WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-gyro control law

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  2. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  3. The composition of heterogeneous control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Astrom, Karl

    1991-01-01

    The fuzzy control literature and industrial practice provide certain nonlinear methods for combining heterogeneous control laws, but these methods have been very difficult to analyze theoretically. An alternate formulation and extension of this approach is presented that has several practical and theoretical benefits. An example of heterogeneous control is given and two alternate analysis methods are presented.

  4. Second law of thermodynamics under control restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilming, H; Gallego, R; Eisert, J

    2016-04-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, formulated as an ultimate bound on the maximum extractable work, has been rigorously derived in multiple scenarios. However, the unavoidable limitations that emerge due to the lack of control on small systems are often disregarded when deriving such bounds, which is specifically important in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Here we study the maximum extractable work with limited control over the working system and its interaction with the heat bath. We derive a general second law when the set of accessible Hamiltonians of the working system is arbitrarily restricted. We then apply our bound to particular scenarios that are important in realistic implementations: limitations on the maximum energy gap and local control over many-body systems. We hence demonstrate in what precise way the lack of control affects the second law. In particular, contrary to the unrestricted case, we show that the optimal work extraction is not achieved by simple thermal contacts. Our results not only generalize the second law to scenarios of practical relevance, but also take first steps in the direction of local thermodynamics.

  5. Fractional conservation laws in optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Frederico, Gastao S F

    2007-01-01

    Using the recent formulation of Noether's theorem for the problems of the calculus of variations with fractional derivatives, the Lagrange multiplier technique, and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations, we prove a Noether-like theorem to the more general context of the fractional optimal control. As a corollary, it follows that in the fractional case the autonomous Hamiltonian does not define anymore a conservation law. Instead, it is proved that the fractional conservation law adds to the Hamiltonian a new term which depends on the fractional-order of differentiation, the generalized momentum, and the fractional derivative of the state variable.

  6. Approximation law for discrete-time variable structure control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHENG; Yuanwei JING

    2006-01-01

    Two approximation laws of sliding mode for discrete-time variable structure control systems are proposed to overcome the limitations of the exponential approximation law and the variable rate approximation law. By applying the proposed approximation laws of sliding mode to discrete-time variable structure control systems, the stability of origin can be guaranteed, and the chattering along the switching surface caused by discrete-time variable structure control can be restrained effectively. In designing of approximation laws, the problem that the system control input is restricted is also considered, which is very important in practical systems. Finally a simulation example shows the effectiveness of the two approximation laws proposed.

  7. Remote Control Guidance Law Design Using Variable Structure Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A method of sliding mode variable structure control for the missile body being a time varying system is presented. A remote control guidance law is designed. The method has strong robustness to target's maneuver. To reduce the chattering phenomena, quasi-sliding mode variable structure control method is used. Simulation results show that the proposed method has small miss distance for any kind of maneuvering targets and requires small control energy.

  8. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  9. APPROXIMATION LAWS OF DISCRETE-TIME VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Two new approximation laws of sliding mode for discrete-time variable structure control systems are proposed in this paper. By applying the proposed approximation laws of sliding mode to discrete-time variable structure control systems,the stability of origin can be guaranteed,and the chattering along the switching surface caused by discrete-time variable structure control can be restrained effectively. In designing of these approximation laws,the problem that the system control input is restricted is also ...

  10. Featuring Control Power: Corporate Law and Economics Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation reappraises the existing framework for economic analysis of corporate law. The standard approach to the legal foundations of corporate governance is based on the ‘law matters’ thesis, according to which corporate law promotes separation of ownership and control by prote

  11. Steering Law Controlling the Constant Speeds of Control Moment Gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOYASAKO, Y.; TAKAHASHI, M.

    2016-09-01

    To enable the agile control of satellites, using control moment gyros (CMGs) has become increasingly necessary because of their ability to generate large amounts of torque. However, CMGs have a singularity problem whereby the torque by the CMGs degenerates from three dimensions to two dimensions, affecting spacecraft attitude control performance. This study proposes a new steering control law for CMGs by controlling the constant speed of a CMG. The proposed method enables agile attitude changes, according to the required task, by managing the total angular momentum of the CMGs by considering the distance to external singularities. In the proposed method, the total angular momentum is biased in a specific direction and the angular momentum envelope is extended. The design method can increase the net angular momentum of CMGs which can be exchanged with the satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  12. Longitudinal control laws design for a flying wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the flight dynamic, pitch flight control and flying qualities assessment for the reference BWB aircraft. It aims to develop the longitudinal control laws which could satisfy the flying and handing qualities over the whole flight envelope with added consideration of centre of gravity (CG) variation. In order to achieve this goal, both the longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) and autopilot control laws are studied in this thesis. Usi...

  13. Longitudinal control laws design for a flying wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the flight dynamic, pitch flight control and flying qualities assessment for the reference BWB aircraft. It aims to develop the longitudinal control laws which could satisfy the flying and handing qualities over the whole flight envelope with added consideration of centre of gravity (CG) variation. In order to achieve this goal, both the longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) and autopilot control laws are studied in this thesis. Usi...

  14. Digital adaptive control laws for the F-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Harvey, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is conducting a flight control research program in digital fly-by-wire technology using a modified F-8C aircraft. The first phase of this program used Apollo hardware to demonstrate the practicality of digital fly-by-wire in an actual test vehicle. For the second phase, conventional aircraft sensors and a large floating point digital computer are being utilized to test advanced control laws and redundancy concepts. As part of NASA's research in digital fly-by-wire technology, Honeywell developed digital adaptive flight control laws for flight test in the F-8C. Adaptation of the control laws was to be based on information sensed from conventional aircraft sensors excluding air data. The control laws were constrained to use only existing elevator, rudder, and ailerons as control effectors, each powered by existing actuators. Three adaptive control laws were successfully designed using maximum likelihood estimation, a Liapunov stable model tracker and a self-excited limit cycle concept. The maximum likelihood estimation design was selected as the most promising because of its capability to identify more than surface effectiveness parameters. The adaptive concepts, the control laws and comparisons of predicted performance are described.

  15. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  16. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  17. Advanced Control Law Tuning and Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    range. The Fig. 21 shows the response of the NGMV controller and of two of the PID controllers obtained. The dynamic response of the NGMV controller...is very close to the original one, despite the significant increase in the time delay. It was not possible to obtain, for the PID controllers , both

  18. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  19. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  20. Tracking controller for robot manipulators via composite nonlinear feedback law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wendong; Su Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    A composite nonlinear feedback tracking controller for motion control of robot manipulators is de-scribed. The structure of the controller is composed of a composite nonlinear feedback law plus full robot nonlinear dynamics compensation. The stability is carried out in the presence of friction. The controller takes advantage of varying damping ratios induced by the composite nonlinear feedback control, so the transient performance of the closed-loop is remarkably improved. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Stochastic control and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is studied from the point of view of stochastic control theory. We find that the feedback control laws which are of interest are those which depend only on average values, and not on sample path behavior. We are lead to a criterion which, when satisfied, permits one to assign a temperature to a stochastic system in such a way as to have Carnot cycles be the optimal trajectories of optimal control problems. Entropy is also defined and we are able to prove an equipartition of energy theorem using this definition of temperature. Our formulation allows one to treat irreversibility in a quite natural and completely precise way.

  2. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  3. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  4. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  5. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  6. Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.

  7. Guidance law based on piecewise constant control for hypersonic gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David G.; Seguin, Jean-Marie

    A midcourse guidance law is developed for the descent of a hypersonic glider to a fixed target on the ground. It is based on an optimal piecewise constant control (N intervals) obtained from an approximate physical model (flat earth, exponential atmosphere, parabolic drag polar, etc). The resulting optimal control equations can be integrated either analytically or by quadrature, and the guidance algorithm requires the solution of 2N+1 nonlinear algebraic equations. The guidance law is implemented in a realistic glider simulation, the intercept is achieved, and final velocities within 14 percent of the true values are obtained for the downrange and crossranges considered.

  8. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Bo; Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2016-01-01

    Gust load alleviation (GLA) tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and veri-fied. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compen-sating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude sat-urations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  9. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  10. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  11. Law-Aware Access Control and its Information Model

    CERN Document Server

    Stieghahn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cross-border access to a variety of data such as market information, strategic information, or customer-related information defines the daily business of many global companies, including financial institutions. These companies are obliged by law to keep a data processing legal for all offered services. They need to fulfill different security objectives specified by the legislation. Therefore, they control access to prevent unauthorized users from using data. Those security objectives, for example confidentiality or secrecy, are often defined in the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language that promotes interoperability between different systems. In this paper, we show the necessity of incorporating the requirements of legislation into access control. Based on the work flow in a banking scenario we describe a variety of available contextual information and their interrelations. Different from other access control systems our main focus is on law-compliant cross-border data access. By including legislation dir...

  12. F-8C digital CCV flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Hauge, J. A.; Hendrick, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A set of digital flight control laws were designed for the NASA F-8C digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The control laws emphasize Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) benefits. Specific pitch axis objectives were improved handling qualities, angle-of-attack limiting, gust alleviation, drag reduction in steady and maneuvering flight, and a capability to fly with reduced static stability. The lateral-directional design objectives were improved Dutch roll damping and turn coordination over a wide range in angle-of-attack. An overall program objective was to explore the use of modern control design methodilogy to achieve these specific CCV benefits. Tests for verifying system integrity, an experimental design for handling qualities evaluation, and recommended flight test investigations were specified.

  13. Power-law rheology controls aftershock triggering and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Shcherbakov, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of aftershocks is a signature of physical systems exhibiting relaxation phenomena. They are observed in various natural or experimental systems and usually obey several non-trivial empirical laws. Here we consider a cellular automaton realization of a nonlinear viscoelastic slider-block model in order to infer the physical mechanisms of triggering responsible for the occurrence of aftershocks. We show that nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in the occurrence of aftershocks. The model reproduces several empirical laws describing the statistics of aftershocks. In case of earthquakes, the proposed model suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge, underlying lower crust, and upper mantle controls the decay rate of aftershocks. This is verified by analysing several prominent aftershock sequences for which the rheological properties of the underlying crust and upper mantle were established.

  14. Implementation of Nonlinear Control Laws for an Optical Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, John J.; Lurie, Boris; Grogan, Robert; Johnson, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a globally stable nonlinear controller algorithm for the Real-Time Interferometer Control System Testbed (RICST) brassboard optical delay line (ODL) developed for the Interferometry Technology Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The control methodology essentially employs loop shaping to implement linear control laws. while utilizing nonlinear elements as means of ameliorating the effects of actuator saturation in its coarse, main, and vernier stages. The linear controllers were implemented as high-order digital filters and were designed using Bode integral techniques to determine the loop shape. The nonlinear techniques encompass the areas of exact linearization, anti-windup control, nonlinear rate limiting and modal control. Details of the design procedure are given as well as data from the actual mechanism.

  15. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  16. Fitts' law with an isometric controller: effects of order of control and control-display gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H; Elvers, G C

    1988-03-01

    Twenty-four male subjects performed a discrete positioning task using an isometric controller. Two levels of order of control (position and velocity) were factorially crossed with two levels of control-display gain. Fitts' law functions were found for each of the four conditions. The velocity control conditions had significantly steeper slopes than the corresponding position control conditions, but there was no main effect for gain. A predicted interaction between control-display gain and order of control was found, indicating that the relative benefit of high gain is greater for velocity control than for position control. The reaction time (RT) regression lines had steeper negative slopes than those attained by Jagacinski, Repperger, Moran, Ward, and Glass (1980), who used an isotonic controller. This is in agreement with the results of Falkenberg and Newell (1980), who found that as average velocity increases, RT decreases. The components of Fitts' law were investigated, and this showed that the RT finding was due to the amplitude of the target, which covaried with average velocity, but was not due to the width.

  17. Control law design to meet constraints using SYNPAC-synthesis package for active controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Major features of SYNPAC (Synthesis Package for Active Controls) are described. SYNPAC employs constrained optimization techniques which allow explicit inclusion of design criteria (constraints) in the control law design process. Interrelationships are indicated between this constrained optimization approach, classical and linear quadratic Gaussian design techniques. Results are presented that were obtained by applying SYNPAC to the design of a combined stability augmentation/gust load alleviation control law for the DAST ARW-2.

  18. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Law at Cafe’ and Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Özcebe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to evaluate ideas of some cafe and restaurants’ clients and workers about the tobacco control law three years after entering into force in a central district in Ankara in 2008. Methods: In the descriptive study;105 management, 113 worker and 386 client was visited, face to face interviews were done using two different questionnaire form and another form for managements’ evaluation. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program, Chi-square and t-tests were used. Administrative leave was taken. Results: Mean age of workers was 30.1±8.32 years; 82.3% were men, 54.0% smoker; with clients the values are 27.7±8.61 years; 53.6% women and 39.4% were smokers. There’s a difference between smokers and non- smokers’ ideas about the hazards; death due to second-hand smoking (p=0.024; p<0.01. 80.3% of smokers and 74.3% of non-smokers knew the law in restaurants serving alcoholic beverages. Acceptance of the idea of the law could help to quit smoking was significantly different between smoker/non smoker workers and smoker/non smoker clients (p=0.004;p<0.001. According to observations, 7.6% of the managements didn’t have law related plaque, 94.1% had smoking free areas, 57.1% had show window, 22.7% had smoking individuals and 12.6% had ashtray. Conclusion: Tobacco use is an individualistic reality but also a public health issue. Publicly acceptance of 45 law and implementations are needed besides individual perceptions. Implementations must be inspected and Smokers’ observance of the rules must be supplied in order to decrease tobacco use and related health complications.

  19. Sliding mode control based guidance law with impact angle constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yao; Sheng Yongzhi; Liu Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    The terminal guidance problem for an unpowered lifting reentry vehicle against a sta-tionary target is considered. In addition to attacking the target with high accuracy, the vehicle is also expected to achieve a desired impact angle. In this paper, a sliding mode control (SMC)-based guidance law is developed to satisfy the terminal angle constraint. Firstly, a specific sliding mode function is designed, and the terminal requirements can be achieved by enforcing both the sliding mode function and its derivative to zero at the end of the flight. Then, a backstepping approach is used to ensure the finite-time reaching phase of the sliding mode and the analytic expression of the control effort can be obtained. The trajectories generated by this method only depend on the initial and terminal conditions of the terminal phase and the instantaneous states of the vehicle. In order to test the performance of the proposed guidance law in practical application, numerical simulations are carried out by taking all the aerodynamic parameters into consideration. The effec-tiveness of the proposed guidance law is verified by the simulation results in various scenarios.

  20. Romania- New Tobacco control law from an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaltan Florin Dumitru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our presentation we are evaluating the progress of the tobacco control in Romania looking form the point of view on NGO in the last 26 years. We are signalling the progressive steps towards policy and an advocacy from our perspective and the consequences of our success. The final result is reflected in the new law starting in force on March 17th, 2016, a real advance in our fight. We are identifying in the same time the new challenging problems after launching the new law. Probably the biggest gain of our fight is the extensive partnership with all the factors, our efforts to bring together in a big family as the coalition “Romania Respira” politicians, advocates, judges, economists, young’s and also the new way found to encourage all: mass media, politicians, journalists, public to support us.

  1. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  2. Second law of thermodynamics with discrete quantum feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2008-02-29

    A new thermodynamic inequality is derived which leads to the maximum work that can be extracted from multi-heat-baths with the assistance of discrete quantum feedback control. The maximum work is determined by the free-energy difference and a generalized mutual information content between the thermodynamic system and the feedback controller. This maximum work can exceed that in conventional thermodynamics and, in the case of a heat cycle with two heat baths, the heat efficiency can be greater than that of the Carnot cycle. The consistency of our results with the second law of thermodynamics is ensured by the fact that work is needed for information processing of the feedback controller.

  3. Intelligent robust control law for induction motors based on field-oriented control theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barambones, O.; Alcorta, P.; Sevillano, G.; Garrido, A.; Garrido, I. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieri a de Sistemas y Automatica

    2009-07-01

    A sensorless adaptive control law was developed to improve the trajectory tracking performance of induction motors. The law used an integral sliding mode algorithm to avoid the necessity of calculating an upper bound for system uncertainties. The vector control theory was used to develop the induction motor drives. The sliding mode control law incorporated an adaptive switching gain and included a method of estimating rotor speeds. Rotor speed estimation errors were presented as a first order simple function based on the difference between real stator currents and estimated stator currents. The Lyapunov stability theory was used to analyze the controller under different load disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Results of the study showed that the control signal of the scheme was smaller than signals obtained using traditional variable structure control schemes. It was concluded that speed tracking objectives can be obtained under various parameter and torque uncertainties. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Youth Attitudes towards Tobacco Control Laws: The Influence of Smoking Status and Grade in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined adolescent attitudes towards tobacco control laws. An exploratory factor analysis, using surveys from over 9,000 students, identified the following three factors: (1) youth attitudes towards the efficacy of tobacco control laws, (2) youth attitudes towards tobacco possession laws and (3) youth attitudes towards tobacco sales…

  5. Youth Attitudes towards Tobacco Control Laws: The Influence of Smoking Status and Grade in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined adolescent attitudes towards tobacco control laws. An exploratory factor analysis, using surveys from over 9,000 students, identified the following three factors: (1) youth attitudes towards the efficacy of tobacco control laws, (2) youth attitudes towards tobacco possession laws and (3) youth attitudes towards tobacco sales…

  6. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  7. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  8. Differential-Drive Mobile Robot Control Design based-on Linear Feedback Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmaini, Siti; Dewi, Kemala; Tutuko, Bambang

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of how to control differential driven mobile robot with simple control law. When mobile robot moves from one position to another to achieve a position destination, it always produce some errors. Therefore, a mobile robot requires a certain control law to drive the robot’s movement to the position destination with a smallest possible error. In this paper, in order to reduce position error, a linear feedback control is proposed with pole placement approach to regulate the polynoms desired. The presented work leads to an improved understanding of differential-drive mobile robot (DDMR)-based kinematics equation, which will assist to design of suitable controllers for DDMR movement. The result show by using the linier feedback control method with pole placement approach the position error is reduced and fast convergence is achieved.

  9. Contracts under administrative law in the areas of emission control and water protection law; Verwaltungsrechtliche Vertraege im Immissions- und Gewaesserschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhaus, Jens

    2011-07-01

    Using the fields of emission control and water protection as an example the author investigates how environmental law is executed by way of contracts between the citizen and the administration. The study encompasses fundamental theoretical deliberations as well as practical experiences. It undertakes a discussion in legal theory on the instrument of an administrative contract, taking into consideration the results of a survey among 100 companies. The study identifies application fields for administrative contracts in the field of emission control and water protection law. It carves out and illustrates by way of examples the advantages and drawbacks of the use of administrative contracts as compared with regulation through administrative acts.

  10. A Control Law Design Method Facilitating Control Power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs: CRAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.

  11. Robust Operation of Tendon-Driven Robot Fingers Using Force and Position-Based Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven finger and a control system. The system controls the finger via a force-based control law when a tension sensor is available, and via a position-based control law when a sensor is not available. Multiple tendons may each have a corresponding sensor. The system selectively injects a compliance value into the position-based control law when only some sensors are available. A control system includes a host machine and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having a control process, which is executed by the host machine to control the finger via the force- or position-based control law. A method for controlling the finger includes determining the availability of a tension sensor(s), and selectively controlling the finger, using the control system, via the force or position-based control law. The position control law allows the control system to resist disturbances while nominally maintaining the initial state of internal tendon tensions.

  12. An extrapolation approach for aeroengine’s transient control law design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiangxing; Wang Xi; Tan Daoliang; He Ai; Liu Yue

    2013-01-01

    Transient control law ensures that the aeroengine transits to the command operating state rapidly and reliably. Most of the existing approaches for transient control law design have complicated principle and arithmetic. As a result, those approaches are not convenient for applica-tion. This paper proposes an extrapolation approach based on the set-point parameters to construct the transient control law, which has a good practicability. In this approach, the transient main fuel control law for acceleration and deceleration process is designed based on the main fuel flow on steady operating state. In order to analyze the designing feature of the extrapolation approach, the simulation results of several different transient control laws designed by the same approach are compared together. The analysis indicates that the aeroengine has a good performance in the transient process and the designing feature of the extrapolation approach conforms to the elements of the turbofan aeroengine.

