. This will require a major philosophical change in the affluent western world to the funding of national and international aid organisations who are largely responsible for these activities.

  7. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: insights from population studies 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Abena S; Boakye, Daniel A; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The last few decades have seen a marked increase in the global prevalence of allergic diseases particularly among children. Among the factors attributed to this rise has been reduced exposure to pathogens during childhood leading to insufficient maturation of the regulatory arm of developing immune systems. Over the years, a number of epidemiological studies have observed an inverse relationship between parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergies. The purpose of this review is to highlight insights from population studies conducted among children published between 2008 and 2013 that explore the complex dynamics between helminth infections and allergies. These insights include the effect of anthelmintic treatment on allergic responses, an elucidation of immune mechanisms and an examination of helminth-induced immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity. A better understanding of the relationship between helminths and allergies is imperative as research directions move toward harnessing the therapeutic potential of helminths and their products in the treatment of allergic disorders.

  9. Immunoregulation by Trichinella spiralis: Benefits for parasite and host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranzamendi Esteban, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicate that certain helminths suppress the host immune responses. This suppression may benefit the parasite since it increases the chances of survival in their host. By doing so, the hosts may also benefit due to concomitant reduction of immune pathology associated with allergies a

  10. Paleoparasitological Surveys for Detection of Helminth Eggs in Archaeological Sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ju; Shin, Dong Hoon; Song, Mi-Jin; Song, Hye-Young

    2013-01-01

    A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations. PMID:24039296

  11. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminthes of green-winged teal (Anas crecca) from North Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Alijani Ardeshir; Farshid Jafarzade; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the helminth parasites of Anas crecca (A. crecca) in one of proper refuges of Iran, Fereydunkenar. Methods: A total number of one hundred thirty-six gastrointestinal tracts of green-winged teal (A. crecca) were collected from Fereydunkenar, Mazandaran province during September and October 2011. The gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth infection.Results:shown helminthes infection. The examined A. crecca harbored one species of Nematoda, Cestoda and two species of Digenea which were as following: Contracaecum larvae (from stomach wall), Diorchis stefanskii (D. stefanskii) (from small intestine), Hypoderaeum conoideum (from small intestine) and Notocotylus attenuatus (N. attenuatus) (from caecum), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between examined males and females ducks in Hypoderaeum conoideum, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus (P>0.05) whereas a significant relationship was observed between males and females in Contracaecum larvae (P<0.05). The total infection rate was 70.50% (96) that 68.96% (40) of males and 71.79% (56) of females Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that A. crecca plays a prominent role in transmission of mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report ofContracaecum larvae, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus from A. crecca in Iran.

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  14. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  15. Gastro-intestinal parasites of the Samango monkey, Cercopithecus mitis, in Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, C C; Krecek, R C; Verster, A; Bruorton, M R; Lawes, M J

    1994-01-01

    Eight gastro-intestinal tracts of Cercopithecus mitis labiatus from Karkloof, Natal, and 121 fecal samples from C. m. erythrarchus from Cape Vidal, Natal, were examined for helminth parasites and/or their eggs. Fecal samples from six of the C. m. labiatus were examined for protozoan cysts. Five protozoon and six helminth species were identified from C. m labiatus. Most adult worms occurred in the caecum and colon, gut regions which also contained the highest volatile fatty acid levels. The eggs of nine helminth species were recovered from C. m. erythrarchus fecal samples; protozoans were not looked for in these samples.

  16. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  17. Gastrointestinal helminths are highly prevalent in scavenging chickens of selected districts of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne

    2012-03-15

    A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised.

  18. Richness and diversity of helminth species in eels from a hypersaline coastal lagoon, Mar Menor, south-east Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Hernández, E; Peñalver, J; García-Ayala, A; Serrano, E; Muñoz, P; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R

    2015-05-01

    The composition and diversity of parasite communities and intestinal components, as well as infra-community structure, were assessed in eels Anguilla anguilla, from Mar Menor, a permanent Mediterranean hypersaline coastal lagoon. Data were used to determine whether this helminth community differs in composition and structure from that of eels in lagoons with lower salinity regimes and higher freshwater inputs. A total prevalence of 93% was detected. Specifically, parasites were identified as Deropristis inflata, Bucephalus anguillae, Contracaecum sp., Anguillicoloides crassus and two plerocercoid larvae belonging to the order Proteocephalidae, the marine species representing 91% of the isolated helminths. In the total community, digenetic trematodes were the dominant group of helminths, and D. inflata, an eel specialist, dominated both the component community and the infra-community. Richness and diversity were low but similar to those reported in other saline lagoons, and maximum species per eel did not exceed four. At the infra-community level, higher abundance than in other brackish or marine Mediterranean environments was detected. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from various Mediterranean coastal lagoons. Moreover, salinity-dependent specificities are well supported and reflect the life history of individual eels.

  19. Host immunity shapes the impact of climate changes on the dynamics of parasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignatti, Andrea; Boag, Brian; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2016-03-15

    Global climate change is predicted to alter the distribution and dynamics of soil-transmitted helminth infections, and yet host immunity can also influence the impact of warming on host-parasite interactions and mitigate the long-term effects. We used time-series data from two helminth species of a natural herbivore and investigated the contribution of climate change and immunity on the long-term and seasonal dynamics of infection. We provide evidence that climate warming increases the availability of infective stages of both helminth species and the proportional increase in the intensity of infection for the helminth not regulated by immunity. In contrast, there is no significant long-term positive trend in the intensity for the immune-controlled helminth, as immunity reduces the net outcome of climate on parasite dynamics. Even so, hosts experienced higher infections of this helminth at an earlier age during critical months in the warmer years. Immunity can alleviate the expected long-term effect of climate on parasite infections but can also shift the seasonal peak of infection toward the younger individuals.

  20. Defense peptides secreted by helminth pathogens: antimicrobial and/or immunomodulator molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sophie; Donnelly, Sheila; Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.; Thivierge, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all living species. They possess antimicrobial activities against a broad range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites, and viruses. HDPs also have the ability to enhance immune responses by acting as immunomodulators. We discovered a new family of HDPs derived from pathogenic helminth (worms) that cause enormous disease in animals and humans worldwide. The discovery of these peptides was based on their similar biochemical and functional characteristics to the human defense peptide LL-37. We propose that these new peptides modulate the immune response via molecular mimicry of mammalian HDPs thus providing a mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory properties of helminth infections. PMID:22973271

  1. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  2. Defense peptides secreted by helminth pathogens: antimicrobial and/or immunomodulator molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eCotton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all living species. They possess antimicrobial activities against a broad range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. HDPs also have the ability to enhance immune responses by acting as immunomodulators. We discovered a new family of HDPs derived from pathogenic helminthes (worms that cause enormous disease in animals and humans worldwide. The discovery of these peptides was based on their similar biochemical and functional characteristics to the human defense peptide LL-37. We propose that these new peptides modulate the immune response via molecular mimicry of mammalian HDPs thus providing a mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory properties of helminth infections.

  3. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  4. Intestinal helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland, with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.

  5. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths of resident wildlife at the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-08-12

    Aug 12, 2014 ... nematode helminths of resident wild animals at the FUNAAB Zoo Park, Abeokuta. Keywords: Helminth ... research stations, sanctuaries, aquaria, circuses, and .... one single worm specie or the presence of different ova types.