  13. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement.

  14. L1 adaptive control with sliding-mode based adaptive law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie LUO; Chengyu CAO

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control scheme with an integration of sliding mode control into the L1 adaptive control architecture, which provides good tracking performance as well as robustness against matched uncertainties. Sliding mode control is used as an adaptive law in the L1 adaptive control architecture, which is considered as a virtual control of error dynamics between estimated states and real states. Low-pass filtering mechanism in the control law design prevents a discontinuous signal in the adaptive law from appearing in actual control signal while maintaining control accuracy. By using sliding mode control as a virtual control of error dynamics and introducing the low-pass filtered control signal, the chattering effect is eliminated. The performance bounds between the close-loop adaptive system and the closed-loop reference system are characterized in this paper. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the performance of the presented adaptive control scheme.

  15. Digitally Controlled Converter with Dynamic Change of Control Law and Power Throughput

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Nielsen, Nils

    2003-01-01

    the control algorithm is a thermal monitoring scheme used for assessment of safe converter power throughput. An added benefit of this thermal monitoring is the possibility of software implemented analytic redundancy, which improves system fault resilience. Finally, reliability issues concerning......With the continuous development of faster and cheaper microprocessors the field of applications for digital control is constantly expanding. Based on this trend the paper at hand describes the analysis and implementation of multiple control laws within the same controller. Also, implemented within...... the substitution of analog controllers with their digital counterparts are considered. The outline of the paper is divided into two segments – the first being an experimental analysis of the timing behavior by means of code optimization – the second being an examination of the dynamics of incorporating two control...

  16. NASA's advanced control law program for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Langley Research Center's role in investigating and promoting advanced control laws for possible flight experimentation and also provides a brief description of the Phase II DFBW F-8 aircraft and its control system. Some of the advanced control law study objectives and guidelines are discussed, and some mathematical models which are useful in the control analysis problem are provided.

  17. A stochastic regulator for integrated communication and control systems. I - Formulation of control law. II - Numerical analysis and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok

    1991-01-01

    A state feedback control law for integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is formulated by using the dynamic programming and optimality principle on a finite-time horizon. The control law is derived on the basis of a stochastic model of the plant which is augmented in state space to allow for the effects of randomly varying delays in the feedback loop. A numerical procedure for synthesizing the control parameters is then presented, and the performance of the control law is evaluated by simulating the flight dynamics model of an advanced aircraft. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  18. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  19. Discretization of control law for a class of variable structure control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Golo, G.; Schaft, van der, Arjan; Milosavljević, Č.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for the discretization of a class of continuous-time variable structure control systems, based on the linear complementarity theory, is proposed. The proposed method consists two steps. In the first step, the motion projected on the sliding manifold (the fast dynamics) is discretized by means of backward Euler time-step method. In the second step, the sampled and hold control law is determined such that the trajectories of the discrete-time closed loop system projected on the sli...

  20. Design and Testing of Flight Control Laws on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.

    2001-01-01

    Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.

  1. Development of a digital automatic control law for steep glideslope capture and flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A longitudinal digital guidance and control law for steep glideslopes using MLS (Microwave Landing System) data is developed for CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law covers the final approach phases of glideslope capture, glideslope tracking, and flare to touchdown for automatic landings under adverse weather conditions. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process MLS and body-mounted accelerometer data to form estimates of flight path errors and wind velocities including wind shear. The flight path error estimates and wind estimates are used for feedback in generating control surface commands. Results of a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the guidance and control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  2. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Naturalization Service. This section does not apply to individuals who may be traveling with a prisoner and armed... aircraft operator may provide a prisoner under the control of a law enforcement officer— (1) With food or beverage or metal eating utensils unless authorized to do so by the armed law enforcement officer. (2) With...

  3. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  4. An on-orbit control law for the mated OMV and Shuttle-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, William P.

    A control law for remotely piloted rendezvous and docking operations with the mated OMV (Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle) and the proposed unmanned space cargo transportation vehicle (Shuttle-C) is presented. The sensitivity of this control law to variations in the vehicle CM (center of mass), principle axis inclination, and payload mass is evaluated by means of a 6 DOF (degree of freedom) digital computer simulation of the system. Conclusions regarding the robustness of the control law and the feasibility of the vehicle configuration are presented.

  5. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights

  6. Optimization of motion control laws for tether crawler or elevator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.; Von Tiesenhausen, Georg

    1988-01-01

    Based on the proposal of a motion control law by Lorenzini (1987), a method is developed for optimizing motion control laws for tether crawler or elevator systems in terms of the performance measures of travel time, the smoothness of acceleration and deceleration, and the maximum values of velocity and acceleration. The Lorenzini motion control law, based on powers of the hyperbolic tangent function, is modified by the addition of a constant-velocity section, and this modified function is then optimized by parameter selections to minimize the peak acceleration value for a selected travel time or to minimize travel time for the selected peak values of velocity and acceleration. It is shown that the addition of a constant-velocity segment permits further optimization of the motion control law performance.

  7. Three-dimensional guidance law based on adaptive integral sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Junhong; Song Shenmin

    2016-01-01

    For the terminal guidance problem of missiles intercepting maneuvering targets in the three-dimensional space, the design of guidance laws for non-decoupling three-dimensional engage-ment geometry is studied. Firstly, by introducing a finite time integral sliding mode manifold, a novel guidance law based on the integral sliding mode control is presented with the target acceler-ation as a known bounded external disturbance. Then, an improved adaptive guidance law based on the integral sliding mode control without the information of the upper bound on the target accel-eration is developed, where the upper bound of the target acceleration is estimated online by a designed adaptive law. The both presented guidance laws can make sure that the elevation angular rate of the line-of-sight and the azimuth angular rate of the line-of-sight converge to zero in finite time. In the end, the results of the guidance performance for the proposed guidance laws are pre-sented by numerical simulations. Although the designed guidance laws are developed for the con-stant speed missiles, the simulation results for the time-varying speed missiles are also shown to further confirm the designed guidance laws.

  8. Energy price control. An investigation of the price regulations at different energy markets under the energy industry law, German law, European law and under the general civil law; Energiepreiskontrolle. Eine Untersuchung der Entgeltkontrolle auf den verschiedenen Energiemaerkten nach Energiewirtschaftsrecht, deutschem und europaeischem Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungsrecht und allgemeinem Zivilrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on the price controls at the electricity and gas markets under the energy industry law, German law, European law and under the general civil law. The price control should be pursued with caution with respect to the desired competition in the energy markets.

  9. New class of control laws for robotic manipulators. I - Nonadaptive case. II - Adaptive case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    A new class of exponentially stabilizing control laws for joint level control of robot arms is discussed. Closed-loop exponential stability has been demonstrated for both the set point and tracking control problems by a slight modification of the energy Lyapunov function and the use of a lemma which handles third-order terms in the Lyapunov function derivatives. In the second part, these control laws are adapted in a simple fashion to achieve asymptotically stable adaptive control. The analysis addresses the nonlinear dynamics directly without approximation, linearization, or ad hoc assumptions, and uses a parameterization based on physical (time-invariant) quantities.

  10. [Basic policy towards patient's violation of drug control law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    All medical workers have a duty to protect a patient's privacy by law. Civil servants have a duty to prosecute anyone if a crime has been committed and others have the right to prosecute. When medical workers find their patient using illegal drugs, they are in a situation where any possible action they take is either a breach of one of the duties or an abandonment of the right to prosecute. Any worker in this situation should choose to do what will greater benefit society. Medical workers should avoid prosecuting a patient for illegal drug use, so that drug users can seek help. At the same time medical workers should try to put the patient in a situation where the patient's drug use in the future can be treated by the criminal justice system.

  11. Some optimal considerations in attitude control systems. [evaluation of value of relative weighting between time and fuel for relay control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.

  12. Guidance Law and Neural Control for Hypersonic Missile to Track Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic technology plays an important role in prompt global strike. Because the flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle is nonlinear, uncertain, and highly coupled, the controller design is challenging, especially to design its guidance and control law during the attack of a maneuvering target. In this paper, the sliding mode control (SMC method is used to develop the guidance law from which the desired flight path angle is derived. With the desired information as control command, the adaptive neural control in discrete time is investigated ingeniously for the longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic missile. The proposed guidance and control laws are validated by simulation of a hypersonic missile against a maneuvering target. It is demonstrated that the scheme has good robustness and high accuracy to attack a maneuvering target in the presence of external disturbance and missile model uncertainty.

  13. Vibration control of platform structures with magnetorheological elastomer isolators based on an improved SAVS law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Dong; Suo, Si; Lu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration control of platform structures with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolators. Firstly, a novel MRE isolator design is put forward based on the mechanical properties of MREs, and subsequently a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) dynamic model and a multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) dynamic model for platform systems incorporating such isolators are developed. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional on-off control law, an improved semi-active variable stiffness (SAVS) control law is proposed. The proposed SAVS scheme makes full use of the continuously variable stiffness of MREs, and it takes into account the influence of the sampling interval such that the field-dependent restoring force is made to do negative work during the whole sampling interval as far as possible. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the improved SAVS control law can achieve better vibration-control effectiveness than the on-off control law. The comparative results are discussed through examining the mechanisms of these two control laws in light of the power spectral density and the energy input. For an MDOF platform a simplified approach is proposed to combine the local response signals with an equivalent SDOF representation to generate the control parameters for individual isolators, and the effectiveness of such a scheme is also verified through numerical simulation.

  14. Adaptive Control Law Design for Model Uncertainty Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-14

    response satisfactorily. Figures 8.3, 8.4, and 8.5 show plots of the ADAC controller, Polynomial Spline DAC, and PID controllers in the a1 - a2...transient responses and the associated control signals for the ADAC, MRAC, and PID controllers are shown in Figures 8.10, 8.11 and 8.12 respectively...8.16. The response of the ADAC, MRAC, and PID controllers to these disturbances are shown in Figures 8.17, 8.18, and 8.19 respectively. Figure 8.17

  15. Sliding Mode Control of PMSG Wind Turbine Based on Enhanced Exponential Reaching Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozayan, Seyed Mehdi; Saad, Maarouf; Vahedi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based scheme for a variable speed, direct-driven Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) equipped with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) connected to the grid. In this work, diode rectifier, boost converter, Neutral Point Clamped (NPC...... great performance in complicated nonlinear systems control such as WECS. The proposed control strategy modifies Reaching Law (RL) of sliding mode technique to reduce chattering issue and to improve THD property compared to conventional reaching law SMC. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy...

  16. A disturbance decoupling nonlinear control law for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a nonlinear control law for controlling variable speed wind turbines using feedback linearization. The novel aspect of the control law is its ability to decouple the effect of wind fluctuations. Furthermore, the transformation to feedback linearizable coordinates is chosen...... intelligently so that the majority of the system structure is invariant under the transformation. Consequently the physical interpretation is preserved. The method assumes that the effective wind speed and acceleration are estimated from measurements on the wind turbine. The performance of the control...

  17. A novel guidance law using fast terminal sliding mode control with impact angle constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianghua; Wang, Weihong; Yi, Ran; Xiong, Shaofeng

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of, for a missile interception with impact angle constraints, how to design a guidance law. Firstly, missile interception with impact angle constraints is modeled; secondly, a novel guidance law using fast terminal sliding mode control based on extended state observer is proposed to optimize the trajectory and time of interception; finally, for stationary targets, constant velocity targets and maneuvering targets, the guidance law and the stability of the closed loop system is analyzed and the stability of the closed loop system is analyzed, respectively. Simulation results show that when missile and target are on a collision course, the novel guidance law using fast terminal sliding mode control with extended state observer has more optimized trajectory and effectively reduces the time of interception which has a great significance in modern warfare.

  18. Sliding Mode Control of Dynamic Voltage Restorer by Using a New Adaptive Reaching Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Achala; Agrawal, Rekha; Mandloi, Ravindra S.; Sarkar, Biswaroop

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new kind of adaptive reaching law for sliding mode control of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Such an adaptive reaching law follows under-damped sinusoidal nature that causes the initial state to reach the sliding regime in extremely less time with negligible chattering. Moreover, it is robust in the sense the trajectory does not deviate from the sliding surface. This new approach is developed and successfully applied to DVR. The simulation results are presented that show its robustness.

  19. Pandemic influenza control in Europe and the constraints resulting from incoherent public health laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robyn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the emergence of influenza H1N1v the world is facing its first 21st century global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and avian influenza H5N1 prompted development of pandemic preparedness plans. National systems of public health law are essential for public health stewardship and for the implementation of public health policy1. International coherence will contribute to effective regional and global responses. However little research has been undertaken on how law works as a tool for disease control in Europe. With co-funding from the European Union, we investigated the extent to which laws across Europe support or constrain pandemic preparedness planning, and whether national differences are likely to constrain control efforts. Methods We undertook a survey of national public health laws across 32 European states using a questionnaire designed around a disease scenario based on pandemic influenza. Questionnaire results were reviewed in workshops, analysing how differences between national laws might support or hinder regional responses to pandemic influenza. Respondents examined the impact of national laws on the movements of information, goods, services and people across borders in a time of pandemic, the capacity for surveillance, case detection, case management and community control, the deployment of strategies of prevention, containment, mitigation and recovery and the identification of commonalities and disconnects across states. Results Results of this study show differences across Europe in the extent to which national pandemic policy and pandemic plans have been integrated with public health laws. We found significant differences in legislation and in the legitimacy of strategic plans. States differ in the range and the nature of intervention measures authorized by law, the extent to which borders could be closed to movement of persons and goods during a pandemic, and access to healthcare of non

  20. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions.

  1. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions. Cons

  2. A Feedforward-Feedback Interpretation of a Sliding Mode Control Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsees, Govert; George, Koshy; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Verhaegen, Michel

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we provide a feedforward-feedback interpretation of a sliding mode control scheme. Given a desired trajectory, the feedforward signal is generated using a stable inversion method, and the feedback signal includes the switching term of the sliding mode control law. In this manner, we in

  3. Candidate proof mass actuator control laws for the vibration suppression of a frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    The vibration of an experimental flexible space truss is controlled with internal control forces produced by several proof mass actuators. Four candidate control law strategies are evaluated in terms of performance and robustness. These control laws are experimentally implemented on a quasi free-free planar truss. Sensor and actuator dynamics are included in the model such that the final closed loop is self-equilibrated. The first two control laws considered are based on direct output feedback and consist of tuning the actuator feedback gains to the lowest mode intended to receive damping. The first method feeds back only the position and velocity of the proof mass relative to the structure; this results in a traditional vibration absorber. The second method includes the same feedback paths as the first plus feedback of the local structural velocity. The third law is designed with robust H infinity control theory. The fourth strategy is an active implementation of a viscous damper, where the actuator is configured to provide a bending moment at two points on the structure. The vibration control system is then evaluated in terms of how it would benefit the space structure's position control system.

  4. A Feedforward-Feedback Interpretation of a Sliding Mode Control Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsees, Govert; George, Koshy; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Verhaegen, Michel

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we provide a feedforward-feedback interpretation of a sliding mode control scheme. Given a desired trajectory, the feedforward signal is generated using a stable inversion method, and the feedback signal includes the switching term of the sliding mode control law. In this manner, we

  5. Development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rocha, Andres E.

    The main topic of this dissertation is the design, development and implementation of intelligent adaptive control techniques designed to maintain healthy performance of aerospace systems subjected to malfunctions, external parameter changes and/or unmodeled dynamics. The dissertation is focused on the development of novel adaptive control configurations that rely on non-linear functions that appear in the immune system of living organisms as main source of adaptation. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to demonstrate that these novel adaptive control architectures are able to improve overall performance and protect the system while reducing control effort and maintaining adequate operation outside bounds of nominal design. This research effort explores several phases, ranging from theoretical stability analysis, simulation and hardware implementation on different types of aerospace systems including spacecraft, aircraft and quadrotor vehicles. The results presented in this dissertation are focused on two main adaptivity approaches, the first one is intended for aerospace systems that do not attain large angles and use exact feedback linearization of Euler angle kinematics. A proof of stability is presented by means of the circle Criterion and Lyapunov's direct method. The second approach is intended for aerospace systems that can attain large attitude angles (e.g. space systems in gravity-less environments), the adaptation is incorporated on a baseline architecture that uses partial feedback linearization of quaternions kinematics. In this case, the closed loop stability was analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method and Barbalat's Lemma. It is expected that some results presented in this dissertation can contribute towards the validation and certification of direct adaptive controllers.

  6. Development of Analysis Tools for Certification of Flight Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    In Proc. Conf. on Decision and Control, pages 881-886, Bahamas, 2004. [7] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi , and A. Vicino. LMI-based computation of...Minneapolis, MN, 2006, pp. 117-122. [10] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi . and A. Vicino, "LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov functions...Convex Optimization. Cambridge Univ. Press. Chesi, G., A. Garulli, A. Tesi and A. Vicino (2005). LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov

  7. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  8. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  9. The effect of parental involvement laws on teen birth control use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Anderson, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    In Volume 32, Issue 5 of this journal, Colman, Dee, and Joyce (CDJ) used data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (NYRBS) and found that parental involvement (PI) laws had no effect on the probability that minors abstain from sex or use contraception. We re-examine this question, augmenting the NYRBS with data from the State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (SYRBS), and use a variety of identification strategies to control for state-level time-varying unmeasured heterogeneity. Consistent with CDJ, we find that PI laws have no effect on minor teen females' abstinence decisions. However, when we exploit additional state policy variation unavailable to CDJ and use non-minor teens as a within-state control group, we find evidence to suggest that PI laws are associated with an increase in the probability that sexually active minor teen females use birth control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation and Determination of the Laws Control of the SRM for the Integrated Starter Generator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boudouda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an integrated starter generator system for a car flywheel based on the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM technology. First, we discuss about the starter generator problematic following the results of our bibliography research. Secondly, we briefly remained generalities about the SRM and the determination of the laws control. In addition, we designed the converter associated to the machine using (Matlab/Simulink software in order to identify the laws control and to adapt the operating modes (motor, generator, booster, brake. Finally, simulations of the open and closed loop model were performed on the converter with the (SRM

  11. A Comparative Study of Interval Management Control Law Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Smith, Colin L.; Palmer, Susan O.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool designed to allow for rapid development and testing of different control algorithms for airborne spacing. This tool, Interval Management Modeling and Spacing Tool (IM MAST), is a fast-time, low-fidelity tool created to model the approach of aircraft to a runway, with a focus on their interactions with each other. Errors can be induced between pairs of aircraft by varying initial positions, winds, speed profiles, and altitude profiles. Results to-date show that only a few of the algorithms tested had poor behavior in the arrival and approach environment. The majority of the algorithms showed only minimal variation in performance under the test conditions. Trajectory-based algorithms showed high susceptibility to wind forecast errors, while performing marginally better than the other algorithms under other conditions. Trajectory-based algorithms have a sizable advantage, however, of being able to perform relative spacing operations between aircraft on different arrival routes and flight profiles without employing ghosting. methods. This comes at the higher cost of substantially increased complexity, however. Additionally, it was shown that earlier initiation of relative spacing operations provided more time for corrections to be made without any significant problems in the spacing operation itself. Initiating spacing farther out, however, would require more of the aircraft to begin spacing before they merge onto a common route.

  12. Design of a robust guidance law via active disturbance rejection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbo Yuan∗; Ke Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the three-dimensional guidance problem in case of target maneuvers and response delay of the autopilot, the missile guidance law utilizing active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is proposed. Based on the nonlinear three-dimensional missile target engagement kinematics, the guidance model is es-tablished. The target acceleration is treated as a disturbance and the dynamics of the autopilot is considered by using a first-order model. A nonlinear continuous robust guidance law is designed by using a cascaded structure ADRC control er. In this method the disturbance is estimated by using the extended state observer (ESO) and compensated during each sampling period. Simulation results show that the proposed cascaded loop structure is a viable solution to the guidance law design and has strong robustness with respect to target maneuvers and response delay of the autopilot.

  13. Time-Coordination Strategies and Control Laws for Multi-Agent Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Navarro, Javier; Hovakimyan, Naira; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    Time-critical coordination tools for unmanned systems can be employed to enforce the type of temporal constraints required in terminal control areas, ensure minimum distance requirements among vehicles are satisfied, and successfully perform coordinated missions. In comparison with previous literature, this paper presents an ampler spectrum of coordination and temporal specifications for unmanned systems, and proposes a general control law that can enforce this range of constraints. The constraint classification presented con- siders the nature of the desired arrival window and the permissible coordination errors to define six different types of time-coordination strategies. The resulting decentralized coordination control law allows the vehicles to negotiate their speeds along their paths in response to information exchanged over the communication network. This control law organizes the different members in the fleet hierarchically per their behavior and informational needs as reference agent, leaders, and followers. Examples and simulation results for all the coordination strategies presented demonstrate the applicability and efficacy of the coordination control law for multiple unmanned systems.

  14. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  15. Simple robust control laws for robot manipulators. Part 1: Non-adaptive case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J. T.; Bayard, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of exponentially stabilizing control laws for joint level control of robot arms is introduced. It has been recently recognized that the nonlinear dynamics associated with robotic manipulators have certain inherent passivity properties. More specifically, the derivation of the robotic dynamic equations from the Hamilton's principle gives rise to natural Lyapunov functions for control design based on total energy considerations. Through a slight modification of the energy Lyapunov function and the use of a convenient lemma to handle third order terms in the Lyapunov function derivatives, closed loop exponential stability for both the set point and tracking control problem is demonstrated. The exponential convergence property also leads to robustness with respect to frictions, bounded modeling errors and instrument noise. In one new design, the nonlinear terms are decoupled from real-time measurements which completely removes the requirement for on-line computation of nonlinear terms in the controller implementation. In general, the new class of control laws offers alternatives to the more conventional computed torque method, providing tradeoffs between robustness, computation and convergence properties. Furthermore, these control laws have the unique feature that they can be adapted in a very simple fashion to achieve asymptotically stable adaptive control.

  16. Global analysis of a buck regulator. [for voltage using discrete control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. B.; Caughey, T. K.

    1978-01-01

    Sufficient conditions for global stability of a buck regulator using a discrete control law are found. The method of paired systems and Liapunov functions are used to establish global stability and to study the convergence of the regulator. A heuristic argument is given that the optimal switching curves associated with the paired continuous systems approximate the optimal switching curves of the discrete systems.

  17. A Distributed Reconfigurable Control Law for Escorting and Patrolling Missions using Teams of Unicycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Ying; Lin, Zhiyun; Cao, Ming; Yan, Gangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen rapidly growing interest in the development of networks of vehicles for which adaptive cooperation and autonomous execution become a necessity. In the paper, we develop a distributed reconfigurable control law to distribute unicycle-type vehicles evenly on a circle surrounding

  18. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights a

  19. Impact on cardiovascular disease events of the implementation of Argentina's national tobacco control law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Mejia, Raul; Coxson, Pamela; Moran, Andrew; Goldman, Lee; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-03-01

    Argentina's congress passed a tobacco control law that would enforce 100% smoke-free environments for the entire country, strong and pictorial health warnings on tobacco products and a comprehensive advertising ban. However, the Executive Branch continues to review the law and it has not been fully implemented. Our objective was to project the potential impact of full implementation of this tobacco control legislation on cardiovascular disease. The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model was used to project future cardiovascular events. Data sources for the model included vital statistics, morbidity and mortality data, and tobacco use estimates from the National Risk Factor Survey. Estimated effectiveness of interventions was based on a literature review. Results were expressed as life-years, myocardial infarctions and strokes saved in an 8-year-period between 2012 and 2020. In addition we projected the incremental effectiveness on the same outcomes of a tobacco price increase not included in the law. In the period 2012-2020, 7500 CHD deaths, 16 900 myocardial infarctions and 4300 strokes could be avoided with the full implementation and enforcement of this law. Annual per cent reduction would be 3% for CHD deaths, 3% for myocardial infarctions and 1% for stroke. If a tobacco price increase is implemented the projected avoided CHD deaths, myocardial infarctions and strokes would be 15 500, 34 600 and 11 900, respectively. Implementation of the tobacco control law would produce significant public health benefits in Argentina. Strong advocacy is needed at national and international levels to get this law implemented throughout Argentina.

  20. STABLE ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITHOUT USE OF A SUPERVISORY TERM IN THE CONTROL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED BAHITA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a direct adaptive control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is proposed. The architecture employs a Gaussian radial basis function (RBF network to construct an adaptive controller. The parameters of the adaptive controller are adapted and changed according to a law derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The centres of the RBF network are adapted on line using the k-means algorithm. Asymptotic Lyapunov stability is established without the use of a supervisory (compensatory term in the control law and with the tracking errors converging to a neighbourhood of the origin. Finally, a simulation is provided to explore the feasibility of the proposed neuronal controller design method.

  1. Scientific computation of conservation laws in the calculus of variations and optimal control

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We present analytic computational tools that permit us to identify, in an automatic way, conservation laws in optimal control. The central result we use is the famous Noether’s theorem, a classical theory developed by Emmy Noether in 1918, in the context of the calculus of variations and mathematical physics, and which was extended recently to the more general context of optimal control. We show how a Computer Algebra System can be very helpful in finding the symmetries and cor...

  2. Automatic computation of conservation laws in the calculus of variations and optimal control

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Computer Application We present analytic computational tools that permit us to identify, in an automatic way, conservation laws in optimal control. The central result we use is the famous Noether's theorem, a classical theory developed by Emmy Noether in 1918, in the context of the calculus of variations and mathematical physics, and which was extended recently to the more general context of optimal control. We show how a Computer Algebra System can be very helpful in finding the symmetrie...

  3. Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles in 6 DOF is analysed in the context of measurement noise. The performance of the adaptive control laws of Sadegh and Harowitz (1990 and Slotine and Benedetto (1990 are compared. Both these schemes require that all states are measured, that is the velocities and positions in surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw. However, for underwater vehicles it is difficult to measure the linear velocities whereas angular velocity measurements can be obtained by using a 3 axes angular rate sensor. This problem is addressed by designing a nonlinear observer for linear velocity state estimation. The proposed observer requires that the position and the attitude are measured, e.g. by using a hydroacoustic positioning system for linear positions, two gyros for roll and pitch and a compass for yaw. In addition angular rate measurements will be assumed available from a 3-axes rate sensor or a state estimator. It is also assumed that the measurement rate is limited to 2 Hz for all the sensors. Simulation studies with a 3 DOF AUV model are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the adaptive control laws and the velocity state observer.

  4. Improved optimal steering law for SGCMG and adaptive attitude control of flexible spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Wang; Yu Guo; Liping Wu; Qingwei Chen

    2015-01-01

    The issue of attitude maneuver of a flexible spacecraft is investigated with single gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (SGCMGs) as an actuator. To solve the inertia uncertainty of the system, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is designed by ap-plying a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. An improved steering law for SGCMGs is proposed to achieve the optimal out-put torque. It enables the SGCMGs not only to avoid singularity, but also to output more precise torque. In addition, global, uniform, ultimate bounded stability of the attitude control system is proved via the Lyapunov technique. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new steering law and the algorithm of attitude maneuver of the flexible spacecraft.

  5. Cancellation control law for lateral-directional dynamics of a supermaneuverable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Antony

    1993-01-01

    Cancellation control laws are designed which reduce the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered during aggressive rolling maneuvers executed at high angle of attack. Two independent problem are examined. One is to reduce lateral acceleration at the mass center, while the other focuses on lateral acceleration at the pilot's station, located 7.0 m forward of the mass center. Both of these problems are challenging and somewhat different in their limitations. In each case the design is based on a linearization of the lateral-directional dynamics about a high angle of attack condition. The controllers incorporate dynamic inversion inner loops to provide control of stability-axis roll- and yaw-rates and then employ cancellation filters in both feed-forward and feed-back signal paths. The relative simplicity of the control laws should allow nonlinear generalizations to be devised. Although it is shown that lateral acceleration can be reduced substantially by such control laws, this is at the cost of slowed roll response, poor dutch-roll damping or a combination of the two.

  6. Tobacco control law implementation in a middle-income country: Transnational tobacco control network overcoming tobacco industry opposition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales. A transnational network including international health groups and funders helped strengthen domestic capacity to implement the law by; promoting public awareness of Ley [Law] 1335; training local health department staff on enforcement; facilitating health agencies' sharing of educational strategies; and providing legal defence assistance. This network included vigilant efforts by local health groups, which continuously monitored and alerted the media to noncompliance, engaged government officials and policy-makers on implementation, and raised public awareness. Support from international health NGOs and funders and continuous engagement by local health groups enhanced implementation capacities to counter continued tobacco industry interference and ensure effective tobacco control implementation.

  7. Dynamic Sliding Mode Control Based on Multi-model Switching Laws for the Depth Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyin Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents an improved control algorithm, called Dynamic Sliding Mode Control based on Multiple Models Switching Laws (DSMC-MMSL, for the control of the depth of the studied Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV system, the diving plane controller of which faces disturbances arising from the coupled states. The diving plane model is strongly coupled with the state variables, such as surge speeds and course angles. To achieve the desired dynamic performance, the proposed algorithm consists of two parts: the diving plane control part and the pitch control part, which is used to avoid large pitch angles. Some direct switching control laws are used for the two parts to avoid some impulse phenomena on the control executions. The error-states exponential decay is recommended to eliminate the chattering on the sliding surface. The DSMC-MMSL controller was successfully implemented and experimentally validated with the studied AUV system designed and built by Shenyang Institute of Automation. The results of some lake trials demonstrated that the depth control performances of the AUV system were as desired, and that the AUV system was robust enough for the coupled state variables under the DSMCMMSL algorithm control.

  8. Dynamic Sliding Mode Control Based on Multi-Model Switching Laws for the Depth Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyin Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents an improved control algorithm, called Dynamic Sliding Mode Control based on Multiple Models Switching Laws (DSMC-MMSL, for the control of the depth of the studied Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV system, the diving plane controller of which faces disturbances arising from the coupled states. The diving plane model is strongly coupled with the state variables, such as surge speeds and course angles. To achieve the desired dynamic performance, the proposed algorithm consists of two parts: the diving plane control part and the pitch control part, which is used to avoid large pitch angles. Some direct switching control laws are used for the two parts to avoid some impulse phenomena on the control executions. The error-states exponential decay is recommended to eliminate the chattering on the sliding surface. The DSMC-MMSL controller was successfully implemented and experimentally validated with the studied AUV system designed and built by Shenyang Institute of Automation. The results of some lake trials demonstrated that the depth control performances of the AUV system were as desired, and that the AUV system was robust enough for the coupled state variables under the DSMC-MMSL algorithm control.

  9. Asymptotic stabilisation of the ball and beam system: design of energy-based control law and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijay; Anantharaman, S.; Mahindrakar, Arun D.

    2010-06-01

    We present a new nonlinear control law to stabilise the ball and beam system at a desired operating point. The control law is based on the interconnection and damping assignment-passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology developed in Ortega, Spong, Gomez-Estern, and Blankenstien (Ortega, R., Spong, M., Gomez-Estern, F., and Blankenstien, G. (2002), 'Stabilization of Underactuated Mechanical Systems via Interconnection and Damping Assignment', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 47, 1218-1233) that guarantees stability in the sense of Lyapunov. We present a novel proof of the asymptotic stability of the desired operating point. The validity of the proposed control law is demonstrated through the experimental results.

  10. Use of ILTV Control Laws for LaNCETS Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) test to investigate the effects of lift distribution and nozzle-area ratio changes on tail shock strength of an F-15 aircraft. Specific research objectives are to obtain inflight shock strength for multiple combinations of nozzle-area ratio and lift distribution; compare results with preflight prediction tools; and update predictive tools with flight results. The objectives from a stability and control perspective are to ensure adequate aircraft stability for the changes in lift distribution and plume shape, and ensure manageable transient from engaging and disengaging the ILTV research control laws. In order to change the lift distribution and plume shape of the F-15 aircraft, a decade-old Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring (ILTV) research control law was used. Flight envelope expansion was performed for the test configuration and flight conditions prior to the probing test points. The approach for achieving the research objectives was to utilize the unique capabilities of NASA's NF-15B-837 aircraft to allow the adjustment of the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions by engaging the ILTV research control laws. The ILTV control laws provide the ability to add trim command biases to canard positions, nozzle area ratios, and thrust vectoring through the use of datasets. Datasets consist of programmed test inputs (PTIs) that define trims to change the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions. The trims are applied as increments to the normally commanded positions. A LaNCETS non-linear, six-degrees-of-freedom simulation capable of realtime pilot-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and non-real-time batch support was developed and validated. Prior to first flight, extensive simulation analyses were performed to show adequate stability margins with the changes in lift distribution and plume shape. Additionally, engagement/disengagement transient analysis was also performed to show manageable

  11. The effect of gun control laws on hospital admissions for children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Lane, Rebecca S; Blass, Lawrence W; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-10-01

    Gun control laws vary greatly between states within the United States. We hypothesized that states with strict gun laws have lower mortality and resource utilization rates from pediatric firearms-related injury admissions. Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for accidental (E922), self-inflicted (E955), assault (E965), legal intervention-related (E970), or undetermined circumstance (E985) firearm injuries. Patients were younger than 20 years and admitted for their injuries. Case incidence trends were examined for the study period. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed using 38 covariates to compare outcomes between states with strict or lenient gun control laws. Overall, 38,424 cases were identified, with an overall mortality of 7%. Firearm injuries were most commonly assault (64%), followed by accidental (25%), undetermined circumstance (7%), or self-inflicted (3%). A small minority involved military-grade weapons (0.2%). Most cases occurred in lenient gun control states (48%), followed by strict (47%) and neutral (6%).On 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis, in-hospital mortality by case was higher in lenient (7.5%) versus strict (6.5%) states, p = 0.013. Lenient states had a proportionally higher rate of accidental (31%) and self-inflicted injury (4%) versus strict states (17% and 1.6%, respectively), p gun control contributes not only to worse outcomes per case, but also to a more significant and detrimental impact on public health. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  12. Active Tension Control for WT Wheelchair Robot by Using a Novel Control Law for Holonomic or Nonholonomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactional characteristics between WT wheelchair robot and stair environment are analyzed, and possible patterns of WT wheelchair robot during the stair-climbing process are summarized, with the criteria of the wheelchair robot for determining the pattern proposed. Aiming at WT wheelchair robot's complicated mechanism with holonomic constraints and combined with the computed torque method, a novel control law that is called active tension control is presented for holonomic or nonholonomic robotic systems, by which the wheelchair robot with a holonomic or nonholonomic mechanism can track the reference input of the constraint forces of holonomic or nonholonomic constraints as well as tracking the reference input of the generalized coordinate of each joint. A stateflow module of Matlab is used to simulate the entire stair-climbing process for WT wheelchair robot. A comparison of output curve with the reference input curve of each joint is made, with the effectiveness of the presented control law verified.

  13. Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.

  14. Some New Locally Optimal Control Laws for Sailcraft Dynamics in Heliocentric Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft is presented. The gravitational and solar radiation forces are considered. The effect of source of radiation pressure and the force due to coronal mass ejections and solar wind on the sailcraft configurations is modeled. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing sailcraft dynamics in heliocentric orbit using lagrange’s planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. Ignoring the absorbed and diffusely reflected parts of the radiation, some special cases are obtained. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained.

  15. Contractive Interference Functions and Rates of Convergence of Distributed Power Control Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Hamid Reza Feyzmahdavian 'and' Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The standard interference functions introduced by Yates have been very influential on the analysis and design of distributed power control laws. While powerful and versatile, the framework has some drawbacks: the existence of fixed-points has to be established separately, and no guarantees are given on the rate of convergence of the iterates. This paper introduces contractive interference functions, a slight reformulation of the standard interference functions that guarantees the existence and uniqueness of fixed-points along with geometric convergence. We show that many power control laws from the literature are contractive and derive, sometimes for the first time, analytical convergence rate estimates for these algorithms. We also prove that contractive interference functions converge when executed totally asynchronously and, under the assumption that the communication delay is bounded, derive an explicit bound on the convergence time penalty due to increased delay. Finally, we demonstrate that although all...

  16. A family of asymptotically stable control laws for flexible robots based on a passivity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Leonardo; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A general family of asymptotically stabilizing control laws is introduced for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. The inherent passivity property of this class of systems and the Passivity Theorem are used to show the closed-loop input/output stability which is then related to the internal state space stability through the stabilizability and detectability condition. Applications of these results include fully actuated robots, flexible joint robots, and robots with link flexibility.

  17. Some New Locally Optimal Control Laws for Sailcraft Dynamics in Heliocentric Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    The concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft is presented. The gravitational and solar radiation forces are considered. The effect of source of radiation pressure and the force due to coronal mass ejections and solar wind on the sailcraft configurations is modeled. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing sailcraft dynamics in heliocentric orbit using lagrange’s planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required directio...

  18. Raoult's law revisited: accurately predicting equilibrium relative humidity points for humidity control experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Michael G; Bowler, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium relative humidity values for a number of the most commonly used precipitants in biological macromolecule crystallisation have been measured using a new humidity control device. A simple argument in statistical mechanics demonstrates that the saturated vapour pressure of a solvent is proportional to its mole fraction in an ideal solution (Raoult's Law). The same argument can be extended to the case where solvent and solute molecules are of different size.

  19. Direct Lyapunov-based control law design for spacecraft attitude maneuvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Likun; ANG Qingchao

    2006-01-01

    A direct Lyapunov-based control law is presented to perform on-orbit stability for spacecraft attitude maneuvers. Spacecraft attitude kinematic equations and dynamic equations are coupled, nonlinear, multi-input multi-output(MIMO), which baffles controller design. Orbit angular rates are taken into account in kinematic equations and influence of gravity gradient moments and disturbance moments on the spacecraft attitude in dynamic equations is considered to approach the practical environment, which enhance the problem complexity to some extent. Based on attitude tracking errors and angular rates, a Lyapunov function is constructed, through which the stabilizing feedback control law is deduced via Lie derivation of the Lyapunov function. The proposed method can deal with the case that the spacecraft is subjected to mass property variations or centroidal inertia matrix variations due to fuel assumption or flexibility, and disturbance moments, which shows the proposed controller is robust for spacecraft attitude maneuvers. The unlimited controller and the limited controller are taken into account respectively in simulations. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. Design of control laws for flutter suppression based on the aerodynamic energy concept and comparisons with other design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic energy method is used to synthesize control laws for NASA's drone for aerodynamic and structural testing-aerodynamic research wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) mathematical model. The performance of these control laws in terms of closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure, control surface activity, and robustness is compared with other control laws that relate to the same model. A control law synthesis technique that makes use of the return difference singular values is developed. It is based on the aerodynamic energy approach and is shown to yield results that are superior to those results given in the literature and are based on optimal control theory. Nyquist plots are presented, together with a short discussion regarding the relative merits of the minimum singular value as a measure of robustness as compared with the more traditional measure involving phase and gain margins.

  1. On Sequence Learning Models: Open-loop Control Not Strictly Guided by Hick's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Rodrigo; Savietto, Joice P; Sato, João R; Xavier, Gilberto F; Helene, André F

    2016-03-15

    According to the Hick's law, reaction times increase linearly with the uncertainty of target stimuli. We tested the generality of this law by measuring reaction times in a human sequence learning protocol involving serial target locations which differed in transition probability and global entropy. Our results showed that sigmoid functions better describe the relationship between reaction times and uncertainty when compared to linear functions. Sequence predictability was estimated by distinct statistical predictors: conditional probability, conditional entropy, joint probability and joint entropy measures. Conditional predictors relate to closed-loop control models describing that performance is guided by on-line access to past sequence structure to predict next location. Differently, joint predictors relate to open-loop control models assuming global access of sequence structure, requiring no constant monitoring. We tested which of these predictors better describe performance on the sequence learning protocol. Results suggest that joint predictors are more accurate than conditional predictors to track performance. In conclusion, sequence learning is better described as an open-loop process which is not precisely predicted by Hick's law.