  7. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis.

  8. Helminth 2-Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Sheila; Stack, Colin M.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Williams, David L.; Dalton, John P.

    2008-01-01

    During helminth infections, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) are key to promoting Th2 responses and suppressing Th1-driven inflammatory pathology. Th2 cytokines IL-4 and/or IL-13 are believed to be important in the induction and activation of AAMacs. Using murine models for the helminth infections caused by Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Schistosoma mansoni (Sm), we show that a secreted antioxidant, peroxiredoxin (Prx), induces alternative activation of macrophages. These activated, Ym1-expressing macrophages enhanced the secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 from naive CD4+ T cells. Administration of recombinant FhPrx and SmPrx to wild-type and IL-4−/− and IL-13−/− mice induced the production of AAMacs. In addition, Prx stimulated the expression of markers of AAMacs (particularly, Ym1) in vitro, and therefore can act independently of IL-4/IL-13 signaling. The immunomodulatory property of Prx is not due to its antioxidant activity, as an inactive recombinant variant with active site Cys residues replaced by Gly could also induce AAMacs and Th2 responses. Immunization of mice with recombinant Prx or passive transfer of anti-Prx antibodies prior to infection with Fh not only blocked the induction of AAMacs but also the development of parasite-specific Th2 responses. We propose that Prx activates macrophages as an initial step in the induction of Th2 responses by helminth parasites and is thereby a novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern.—Donnelly, S., Stack, C. M., O'Neill, S. M., Sayed, A. A., Williams, D. L., Dalton, J. P. Helminth 2-Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages. PMID:18708590

  9. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  10. Helminths in feline coprolites up to 9000 years in the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianto, Luciana; de Souza, Mônica Vieira; Chame, Marcia; da Luz, Maria de Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-12-01

    The identification of parasites in animal coprolites has been an important tool to promote knowledge about parasites infecting different zoological groups in the past. It also helps the understanding of parasites causing zoonoses, which is especially important for animals that were part of the diet of prehistoric human groups. Nevertheless, the study of feline coprolites is still scarce. This study analyzed 30 feline coprolites from southeastern Piauí taken from archeological sites used by human groups in the past. Eggs of Spirometra sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Oxyuroidea Calodium cf. hepaticum, Trichuris cf. muris, Trichuris sp., and other Trichuridae, Oncicola sp., and nematode larvae were found. Some of these findings reflect the consumption of infected prey. The role of felines in the transmission of helminthes causing zoonoses in the region is discussed.

  11. intestinal helminthes infestation among pupils in rural and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different risk factors for geohelminth infestation, and that the rural areas are more likely to suffer more helminthic infections than ... Key words: intestinalhelmlllth, school children, mean egg load of helminthes. ..... determinants of infestation in both-rural and urban area include ... helminthic infection and malnutrition. Nigerian ...

  12. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  13. Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, M

    2003-05-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment in public health is a broad concept, which goes beyond parasitological methods and should be clearly defined according to several indicators of morbidity. Several factors may influence the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs. The quality of drug is an issue of great importance, especially when produced locally as a generic product and used in large-scale chemotherapy-based control programmes. Other factors include the drug-patient interaction, the host-parasite relationship, the diagnostic method used, genetic variations between parasite strains and induced drug resistance. Veterinary scientists have warned that drug resistance can be selected through frequent mass treatment of sheep and goats and have developed a body of knowledge on evaluation of efficacy and detection of resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. In soil-transmitted nematodes infections of humans, the egg reduction rate (ERR), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and novel molecular biological techniques may be used to monitor drug efficacy in helminth control programmes and to detect early occurrence of resistance. Evidence of reduced drug efficacy of some anthelminthics has been suggested by recent studies and strategies to prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance in human soil-transmitted nematodes.

  14. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT, Tuberculin (PPD skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3% took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2% of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028, as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6% of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033. After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7% were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1% became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001, and while 55/126 (43.7% were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7% became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001. A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001. These results show that: a Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  15. Helminth component community of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, from Madeira Archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Luisa; Delgado, Cláudia; Moreira, Cláudia; Ferreira, Sandra; Dellinger, Thomas; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A A; Costa, Graça

    2009-02-01

    The helminth fauna of pelagic-stage loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, is still poorly known. Here, we describe the helminth-component community of healthy, free-ranging juvenile loggerhead sea turtles captured in the waters around Madeira Island, Portugal. Fifty-seven were used in this study. The esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys, trachea, bronchi, urinary bladder, heart, left and right aortas, and coelomic cavity were macroscopically inspected; organs and tissues were removed and washed through a sieve. A search for parasites was made using a stereoscopic microscope; recovered parasites were fixed and stored in 70% alcohol until staining and identification. Prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance values were recorded. In total, 156 parasite specimens belonging to 9 species were found: nematodes included Anisakis simplex s.l. (larvae) and an unidentified species; digenetic trematodes present were Enodiotrema megachondrus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus, Pyelosomum renicapite, and Calycodes anthos; acanthocephalans included Bolbosoma vasculosum and Rhadinorhynchus pristis; a single cestode, Nybelinia sp., was present. Parasite infections were found to have both low prevalences and intensities. Possible reasons for this include the oligotrophic conditions of the pelagic habitat around Madeira; a 'dilution effect' because of the vastness of the area; and the small size, and thus ingestion rate, of the turtles. Results are discussed in terms of the various turtle populations that may use the waters surrounding Madeira. This work provides valuable information on the parasite fauna of a poorly known stage in the life of loggerhead sea turtles, thereby filling a fundamental gap with regard to features of the parasite fauna in this species.

  16. The systematic position of some ethiopian nippostrongylinae (nematoda, trichostrongylina, heligmosomoidea) from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.-C. Durette-Desset; M.-C. Digiani

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection ofAnimal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurementsand the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in thenumber o...

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and cats in a refuge in Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Mahittikorn, Aongart; Pubampen, Somchit; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapon; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Udonsom, Ruenruetai; Mori, Hirotake

    2014-01-01

    We collected fecal samples from 500 dogs and 300 cats from an animal refuge in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand to test for gastrointestinal protozoa and helminths using a formalin-ether concentration technique. The overall prevalence of parasites in stool from dogs was 36.2% (181/500), 35.7% (177/500) had helminths and 2.8% (14/500) had protozoa. The helminths were: hookworm (30.6%), Trichuris vulpis (16.0%), Toxocara canis (6.6%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.2%), Spirometra mansoni (0.6%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.2%). Giardia duodenalis (2.8%) was found in the stool of dogs. The overall prevalence of parasites in stool from cats was 44.3% (133/300), 43.3% (130/300) were helminths and 6.0% (18/300) were protozoa. The helminths were hookworm (34.7%), T. cati (9.7%), S. mansoni (4.0%), Platynosomum fastosum (2.7%), Strongyloides sp (0.7%), and Echinostoma sp (0.3%). Two species of protozoa, Isospora sp (5.7%) and G. duodenalis (0.3%) were found in the stool of cats. Two percent of dogs and 5.0% of cats had mixed protozoan and helminthic infections. Dogs with double, triple, and quadruple helminthic infections were found at rates of 22.0%, 2.8%, and 0.2%, respectively. Cats with double and triple helminthic infections were found at rates of 9.7% and 1.0%, respectively. Quadruple helminthic infections were not found in cats, and double protozoan infections were not found in either dogs or cats.