  2. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  3. Guaranteed cost control with constructing switching law of uncertain discrete-time switched systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying; Duan Guangren

    2007-01-01

    A guaranteed cost control problem for a class of linear discrete-time switched systems with normbounded uncertainties is considered in this article. The purpose is to construct a switching rule and design a state feedback control law, such that, the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible uncertainties under the constructed switching rule.A sufficient condition for the existence of guaranteed cost controllers and switching rules is derived based on the Lyapunov theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to select the suboptimal guaranteed cost controller. A numerical example demonstrates the validity of the proposed design approach.

  4. Energy evaluation on bounded nonlinear control laws for civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattulli, Vincenzo

    1994-09-01

    In the last decades researchers in the field of structural engineering have challenged the idea of facing natural hazard mitigation problems by adding to structures particular systems which are designed to protect buildings, bridges and other facilities from the damaging effects of destructive environmental actions. Among most protective systems and devices, active structural control, although having already reached the stage of full-implemented systems, still need theoretical investigation to achieve a complete exploitation of its capacity in reducing structural vibrations. In most of the operating systems (e.g. Soong and Reinhorn, 1993), linear control laws based on some quadratic performance function criteria are used since the design process for these linear strategies are fully developed and investigated. Moreover, the performances of structural systems controlled by linear techniques bring about some question concerning the complete and wise utilization of the capacity of control devices. Indeed, some of these inefficiencies are evident such as the inability to produce a significant peak response reduction in the first cycles of recorded or simulated time histories. (e.g. Reinhorn et al., 1993). Realizing that the expected maximum value for the required control force is a fundamental parameter in all processes to design the complete control system, in this paper it is shown that appropriate nonlinear control laws can significantly enhance the reduction of the system response under the same constraints imposed on the control force. Energy evaluation on the performance of different kinds of nonlinearities are reported such that a common base is built to perform comparative studies. These techniques have been successfully experimented on a structural model with ground excitations supplied by shaking table (e.g. Gattulli et al., 1994).

  5. Efficient robust control of first order scalar conservation laws using semi-analytical solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using initial density control and boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. We then show that this framework can be extended to arbitrary control problems involving the control of subsets of the initial and boundary conditions. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP/MILP. Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality.

  6. Complete stability analysis of a control law for walking robots with non-permanent contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Chareyron, Sophie; Wieber, Pierre-Brice

    2005-01-01

    International audience; One of the main specificities of walking robots is their non-permanent contact with the ground which impairs their stability. The only stability analyses of control laws that have been proposed so far for walking robots have been distinctly focusing on each contact phases, with the strong assumption that these phases are never perturbated [11, 13]. In this study we aim at analysing the stability of a regulation of the position of a walking robot without any assumption o...

  7. Spacecraft dynamics under the action of Y-dot magnetic control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoli, Alessandro; Giulietti, Fabrizio; Avanzini, Giulio; De Matteis, Guido

    2016-05-01

    The paper investigates the dynamic behavior of a spacecraft when a single magnetic torque-rod is used for achieving a pure spin condition by means of the so-called Y-dot control law. Global asymptotic convergence to a pure spin condition is proven on analytical grounds when the dipole moment is proportional to the rate of variation of the component of the magnetic field along the desired spin axis. Convergence of the spin axis towards the orbit normal is then explained by estimating the average magnetic control torque over one orbit. The validity of the analytical results, based on some simplifying assumptions and approximations, is finally investigated by means of numerical simulation for a fully non-linear attitude dynamic model, featuring a tilted dipole model for Earth's magnetic field. The analysis aims to support, in the framework of a sound mathematical basis, the development of effective control laws in realistic mission scenarios. Results are presented and discussed for relevant test cases.

  8. A Control Law Definition of the Open Loop Stepping Electric Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Krasovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an open loop stepping electric drive (SEP with electric crushing of a step and motor fed from the controlled current invertor which should meet the requirement that is to trial a free-form guided trajectory with a split-hair accuracy. It is shown that with traditional programmed control, when the SEP forms motor phase currents of identical amplitude and variable frequency proportional to the set speed of movement, there may be considerable errors reducing a trial accuracy of the set movement trajectory, dynamic indicators provoking oscillatory processes, and even loss of motor synchronism because influence on a dynamic moment of the motor is impossible.The paper offers and proves a new way to define a control algorithm adequate to drive parameters and programmed trajectory of movement, providing error minimization and thereby increasing trial accuracy of set parameters of movement and expanding dynamic capabilities of a drive. The essence of the offered way is to use a modified mathematical model of a drive in d,q coordinates with a motor fed by the current source. In this model a programmed trajectory of movement is chosen as an input action while solving the appropriate equations defines the necessary law of control. The paper describes a developed simulation model of the stepping electric drive in the environment of MATLAB – SIMULINK, which has been used to verify and prove an efficiency of the offered method to define a control law via typical examples.It is established that no error trial of set movement trajectory in case it has breaks (jogs is technically unfeasible, as it demands an infinitely high forcing voltage of the power supply to maintain the instant positive or negative phase shifts of currents formed in the motor windings.The obtained results can be used in designing programmable precision SEPs in robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and assembly equipment.

  9. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Law Enforcement Officers on Rabies and Animal Control Issues in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straily, A; Trevino-Garrison, I

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO. A web-based, voluntary and anonymous survey was sent to law enforcement officers in Kansas in January 2014. The survey included questions about animal control practices and a self-assessment of rabies knowledge. The response rate was 16.2%. All respondents indicated LEOs will respond to animal-related calls, even if there was an ACO available in their department or jurisdiction. A majority of respondents indicated they had not received training on safe animal handling (62.9%, 61/97) or zoonoses prevention (85.6%, 83/97), even though a strong majority considered such training important (89.7% and 79.4%, respectively). Most respondents (>80%) were able to correctly identify animals capable of transmitting rabies but were less aware of how rabies was transmitted or the severity of rabies in humans. Our results demonstrate that Kansas LEOs perform animal control duties, many without the proper training, even though most consider such training to be important to be able to perform their duties safely. Training on safe animal handling and zoonoses prevention should be provided to all LEOs in Kansas to enable them to safely execute their duties and provide timely and accurate information to citizens regarding rabies prevention. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Chaos control in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with Kerr law nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiu-Li; Zhao, Liu-Wei; Tian, Li-Xin

    2014-02-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation with Kerr law nonlinearity in the two-frequency interference is studied by the numerical method. Chaos occurs easily due to the absence of damping. This phenomenon will cause the distortion in the process of information transmission. We find that fiber-optic transmit signals still present chaotic phenomena if the control intensity is smaller. With the increase of intensity, the fiber-optic signal can stay in a stable state in some regions. When the strength is suppressed to a certain value, an unstable phenomenon of the fiber-optic signal occurs. Moreover we discuss the sensitivities of the parameters to be controlled. The results show that the linear term coefficient and the environment of two quite different frequences have less effects on the fiber-optic transmission. Meanwhile the phenomena of vibration, attenuation and escape occur in some regions.

  12. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Stability Margin Scaling Laws for Distributed Formation Control as a Function of Network Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, He; Mehta, Prashant G

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed formation control of a large number of vehicles. An individual vehicle in the formation is assumed to be a fully actuated point mass. A distributed control law is examined: the control action on an individual vehicle depends on (i) its own velocity and (ii) the relative position measurements with a small subset of vehicles (neighbors) in the formation. The neighbors are defined according to an information graph. In this paper we describe a methodology for modeling, analysis, and distributed control design of such vehicular formations whose information graph is a D-dimensional lattice. The modeling relies on an approximation based on a partial differential equation (PDE) that describes the spatio-temporal evolution of position errors in the formation. The analysis and control design is based on the PDE model. We deduce asymptotic formulae for the closed-loop stability margin (absolute value of the real part of the least stable eigenvalue) of the controlled formation. The ...

  14. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaqan, Ali; Bilal, Muhammad; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ijaz, Bilal; Ali Riaz, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH) during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI) systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery. PMID:27293475

  15. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaqan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

  16. Stochastic thermodynamics of Langevin systems under time-delayed feedback control: Second-law-like inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinberg, M L; Munakata, T; Tarjus, G

    2015-04-01

    Response lags are generic to almost any physical system and often play a crucial role in the feedback loops present in artificial nanodevices and biological molecular machines. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of small stochastic systems governed by an underdamped Langevin equation and driven out of equilibrium by a time-delayed continuous feedback control. In their normal operating regime, these systems settle in a nonequilibrium steady state in which work is permanently extracted from the surrounding heat bath. By using the Fokker-Planck representation of the dynamics, we derive a set of second-law-like inequalities that provide bounds to the rate of extracted work. These inequalities involve additional contributions characterizing the reduction of entropy production due to the continuous measurement process. We also show that the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics requires a modification of the basic relation linking dissipation to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the level of trajectories. The modified relation includes a contribution arising from the acausal character of the reverse process. This, in turn, leads to another second-law-like inequality. We illustrate the general formalism with a detailed analytical and numerical study of a harmonic oscillator driven by a linear feedback, which describes actual experimental setups.

  17. An improved switching control law for the optimized synchronous electric charge extraction circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Liu, Congzhi; Hu, Guangdi

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear switching interface circuits are considered as an efficient way to improve the performance of vibration energy harvesters. Among the various approaches, OSECE (Optimized Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction) exhibits satisfying properties: simple switching strategy, good performance in low coupling cases and low load dependency. However, the overdamping induced by the voltage inversion at maximal points leads to performance degeneration in high coupling cases. This paper presents an improved switching control law for the OSECE technique. The new OSECE_PT (OSECE with switching Phase Tuning) technique presented here is to let the switches act ahead or after the maximal point with a phase tuning. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the OSECE_PT technique can improve the power performance effectively and preserves desired load independence properties.

  18. Control of district heating prices under cartel law; Die kartellrechtliche Kontrolle der Fernwaermepreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaft und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    While cartel law had much to say in the electricity and gas sector during the past few years, the issue was less relevant in the district eating sector, where the latest intensive debate dates back more than 20 years. This changed in autumn 2009, when the Federal Cartel Office decided to intensify control of district heating rates according to Sect. 32 e GWB. This publication presents an analysis of all relevant questions concerning the definition of the relevant market, the situation of district heating utilities in the market, and the standards applied for a more concrete definition of the concept of misuse. Apart from an extensive and critical analysis of the statements issued so far, some practically relevant points are discussed and solved that had not come into focus so far. (orig./AKB)

  19. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices.

  20. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  1. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. Design of a candidate flutter suppression control law for DAST ARW-2. [Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing Aeroelastic Research Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.

  3. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Diego [University of São Paulo, Polytechnic School, LAC -PTC, São Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M. [São Paulo State University - Sorocaba Campus, Sorocaba (Brazil); Balthazar, José M. [São Paulo State University - Rio Claro Campus, Rio Claro (Brazil); Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de [University of Brasilia, Brasilia (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  4. Control of Beam Halo-Chaos by Fraction Power-Law Function in Hackle Periodic-Focusing Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-Jun; BAI Long; WENG Jia-Qiang; LUO Xiao-Shu; FANG Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The Kapehinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a hackle periodic-focusing magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of fraction power-law function controller is proposed based on the mechanism of halo formation and the strategy of controlling halo-chaos. The method is applied to the multi-particle simulation to control the halo. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively by using the fraction power-law function control method. At the same time, the radial particle density is uniform at the beam's center as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  5. Piloted Evaluation of Modernized Limited Authority Control Laws in the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Melkers, Edgar; Faynberg, Alexander; Blanken, Chris L.

    2003-01-01

    The UH-60 BLACK HAWK was designed in the 1970s, when the US Army primarily operated during the day in good visual conditions. Subsequently, the introduction of night-vision goggles increased the BLACK HAWK'S mission effectiveness, but the accident rate also increased. The increased accident rate is strongly tied to increased pilot workload as a result of a degradation in visual cues. Over twenty years of research in helicopter flight control and handling qualities has shown that these degraded handling qualities can be recovered by modifying the response type of the helicopter in low speed flight. Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation initiated a project under the National Rotorcraft Technology Center (NRTC) to develop modern flight control laws while utilizing the existing partial authority Stability Augmentation System (SAS) of the BLACK HAWK. This effort resulted in a set of Modernized Control Laws (MCLAWS) that incorporate rate command and attitude command response types. Sikorsky and the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) conducted a piloted simulation on the NASA-Ames Vertical h4otion Simulator, to assess potential handling qualities and to reduce the risk of subsequent implementation and flight test of these modern control laws on AFDD's EH-60L helicopter. The simulation showed that Attitude Command Attitude Hold control laws in pitch and roll improve handling qualities in the low speed flight regime. These improvements are consistent across a range of mission task elements and for both good and degraded visual environments. The MCLAWS perform better than the baseline UH-60A control laws in the presence of wind and turbulence. Finally, while the improved handling qualities in the pitch and roll axis allow the pilot to pay more attention to the vertical axis and hence altitude performance also improves, it is clear from pilot comments and altitude excursions that the addition of an Altitude Hold function would further reduce workload and improve overall

  6. Further results on saturated globally stabilizing linear state feedback control laws for single-input neutrally stable planar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Johansson, Karl H.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that for single-input neutrally stable planar systems, there exists a class of saturated globally stabilizing linear state feedback control laws. The goal of this paper is to characterize the dynamic behavior for such a system under arbitrary locally stabilizing linear state feedback con

  7. Further results on saturated globally stabilizing linear state feedback control laws for single-input neutrally stable planar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Johansson, Karl H.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that for single-input neutrally stable planar systems, there exists a class of saturated globally stabilizing linear state feedback control laws. The goal of this paper is to characterize the dynamic behavior for such a system under arbitrary locally stabilizing linear state feedback

  8. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  9. The law, immigration and human rights: changing the Australian immigration control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdowski, S A

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the present system of immigration control in Australia in the context of its origin, evolution, and responses to current human rights and anti-discrimination standards. The system has serious shortcomings because it confers broad discredionary powers on immigration officals and provides no comprehensive system of judical review. Since the 1970s the system has been gradually losing its legitimacy and has become a subject of challenges by various groups; its efficiency has been undermined and it breeds social conflict and systematic human rights violations. The 1958 Migration Act contains a level of discretion unknown in other "machinery" legislation, conferring a wide range of discretionay power on 1) the minister, 2) authorized officers, 3) officers, and 4) prescribed authorities. The current review system, in response to political pressure and in the context of administrative law reforms, provides for limited access to judicial review under the Administrative Decisions Act of 1977. The ethnic gains of the 1970s were achieved when Australian society was going through a period of profound liberal changes. The 1980s have brought continuing high unemployment and high inflation rates, a large budget deficit and associated restraints in government expenditure, as well as a substantial cut in the immigrant intake after the Labor Victory of March, 1983. Overall, an entirely new immigration control system should be developed that will aim at providing a better balance between stability, predictability, and fairness of the system on the one hand, and the need for government to maintain its ability to adapt its program to fluctuations in economic and social conditions both within and outside Australia on the other hand.

  10. Exploration on Detailed Control Planning Under Urban-Rural Planning Law:A Case Study on Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the planning practice in Wuhan after the Urban-Rural Planning Law was implemented in 2008,this paper reviews the evolution of detailed control planning in China,and addresses its main problems and conflicts.The innovation of the hierarchical planning and administration system is discussed,and the administrative measures for the transition period in which the detailed control plans have not yet been made for all the urban areas is proposed.

  11. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  12. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Law Enforcement Plan and Station Crowd Control Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  13. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  14. An adaptive method with weight matrix as a function of the state to design the rotatory flexible system control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiz C. G.; Bigot, P.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most well-known techniques of optimal control is the theory of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). This method was originally applied only to linear systems but has been generalized for non-linear systems: the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique. One of the advantages of SDRE is that the weight matrix selection is the same as in LQR. The difference is that weights are not necessarily constant: they can be state dependent. Then, it gives an additional flexibility to design the control law. Many are applications of SDRE for simulation or real time control but generally SDRE weights are chosen constant so no advantage of this flexibility is taken. This work serves to show through simulation that state dependent weights matrix can improve SDRE control performance. The system is a non-linear flexible rotatory beam. In a brief first part SDRE theory will be explained and the non-linear model detailed. Then, influence of SDRE weight matrix associated with the state Q will be analyzed to get some insight in order to assume a state dependent law. Finally, these laws are tested and compared to constant weight matrix Q. Based on simulation results; one concludes showing the benefits of using an adaptive weight Q rather than a constant one.

  15. One Low-cost Quartz Lamp Radiation Aerodynamic Heating Simulation Experiment System with Control Law Flexible Adjustment Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Decheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quartz lamp radiation aerodynamic heating simulation experiment system plays an important role on the structure strength heat experiment. In order to reduce its price and enhance flexibility on control law design of experiment system, a design method for low-cost quartz lamp radiation aerodynamic heating simulation experiment system with control law flexible adjustment feature is proposed. The hardware part is constructed by taking Digital Signal Processor (DSP as an implementing agency controller. The feedback temperature after processed is computed by DSP. But the experiment process control value is computed by computer. The feedback temperature and experiment process control value data are transferred by serial communication model between DSP and computer. The experiment process relation data is saved by computer with EXCEL file, including the given target spectrum, the feedback temperature and the control value. The results of experiments on system identification, PID spectrum tracking, different zone control and the open loop control show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  17. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  18. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Real-time comparison of conventional direct control and pattern recognition myoelectric control in a two-dimensional Fitts' law style test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared real-time control performance of pattern recognition to direct control for the next generation of myoelectric controlled upper limb prostheses. Many different implementations of pattern recognition control have been proposed, with minor differentiations in the feature sets and classifiers. An objective and generalizable evaluation tool quantifying the control performance, other than classification accuracy, is needed. This paper used the implementation of such a tool through the design of a target acquisition test, similar to a Fitts' law test, relating movement time of the target acquisition to the difficulty of the target, for a given control strategy. Performance metrics such as throughput (bits/sec), completion rate (%) and path efficiency (%) allow for a complete evaluation of the described strategies. We compared direct control and pattern recognition control with the proposed test and found that 1) the test was valid for control system evaluation by following Fitts' law with high coefficients of determination for both types of control and 2) that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control in throughput with similar completion rates and path efficiencies. In this framework, the present pilot study supports pattern recognition as a promising strategy and forms a basis for the development of a general and objective tool for the performance evaluation of upper limb control strategies.

  20. Testing a simple control law to reduce broadband frequency harmonic vibrations using semi-active tuned mass dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper is focused on the control problems related to semi-active tuned mass dampers (TMDs) used to reduce harmonic vibrations, specially involving civil structures. A simplified version of the phase control law is derived and its effectiveness is investigated and evaluated. The objective is to improve the functioning of control systems of this type by simplifying the measurement process and reducing the number of variables involved, making the control system more feasible and reliable. Because the control law is of ON/OFF type, combined with appropriate trigger conditions, the activity of the actuation system may be significantly reduced, which may be of few seconds a day in many practical cases, increasing the durability of the device and reducing its maintenance. Moreover, due to the ability of the control system to command the motion of the inertial mass, the semi-active TMD is relatively insensitive to its initial tuning, resulting in the capability of self-tuning and in the possibility of controlling several vibration modes of a structure over a significant broadband frequency.

  1. A new minimum-time control law for a one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrique; Ozguner, Umit

    1993-01-01

    We describe the construction of a new minimum-time control law for a single-axis, undamped, one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure. The set of necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality are developed using phase-plane techniques, and are given in terms of the vibration frequencies and the rigid-body states. This effectively provides the switching hypersurface in four-dimensional space. The resulting control strategy has the advantage that can be implemented on-line since no a priori computation of switching times is required.

  2. Adaptive vibration suppression system: An iterative control law for a piezoelectric actuator shunted by a negative capacitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kodejska, Milos; Linhart, Vaclav; Vaclavik, Jan; Sluka, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive system for the suppression of vibration transmission using a single piezoelectric actuator shunted by a negative capacitance circuit is presented. It is known that using negative capacitance shunt, the spring constant of piezoelectric actuator can be controlled to extreme values of zero or infinity. Since the value of spring constant controls a force transmitted through an elastic element, it is possible to achieve a reduction of transmissibility of vibrations through a piezoelectric actuator by reducing its effective spring constant. The narrow frequency range and broad frequency range vibration isolation systems are analyzed, modeled, and experimentally investigated. The problem of high sensitivity of the vibration control system to varying operational conditions is resolved by applying an adaptive control to the circuit parameters of the negative capacitor. A control law that is based on the estimation of the value of effective spring constant of shunted piezoelectric actuator is presented. An ...

  3. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  4. New spreading law of thin film liquids controlled by gravity and vdW forces under thermal fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, Svetozar; Cuerno Rejado, Rodolfo; Moro Egido, Esteban

    2013-11-01

    It has been shown that, in the regime controlled by surface tension, the spreading dynamics of a thin viscous fluid droplet changes significantly when it is subjected to thermal fluctuations. Technically, this has been accomplished through the incorporation of appropriate stochastic terms into the standard lubrication equation. In practice, it leads to a modification of the classic Tanner's law for spreading, with implications for Micro and Nanofluidic systems. We have recently found a new law of spreading for the same kind of systems, but in the gravity-dominated regime. Moreover, in the deteministic case a finite contact angle is formed when a van der Waals attractive force is introduced to the system and we show that there is a slight change in contact angle when thermal fluctuations are taken into account. Ph.D student and a member of GISC (http://matematicas.uc3m.es/index.php/gisc).

  5. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  6. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemin, Alexander

    1937-01-01

    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  7. Comparing smooth arm movements with the two-thirds power law and the related segmented-control hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J E; Flash, Tamar

    2002-09-15

    The movements of the human arm have been extensively studied for a variety of goal-directed experimental tasks. Analyses of the trajectory and velocity of the arm have led to many hypotheses for the planning strategies that the CNS might use. One family of control hypotheses, including minimum jerk, snap and their generalizations to higher orders, comprises those that favor smooth movements through the optimization of an integral cost function. The predictions of each order of this family are examined for two standard experimental tasks: point-to-point movements and the periodic tracing of figural forms, and compared both with experiment and the two-thirds power law. The aim of the analyses is to generalize previous numerical observations as well as to examine movement segmentation. It is first shown that contrary to recent statements in the literature, the only members of this family of control theories that match reaching movement experiments well are minimum jerk and snap. Then, for the case of periodic drawing, both the ellipse and cloverleaf are examined and the experimentally observed power law is derived from a first-principles approach. The results for the ellipse are particularly general, representing a unification of the two-thirds power law and smoothness hypotheses for ellipses of all reasonable eccentricities. For complex shapes it is shown that velocity profiles derived from the cost-function approach exhibit the same experimental features that were interpreted as segmented control by the CNS. Because the cost function contains no explicit segmented control, this result casts doubt on such an interpretation of the experimental data.

  8. An analytic-numerical method for the construction of the reference law of operation for a class of mechanical controlled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizhidon, A. D.; Mizhidon, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    An analytic-numerical method for the construction of a reference law of operation for a class of dynamic systems describing vibrations in controlled mechanical systems is proposed. By the reference law of operation of a system, we mean a law of the system motion that satisfies all the requirements for the quality and design features of the system under permanent external disturbances. As disturbances, we consider polyharmonic functions with known amplitudes and frequencies of the harmonics but unknown initial phases. For constructing the reference law of motion, an auxiliary optimal control problem is solved in which the cost function depends on a weighting coefficient. The choice of the weighting coefficient ensures the design of the reference law. Theoretical foundations of the proposed method are given.

  9. Judicial control of legal relations in the sports law - de lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Vuleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The business of Sport is a complex entity in our current society. All participants in the business of sport (Sport Community includings athletes, coaches, managers and facilities providers require legal representation and consideration within the legal framework of the country in which they operate. The participants in the business of sport require civil, labor, criminal, commercial, and judicial regulation in order to maintain the integrity and raise the quality of their sport to a global level. Legislative and judicial authorities have neglected to pursue legislation that provides protection for the progress and development of the Sports Community. Current Sports Law has many gaps and is lacking the standardization which would provide judicial support for Sports Community. Without specific sport legislation there will be a substantial increase in disputes for the violation of subjective rights within the Sports Community. One of the most crucial unsolved questions is how a sport will be protected as an institutionalized and regulated activity from legal abuses in and outside of the specific sport. The Republic of Croatia is still lacking effective and organized judicial power of the quality necessary to protect and support its Sports Community. A solution to this problem is for those with legislative authority to initiate the procedure of forming specialized courts constituted only for trial in conflict situations related to sports conflicts. This excludes criminal offenses for which a prison sentence is determined. This initiative would lead to additional provisions of certain legal acts through necessary amandments, mainly Sports Law, Court Law and Civil Procedure.

  10. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  11. Synthesis of feedback control law for stabilization of chaotic system oscillations by means of analytic programming - Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

    2012-11-01

    This research deals with a synthesis of control law for selected discrete chaotic system - logistic equation by means of analytic programming. The novelty of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming - is used for the purpose of stabilization of higher periodic orbits - oscillations between several values of chaotic system. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as used chaotic system and detailed proposal of cost function used in optimization process. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming and Differential evolution (DE) as second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

  12. On optimal control problem for conservation law modelling one class of highly re-entrant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apice, Ciro; Kogut, Peter I.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the optimal control problem stated as the minimization in the L2-sense of the mismatch between the actual out-flux and a demand forecast for a hyperbolic conservation law that models a highly re-entrant production system. The output of the factory is described as a function of the work in progress and the position of the so-called push-pull point (PPP) where we separate the beginning of the factory employing a push policy from the end of the factory, which uses a pull policy.

  13. [Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Isa Cristina Lopes; Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2010-11-01

    This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the higher vulnerability of the subjects in that age range. This study reveals complexes challenges for the control of alcohol advertisement that in turn lead to rethinking the action of the State apparatus in dealing with this major public health issue.

  14. Mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevant Serbian and EU competition legislation does not define what is considered a concentration, but regulates which business transactions lead to concentrations of undertakings. Concentrations can be differentiated according to whether the concentration affects legal position of the merging undertakings. A concentration shall be deemed to arise where a change of control on a lasting basis results from the merger of two or more previously independent undertakings or parts of undertakings. Second type of concentrations occurs in the case of an acquisition of control. Finally, the concentration shall be deemed to arise in the case of creation of a joint venture performing on a lasting basis all the functions of an autonomous economic entity. This paper analyses mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law.

  15. Dynamics and universal scaling law in geometrically-controlled sessile drop evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, P J; Wray, A W; Che, Z; Matar, O K; Valluri, P; Kim, J; Sefiane, K

    2017-03-15

    The evaporation of a liquid drop on a solid substrate is a remarkably common phenomenon. Yet, the complexity of the underlying mechanisms has constrained previous studies to spherically symmetric configurations. Here we investigate well-defined, non-spherical evaporating drops of pure liquids and binary mixtures. We deduce a universal scaling law for the evaporation rate valid for any shape and demonstrate that more curved regions lead to preferential localized depositions in particle-laden drops. Furthermore, geometry induces well-defined flow structures within the drop that change according to the driving mechanism. In the case of binary mixtures, geometry dictates the spatial segregation of the more volatile component as it is depleted. Our results suggest that the drop geometry can be exploited to prescribe the particle deposition and evaporative dynamics of pure drops and the mixing characteristics of multicomponent drops, which may be of interest to a wide range of industrial and scientific applications.

  16. From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati B Hebbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub- district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014. Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five

  17. A novel model of motor learning capable of developing an optimal movement control law online from scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, Yury P; Kang, Tao; He, Jiping

    2004-02-01

    A computational model of a learning system (LS) is described that acquires knowledge and skill necessary for optimal control of a multisegmental limb dynamics (controlled object or CO), starting from "knowing" only the dimensionality of the object's state space. It is based on an optimal control problem setup different from that of reinforcement learning. The LS solves the optimal control problem online while practicing the manipulation of CO. The system's functional architecture comprises several adaptive components, each of which incorporates a number of mapping functions approximated based on artificial neural nets. Besides the internal model of the CO's dynamics and adaptive controller that computes the control law, the LS includes a new type of internal model, the minimal cost (IM(mc)) of moving the controlled object between a pair of states. That internal model appears critical for the LS's capacity to develop an optimal movement trajectory. The IM(mc) interacts with the adaptive controller in a cooperative manner. The controller provides an initial approximation of an optimal control action, which is further optimized in real time based on the IM(mc). The IM(mc) in turn provides information for updating the controller. The LS's performance was tested on the task of center-out reaching to eight randomly selected targets with a 2DOF limb model. The LS reached an optimal level of performance in a few tens of trials. It also quickly adapted to movement perturbations produced by two different types of external force field. The results suggest that the proposed design of a self-optimized control system can serve as a basis for the modeling of motor learning that includes the formation and adaptive modification of the plan of a goal-directed movement.

  18. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  19. Failure laws of narrow pillar and asymmetric control technique of gob-side entry driving in island coal face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiping; Cao Shenggen; Li Xuehua

    2013-01-01

    In allusion to the problems of complex stress distribution in the surrounding rock and deformation failure laws,as well as the difficulty in roadway supporting of the gob-side entry driving in the island coal face,2107 face in Chengjiao Colliery is researched as an engineering case.Through physical mechanical test of rock,theoretical and numerical simulation analyses of rock,the analysis model of the roadway overlying strata structure was established,and its parameters quantified.To reveal the deformation law of the surrounding rock,the stability of the overlying strata structure was studied before,during and after the roadway driving.According to the field conditions,the stress distribution in coal pillar was quantified,and the surrounding rock deformation feature studied with different widths of the pillars in gob-side entry driving.Finally,the pillar width of 4 m was considered as the most reasonable.The research results show that there is great difference in support conditions among roadway roof,entity coal side and narrow pillar side.Besides,the asymmetric control technique for support of the surrounding rock was proposed.The asymmetric control technique was proved to be reasonable by field monitoring,support by bolt-net,steel ladder and steel wire truss used in narrow pillar side.

  20. Second Order Sliding Mode Control with Prescribed Convergence Law for Electro-Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of second order sliding modes for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD’s). The target is to introduce increased tracking- and transient performance compared to conventional linear approaches, without extending the number...... approach, and that control chattering is eliminated without introducing a boundary layer, normally seen in first order sliding mode controlled systems....... of tuning parameters. The proposed controller utilizes basic component knowledge commonly available from data sheets, as well as pressure-, valve position-, piston position- and velocity measurements. Results demonstrate improved position tracking- and transient performance, compared to a linear control...

  1. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  2. Division of Gas Accumulation System and Laws Controlling Distribution of Natural Gas in Typical Petroliferous Basins of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Considering the existing problems of the petroleum system, this paper brings forward the concept of natural gas accumulation system and presents the dividing principles. Then detailed statistics on the accumulation factors of the 32 typical natural gas accumulation systems in China and studies on the laws controlling distribution of gas are collected. The research shows that the petroleum accumulation system is the basic unit controlling petroleum generation, migration and accumulation. Generating intensity, generating amount, accumulating efficiency and migration distance plays an important role in the distribution of natural gas. Through analysis on results of resources evaluation, discovered reserves and residual reserves, potential areas in middle-scaled petroliferous basins in China are forecasted in this paper. Ordos, Sichuan, Tarim and Qaidam basins are found out to be the main basins developing and enriching gas accumulation systems.

  3. A study of law of coal-and-gas outburst & its controlling factors in Kailuan Mine Area,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-tao; GUO De-yong; ZHANG Zhi-yan

    2007-01-01

    On basis of an analysis of the geological condition,law of gas outburst and materials about coal-and-gas outburst,this paper summarized the characteristics associated with coal-and-gas outburst of Zhaogezhuang Mine and studied the factors controlling coal-and-gas outburst such as stress,coal structure and gas pressure,content of gas.Then.based on a comparison of effects of in-situ stresses,coal structure and gas on coal-and-gas outburst of Zhaogezhuang Mine,the paper concludes that the major geologicaI factors that control coal-and-gas outburst of Zhaogezhuang Mine are in-situ stresses and coal structure.

  4. Control Law Identification of Active Structures%主动结构的控制律辨识研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海标; 宋汉文

    2014-01-01

    Active structures are applied mainly in the engineering objects which include vibroacoustics, rotor dynamics, or active control. The control law is the key parameter which can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the active structures. In this paper, the control law of the active structures is discussed. A formula for identifying the type of feedback signal and its gain value is obtained under single control and single feedback conditions. The method is constructed by using the frequency response function (FRF) directly. In addition, the expression of the identification method is simple and convenient for engineering application. The result of numerical simulation of an example supports the validity of this method.%主动控制结构主要运用于包括振动、声学、转子动力学的一些工程项目中。对于各种主动结构,其控制律显然是最能反映主动结构动力学特征的参数。在对相关参数进行了初步的探讨后,得到了在单点控制单点反馈条件下,对其反馈信号类型及其反馈增益的辨识公式。该方法由频响函数直接构造,其表达简洁,具有一定的工程实用价值。通过实例的数值计算也证实了该方法的正确性。

  5. A Strategy for Passive Control of Natural Roll-Waves in Power-Law Fluids through Inlet Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Cristo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of the inlet boundary condition on the spatial evolution of natural roll-waves in a power-law fluid flowing in steep slope channels. The analysis is carried out numerically, by solving the von Kármán depth-integrated mass and momentum conservation equations, in the long-wave approximation. A second-order accurate scheme is adopted and a small random white-noise is superposed to the discharge at the channel inlet to generate the natural roll-waves train. Both shear-thinning and shear-thickening power-law fluids are investigated, considering uniform, accelerated and decelerated hypercritical profiles as the unperturbed condition. Independently of the unperturbed profile and of the fluid rheology, numerical simulations clearly enlighten the presence of coalescence, coarsening and overtaking processes, as experimentally observed. All the considered statistical parameters indicate that the natural roll-waves spatial evolution is strongly affected by the unperturbed profile. Compared with the uniform condition, at the beginning of roll-waves development an accelerated profile reduces the growth of the roll-waves with a downstream shift of the non-linear wave interaction. The opposite behavior is observed if the roll wave train develops over a decelerated profile. The comparison with the theoretical outcomes of the linearized near wave-front analysis allows the interpretation of this result in terms of stability of the base flow. It is shown that once the coarsening process starts to take place, the roll-waves spatial growth rate is independent of the unperturbed profile. Present results suggest that an appropriate selection of the flow depth at the channel inlet may contribute to control, either enhancing or inhibiting, the formation of a roll-waves train in power-law fluids.

  6. Implementation of the DAST ARW II control laws using an 8086 microprocessor and an 8087 floating-point coprocessor. [drones for aeroelasticity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G. L.; Berthold, G.; Abbott, L.

    1982-01-01

    A 5 MHZ single-board microprocessor system which incorporates an 8086 CPU and an 8087 Numeric Data Processor is used to implement the control laws for the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing, Aeroelastic Research Wing II. The control laws program was executed in 7.02 msec, with initialization consuming 2.65 msec and the control law loop 4.38 msec. The software emulator execution times for these two tasks were 36.67 and 61.18, respectively, for a total of 97.68 msec. The space, weight and cost reductions achieved in the present, aircraft control application of this combination of a 16-bit microprocessor with an 80-bit floating point coprocessor may be obtainable in other real time control applications.

  7. Comparison of Low-Thrust Control Laws for Application in Planetocentric Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Smith, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest at NASA for the application of solar electric propulsion for the transfer of significant payloads in cislunar space has led to the development of high-fidelity simulations of such missions. With such transfers involving transfer times on the order of months, simulation time can be significant. In the past, the examination of such missions typically began with the use of lower-fidelity trajectory optimization tools such as SEPSPOT to develop and tune guidance laws which delivered optimal or near- optimal trajectories, where optimal is generally defined as minimizing propellant expenditure or time of flight. The transfer of these solutions to a high-fidelity simulation is typically an iterative process whereby the initial solution may nearly, but not precisely, meet mission objectives. Further tuning of the guidance algorithm is typically necessary when accounting for high-fidelity perturbations such as those due to more detailed gravity models, secondary-body effects, solar radiation pressure, etc. While trajectory optimization is a useful method for determining optimal performance metrics, algorithms which deliver nearly optimal performance with minimal tuning are an attractive alternative.

  8. Numerical static state feedback laws for closed-loop singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de S.C.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Singular and non-singular control trajectories of agricultural and (bio) chemical processes may need to be recalculated from time to time for use in closed-loop optimal control, because of unforeseen changes in state values and noise. This is time consuming. As an alternative, in this paper,

  9. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  10. LMI-Based Generation of Feedback Laws for a Robust Model Predictive Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Carson, John M., III

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides a mathematical proof of Corollary 1 from the paper 'A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Algorithm with Proven Robustness and Resolvability' that appeared in the 2006 Proceedings of the American Control Conference. The proof was omitted for brevity in the publication. The paper was based on algorithms developed for the FY2005 R&TD (Research and Technology Development) project for Small-body Guidance, Navigation, and Control [2].The framework established by the Corollary is for a robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems that guarantees the resolvability of the associated nite-horizon optimal control problem in a receding-horizon implementation. Additional details of the framework are available in the publication.

  11. Corruption in political democracy is hard to control with law only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the types of corruption. To research sources of corruption and defects of corruption control mechanism. To propose ways of solving the problem of corruption. Methods methods of analysis synthesis analogy and summarizing were used. Result The reveals the imperfections of the systemic mechanism of corruption counteraction and analyzes its causes. The stages and scope of imperfections are also indentified. The world economical inequality which determines the lawmakersrsquo activities is a big concern of corruption controlling system. Biometric signature may be used as individual identification at all financerelated performance will identify the corrupt personals at all levels. Scientific novelty As it is stated in the article many dimensions of corruptions may be eliminated with the help of regulatory devices or a total digital controlling system. Practical significance introduction of the digital controlling system will allow to identify and control the corrupt officials at all levels and help to efficient struggle against corruption. nbsp

  12. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Obesity levels in England are significantly higher than in much of the rest of Europe. This article examines aspects of the physical and cultural context of food consumption in England, and the evolution of government policy on obesity, as a background to an analysis of how law might play a role in obesity prevention. Research suggests that individual food choices are associated with cultural and socio-economic circumstances and that they can be manipulated by advertising, food packaging and ...

  13. Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Helm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

  14. Looking for a solution for drug addiction in China: exploring the challenges and opportunities in the way of China's new Drug Control Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Liang, Juncheng; Zhao, Chengzheng; Zhou, Wenhua

    2010-05-01

    In the wake of the deteriorating situation of drug addiction and related infectious diseases among injecting drug users (IDUs) in China in recent years, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China adopted the new Drug Control Law which came into force in June 1, 2008. This law is part of a broad reform movement in China where drug addiction is no longer understood as simply a legal or moral issue but rather, as a complicated medical condition requiring comprehensive therapeutic strategies. Although the Drug Control Law draws a distinct line from previous Drug Control regulations in the country, there have still been dilemmas along the implementation process. This paper is intended to elaborate on the general principles of China's latest Drug Control Law from the point of view of scholars who are involved in the field of drug addiction research and treatment in China. This paper will also discuss the challenges we are currently facing, based on the observations and practical experiences the authors have obtained in China. It is hoped that by addressing these issues, we will be able to implement the new Drug Control Law more successfully and ensure that we deal more effectively with drug addiction in China.

  15. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well.

  16. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Adaptive Law for Uncertain Nonlinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanshan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is proposed for a second-order system with unmodeled dynamics uncertainties and external disturbances. We need not achieve the knowledge for boundaries of uncertainties and external disturbances in advance. The adaptive control gains are obtained to estimate the uncertain parameters and external disturbances which are unknown but bounded. The closed loop system stability is ensured with robustness and adaptation by the Lyapunov stability theorem in finite time. An illustrative example of second-order nonlinear system with unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented scheme.