  18. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field. PMID:27958200

  19. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  20. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  1. SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHES IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ghadirian

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of soil transmitted helminthes were studied in six villages in Isfahan area. The mean overall prevalence of ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 91.5% and 70.9% respectively with higher infection rate among females. Mean prevalence of Trichuris and Hymenolepis nana were 73.8% and 5.4% respectively. Prevalences of Ascaris and Trichuris did not fluctuate very much in various ages but for Trichostrongylus, infected was lower in 0-4 age group and H.nana was mostly found in lower age groups. In some villages 100% of both sexes were infected with one or more helminth parasites, and overall prevalence of infection was 97.3%. In all villages, it was found that a small proportion of inhabitants (12.5% excrete a large proportion (43.3% of total eggs of Ascaris. Prevalence and intensity of ascariasis established four years after therapy have shown that the group of population who had the highest prevalence before therapy, had the highest prevalence and intensity. The high proportion of infected cases with Ascaris had less than 25000 eggs/gr of faeces and less than 50 worms. Results of this study indicate once again the importance of intestinal helminthiasis in Isfahan and also the possibility of reducing the transmission force by regular mass-chemotherapy of a small proportion of the inhabitants. More than 100 persons from each village who were infected with Ascaris and some infected with other helminthes simultaneously, were treated a few days after examination, using pyrantel pamoate with a single dose of 10 mg/kg. body weight. Tablets given to adults and suspension for children were taken in the presence of authors. A saline purge has also been administered to the patients treated who had constipation. A plastic pan containing 10% formaline solution and labeled with the name of the patient was also given to each patient after the drug was taken, in which all stools passed, up to 48 hours after treatment, were collected and

  2. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  3. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.

  4. Parasite load in the Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica victoriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refoyo, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections in the Iberian ibex are common, serious and well documented. Most studies, however, focus on the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica, found in the south and east of the Iberian peninsula, and few studies have investigated the subspecies Capra pyrenaica victoriae in the centre of the peninsula. Here we add to the information about C. p. victoriae, analyzing samples of this subspecies in the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama. We found parasites in 97% of samples and identified a total of 11 helminth taxa. The most abundant genus in the analysis was Muellerius. Despite the frequency of parasites, the general health of the population seemed good.

  5. Correlation between Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection and Eosinophil Levels among Primary School Children in Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Tala, Zaimah Z; Amanta, Cellya; Warli, Syah Mirsya; Arrasyid, Nurfida K

    2017-04-15

    Soil Transmitted Helminth infection is one of most prevalent health problems worldwide, especially in environments with poor sanitation. Based on World Health Organisation (WHO) data, more than 2 billion people, or 24% of the world's population, are infected with intestinal parasite. The highest prevalence is located in areas of poor sanitation and unsafe water supplies. In Indonesia, the prevalence of parasite infections is 15% of the entire population. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Soil Transmitted Helminth infection on levels of eosinophils among primary school children. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the prevalence of different types of worm infections and the levels of eosinophils in children infected with worms. This study was analytic observational using a cross-sectional method. The sampling technique was consecutive and in total 132 samples was obtained. The study involved primary school children in Amplas Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang through May to October 2016. Univariate analysis was performed to determine STH infection prevalence and bivariate analysis was used to find the correlation between STH infection and eosinophil levels through a Chi square (χ(2)) test. The results showed that the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminth was 7.6%. The most common types of STH infection were 3.8% with Trichuris trichiura and 3% with Ascaris lumbricoides. A significant correlation was found between Parasite infection and eosinophil levels (Contingency Coefficient (C) = 0.2, χ(2) = 5.3, p = 0.021) and the risk of STH infection that caused eosinophilia or increased eosinophil levels in the children with a Prevalence Ratio (PR) of 1.56 (Confidence Interval (CI) 95%: 1.10-2.22). It is recommended that schools at similar risk improve and maintain hygiene and healthy behaviour in the school environment and that parents and teachers pay greater attention to the cleanliness of their children.

  6. Predictors of Host Specificity among Behavior-Manipulating Parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    -specialist that has a restricted ecological niche that it masters. Parasites that manipulate hosts’ behavior are often thought to represent resource-specialists based on a few spectacular examples of manipulation of the host’s behavior. However, the determinants of which, and how many, hosts a manipulating parasite...... can exploit (i.e., niche breadth) are basically unknown. Here, I present an analysis based on published records of the use of hosts by 67 species from 38 genera of helminths inducing parasite increased trophic transmission, a widespread strategy of parasites that has been reported from many taxa...... of parasites and hosts. Using individual and multivariate analyses, I examined the effect of the host’s and parasite’s taxonomy, location of the parasite in the host, type of behavioral change, and the effect of debilitation on host-specificity, measured as the mean taxonomic relatedness of hosts...

  7. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    GC. Rezende; P. Baldassin; H. Gallo; RJ Silva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contra...

  8. How to catch a parasite: Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) meets Fishbase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) is a free online software tool that suggests potential hosts for fish parasites. For a particular parasite species from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda), PaNic takes data from known hosts (maximum body length, growth rate, life span, age at first maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) and hypothesizes similar fish species that might serve as hosts to that parasite. Users can give varying weights to host attributes and create custom models. In addition to suggesting plausible hosts (with varying degrees of confidence), the models indicate known host species that appear to be outliers in comparison to other known hosts. These unique features make PaNic an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in fish parasitology. PaNic can be accessed at .

  9. Decision making on helminths in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, Johannes; Waele, De Valérie; Ducheyne, Els; Voort, van der Mariska; Vande Velde, Fiona; Claerebout, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections of cattle affect productivity in all classes of stock, and are amongst the most important production-limiting diseases of grazing ruminants. Over the last decade, there has been a shift in focus in the diagnosis of these infections from merely detecting presence/absence of inf

  10. Medicinal plants effectiveness against helminths of cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-02-28

    Feb 28, 2015 ... However, the toxic effects of these chemicals on ... electric blender, disinfected with 95% ethanol. Extraction of ... helminthic effects of leaves of the plants were evaluated ... Number of distorted ova/adult per field x 100. Number ...

  11. Survival of model helminth eggs and larvae (Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum sp.) in the ensilaging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, P; Rataj, D; Ilavská, I; Ziláková, J; Knotek, S; Vasilková, Z

    1997-06-01

    Ascaris suum nonembryonated eggs remained viable for the most part even after 42 days of ensilaging. At the end of the anaerobic fermentation, mean of damaged eggs was 15.2 +/- 4.02 (min. 11, max. 21), 32.9%. Conversely, the viability of Oesophagostomum sp. nonembryonated eggs and infective L3 larvae was reduced-eggs: mean number 23.6 +/- 3.64 (min. 20. max. 28) specimens (93.3%), L3 larvae: mean number 24.2 +/- 4.38 (min. 19, max. 28) specimens (96.7%), during the period of study (42 days). Control group of the same helminth propagative stages, was kept under optimum aerobic conditions. After 42 days of exposition, 9.0 +/- 3.46 (min. 5, max. 11) nonembryonated Ascaris suum eggs (12.9%), 17.33 +/- 2.51 (min. 15, max. 20) Oesophagostomum sp. eggs (36.4%) and 3.66 +/- 1.15 (min. 3, max. 5) Oesophagostomum sp. larvae L3 (6.3%) were damaged on average. Helminth eggs, thick-walled and more resistant to the environment in particular, are able to survive the anaerobic process of ensilaging. To protect animals against parasitic diseases, it is necessary to consider the epidemiological hazard of silages and silage juices, which are potentially contaminated by helminth propagative stages. Silages and silage juices under certain conditions may become harmful to polygastric animals.

  12. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans. Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4 · 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum. A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor and a predator species (Duddingtonia for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs.

  13. Th2 cell-intrinsic hypo-responsiveness determines susceptibility to helminth infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke van der Werf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The suppression of protective Type 2 immunity is a principal factor driving the chronicity of helminth infections, and has been attributed to a range of Th2 cell-extrinsic immune-regulators. However, the intrinsic fate of parasite-specific Th2 cells within a chronic immune down-regulatory environment, and the resultant impact such fate changes may have on host resistance is unknown. We used IL-4gfp reporter mice to demonstrate that during chronic helminth infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, CD4(+ Th2 cells are conditioned towards an intrinsically hypo-responsive phenotype, characterised by a loss of functional ability to proliferate and produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-2. Th2 cell hypo-responsiveness was a key element determining susceptibility to L. sigmodontis infection, and could be reversed in vivo by blockade of PD-1 resulting in long-term recovery of Th2 cell functional quality and enhanced resistance. Contrasting with T cell dysfunction in Type 1 settings, the control of Th2 cell hypo-responsiveness by PD-1 was mediated through PD-L2, and not PD-L1. Thus, intrinsic changes in Th2 cell quality leading to a functionally hypo-responsive phenotype play a key role in determining susceptibility to filarial infection, and the therapeutic manipulation of Th2 cell-intrinsic quality provides a potential avenue for promoting resistance to helminths.

  14. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored.

  15. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  16. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  17. Helminths of Murres (Alcidae: Uria spp.): markers of ecological change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2009-07-01

    Seabirds are prominent components of the North Atlantic marine environment, and their parasites offer an insight into seabird ecologic interactions. Parasites also provide vital information on historic biogeography of host associations and thus may reveal broad changes in the marine ecosystem. Helminths of Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) in the northwest Atlantic marine environment were assessed to determine parasite community composition and changes in their parasite fauna since the 1960s. In total, 623 helminths, representing Digenea, Eucestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, were recorded from 100 Common and Thick-billed Murres collected from breeding colonies along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Parasite communities differed from those reported from the 1960s, and over 85% of the specimens were tapeworms (mostly in the genus Alcataenia). The high prevalence (26%) and mean intensity (14.6) of A. longicervica, a Pacific species recorded recently from Newfoundland, indicates that this tapeworm was established in the Atlantic by 2006. Significantly higher A. longicervica prevalence (>53%) and mean intensity (27.3) in the murres from Greenland and in wintering murres compared to murres from breeding colonies in Labrador and Newfoundland suggest a mechanism for the introduction of this species to the Atlantic. Periodic mixing of populations of Thysanoessa species, the euphausiid intermediate host of Alcataenia, occurs along the seas adjacent to the North Pacific and those along the Siberian Arctic. The mixing of infected Thysanoessa likely exposed North Atlantic and Arctic murres, which are geographically isolated from Pacific murres, to this tapeworm. The greater prevalence of A. longicervica in Thick-billed Murres was consistent with diet analyses, which revealed a greater proportion of euphausiids.

  18. Pork as a source of human parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B; Nikolić, A; Klun, I; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2013-07-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have been estimated to annually affect 10% of the global population, among which zoonotic parasites constitute an important class of aetiological agents. The major meatborne parasites include the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp., and the helminths Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp., all of which may be transmitted by pork. The significance of zoonotic parasites transmitted by pork consumption is emphasized by the prediction by the Food and Agriculture Organization of an 18.5% increase in world pork production over the next 10 years. Of all the porkborne parasites, the three 'T' parasites have been responsible for most porkborne illness throughout history; they are still endemic, and therefore are important public-health concerns, in developing countries. Although the risk of porkborne parasites, particularly helminths, may currently be considered insignificant in developed countries, the modern trend of consuming raw meat favours their re-emergence. This paper overviews the main parasites transmitted to humans by pork, and outlines the main lines of prevention.

  19. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.

  20. Parasitic Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complication...

  1. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Prichard

    Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis

  2. Testing the enemy release hypothesis: abundance and distribution patterns of helminth communities in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) reveal the success of invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Morand, Serge

    2017-09-01

    The abundance and aggregation patterns of helminth communities of two grey mullet hosts, Liza haematocheilus and Mugil cephalus, were studied across 14 localities in Atlantic and Pacific marine areas. The analysis matched parasite communities of (i) L. haematocheilus across its native and introduced populations (Sea of Japan and Sea of Azov, respectively) and (ii) the introduced population of L. haematocheilus with native populations of M. cephalus (Mediterranean, Azov-Black and Japan Seas). The total mean abundance (TMA), as a feature of the infection level in helminth communities, and slope b of the Taylor's power law, as a measure of parasite aggregation at the infra and component-community levels, were estimated and compared between host species and localities using ANOVA. The TMA of the whole helminth community in the introduced population of L. haematocheilus was over 15 times lower than that of the native population, but the difference was less pronounced for carried (monogeneans) than for acquired (adult and larval digeneans) parasite communities. Similar to the abundance pattern, the species distribution in communities from the invasive population of L. haematocheilus was less aggregated than from its native population for endoparasitic helminths, including adult and larval digeneans, while monogeneans showed a similar pattern of distribution in the compared populations of L. haematocheilus. The aggregation level of the whole helminth community, endoparasitic helminths, adult and larval digeneans was lower in the invasive host species in comparison with native ones as shown by differences in the slope b. An important theoretical implication from this study is that the pattern of parasite aggregation may explain the success of invasive species in ecosystems. Because the effects of parasites on host mortality are likely dose-dependent, the proportion of susceptible host individuals in invasive species is expected to be lower, as the helminth distribution in

  3. Cat parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vošická, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The content of this bachelor thesis describes a different variety of cat parasites. This study discovers that the most infected group of the outdoor cats due to the fact that these animals are not provided with the same care as the household pets. Those cats are usually not vaccinated, not rid of worms, no one takes care of their fur and so they tend to become a host for the parasites. There are several kinds of parasites which attack cats. Among those belong the skin parasites like a cat fle...

  4. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  5. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of pregnancy on intestinal parasite infection in Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Ursula; Petney, Trevor; Pipitgool, Vichit; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Vivatpatanakul, Kraisorn; Hinz, Erhard; Andrews, Ross

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between pregnancy and both the susceptibility and pathogenicity of parasite infections is disputed. This study compares the prevalence and intensity (as measured by density of eggs in stool samples) of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant and control groups of women from Khon Kaen Province in the northeast of Thailand. Stool samples were taken at the end of the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy as well as 2 months after parturition and compared for the two groups. There were no significant changes in the prevalence of any of the common helminth species during the course of pregnancy or between the pregnant and control groups. Nor was there any evidence that the density of helminth eggs in the stool samples differed between sample times or between the pregnant and control groups. Our study therefore supports the hypothesis that pregnancy does not influence the course of human infection with helminths.