  17. 带控制律导弹投放数值模拟%Missile separation simulation with control laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃春; 李彬; 郑鸣; 邓有奇

    2013-01-01

    Using an overset unstructured grid,three dimensional URANS equations are applied to simulate the missile separation with control laws.The walls criterion is used in the automatic hole-cutting procedure.Arithmetic average method is used to get the value during the overset grids.Comparison computing of the trajectories of a wing/pylon/finned-store configuration with three different control laws is carried out with this method,and a complex separation problem is solved.%基于非结构重叠网格技术,耦合舵面控制律模块,采用非定常雷诺平均NS方程,建立了模拟控制律作用下导弹投放分离动态特性的CFD数值方法.非结构重叠网格生成技术以“物面相交”方法确定洞边界,在多套网格重叠部分采用算术平均进行物理量的计算传递.采用机翼/挂架/带舵外挂物模型,以及不同的舵面控制规律展开了对比计算,分析了结果.并比较了某导弹有无控制律作用时从某战斗机分离的动态特性,研究了增加控制律的必要性.

  18. Adaptive Control Law Development for Failure Compensation Using Neural Networks on a NASA F-15 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics: 1) Brief explanation of Generation II Flight Program; 2) Motivation for Neural Network Adaptive Systems; 3) Past/ Current/ Future IFCS programs; 4) Dynamic Inverse Controller with Explicit Model; 5) Types of Neural Networks Investigated; and 6) Brief example

  19. Control of spatially heterogeneous and time-varying cellular reaction networks: a new summation law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, M.A.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Kholodenko, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    A hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an individual pro

  20. The concentrating effect of a licence under immission control law and its limits. Die Konzentrationswirkung der immissionsschutzrechtlichen Genehmigung und ihre Grenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluck, J.

    1992-02-15

    Justified complaints are being made about the increasing duration of licensing procedures. The environmental impact assessment will doubtlessly lead to a further prolongation of procedures. One of the instruments always spoken of as a means for reducing the length of procedures is the concentrating effect of licences. However it poses its own problems, particularly in connection with the scose limitations provided by paragraph 13 of the Federal Immission Control Law. Some of these are addressed, the emphasis lying on the relationship between the regulations of immission control law and water law. The recommendation of the independent commission for the simplification of law and administration to incorporate permits under water law into the process of concentration is also commented on. The author comes to the conclusion that concentration cannot remedy short comings in the equipment of authorities with staff and technical means, which are opposed to any attempt to speed up juidicial bussiness. Efforts to do so in spite of this can only succeed at the cost of placing restrictions on oor dispensing with the conventional administrative procedure or even placing restrictions on substantive law. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Validation of Flight Control Law Based on LFT and Structured Singular Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi; LIU Lin; CHEN Zong-ji; DUAN Hai-bin

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of flight clearance is to use the structured singular value (μ) analysis of the flight control system when some parameters in the system vary in a certain range. As theμ-analysis can only be done on a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model, the first step of flight clearance is to generate the LFT model of the flight control system. In this paper, based on the introduction of basic theory of LFT and μ-analysis, an X-fighter is chosen as an example to utilize the proposed methods. In order to realize the flight clearance process automatically, a novel software package based on MATLAB programming language is developed. The results of simulation experiments validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the novel methods proposed in this paper.

  2. A switching control law approach for cancer immunotherapy of an evolutionary tumor growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doban, Alina I; Lazar, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new approach for tumor immunotherapy which is based on a switching control strategy defined on domains of attraction of equilibria of interest. For this, we consider a recently derived model which captures the effects of the tumor cells on the immune system and viceversa, through predator-prey competition terms. Additionally, it incorporates the immune system's mechanism for producing hunting immune cells, which makes the model suitable for immunotherapy strategies analysis and design. For computing domains of attraction for the tumor nonlinear dynamics, and thus, for deriving immunotherapeutic strategies we employ rational Lyapunov functions. Finally, we apply the switching control strategy to destabilize an invasive tumor equilibrium and steer the system trajectories to tumor dormancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer program to simulate digital computer based longitudinal flight control laws in a high performance aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, James Robert

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The IEH Company's Continuous Systems Modeling Program was used to simulate the longitudinal flight control system of the F/A-18 aircraft. The model is intended for use in investigations cf aircraft response to flight conditions which approach spin or stall and is restricted to the automatic flaps up (AFU) flight mode. Program outputs include stabilator deflection, leading and trailing edge flap positions, and cress-ax...

  4. Guidelines, law, and governance: disconnects in the global control of airline-associated infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grout, Andrea; Howard, Natasha; Coker, Richard; Speakman, Elizabeth M

    2017-04-01

    International air travel is increasingly affecting the epidemiology of infectious diseases. A particular public health, economic, and political concern is the role of air travel in bringing infectious passengers or vectors to previously non-endemic areas. Yet, little research has been done to investigate either the infection risks associated with air travel or the empirical evidence for the effectiveness of infection control measures on aircraft and at borders. We briefly review the interface between international and national legislation, policy, and guidelines in the context of existing infection risks and possible scenarios. We have found that public health guidance and legislation, which airlines are required to follow, are often contradictory and confusing. Infection control measures for air travel need to be underpinned by coherent and enforceable national and international legislation that is based on solid epidemiological evidence. We recommend further research investment into more effective on-board vector control, health screening, and risk communications strategies, and the development of enforceable and harmonised international legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Law Affects Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Haselmann, Rainer; Pistor, Katharina; Vig, Vikrant

    2006-01-01

    A voluminous literature seeks to explore the relation between law and finance, but offers little insights into dynamic relation between legal change and behavioral outcomes or about the distributive effects of law on different market participants. The current paper disentangles the law-finance relation by using disaggregate data on banks’ lending patterns in 12 transition countries over a 8 year period. This allows us to control for country level heterogeneity and differentiate between differ...

  6. The Evolution of the Political Control of the Laws in Romania II- A Control Supervised by the Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdictional review, a control carried out by an organ independent in relation to the legislative, seems definitively won for the constitutionalist world. In the absence of expressesdispositions that regulate the control of constitutionality, the judiciary decided that this right belong to him in a very naturally way, as an issue of the separation of power and of the function that he fills. Because he was controlling the acts of the Parliament, the judge won a strong position in relation to the legislative power. This situation could not be accepted by a powerful legislative. While presenting itself as mandatory of the sovereignty of the people, it claims for him the right to control his own acts. However, in the case of Romania such a manifestation demonstration intervened only in Communist period. After we have presented in a first part the conditions in which the constitutional review ispassed to the political, the second part of the article will present how this control is exert by an organ dependent to the Parliament.

  7. Youngsters, law-breaking and educational practices: paradoxes of the biopolitics and social control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo contribuye a comprender las formas de gobierno de sectores jóvenes de la población en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C., en particular de los jóvenes infractores de la ley penal, sobre quienes se ejerce una serie de controles mediante su inscripción en programas de rehabilitación, reeducación y socialización basados en lógicas religiosas, científicas y mercantiles. El artículo finaliza proponiendo otras formas de comprender las subjetividades juveniles contemporáneas, las prá...

  8. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for

  9. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  10. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  11. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  12. Robust Stability Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuli Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To validate the robust stability of the flight control system of hypersonic flight vehicle, which suffers from a large number of parametrical uncertainties, a new clearance framework based on structural singular value (μ theory and global uncertainty sensitivity analysis (SA is proposed. In this framework, SA serves as the preprocess of uncertain model to be analysed to help engineers to determine which uncertainties affect the stability of the closed loop system more slightly. By ignoring these unimportant uncertainties, the calculation of μ can be simplified. Instead of analysing the effect of uncertainties on μ which involves solving optimal problems repeatedly, a simpler stability analysis function which represents the effect of uncertainties on closed loop poles is proposed. Based on this stability analysis function, Sobol’s method, the most widely used global SA method, is extended and applied to the new clearance framework due to its suitability for system with strong nonlinearity and input factors varying in large interval, as well as input factors subjecting to random distributions. In this method, the sensitive indices can be estimated via Monte Carlo simulation conveniently. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of Hydraulic Fracturing After Water Pressure Control Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng; Ma, Jian; Chen, Shuliang

    2014-07-01

    Because of the advantages of integrating water pressure blasting and hydraulic fracturing, the use of hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting is a method that is used to fully transform the structure of a coal-rock mass by increasing the number and range of hydraulic cracks. An experiment to study hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting on cement mortar samples (300 × 300 × 300 mm3) was conducted using a large-sized true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experimental system. A traditional hydraulic fracturing experiment was also performed for comparison. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting produces many blasting cracks, and follow-up hydraulic fracturing forces blasting cracks to propagate further and to form numerous multidirectional hydraulic cracks. Four macroscopic main hydraulic cracks in total were noted along the borehole axial and radial directions on the sample surfaces. Axial and radial main failure planes induced by macroscopic main hydraulic cracks split the sample into three big parts. Meanwhile, numerous local hydraulic cracks were formed on the main failure planes, in different directions and of different types. Local hydraulic cracks are mainly of three types: local hydraulic crack bands, local branched hydraulic cracks, and axial layered cracks. Because local hydraulic cracks produce multiple local layered failure planes and lamellar ruptures inside the sample, the integrity of the sample decreases greatly. The formation and propagation process of many multidirectional hydraulic cracks is affected by a combination of water pressure blasting, water pressure of fracturing, and the stress field of the surrounding rock. To a certain degree, the stress field of surrounding rock guides the formation and propagation process of the blasting crack and the follow-up hydraulic crack. Following hydraulic fracturing that has been conducted after water pressure blasting, the integrity of the sample is found to

  14. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  15. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  16. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  17. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Morgan; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).

  18. Disrupted Stimulus Control but Not Reward Sensitivity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matching Law Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Hawthorn, Rose; Bolger, Sam; Meredith, Katie; Bishop, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The matching law suggests that behavior is emitted in proportion to the level of reinforcement available. The current study investigated this effect in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and focused on the effects of magnitude of reinforcement (Study 1), and rate of reinforcement (Studies 2 and 3), on matching performance. Studies 1…

  19. Social Change and Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  20. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body.

  1. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  2. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  3. Solar sail heliocentric transfer orbit control based on analytical control laws%基于解析控制律的太阳帆星际转移轨道控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓宁; 郭继峰; 荣思远; 崔乃刚

    2013-01-01

    Solar sail spacecrafts can provide motivation rely on reflecting the sun photons, so that it is suitable for long distance interstellar transfer task. Aiming at the problem of solar sail interstellar transfer orbit control, a new analytical control law is presented. This control law can realize the combination control of each orbit elements by setting the blending weights. The modified equinoctial orbital elements are introduced to the optimal derivation of the analytical optimal control law, and numerical simulations for the method are performed based on mercury exploration mission. Simulation results show that, the proposed control law has higher computational speed and the capability of realizing the combination control of each orbit elements, thus the solar sail interstellar transfer orbit can be obtained, which can satisfy the requirements of the project.%太阳帆航天器可依靠反射太阳光子提供动力,因此较适用于远距离的星际转移任务.针对太阳帆航天器星际转移轨道控制问题,提出一种新的解析最优控制律,通过设定混合权重对各轨道根数进行联合控制.引入改进春分点轨道根数对解析控制律进行了优化推导,并以水星探测任务为背景进行了相应的仿真分析.仿真结果表明,该控制律计算速度较快,可对各个轨道根数进行联合控制,从而得到满足工程要求的太阳帆航天器星际转移轨道.

  4. Study of Cooperative Attack Control Law for ASM with Leader-follower Structure%反舰导弹主从式协同攻击样式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 孙锋吾; 陶山

    2012-01-01

    In order to' research the dynamic behavior of cooperative attack style for ASM, a nonlinear mathematical model of leader-follower attack style is built based on the relative moving equation between the leader missile and the follower missile. According to the error dynamic of relative distance and yaw angle, the control law is designed by the theory of feedback linearization, and the stabilization of the control law and the inner dynamic system are proved. The simulated results with an example shows that all follower missiles can be close to their desired value quickly and move together with stable structure by means of the proposed control law.%针对群弹系统执行攻击任务时,从弹按照主从式协同攻击样式跟随领弹实施攻击,利用领弹与从弹的位置信息解算出相对距离和角度,依据相对距离和角度误差的动力学特性,建立了主从式协同攻击样式的非线性数学模型,采用输出线性化理论设计了主从式协同攻击样式的控制律,证明了该控制律及其内动态系统的稳定性.仿真表明,在领弹机动条件下,实现了对从弹的速度和弹道偏航角的控制,从弹能保持与领弹的相对距离和弹道偏航角均快速收敛并稳定到期望值.

  5. Control law design of dynamic positioning for ship based on dynamic surface control%基于动态面控制的船舶动力定位控制律设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳璐; 杨杨; 胡鑫; 陈海泉

    2014-01-01

    The control problem of dynamic positioning for surface ship was analyzed,the time-variant environmental disturbances with unknown bounds were considered,the dynamic surface control technology was combined with the vectorial backstepping method,based on which,an adaptive robust nonlinear control law of dynamic positioning was proposed.By introducing the dynamic surface control technique,the proposed control law utilized the differentiation term of the first-order low-pass filter to replace the differentiation term of virtual control vector.As a result,the differentiation operations in the control law design were replaced by the simple algebraic operations.Hence,the control law simplified the computation and was implemented in engineering practice easily. Leakage terms based on a variation of σ-modification were incorporated into the adaptive laws for estimating the unknown bounds of disturbances to prevent parameters from drifting.By using the Lyapunov function,it was proved that the proposed control law could force the ship’ s position and heading to converge and keep at the desired target values and guarantee the uniformly ultimate boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop dynamic positioning system of ship.Simulation result shows that as the initial horizontal-plane position of ship deviates 25 m from the desired position,the ship can achieve the desired position within 50 s based on the control law,so the proposed control law is effective.1 tab,7 figs,15 refs.%针对水面船舶动力定位控制问题,考虑带有未知界的时变环境扰动,将动态面控制技术与矢量逆推方法相结合,设计了船舶动力定位系统的自适应鲁棒非线性控制律。引入动态面控制技术,利用一阶滤波器的微分项代替虚拟控制矢量的微分项,使得在控制律设计过程中的微分运算被简单的代数运算所替代,简化了计算,易于工程实现。为阻止自适应参数漂移

  6. 航天器连续非光滑姿态控制律设计%Design of Continuous Non-Smooth Attitude Control Laws for Spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克茂

    2012-01-01

    为了提高航天器姿态控制系统的鲁棒性和动态特性,应用非光滑控制方法设计了连续的姿态控制律,使闭环姿态控制系统具有齐次性,且齐次度为负,实现了姿态控制系统的有限时间稳定,以保证系统状态的动态特性.分别针对标称系统渗数不确定性和外部扰动等情形进行了仿真验证,仿真结果表明所设计的控制律在保证标称系统有限时间稳定性的同时,针对系统的不确定性和扰动具有鲁棒性.%For the attitude control system of a spacecraft, non-smooth control technique is utilized to improve the robustness and dynamic performance. A continuous attitude control law is given to ensure the homogeneity of the closed-loop attitude control system with a negative degree of homogeneity. The resulting attitude control system is finite-time stable, thus guaranteeing the dynamic performance of state variables. Simulation is carried out under the cases of the nominal system and the systems with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, respectively. The simulation results show that, under the designed control law, the nominal system is finite-time stable, and uncertain systems are robust against uncertainties and disturbances.

  7. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  8. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  9. 带落角约束与控制约束的纵向制导律%Longitudinal guidance law with constraints on impact angle and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晨; 晁涛; 王松艳; 杨明

    2014-01-01

    A certain impact angle and the observation of the control constraint are desired when a land-attack-missile attacks a stationary ground target.To address this problem,a longitudinal guidance law with constraints on the impact angle and the control was presented.Based on nonlinear center of mass motion equations of the missile,a linear model for guidance law design was derived by coordinate transformation.The guidance problem was converted to a stabilization problem of a linear time-invariance(LTI)system with control saturation.To stabilize the LTI system,a low gain state feedback law was designed utilizing the parametric Lyapunov e-quation approach.And a longitudinal guidance law with a design parameter was derived.A method tuning the design parameter of the guidance law was proposed.By tuning the parameter online,sight angle converged to the desired impact angle in finite time.And the control constraint was observed during flight.Simulation results show that the guidance law is adaptive to various missions and has a potential for engineering applications.%攻击地面目标的飞行器需以一定的落角击中目标,且攻击过程中控制量应满足约束条件的限制。针对该问题提出了一种带落角约束与控制约束的纵向制导律。基于非线性的飞行器质心运动模型,通过坐标变换得到用于制导律设计的线性模型,将带落角约束与控制约束的制导问题转化为存在控制饱和的线性定常系统的镇定问题。利用参量李雅普诺夫方程方法对该线性定常系统设计低增益状态反馈律,通过推导得到带落角约束和控制约束的纵向制导律,并给出制导律参数的在线整定方法,保证视线角在给定时间内收敛至期望落角,且飞行过程中的控制量满足约束条件。仿真结果表明,提出的制导律能够适应多种飞行任务,且具有良好的工程适用性。

  10. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  11. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  12. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  13. Ground pressure law of fully mechanized large cutting height face in extremely-soft thick seam and stability control in tip-to-face area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-you; CHANG Xing-min; HUANG Bing-xiang; WEI Min-tao; WANG Jun; WANG Jian-shu

    2007-01-01

    When stepped coal getting technology was applied to high seam mining working face, with field observations the following aspects of working face were analyzed based on the inherent conditions of extremely soft thick seam mined by Liangbei Mine, such as the brokenness and activity law of rock seam in the working face, the law of load-bearing of its supports, and the instability character of coal or rock in tip-to-face area.The following are the major laws. Pressure intensity of roof in high seam mining with extremely soft thick seam is stronger than one in slicing and sublevel-caving as a whole. But the greater crushing deformation of coal side makes pressure intensity of roof in the middle of working face be equivalent to one in sublevel-caving. In the middle of working face the roof brokenness has less dynamic load effect than roof brokenness in the two ends of working face. The brokenness instability of distinct pace of roof brings several load-bearings to supports. In condition of extremely soft thick seam, the ratio of resistance increment of supports in two ends of working face is obviously greater than that of supports in the middle. Most sloughing in coal side is triangular slop sloughing caused by shear slipping in high seam mining with extremely soft thick seam. Ultrahigh mining is the major reason for roof fall. Instability of coal or rock in tip-to-face area can be controlled effectively with the methods such as improving setting load of supports, mining along roof by reinforcing floor and protecting the immediate roof in time, and so on.

  14. Estimating the power law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, C. J.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Quantifying the relationship between multiscale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. We present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, supporting the notion of a "rough geology" exhibiting multi-scale hierarchical structure. Bounded by end member cases from homogenized isotropic and anisotropic media, we present numerical modeling results of the electromagnetic responses of textured and spatially-correlated, stochastic geologic media, demonstrating that the electromagnetic response is a power law distribution, rather than a smooth response polluted with random, incoherent noise as commonly assumed. Our modeling results show that these electromagnetic responses due to spatially-correlated geologic textures are examples of fractional Brownian motion. Furthermore, our results suggest that the fractal behavior of the electromagnetic responses is correlated with degree of the spatial correlation, the contrasts in ground conductivity, and the preferred orientation of small-scale heterogeneity. In addition, the EM responses acquired across a fault zone comprising different lithological units and varying wavelengths of geologic heterogeneity also support our inferences from numerical modeling.

  15. Estimating the power-law distribution of Earth electrical conductivity from low-frequency, controlled-source electromagnetic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskardes, G. D.; Weiss, C. J.; Everett, M. E.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic responses reflect the interaction between applied electromagnetic fields and heterogeneous geoelectrical structures. Quantifying the relationship between multiscale electrical properties and the observed electromagnetic response is therefore important for meaningful geologic interpretation. We present here examples of near-surface electromagnetic responses whose spatial fluctuations appear on all length scales, are repeatable and fractally distributed, supporting the notion of a `rough geology' exhibiting multiscale hierarchical structure. Bounded by end member cases from homogenized isotropic and anisotropic media, we present numerical modelling results of the electromagnetic responses of textured and spatially correlated, stochastic geologic media, demonstrating that the electromagnetic response is a power law distribution, rather than a smooth response polluted with random, incoherent noise as commonly assumed. Our modelling results show that these electromagnetic responses due to spatially correlated geologic textures are examples of fractional Brownian motion. Furthermore, our results suggest that the fractal behaviour of the electromagnetic responses is correlated with degree of the spatial correlation, the contrasts in ground conductivity, and the preferred orientation of small-scale heterogeneity. In addition, the EM responses acquired across a fault zone comprising different lithological units and varying wavelengths of geologic heterogeneity also support our inferences from numerical modelling.

  16. Hybrid Robust Control Law with Disturbance Observer for High-Frequency Response Electro-Hydraulic Servo Loading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the simulating issue of the helicopter-manipulating booster aerodynamic load with high-frequency dynamic load superimposed on a large static load, this paper studies the design of the robust controller for the electro-hydraulic loading system to realize the simulation of this kind of load. Firstly, the equivalent linear model of the electro-hydraulic loading system under assumed parameter uncertainty is established. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed for the loading system. This control scheme consists of a constant velocity feed-forward compensator, a robust inner loop compensator based on disturbance observer and a robust outer loop feedback controller. The constant velocity compensator eliminates most of the extraneous force at first, and then the double-loop cascade composition control strategy is employed to design the compensated system. The disturbance observer–based inner loop compensator further restrains the disturbances including the remaining extraneous force, and makes the actual plant tracking a nominal model approximately in a certain frequency range. The robust outer loop controller achieves the desired force-tracking performance, and guarantees system robustness in the high frequency region. The optimized low-pass filter Q(s is designed by using the H∞ mixed sensitivity optimization method. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid control scheme and controller can effectively suppress the extraneous force and improve the robustness of the electro-hydraulic loading system.

  17. 基于变结构导引律的UCAV自主轨迹控制%Autonomous Trajectory Control for UCAV Based on Variable Structure Guidance Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周隆亮; 周德云; 李兆强

    2012-01-01

    研究无人作战飞机的自主轨迹控制问题.在一定假设条件的基础上,推导出无人作战飞机的三自由度运动模型;将变结构控制理论运用于无人作战飞机的导引,推导出变结构导引律;在自主轨迹控制算法中,由变结构导引律根据期望轨迹点计算出状态的期望值,并将该期望值与由运动模型得到的状态实际值之间的误差来驱动控制,自主轨迹控制控制的过程就是这个误差收敛到零的过程;仿真结果表明该自主轨迹控制算法能够快速地使无人作战飞机达到预定的轨迹点,且控制过程中控制量的变化平稳,具有良好的效果.%The autonomous unmanned combat aircraft trajectory control problem is researched. On the basis of certain assumptions, the three degrees of freedom motion model of UCAV is derived. With using the variable structure control theory into the UCAV s guide, the variable structure guidance law is derived. In the autonomous trajectory control algorithm, the expectation value of state is given by variable structure guidance law. There will be a error between the expectation value and the value according to the motion model, which is used to drive control. The autonomous control of trajectory control process is the error converges to zero process; The simulation results show that the autonomous trajectory control algorithm designed in this paper can make the UCAV arrive the predetermined track points quickly, and the states vary smoothly in the control process.

  18. 某无人机纵向控制律的最优控制器设计及仿真%Optimal controller design and simulation of longitudinal control laws of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 钟斌; 李亮; 徐百仪

    2013-01-01

    控制律的设计直接影响无人机的飞行品质.针对无人机的要求,把飞行控制系统的纵向运动分为俯仰角速率、俯仰角和高度控制三个回路,采用最优控制器方法进行PID控制器设计,避免了经典控制理论中根轨迹法需要试凑的缺点.通过编写OCD程序并在Matlab中进行仿真,结果表明,所设计的无人机飞行控制器响应速度快、超调量小,效果有明显改善,飞行品质达到1级要求,并可大大节省设计时间,为进一步研究多输入多输出控制器提供了依据.%Design of control law directly affects UAV' s ( unmanned air vehicle ) flight quality,to meet UAV' s requirement,the longitudinal movement of flight control system divided into pitch angular rate loop,pitch angle loop and height control loop,the optimal controller design method for PID controller,by using the OCD( optimal controller designer) method for regulating PID controller,avoiding the trial of root locus of the classical control theory. Through runing OCD program to achieve simulation in Matlab,the results show that the UAV flight controller' s performance is obviously improved,which is of fast response and small overshoot,and the flying quality meets the requirements for level 1. The design method can greatly save the valuable time of designers and provide a basis for the further research of the control law of multiple input multiple output controller.

  19. 一种离散时间系统变结构趋近律%Reaching Law of Discrete-time Variable Structure Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兆雪; 景丽

    2013-01-01

    For a class of discrete-time system,a variable structure control design method is proposed.To reduce the chattering of discrete-time sliding mode control,the reaching law is constructed.A variable structure controller is designed,which can weaken the chattering,improve the control quality,control system close to the origin diminishingly,and make the system stable.The numerical results and simulation examples are given.%针对一类离散时间系统,提出一种变结构控制设计方法.为了减小离散指数趋近律的抖振现象,本文构造一种趋近律,利用它设计变结构控制器,能够大幅度削弱抖振,有效地改善控制品质,使系统最终趋于原点,并使系统稳定.给出数值计算和仿真算例.

  20. Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.

  1. An estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista; Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The technique adopted here is based on an evaluation of the 'lost work' within each functional unit of the subsystem. Pertinent information for our analysis is obtained from a user interactive integrated model of an ECLSS. The model was developed using ASPEN. A potential benefit of this analysis is the identification of subsystems with high entropy generation as the most likely candidates for engineering improvements. This work has been motivated by the fact that the design objective for a long term mission should be the evaluation of existing ECLSS technologies not only the basis of the quantity of work needed for or obtained from each subsystem but also on the quality of work. In a previous study Brandhorst showed that the power consumption for partially closed and completely closed regenerable life support systems was estimated as 3.5 kw/individual and 10-12 kw/individual respectively. With the increasing cost and scarcity of energy resources, our attention is drawn to evaluate the existing ECLSS technologies on the basis of their energy efficiency. In general the first law efficiency of a system is usually greater than 50 percent. From literature, the second law efficiency is usually about 10 percent. The estimation of second law efficiency of the system indicates the percentage of energy degraded as irreversibilities within the process. This estimate offers more room for improvement in the design of equipment. From another perspective, our objective is to keep the total entropy production of a life support system as low as possible and still ensure a positive entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings. The reason for doing so is as the entropy production of the system increases, the entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings decreases, and the

  2. Polynomial law for controlling the generation of n-scroll chaotic attractors in an optoelectronic delayed oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Márquez, Bicky A., E-mail: bmarquez@ivic.gob.ve; Suárez-Vargas, José J., E-mail: jjsuarez@ivic.gob.ve; Ramírez, Javier A. [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, km. 11 Carretera Panamericana, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Controlled transitions between a hierarchy of n-scroll attractors are investigated in a nonlinear optoelectronic oscillator. Using the system's feedback strength as a control parameter, it is shown experimentally the transition from Van der Pol-like attractors to 6-scroll, but in general, this scheme can produce an arbitrary number of scrolls. The complexity of every state is characterized by Lyapunov exponents and autocorrelation coefficients.

  3. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  4. 航天器非线性鲁棒自适应姿态机动控制律%Nonlinear robust adaptive attitude maneuver control law for spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫杰; 任元; 李怡勇; 罗元

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of uncertainties in the moment of inertia and the external disturbance torque,the nonlinear robust adaptive control law for the control torque and estimation of moment of inertia is designed com-bining the nonlinear backstepping and Lyapunovo stability.In the control law for the control torque,the nonlin-ear damping is added to compensate the external disturbance torque,and the globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability of the system is demonstrated.The nonlinear dynamic coefficient is introduced to increase the dynamic performance of the system,shortening the regulating time after fast attitude maneuver.By Matlab/Simulink programming,the simulation of spacecraft attitude manoeuver control is discussed,and the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed controller.%针对存在未知转动惯量和外部干扰力矩的敏捷航天器快速大角度姿态机动问题,结合非线性反步法和 Lyapunovo 稳定性分析方法设计控制力矩和转动惯量估计值的非线性鲁棒自适应控制律。在控制力矩控制律中,加入非线性阻尼项对外部干扰力矩进行补偿,证明了系统的全局一致最终有界稳定性。引入非线性动系数增加系统的动态性能,提高了姿态快速机动后的快速稳定能力。在 Maltlab/Simulink 环境下进行航天器姿态机动控制仿真研究,仿真结果验证了所设计控制器的有效性和可行性。

  5. Development of Aeroservoelastic Analytical Models and Gust Load Alleviation Control Laws of a SensorCraft Wind-Tunnel Model Using Measured Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; Vartio, Eric; Shimko, Anthony; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Eure, Kenneth W.; Scott,Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Aeroservoelastic (ASE) analytical models of a SensorCraft wind-tunnel model are generated using measured data. The data was acquired during the ASE wind-tunnel test of the HiLDA (High Lift-to-Drag Active) Wing model, tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in late 2004. Two time-domain system identification techniques are applied to the development of the ASE analytical models: impulse response (IR) method and the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) method. Using measured control surface inputs (frequency sweeps) and associated sensor responses, the IR method is used to extract corresponding input/output impulse response pairs. These impulse responses are then transformed into state-space models for use in ASE analyses. Similarly, the GPC method transforms measured random control surface inputs and associated sensor responses into an AutoRegressive with eXogenous input (ARX) model. The ARX model is then used to develop the gust load alleviation (GLA) control law. For the IR method, comparison of measured with simulated responses are presented to investigate the accuracy of the ASE analytical models developed. For the GPC method, comparison of simulated open-loop and closed-loop (GLA) time histories are presented.

  6. Around the circular law

    CERN Document Server

    Bordenave, Charles

    2011-01-01

    These expository notes are centered around the circular law theorem, which states that the empirical spectral distribution of a n \\times n random matrix with i.i.d. entries of variance 1/n tends to the uniform law on the unit disc of the complex plane as the dimension n tends to infinity. This phenomenon is the non-Hermitian counterpart of the semi circular limit for Wigner random Hermitian matrices, and the quarter circular limit for Marchenko-Pastur random covariance matrices. We present a proof in a Gaussian case, due to Silverstein, based on a formula by Ginibre, and a proof of the universal case by revisiting the approach of Tao and Vu, based on the Hermitization of Girko, the logarithmic potential, and the control of the small singular values. Beyond the finite variance model, we also consider the case where the entries have heavy tails, by using the objective method of Aldous and Steele borrowed from randomized combinatorial optimization. The limiting law is then no longer the circular law and is relat...

  7. Optimum PN Guidance Law for Maneuvering Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-cai; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    An optimum PN guidance law for maneuvering target is developed using optimal control theory. By estimating the target position and setting the cost function, the guidance law can be deduced even without knowing the missile lateral acceleration. Since the quadratic cost function can make a compromise between the miss distance andthe control constraint, the optimum guidance law obtained is more general. Also, introduced line of sight rate as the input, a practical form of this guidance law is derived. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the guidance laws.

  8. KEBERADAAN KONSEP RULE BY LAW (NEGARA BERDASARKAN HUKUM DIDALAM TEORI NEGARA HUKUM THE RULE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research titled, the existence of the concept of rule by law (state law within thestate theories of law the rule of law, which is where the first problem: How can theadvantages of Rule by Law in the theory of law Rule of Law?, How is the dis advantages of aconcept of Rule by law in the theory of law Rule of Law.This research method using the method of normative, legal research that examines thewritten laws of the various aspects, ie aspects of the theory, history, philosophy, comparative,structure and composition, scope, and content, consistent, overview, and chapter by chapter,formality, and the binding force of a law, and the legal language used, but did not examine orimlementasi applied aspects. By using this approach of Historical analysis and approach oflegal conceptual analysis.In this research have found that the advantages of the concept of Rule by Law lies in theproviding of certainty, can also be social control for the community, thus ensuring all citizensin good order at all reciprocal relationships within the community. And Disadvantages of theconcept of Rule by Law if the Law which legalized state action is not supported by democracyand human rights, and the principles of justice, there will be a denial of human rights,widespread poverty, and racial segregation, and if the law is only utilized out by theauthorities as a means to legalize all forms of actions that violate human can inflicttotalitarian nature of the ruling

  9. 冲突与互动:犯罪治理场景中的民族刑事习惯法%Conflict and Interaction:Criminal Customary Law of Minority Nationality from the Perspective of Crime Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧明; 高玉敏

    2011-01-01

    In the crime control,the national criminal law is a hard law, while the criminal customary law of minority nationality is a soft law. To achieve good treatment effect, the mechanism of the combination of hard law and soft law should be initiated,thus the crime control mode can be changed from the close mode to an open mode, from the campaign style to a normative style, from the passive to an active management and from the static to a dynamic management. At the same time, the criminal customary law of minority nationality should be regulated from the perspectives of the choice of values,rules making,and implementation mechanisms. To control the crime, exercising the right to modify the penal code is the legislation requirement, improving the mediation system is an effective way and developing regional economic and education is a fundamental policy.%国家刑事法是犯罪治理中的硬法,民族刑事习惯法则为软法.欲取得良好的治理效果,应启动硬法与软法机制,使犯罪治理由封闭式治理转变为开放式治理,由运动式治理转变为规范性治理,由被动治理转变为主动治理,由静态治理转变为动态治理.对民族刑事习惯法的规制要从价值选择、规则定制和实施机制三个维度加以补正,而行使刑法变通权是立法要求,完善调解制度是有效方式,发展民族地区经济与教育是治本之策.

  10. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  11. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  12. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  13. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. Adoção de Controles de Custos pelos Municípios Catarinenses, segundo a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal = Adoption of cost control by catarinenses municipalities, according to the fiscal responsibility law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Patricia Roncalio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal - LRF exige a inclusão de normas para controle de custos nas Leis de Diretrizes Orçamentárias - LDO’s dos entes, bem como a adoção de sistemas de custos para o acompanhamento da gestão pública. Neste sentido, objetiva-se verificar a adoção de controles de custos pelas administrações dos municípios catarinenses com mais de 50.000 habitantes. Em seus objetivos, a pesquisa é um levantamento descritivo e, em sua problemática, a abordagem é qualitativa-quantitativa. Compara-se as informações obtidas na análise de conteúdo das LDO’s de 19 municípios com as informações coletadas em questionários respondidos pelos contadores destas prefeituras. Como resultado, verifica-se que 26% das prefeituras adotam controles de custos e nas LDO’s há a exigência de adoção deste tipo de controle em 47% dos municípios. Identifica-se, portanto, incoerências sobre a adoção de controles de custos nos municípios e pouca interação das áreas de planejamento e contabilidade. The Fiscal Responsibility Law-LRF requires the inclusion of cost controlling rules in city´s Laws of Budget Guidelines–LDO’s and the adoption of a costing system to monitor public management. The article aims at verifying the adoption of costing controls by government municipalities that have more than 50,000 inhabitants, according by the LRF. For the methodology, the research is a descriptive survey with a qualitative-quantitative approach. The information obtained by the analysis of the 19 LDO's municipalities contents are compared with the information collected from questionnaires answered by accountants of these cities. As a result of the research, it appears that 26% of the surveyed municipalities have cost control methods, in the LDO's there is a requirement for adoption of such control in 47% of municipalities. It´s shown, therefore, inconsistencies on the adoption of cost controlling methods in the cities and there is

  16. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  17. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  18. Evaluación científico-técnica de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco de México Scientific and technical evaluation of Mexico’s General Law for Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ley General para el Control del Tabaco, aprobada en febrero de 2008, busca proteger a la población mexicana de los efectos nocivos del tabaco y asegurar el derecho de los no fumadores a vivir y convivir en espacios 100% libres de humo de tabaco. La Ley considera el desarrollo de espacios libres de humo, pero también posibilita la existencia de áreas interiores para fumar. El presente ensayo examina la Ley y su Reglamento, artículo por artículo, evaluando su capacidad para asegurar la protección a la salud de la población de los efectos del humo de tabaco ambiental. El análisis revela imprecisiones conceptuales y operativas importantes, pero principalmente, señala de manera puntual las razones por las que las áreas interiores para fumar representan un riesgo a la salud de la población. Se concluye que la Ley debe ser reformada, eliminando la provisión de áreas interiores para fumar, de cualquier estructura cubierta en las áreas para fumar al aire libre y definiendo la distancia mínima entre estas áreas y las áreas 100% libres de humo de tabaco.The General Law for Tobacco Control, signed in February 2008, aims to protect the Mexican population against the negative effects associated with tobacco consumption and to guarantee the non-smoker's rights to live and relate in 100% smoke-free environments. The Law supports the development of smoke-free areas, but it also allows for indoor smoking areas. The present essay examines the Law and its Rule of Procedure, article by article, evaluating its capability to assure the protection of the population against the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. The analysis reveals conceptual and operative important imprecision, but mainly, discusses in detail the reasons why indoor smoking areas represent a health risk for the population. It concludes that the Law must be reformed, eliminating the provision of indoor smoking areas, any kind of roof in outdoor smoking areas and establising a

  19. Case Study of Apple, Inc. for Business Law Students: How Apple's Business Model Controls Digital Content through Legal and Technological Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Margo E. K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a six-week long exercise that incorporates a dynamic learning approach into an e-commerce or Internet technology business law elective course; the exercise pursues an entrepreneurial approach to the use of an appropriate business model by emphasizing the interaction between technology, business, and law. This active learning…

  20. Case Study of Apple, Inc. for Business Law Students: How Apple's Business Model Controls Digital Content through Legal and Technological Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Margo E. K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a six-week long exercise that incorporates a dynamic learning approach into an e-commerce or Internet technology business law elective course; the exercise pursues an entrepreneurial approach to the use of an appropriate business model by emphasizing the interaction between technology, business, and law. This active learning…

  1. From Blackstone's Common Law Duty of Parents to Educate Their Children to a Constitutional Right of Parents to Control the Education of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Blackstone's Commentaries stated that the common law imposed a duty on parents to provide for the maintenance, protection, and education of their children, and of these, the duty to provide an education was "of far the greatest importance." Early on American courts cited Blackstone for the proposition of the common law duty of parents…

  2. Discrete repetitive control using attracting law with dead zone%基于死区吸引律的离散重复控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬玲伟; 孙明轩; 胡轶

    2015-01-01

    A discrete-time repetitive control method is proposed for systems with periodic reference signals. A measure of disturbance-rejection is embedded in the attracting law by using the dead-zone function to form the ideal error dynamics, by which the discrete-time repetitive controller is derived. For the convenience in adjusting the controller parameters and describing the error dynamics of the closed-loop system, the expressions for the range of the steady-state error, the boundary of the monotonically decreasing region and the absolute attractive layer are derived. The developed repetitive controller is not only effective in rejection of the periodic disturbances, but also applicable to position control with constant regulation problems. Both numerical simulation and experiment results on a servomechanism are given to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control method.%针对周期参考信号下的不确定离散时间系统,提出一种离散重复控制方法,利用死区函数设计新型的吸引律,将干扰补偿、抑制措施“嵌入”吸引律,构造理想误差动态,并基于此导出重复控制器。为了进行具体的控制器参数整定和表征闭环系统的误差动态行为,推导出了稳态误差带、单调减区域和绝对吸引层边界的表达式。所设计的离散重复控制器能够完全抑制周期对称干扰信号,控制器设计方法也适用于常值调节问题的定位控制。数值仿真及在电机伺服系统上的实验结果验证了所提出控制方法的有效性。

  3. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  4. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  5. On Boolean Stable Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arizmendi, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    We determine which Boolean stable law is freely infinitely divisible and which is not. Some positive Boolean stable laws and a mixture of them have completely monotonic densities and they are both freely and classically infinitely divisible. Freely infinitely divisible Boolean stable laws and the corresponding free stable laws are non trivial examples whose free divisibility indicators are infinity.