  7. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  8. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  9. Pattern of intestinal helminth infections among school chil-dren in an urban community in Ibadan,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiregun AA; Oluwatoba OA

    2008-01-01

    Despite a substantial reduction in the incidence and prevalence of parasitic diseases in the industrialized world, they continue to be an important public health problem in many developing African countries,including Nigeri-a.However,estimates of the prevalence of such infections among school age children,who bear the greatest health burden due to these diseases,are hard to come by.The objective of this study was therefore to deter-mine the prevalence and type of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils.The study was cross-sectional in design.The participants included 266 pupils recruited from three government primary schools in the Mokola area of Ibadan,Nigeria.The pupils were interviewed and their stool samples examined for eggs of common helminths.The mean age of the pupils was 9.8 ±2.6 years,and 128 (48.1%)were males.Nine-teen pupils (7.1%)had intestinal helminth infestations.Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 17 pupils (6. 4%)and was the most prevalent helminth among the children,while Trichuris trichiura was found in only two subjects (0.8%).Previous infestations and the use of public toilets were found to be significantly associated with current infections (P <0.05).This study demonstrated that the prevalence of intestinal infections was low among the pupils studied,and that Ascaris infection was the commonest infestation.

  10. Intestinal helminths of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) from St Katherine's Protectorate in the Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J M; Barnard, C J; Mason, N; Harris, P D; Sherif, N E; Zalat, S; Gilbert, F S

    2000-03-01

    Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus, inhabiting the wadis close to St Katherine in the mountains of the Sinai peninsula, were trapped and their helminth parasites were studied. Sixty one mice provided faeces for analysis and 27 were killed and autopsied. Six species of helminths were recorded (the spirurid nematodes, Protospirura muricola (74.1%) and Mastophorus muris (11.1%), the oxyuroid nematodes, Dentostomella kuntzi (59.3%), Aspiculuris africana (3.7%), and Syphacia minuta (3.7%) and the hymenolepidid cestode Rodentolepis negevi (18.5%)). The spirurids were the dominant species present, accounting for up to 0.87% of total host body weight. Analysis of worm weights and lengths suggested that transmission had been taking place in the months preceding our study. No sex difference in the prevalence or abundance of spirurids was detected. Significant differences were identified in the abundance of total nematode burdens and the mean helminth species richness between the three wadis which provided multiple captures of mice. There was also a marked effect of host age on both parameters. A highly significant positive correlation between spirurid egg counts and total worm biomass indicated that non-invasive techniques based on egg counts could be used to quantify worm burdens and when this technique was applied to a larger sample size (n = 61), a significant difference between sites but no host sex or age effects were detected for spirurid faecal egg counts. The data suggest that there are differences between helminth component communities infecting spiny mice in different neighbouring wadis, a hypothesis which will be explored further through our continuing studies in the Sinai.

  11. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.

  12. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  14. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites of Rodents in Tabriz, Iran, with Emphasis on Parasitic Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rodents as reservoirs of many common human diseases (zoonoses are the cause of health and economic problems in society. Because of the prevalence of parasitic infections of mice in different parts of Iran, this study was performed to investigate the gastrointestinal and blood parasitic zoonoses of rodents in Tabriz, Iran, between 2011 and 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 rodents including 36 Rattus norvegicus, 11 Rattus rattus, 8 Mus musculus, and 2 unknown species of rodents were captured alive from different parts of Tabriz city and studied. The rodents were examined for helminth and blood infection. Results: Helminth and blood infection were only observed in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus species and other species were not contaminated. There was no blood parasite in rodents. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus norvegicus consisted of Trichosomoides crassicauda (51.2%, Hymenolepis diminuta (22.3%, Gongylonema pulchrum (12.1%, Hymenolepis Nana (4.31% and Trichocephal Spp. (2.18%. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus rattus consisted of Gongylonema pulchrum (21.17%, and Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.24%. Conclusion: Due to the presence of zoonotic parasitic agents in the studied rodents that easily enter human dwellings, controlling these animals and improvement of the sewerage system of the study area are of particular importance.

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Wagner, Bettina; Küsters, Martina; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-11-12

    Most vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, many wildlife pathogens fluctuate seasonally, at least partly due to seasonal host immune changes. We therefore examined seasonality of immune resource allocation, pathogen abundance and exposure, and interactions between infections and immunity in plains zebra (Equus quagga) in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, a system with strongly seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth infection intensity and concurrent anthrax outbreaks. Both pathogens are environmentally transmitted, and helminth seasonality is driven by environmental pressures on free living life stages. The reasons behind anthrax seasonality are currently not understood, though anthrax is less likely directly driven by environmental factors. We measured a complex, interacting set of variables and found evidence that GI helminth infection intensities, eosinophil counts, IgE and IgGb antibody titers, and possibly IL-4 cytokine signaling were increased in wetter seasons, and that ectoparasite infestations and possibly IFN-γ cytokine signaling were increased in drier seasons. Monocyte counts and anti-anthrax antibody titers were negatively associated with wet season eosinophilia, and monocytes were negatively correlated with IgGb and IgE titers. Taken together, this supports the hypothesis that ENP wet seasons are characterized by immune resource allocation toward Th-2 type responses, while Th1-type immunity may prevail in drier seasons, and that hosts may experience Th1-Th2 trade-offs. We found evidence that this Th2-type resource allocation is likely driven by GI parasite infections

  16. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  17. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

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    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminthes of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata from north of Iran

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    Navid Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic infection of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulate in north of Iran, Golestan Province was reported in this study. The carcass of a male houbara bustard about 2 years old with 2.5 kg body weight, was forfeited from impermissible hunters by the Department of Environment in Gorgan, Golestan Province during January 2015. The gastrointestinal tracts was dissected and examined for helminth infection. Species of Nematoda, Cestoda and Acanthocephala were found which were as following: Hartertia obesa, Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus, respectively from small intestine. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded that Chlamydotis undulata may play an important role in the transmission of the mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report of Hartertia obesa, Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus in Iran.

  19. Gastrointestinal helminthes of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) from north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Navid Rahmani; Mohammad Asadi Iraee; Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic infection of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulate) in north of Iran, Golestan Province was reported in this study. The carcass of a male houbara bustard about 2 years old with 2.5 kg body weight, was forfeited from impermissible hunters by the Department of Environment in Gorgan,Golestan Province during January 2015. The gastrointestinal tracts was dissected and examined for helminth infection. Species of Nematoda, Cestoda and Acanthocephala were found which were as following:Hartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus, respectively from small intestine. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded thatChlamydotis undulata may play an important role in the transmission of the mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report ofHartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis,Mediorhynchus taeniatus in Iran.

  20. A slaughter slab survey for extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Willingham, A L

    2004-05-01

    A survey on extra-intestinal porcine helminths was conducted at three slaughter slabs that receive pigs from Mbulu, a district endemic for porcine cysticercosis in northern Tanzania. Seventy carcases of pigs between 1 and 2 years old were examined between December 1997 and March 1998. The examination involved ante-mortem lingual examination for Taenia solium cysticercosis followed by post-mortem inspection. In addition, a laboratory procedure was performed to determine whether any of these domestic pigs were infected with Trichinella species. Parasites detected were Ascaris suum (44.3%), Echinococcus granulosus (4.3%) and Taenia hydatigena (1.4%). The lack of cases of porcine cysticercosis in this study compared to previous studies suggests that pig traders are conducting their own ante-mortem lingual examinations before purchasing pigs in the rural communities where the parasite is still highly prevalent. It is concluded that improved meat inspection could prove useful in reducing the local population's risk of infection with these parasites. The results of this study have revealed the parasites of agricultral and public health importance in the targeted communities. Further epidemiological investigations are required to better determine parasite prevalence and impact in order to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for control.

  1. Parasitic zoonoses associated with dogs and cats: a survey of Portuguese pet owners' awareness and deworming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Martins, Ângela; Brancal, Hugo; Vilhena, Hugo; Silva, Pedro; Pimenta, Paulo; Diz-Lopes, Duarte; Neves, Nuno; Coimbra, Mónica; Alves, Ana Catarina; Cardoso, Luís; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control. Seventy hundred and fifty multiple-choice questionnaires designed to obtain data knowledge about the meaning of zoonosis, knowledge about parasitic diseases and perception regarding their zoonotic potential, as well as the drugs, frequency and reason for deworming their animals were delivered to dog and/or cat owners from non-rural (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and rural parishes who attended veterinary medical centres from continental Portugal. A total of 536 (71.5 %) questionnaires were retrieved. Two hundred and ninety five (56.5 %) responders had heard of zoonosis/zoonoses, but only 184 (35.2 %) knew their meaning. Tick fever, mange, leishmaniosis and ascaridiosis/roundworms were the parasitic diseases from pets most frequently identified. The number of owners who recognized the different parasitoses, who stated to have heard about zoonoses and who were aware of the potential transmission of parasites from animals to humans was significantly higher in those with intermediate (i.e. ≥9 and ≤ 12 years of schooling) and/or higher academic degree (i.e. licentiate, master's and/or doctorate degrees). The combinations of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel (23.5 %) and milbemycin-praziquantel (34.5 %) were the most widely endoparasitic drugs used in dogs and in cats, respectively. The most common ectoparasiticide used in dogs was a combination of imidacloprid-permethrin (33.4 %), while in cats it was

  2. In vitro efficacy of selected medicinal plants from Cholistan desert, Pakistan, against gastrointestinal helminths of sheep and goats

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    Muhammad Asif Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths are a major constraint to small ruminants in extensive husbandry systems of tropical regions. Yet, unavailability, high prices, side effects, and development of parasite resistance often limit the use of synthetic anthelmintics. Traditional medicinal plants might be an effective low-cost alternative. Therefore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf extracts of the ligneous plants Capparis decidua, Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Haloxylon recurvum from Cholistan, Pakistan, was investigated against adult worms of Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis, and Paramphistomum cervi. Various concentrations (from 7.8 to 500 mg dry matter ml^(−1 of three extracts (aqueous, methanol, and aqueous-methanol of each plant were tested at different time intervals for their anthelmintic activity via adult motility assay. Plant species (p<=0.01, extract type (p<=0.001, parasite species (p<=0.001, extract concentration (p<=0.001, time of exposure (p<=0.001 and their interactions (p<=0.001 affected the number of immobile or dead helminths. The 50% lethal concentration (LC_(50 values indicated that the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of C. decidua, H. recurvum, and H. salicornicum as well as the methanol extract of S. fruticosa have the potential to be developed into plant-based remedies against the studied helminths. Further studies are needed to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of these extracts, in order to develop effective, cheap and locally available anthelmintics for pastoralists in Cholistan and neighbouring desert regions.

  3. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems.

  4. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  5. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health.

  6. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  7. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  8. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and ...

  9. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran

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    H Oormazdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

  10. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  11. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Responses by Parasites: A Common Strategy to Survive

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    César A. Terrazas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in our planet and the immune responses triggered by these organisms are critical to determine their outcome. Dendritic cells are key elements for the development of immunity against parasites; they control the responses required to eliminate these pathogens while maintaining host homeostasis. However, there is evidence showing that parasites can influence and regulate dendritic cell function in order to promote a more permissive environment for their survival. In this review we will focus on the strategies protozoan and helminth parasites have developed to interfere with dendritic cell activities as well as in the possible mechanisms involved.

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, X; Diffo, J L D; Somo, R M; Bilong Bilong, C F; Delaporte, E; LeBreton, M; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-01-10

    To document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Cameroonian monkeys and to assess the risk of transmission to humans, we sampled 125 primates belonging to 15 species, of which 78 had been captured for bushmeat in the wild, and 47 were pets kept in urban areas. Seven nematode species, one trematode, one cestode and three protozoa were detected. Eight different parasite species were found in Cercopithecus nictitans and six in C. neglectus, C. pogonias and Cercocebus agilis. Helminths were found in 77% of monkeys, and protozoa in 36%. Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba coli were the most frequent parasites, being found in 54% and 36% of animals, respectively. Helminths were more frequent in adults than in juveniles, while the prevalence of protozoa was not age-related. No significant gender difference was found. Bushmeat monkeys had a significantly higher prevalence of helminth infection than pets (92% versus 51%), whereas there was no significant difference in the prevalence of protozoa (32% versus 43%). Among helminth species, Strongyloides fulleborni was more prevalent in bushmeat monkeys than in pets (55% versus 15%), as were Ancylostoma spp. (62% versus 9%). As these parasites are transmitted transcutaneously by infectious larva, they have a high potential for transmission to humans, during butchering. One pet monkey kept in an urban household in Yaoundé was infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The potential public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. [The evolution of the Th2 immune responses and its relationships with parasitic diseases and allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Luis; Zakzuk, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergic-like responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a) acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b) finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response.

  14. Epidemiological survey on gastro-intestinal and blood-borne helminths of dogs in north-east Gabon : research communication

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    B. Davoust

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5 % of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8 %, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3 % and Capillaria spp. in 10.6 %. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6 % of the samples.

  15. Evaluation of the formalin-Tween concentration technique for parasitic detection

    OpenAIRE

    Methanitikorn Rungkanta; Sukontason Kom; Sukontason Kabkaew L; Piangjai Somsak

    2003-01-01

    The formalin-Tween sedimentation method was compared with the formalin-ether sedimentation for parasitic detection. Of a total 297 fecal specimens examined, 72.1% were positive. The formalin-tween technique was effective for ascertaining helminths, particularly Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs; however it has less capability for protozoa detection. This method is simple, inexpensive, less time consuming and highly sensitive when detecting the parasitic infection, pa...

  16. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

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    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  17. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Abate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.