  6. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  7. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  8. Operational Law Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Law* implications. R-5 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. B. 1ypically readiness exercises and rapid...Soldiers’ & Sailors’ Civil Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal

  9. Design and Simulation of Adaptive Backstepping Control Law for BTT Missile%BTT导弹自适应反演控制律设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施敏良; 王凌艳; 李青山; 刘洪昌

    2012-01-01

    针对倾斜转弯(BTT)导弹控制中的多变量强耦合问题,研究了一种适用于BTT导弹的反演算法,以实现自动驾驶仪的自适应解耦控制.根据BTT导弹控制的基本特性,建立导弹的非线性控制模型,并将其转化为适合于反演设计的反馈块模型.在此模型上,基于反演的非线性控制系统综合设计方法,加入自适应神经网络逼近系统中存在的不确定性,利用Lyapunov稳定性定理推导了自适应调节律,设计了导弹控制律.通过仿真验证了该设计方法的有效性和可行性,该控制器能够实现控制解耦目的,且对指令信号跟踪效果良好.%In order to solve the problems of multiple variables and strong coupling in BIT (bank-to-turn) missile control, a backstepping algorithm suitable for the BTT missile autopilot controller was proposed. Based on the peculiarity of BTT missile,the nonlinear model of missile was built up. Then,the missile model was translated into a feedback block model to realize the backstepping design. A special nonlinear synthetical backstepping method was applied in design of the control law for BTT missile, which added neural networks to solve the uncertainties problems, and the adaptive tuning rules were derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem. This method can implement the decoupling design of controller and track the command signals well. Simulation was made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  11. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  12. Sliding Mode Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on a Novel Exponential Reaching Law%永磁同步电机滑模变结构调速系统动态品质控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 赵克; 孙力; 安群涛

    2011-01-01

    为了提高永磁同步电动机(permanent magnet synchronous motor,PMSM)调速系统的动态品质,提出了一种新型指数趋近律,与常规指数趋近律不同,该趋近律将趋近速度与系统状态量的变化相关联,克服了常规指数趋近律的缺点,有效抑制了滑模的固有抖振问题,并增大了趋近速度.将该趋近律应用于永磁同步电动机调速系统,设计了基于新型指数趋近律的滑模变结构速度控制器,以取代传统PI 调节器.仿真和实验结果表明,该速度控制器能够有效地提高系统的静态、动态特性与鲁棒性.%To improve dynamic quality of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) speed servo system, a novel exponent reaching law was proposed. Different from the conventional exponential reaching law, the reaching speed of novel reaching law was associated with the changes of the system state; the novel exponential reaching law can overcome the disadvantage of traditional reaching law, suppress the chattering and improve the reaching speed. The novel reaching law was applied to the PMSM speed servo system; a novel speed controller was designed to replace the traditional PI regulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the novel speed controller can improve steady, dynamic performances and robustness characteristics of speed servo system.

  13. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  14. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  15. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  16. 太阳帆航天器地球逃逸轨道解析最优控制律%Solar sail analytical optimal control law for earth escape transfer orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓宁; 李立涛; 崔乃刚

    2013-01-01

    针对太阳帆航天器地球逃逸轨道控制问题,给出一种新的解析最优控制律.该控制律可使航天器在逃逸过程中轨道能量变化速率最大,从而保证逃逸时间最短.考虑到地球逃逸轨道形状,引入改进春分点轨道根数对航天器运动学方程进行描述,并给出了地球逃逸轨道最优控制律的推导过程.仿真分析表明,该控制律计算速度较快,而且可以根据航天器状态实时计算姿态控制角,因此比较适用于未来太阳帆航天器在轨自主控制系统.%Aiming at orbit control problem for escaping the earth with solar sail, a new analytical optimal control law is presented. This approach maximizes the instantaneous rate of the increase of the total orbital energy in the process of escaping the earth, so as to ensure the shortest escape time. The equations of motion for the trajectory are expressed in modified equinoctial orbital elements, which are well behaved as the trajectory going from elliptic to hyperbolic during escape. Furthermore, the derivation of escaping the earth optimal control law is given. Simulation analysis shows that the control law has higher computational speed, and can real-timely calculate the attitude control angle according to the state of spacecraft by the simulation analysis, hence the control law is suitable for the application in future on-orbit solar sail autonomous control system.

  17. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, solar flares, moon craters, wars and people's personal ...

  18. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  19. A Lei Antimonopólio da China e o seu regime de controle de concentração China's Anti-monopoly Law and its merger control regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como a maior economia emergente e uma grande potência económica do mundo, a China é um tardio, mas um importante participante do clube do Direito da Concorrência, com a entrada em vigor de uma nova Lei Antimonopólio (LAM, em 1º de agosto de 2008. O presente trabalho focaliza o regime de controle das operações de concentração através da averiguação de uma série de regulamentos de execução promulgados depois da LAM. À luz das normas substantivas e processuais do regime do controle de concentração, o estudo faz uma comparação entre o regime chinês e os regimes dos Estados Unidos e da Uunião Europeia. Alguns resultados empíricos ilustram que a China está fazendo esforços para realizar uma convergência suave com as normas internacionais, enquanto a abordagem gradual de convergência dá à china a flexibilidade para parar, ajustar e fazer uma excepção sempre que necessário.As the biggest emerging economy and a major economic power in the world, China is a late but a significant entrant into the competition law club, with the implementation of a new Anti-Monopoly Law (AML on 1st August, 2008. The article focuses on the merger enforcement by examining the implementing regulations and orders related to merger control which were issued after the enactment of the AML. In light of the substantive standards and the procedural requirements of merger control, the article makes a comparison between Chinese regime and the U.S. and EU's standards. Some empirical findings on the AML and its merger enforcement has largely illustrated that China is making its efforts to realize a soft convergence with international norms, meanwhile, the gradual approach of convergence gives China the flexibility to stop, to adjust and to make an exception whenever necessary.

  20. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  1. 改进幂次趋近律的机械臂滑模控制律设计%Design of Sliding Mode Control Scheme Based on Improved Idempotent Trending Law For Robotic Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 张世华

    2012-01-01

    针对机械臂滑模控制中存在的抖振问题,采用趋近律的方法来进行改善,在对机械臂的控制特点和常用的滑模趋近律进行分析的基础上,针对幂次趋近律的缺点,提出了一种改进的幂次趋近律,并对其趋近性能进行了分析;根据机械臂动力学模型和改进的幂次趋近律设计了相应的滑模控制策略,对其控制策略的位置跟踪特性和抖振消除能力等进行了验证;仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅有效地抑制了机械臂滑模控制中的抖振问题,而且保证了机械臂系统对期望轨迹的快速跟踪性,具有更好的趋近特性和收敛特性.%The trending law is used to resolve the problem of chattering in sliding mode control for robotic manipulators. The control trait of robot manipulators and common trending law are analyzed, a new trending law is proposed and its trending performance is evaluated. The correlative sliding mode control scheme based on dynamic model of robotic manipulators and new trending law is designed. Then its position tracking and chattering control performances are validated. The simulation results show that the new scheme can not only control the chattering effectively but also achieve a fast and accurate position tracking, which is of better reaching and astringency performance.

  2. 机械臂变指数趋近律滑模控制律设计%Design of a Sliding Mode Control Scheme Based on Improved Exponent Trending Law for Robotic Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 李小民

    2012-01-01

    A sliding mode control scheme was designed based on an improved trending law to deal with the chattering problem in sliding mode control of robotic manipulators. The traits of sliding mode control method and exponential trending law were analyzed, then a kind of improved exponent trending law was proposed and its trending performance was evaluated. The sliding mode control scheme was designed based on dynamic model of robotic manipulators and the new trending law, and its contrftl effect was validated. The simulation results show that the scheme can control the chattering effectively, guarantee the rapid tracking to the desired trajectory, and enhance the operational performance of the robot manipulators.%针对机械臂滑模控制中存在抖振的问题,采用改进趋近律的思想来设计滑模控制律,以达到有效抑制抖振的目的.在对滑模控制的特点和常用的指数趋近律进行分析的基础上,提出了一种变指数趋近律,并对其趋近性能进行了分析;结合机械臂动力学模型和改进的趋近律设计了相应的滑模控制策略,对其控制效果进行了验证.仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅有效地抑制了系统的抖振,而且保证了机械臂系统对期望轨迹的快速跟踪性,进而提高了机械臂的工作性能.

  3. Control Law of Fly-Wing UAVs Based on Angular Acceleration%基于角加速度的飞翼无人机的控制律设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵塞峰; 李秀娟; 李春涛

    2016-01-01

    The fly-wing UAVs have large individual difference, a large number of control surfaces, short longitudinal control lever and static instable heading. To solve the problems, this paper presents a direct allocation method from angular acceleration to the control surface, and a control law taking angular acceleration as the control instruction. First of all, the angular acceleration is directly allocated to the control surfaces that have been graded in discrete state. Taking the angular acceleration as control instruction, a longitudinal Robustness Servomechanism Linear Quadratic Regulator ( RSLQR ) control law, and a lateral stabilization control law, are designed. The simulation results for the sample UAV under nonlinear condition show that:1 ) The angular acceleration allocated to the control surface satisfies the distributed precision requirement;and 2 ) The control law with the angular acceleration as control instruction has high tracking accuracy and satisfies the speed requirement.%针对飞翼布局无人机个体差异大、操纵面数量多、纵向操纵力臂短以及航向静不稳定等问题,提出角加速度到操纵面的直接分配策略,以及以角加速度为控制指令的控制律。首先在离散状态下将角加速度直接分配到操纵效率分级后的各操纵面上,最终以角加速度为控制指令设计纵向鲁棒伺服LQR控制律和横侧向增稳控制律。样例无人机非线性仿真结果表明,角加速度到操纵面的直接分配满足分配精度要求,以角加速度为控制指令的控制律满足飞翼无人机的快速、高精度要求。

  4. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  5. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  6. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  7. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  8. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  9. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  10. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  11. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  12. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  13. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  14. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  15. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    designations (Note: Soldiers may no longer use the “By Law” designation.) 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 6...Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory JA 271 Legal Assistance Office Administration

  16. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  17. The trouble with European data protection law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    • The trouble with European data protection law, as with Alfred Hitchcock's Harry, is that it is dead. The current legal reform will fail to revive it, since its three main objectives are based on fallacies. • The first fallacy is the delusion that data protection law can give individuals control ov

  18. Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Cultural Differential Evolution Algorithm%基于差分进化算法的飞行控制律评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱军; 王景; 李佳; 王长青

    2014-01-01

    针对传统文化算法进化后期收敛速度慢和差分进化算法在进化过程中缺乏对知识有效利用的问题,提出一种新的文化差分进化算法。该算法以文化算法为框架,将差分进化算法的变异、交叉和选择作为种群空间的进化操作,并通过信念空间的知识指导种群进化。根据飞行品质规范选取迎角响应限制准则,以飞机模型ADMIRE为研究对象,利用该算法对存在不确定条件下的飞行控制律进行非线性评估,克服传统网格评估方法在工程应用中的不足。仿真结果表明,与改进差分进化算法相比,文化差分进化算法在全飞行包线范围内找出最坏的不确定参数组合,具有更高的可靠性和效率。%Aiming at the slow converge rate in traditional cultural algorithm and lower use efficiency of knowledge about evolutionary information in differential evolution algorithm, a new cultural differential evolution algorithm is proposed. The cultural algorithm is utilized as the framework of the proposed algorithm, in which the evolution in population space consists of mutation, crossover and selection of the differential evolution. In addition, the population space evolution is guided by the belief space knowledge. According to the flying quality specifications, a nonlinear criterion is presented. The proposed algorithm is then applied to evaluate angle of attack limit exceedance criterion, which is current widely used in the aerospace industry. The full authority flight control law of the Aero-Data Model in Research Environment ( ADMIRE) is evaluated with uncertainties by the proposed algorithm, which overcomes the limitations of traditional grid-based ones. The simulation results validate that the reliability, computational complexity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm outperform those of the modified differential evolution algorithm, especially in searching for the worst uncertain parameter combinations

  19. Review of Control Laws and Detection Methods for Asbestos%石棉控制法规及其检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍俊; 王全林

    2011-01-01

    介绍了石棉的特性、危害,以及在建筑、纺织、设备制造业和国防工业等方面的应用情况.讨论了能够导致石棉肺、恶性间皮瘤、肺癌、支气管癌等恶性疾病的石棉纤维形态及进入人体的途径.对世界卫生组织、国际劳工组织、联合国环境规划署、联合国粮食及农业组织和世界贸易组织,以及美国、欧盟、日本、中国等40多个国家关于石棉控制法规的实施历程及现状进行了分析;同时对空气、饮用水、建筑材料和制品等实际样品中石棉的检测方法及标准化研究动态进行了评述.引用标准及学术文献91篇.%The characteristics of asbestos and its applications in the building, textile, equipment manufacturing and national defense industries are introduced in this paper. The shape and size of asbestos fiber which result in asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer and bronchial tube cancer, and the pathways into the human body are discussed. The control laws for asbestos around the world, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) , the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and more than 40 countries, are also discussed. Developments of detection methods of asbestos in the air, drinking water and building materials are reviewed using 91 publications as reference material. This information is valuable for environmental protection from asbestos.

  20. 基于遗传算法的高速飞行器滑模控制律设计%GA based design of sliding mode control law for hypersonic vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠峰; 王健; 孙文冲

    2009-01-01

    A sliding mode control law was presented according to the six DOF nonlinear model of pitching channel of hypersonic vehicle generic hypersonic vehicle( GHV). First, for making a good use of sliding mode control theory, the six DOF model was transformed into an affine system through input-output feedback linearization. Then, the structure of sliding mode control law was designed for the affine system. After the structure design of sliding mode control law, the control parameters of sliding mode control law were designed based on genetic algorithm. The design process of sliding mode control parameters takes into account stochastic robustness strategy, which is to make sure that the possibility of loss of flight control stability or robustness achieves least through control parameter optimization based on genetic algorithm, when dealing with parameter uncertainties in stochastic uniform distribution. Simulations show that the method is able to satisfy both the robustness of flight control system and the convergence of parameter optimization process on request.%以高超声速飞行器GHV(Generic Hypersonic Vehicle)的俯仰通道为控制对象,针对其6自由度非线性模型设计了滑模控制律.为了便于应用滑模控制理论,首先对该模型进行了输入输出反馈线性化,将原模型转换成为仿射型.设计好滑模控制律结构以后,基于遗传算法完成了滑模控制律参数设计.该过程利用了随机鲁棒思想,即在随机均匀分布的参数不确定性作用下,通过遗传算法优化滑模控制律参数,使得飞行控制系统失去稳定性和鲁棒性的概率达到最小.仿真表明,该方法可以同时满足飞行控制系统鲁棒性和参数优化过程收敛性的要求.

  1. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in ... be included in diplomatic contracts of employment after ratification of a treaty, ... law; interplay; inviolability; labour law; principle of extraterritoriality; receiving ...

  2. Macro Impact of Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution on Power Industry Development%大气污染防治法对电力工业发展的宏观影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志轩

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the newly revised main contents of Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution Atmospheric Law are expounded the macro impacts of the Atmospheric Law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in terms of power demand power structure and distribution readjustment clean production of power and pollution control leve1 scientific management of power enterprises in accordance with law changes of power unstruction cost and operation cost etc. aspects and the matters needing attention and the needed taken measures in the conscientions implementation of the Atmospheric Law by the power enterprises are put forward.%分析大气污染防治法新修订的主要内容;重点从电力需求、电力结构和布局调整、电力清洁生产和污染控制水平、电力企业依法科学管理、电力建设及运行成本变化等几方面宏观分析大气法对电力工业发展的影响,提出电力企业在认真贯彻大气法中应注意的事项和需要采取的措施。

  3. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  4. 环境行政管理中执法风险内控机制之建构%The construction of internal control mechanism in environmental administrative law enforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凯

    2015-01-01

    随着我国环境行政管理部门权限的不断扩大与社会对于环境问题给与高度的关注,环境行政管理之中的执法风险问题在当下集中凸显出来。环境行政管理之中的执法风险主要表现为对于环境失职渎职行为的行政处分与刑事处分。环境行政管理机关有必要从强化理想信念,在执法观念上积极应对风险、重视制度建设,在机制体制之中有效防控风险、制定完整齐备、合法适当的行政裁量基准体系、建设以行政实效为基本导向的标准化执法方法、形成有效的执法经验与习惯的传承与改良机制、建立环境行政管理机关法律顾问制度七个方面构建环境行政管理之中的执法风险内控机制。%s:With the enlargement of environmental administration authority’s power and the higher attention rose from the public to environmental problems, environmental administrative law enforcing risk appeared as a hot issue in the present. The main risk of environmental administrative law enforcing appeared as environment malfeasance behavior of administrative punishment and criminal punishment., it is necessary for environmental administrative department to strengthen the ideal faith in the law enforcement from the level of both concept and faith, thus leading to an actively coping with risks, attaching greater patience and attention to the system construction, building the mechanism system of effective risk prevention and control, making a full and complete legal system of administrative discretion standards, construction administrative effectiveness as the basic guidance of standardized law enforcement method, building and nurturing an effective law enforcement experience and habits of the inheritance and improvement mechanism, establishing the system of environmental administrative department legal advisor. Only from these seven aspects can we build environment risk internal controlling mechanism of

  5. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  6. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  7. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  8. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  9. Statistical laws in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

  10. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  11. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  12. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  13. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  14. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  15. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  16. Environmental law: Course

    OpenAIRE

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  17. Learning the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Hardly any of the law's subjects know the text of the provisions that govern their conduct. Even less would they be able to handle this text properly, were they to get access to it. Nonetheless the law firmly believes that it is not feckless. This paper solves the puzzle by drawing on four bodies of knowledge: neurobiology, developmental psychology, the psychology of learning, and work form social scientists on learning.The paper makes the following claim: typically the law reaches its addres...

  18. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  19. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  20. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...

  1. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... of comparative criminal law....

  2. Thinking law: thinking law in motion

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Beth Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1) multiple methodologies; (2) multiple perspectives; (3) multiple vocalities; and (4) multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can cla...

  3. Data protection and conflict-of-laws: a challenging relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brkan, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to address issues of applicable law in data protection litigation, dealing notably with the questions of possibility of agreements on applicable law, the questions of applicable law if the controller is situated within the EU and the questions of extraterritorial application

  4. 40 CFR 144.4 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 144... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.4 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these...

  5. Random networks and mixing laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, T.R.

    1976-12-01

    Random networks are investigated as models of heterogeneous media. A general approximate structure is used where the networks are described as a system of embedded networks, and the critical behavior and averaging behavior of such networks are developed. These results are applied to a study of the electrical conductivity of porous media, with special attention to an Archie's law behavior. It appears that the wide range of crack and pore widths in rocks makes the resulting conductivity relatively insensitive to the topology of their interconnections and allows one to make reasonable predictions of rock conductivities, given the distribution of crack and pore widths. It also appears that with low porosity rocks the conductivity is controlled by the microcrack population which only accounts for a fraction of the total porosity. It would seem, therefore, that Archie's law is a feature of some general trend between porosity and crack and pore width distributions rather than a fundamental property of porous media. The law of the geometric mean is an accurate predictor of the physical properties of a mixture of different materials. This mixing law can result from an equal balance of series and parallel arrangements which can be produced by an appropriate distribution of shapes. A brief look is given to problems of anisotropic distributions for the conductivity problem, and it is shown how the averaging process greatly dilutes the microscopic anisotropy in producing the macroscopic properties.

  6. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  7. 法国航空航天产品出口管制法律制度研究及其借鉴%Research and Reference of French Law and Policy on Export Control for Aerospace Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨楚拉

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace product belongs to the Hi -tech product,and because most of them could have civilian and military use,the aerospace superpowers usually exercise export control on dual -use items.As the important member state of Euro﹣pean Union,French law and policy on export control is also bounded by the EU regulations.It is of great important to make a research on French and EU law and policy on export control for aerospace product in the perfection of Chinese legal sys﹣tem.%航空航天产品属于高技术产品,同时由于其中大多数都属于军民两用的产品,使得航空航天大国通常对两用物项及技术出口实施管制。法国作为欧盟重要成员国,其除本国出口管制法律制度外,还受欧盟法律规定制约。对法国及欧盟航空航天产品出口管制法律制度进行研究对于我国今后完善相关法律制度具有重要的借鉴意义。

  8. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation (a

  9. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  10. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  11. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) is seeking original submissions in English ... including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union ... In general, three consecutive words or more copied from a source