  18. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

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    Yao Wei J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. Results A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48 and isolated lakes (0.50. The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708, and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807. The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. Conclusion The

  19. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen X; Nie, Pin; Wang, Gui T; Yao, Wei J

    2009-04-27

    Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48) and isolated lakes (0.50). The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708), and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807). The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. The similarity in the helminth communities of this fish in the flood

  20. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – Seasonal, geographical and host related variations in the parasite burdens of two distinct Danish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Stengaard; Chriél, Mariann; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    Due to a recent decline in number of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Denmark, prevalence, intensity and composition of the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of Common Eiders from two distinct colonies were examined to establish reference data of the helminth fauna of apparently healthy birds...... during the nesting period. The study is ongoing, and so far most parasites have only been identified to the family level. Eight trematode families, two nematode families, one acanthocephala and one cestode family were identified. Intensities of infections were primarily influenced by age of the birds....... For the gizzard nematode Amidostomum acutum, significantly higher intensities (p

  2. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  3. Malaria, helminths, co-infection and anaemia in a cohort of children from Mutengene, south western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njua-Yafi, Clarisse; Achidi, Eric A; Anchang-Kimbi, Judith K; Apinjoh, Tobias O; Mugri, Regina N; Chi, Hanesh F; Tata, Rolland B; Njumkeng, Charles; Nkock, Emmanuel N; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2016-02-06

    Malaria and helminthiases frequently co-infect the same individuals in endemic zones. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth infections have long been recognized as major contributors to anaemia in endemic countries. Several studies have explored the influence of helminth infections on the course of malaria in humans but how these parasites interact within co-infected individuals remains controversial. In a community-based longitudinal study from March 2011 to February 2012, the clinical and malaria parasitaemia status of a cohort of 357 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in Mutengene, south-western region of Cameroon, was monitored. Following the determination of baseline malaria/helminths status and haemoglobin levels, the incidence of malaria and anaemia status was determined in a 12 months longitudinal study by both active and passive case detection. Among all the children who completed the study, 32.5 % (116/357) of them had at least one malaria episode. The mean (±SEM) number of malaria attacks per year was 1.44 ± 0.062 (range: 1-4 episodes) with the highest incidence of episodes occuring during the rainy season months of March-October. Children anaemia [OR = 2.24, 95 % CI (1.85-4.23), p = 0.013] compared to older children (5-10 years old). Likewise children with malaria episodes [OR = 4.45, 95 % CI (1.66-11.94), p = 0.003] as well as those with asymptomatic parasitaemia [OR = 2.41, 95 % CI (1.58-3.69) p anaemia compared to their malaria parasitaemia negative counterparts. Considering children infected with Plasmodium alone as the reference, children infected with helminths alone were associated with protection from anaemia [OR = 0.357, 95 % CI (0.141-0.901), p = 0.029]. The mean haemoglobin level (g/dl) of participants co-infected with Plasmodium and helminths was higher (p = 0.006) compared to participants infected with Plasmodium or helminths alone. Children below 5 years of age were more susceptible to malaria and anaemia. The high prevalence of

  4. Helminths and Pentastomida of two synanthropic gecko lizards, Hemidactylus mabouia and Phyllopezus pollicaris, in an urban area in Northeastern Brazil

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    JGG Sousa

    Full Text Available Helminths and pentastomids were examined in exotic Hemidactylus mabouia and native Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards, living synanthropically in an urban area in the municipality of Crato, Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. A total of 194 lizards were collected, being 76 specimens of H. mabouia e 118 specimens of P. pollicaris. Six parasite species were found infecting H. mabouia: the cestode Oochoristica sp., the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, and Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis and the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae; while four parasite species were found associated with P. pollicaris: Oochoristica sp., P. sceleratus, P. retusa, and S. oxkutzcabiensis. Three new host records were reported: P. retusa infecting H. mabouia and P. retusa and Oochoristica sp. infecting P. pollicaris. About 75% of the parasites species found were shared by both lizards. Moreover, H. mabouia showed greater diversity than P. pollicaris (6 versus 4 species, while P. pollicaris had higher intensity of infection than H. mabouia (1536 versus 121 specimens.

  5. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  6. Interleukin (IL) 5 levels and eosinophilia in patients with intestinal parasitic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebnem Ustun; Nevin Turgay; Songul Bayram Delibas; Hatice Ertabaklar

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Intestinal parasitic diseases are commonly accompanied with diarrhoeal symptoms and allergic reactions. Eosinophilia occurs as a result of IL-5 synthesized from Th2 cells during allergic reactions. IL-5 acts as a factor activating eosinophils.The aim of this study was to compare the IL-5 cytokine measurements in serum samples and cell cultures. And also to compare eosinophilia observed in helminth infections and protozoon infections accompanied with allergy.METHODS: Twenty-three patients who presented with diarrhoeal symptoms and allergic complaints were tested positive for intestinal parasites, as well as 21 controls with allergic complaints who did not have any intestinal parasites were included in this study. IL-5 production in in vitro cell cultures prepared by using phytohemaglutinin (PHA) to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)obtained from the blood samples taken from these patients were compared with the IL-5 level in serum. Furthermore,the IL-5 production in protozoon and helminth infections was also compared. Absolute eosinophil values in 1 mm3 of blood were calculated by means of peripheral smear in both groups within the scope of the study.RESULTS: Parasites such as helminth detected in 15(65.2%) and protozoon in 8 (34.8%) of the patients were included in this study. As regards the values of the sera in both patients with parasite infection and controls, the IL-5production was found to be higher in the cell culture supernatant (P0.05).CONCLUSION: It was found that IL-5 cytokine levels in serum samples from the patients with helminth and protozoon displayed more measurable values as compared to the IL-5 levels after stimulation with mitogen. It is concluded that IL-5 acts as a triggering factor in the toxiallergic complaints commonly seen in helminth and protozoon infections.

  7. The role of small heat shock proteins in parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Espinoza, Bertha

    2015-09-01

    The natural life cycle of many protozoan and helminth parasites involves exposure to several hostile environmental conditions. Under these circumstances, the parasites arouse a cellular stress response that involves the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Small HSPs (sHSPs) constitute one of the main families of HSPs. The sHSPs are very divergent at the sequence level, but their secondary and tertiary structures are conserved and some of its members are related to α-crystallin from vertebrates. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes. As other HSPs, the sHSPs act as molecular chaperones; however, they have shown other activities apparently not related to chaperone action. In this review, the diverse activities of sHSPs in the major genera of protozoan and helminth parasites are described. These include stress response, development, and immune response, among others. In addition, an analysis comparing the sequences of sHSPs from some parasites using a distance analysis is presented. Because many parasites face hostile conditions through its life cycles the study of HSPs, including sHSPs, is fundamental.

  8. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  9. XML Parasitic Contamination of Consumed Vegetables in Golestan Province, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Rahimi - Esboei B, Pagheh A, Fakhar M, Pagheh S, Dadimoghadam Y . [ Parasitic Contamination of Consumed Vegetables in Golestan Province, 2012 ]. mljgoums . 201 4 ; 8 ( 3 : 82 - 89 [Article in Persian] Rahimi - Esboei, B. (MSc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The Outbreak of human parasitic diseases associated with the consumption of raw vegetables often occurs in both developing and developed countries. This study aimed to evaluate parasitic contamination of edible vegetables in Golestan Province. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the cities of Golestan Province for six months, 2012. The samples (N = 100 were randomly chosen among different vegetables (parsley, lettuce, radish, and cress, and examined for the presence of helminthic and protozoan parasitic contaminations following washing, centrifuging and sedimentation. Results: Thirty-seven (37% were found to have parasitic contamination, and of these 30 (81.1% and 7 (18.9% were helminths and protozoa, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was detected in parsley (37.9%, and the lowest in radish (12.0%. Moreover, free living larva with 58.6% and Hymenolepis nana ova with 5.1% were the highest and lowest contaminated rates, respectively. Conclusion: Based on our results, consumed vegetables in Golestan Province is considered as a potential risk for some human parasitic infections.

  10. Infection patterns of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by two helminth species with contrasting life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-04-01

    The larval stages of Bolbophorus sp. (digenean) and Amirthalingamia macracantha (cestode) are frequently reported in Oreochromis niloticus in Uganda. Little, however, is known about their infection patterns. This study examined the influence of habitat type, host size, and sex and weather patterns on the parasite populations in Uganda. A total of 650 fish were collected between January and November 2008 from a reservoir, cages, fishponds and a stream. The prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha and the prevalence of Bolbophorus sp. differed across the water bodies reflecting the effect of habitat characteristics on parasite transmission. Host sex did not significantly influence the infection patterns, although female fish were slightly more parasitized than male and sexually undifferentiated individuals. The fish size was positively correlated with helminth infections demonstrating accumulation and prolonged exposure of larger (older) fish to the parasites. The metacercariae population did not vary significantly across months, while monthly A. macracantha infection fluctuated markedly. With regard to rain seasons, higher prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha were recorded in wet season. For Bolbophorus sp., only the prevalence varied with seasons, with higher prevalence recorded in the dry season than in wet season. Generally, Bolbophorus sp. responded weakly to changes in water body, host sex and size and weather patterns. Rainfall appears to be an essential cue for coracidia hatching.

  11. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them.

  12. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  13. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil: I - Pesquisa de helmintos Study on the occurrence of intestinal parasites on vegetables commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP, Brazil: I - Search for helminths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-08-01

    . Results showed high rates of contamination in all the vegetable varieties analysed. However, the water-cress was that which presented the highest frequencies of enteroparasites. The endive presented middle values ranking, in general, between the lettuces and the water-cress. Though high, the average number of helminth eggs and larvae obtained per 100 gr. of sample did not present statistically significant differences as between the four vegetable varietities studied. A great variety of helminths and protozoans such as occur frequently in the resident population of the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, were observed in the samples. However, the most frequent were: hookworms and Ascaris sp. Eggs of Toxocara sp, Fasciola sp and Trichostrongylidae were also recovered from the samples thus corroborating the occurrence of vegetables contamination with faeces of domestic animals. In view of the results obtained, the importance of these kinds of food in the transmission of enteroparasites is stressed, as well as the need for actions which improve the sanitary conditions of these products.

  14. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  15. [Variations in human parasitic diseases: malaria and schistosomiasis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, J P

    1981-01-01

    Until now, not any human vaccine against parasites can't be prepared. However, experimental researches are more and more numerous, with two major aims: Malaria and Schistosomiasis. Three vaccines are considered in Malaria: --sporozoite-vaccine, --merozoite-vaccine, --gametocyte-vaccine. Important advances were realized after the control of new techniques: --in vitro cultivation of malaria parasites, --production of monoclonal antibodies, --industrial breeding of anopheles. But the applications in men still remain a remote object. The vaccines against schistosomiasis can be killed vaccines or live vaccines; the use of radio-vaccines is full of promise. The difficulties of vaccination against protozoal or helminthic parasites are due in part to the misappreciation of real defensive means in the parasited host. A serious progress would be to devise artificial systems drawing near of physiological phenomenons.

  16. Phylogeography helps with investigating the building of human parasite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Phylogeography of parasites and microbes is a recent field. Phylogeographic studies have been performed mostly to test three major hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive on the origins and distributions of human parasites and microbes: (1) the "out of Africa" pattern where parasites are supposed to have followed the dispersal and expansion of modern humans in and out of Africa, (2) the "domestication" pattern where parasites were captured in the domestication centres and dispersed through them and (3) the "globalization" pattern, in relation to historical and more recent trade routes. With some exceptions, such studies of human protozoans, helminths and ectoparasites are quite limited. The conclusion emphasizes the need to acquire more phylogeographic data in non-Occidental countries, and particularly in Asia where all the animal domestications took place.

  17. Isolation of parasites on fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J W

    1991-12-01

    The current FDA method to recover parasites from fruits and vegetables is derived from procedures used to isolate parasitic protozoa from water. A 1kg portion of fruit or vegetable is divided into 200 g subportions. The subportions are sequentially processed in a sonic cleaning bath with 1.5 liters of detergent solution (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.1% Tween 80) and sonicated for 10 minutes. As each subsample is removed, it is thoroughly drained. After this sonic treatment, the wash water is collected in a polypropylene beaker, transferred to 50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 15 min at 1500 x g. The sediment is consolidated into one tube along with two rinsings of each tube. The final sediment is fixed in 4% formaldehyde for 10 minutes before examination for parasites. Indirect fluorescent antibody is applied to stain the parasites (Giardia spp. and/or Cryptosporidium spp.) by using commercial kits when available. If a large quantity of extraneous matter is contained in the sediment it may be reduced by layering on Sheather's fluid and centrifuging at 1500 x g for 15 minutes. The supernatant is collected and washed twice in distilled water. This procedure is adequate for protozoa and nonoperculate helminth eggs; operculate helminth eggs may be cleaned by extraction with ethyl acetate. When cabbage and lettuce were seeded at 1 organism/g, the rate of recovery for Cryptosporidium parvum with the FDA method was 1%. When cabbage was seeded at 1 egg/g and 10 eggs/g, the average rate of recovery of decorticated eggs of Ascaris sp. or untreated Trichuris sp. was 10%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Gastro-intestinal helminths of goliath frogs (Conraua goliath from the localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock in the Littoral Region of Cameroon

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    Nguiffo Nguete Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of goliath frog (Conraua goliath from the Littoral Region of Cameroon in the Localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock were surveyed. Out of the 30 goliath frogs examined (13 males and 17 females between April and May 2013, 26 (85% contained at least one helminth parasite and yielded a total of nine hundred and seventy three (973 helminths comprising: Nematodes (90.5%, Trematodes (9.4% and Pentastomids (0.1%. Nematodes included: Africana taylori (60%, Oswaldocruzia perreti (0.2%, Aplectana sp. (21%, Gendria sp. (7.1%, Amphibiophilus sp. (0.2%, Strongyluris sp. (0.1%, Physalopteroides sp. (1.6%, and Oxyuridae gen. sp. (0.3%. Trematodes comprised: Mesocoelium sp. (7.3% and Diplodiscus subclavatus (2.1%. Pentastomids were represented by Sebekia sp. (0.1%. The mean species richness and diversity were 1.97±2.12 and 0.41±0.04 respectively. The intensity of parasite infection was correlated with host body weight, positively for Africana taylori, Aplectana sp., Diplodiscus subclavatus, and Mesocoeliumsp. Infection rates were influenced by land-use pattern. Thus higher prevalences were observed in Loum (intensive agricultural area.

  20. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards.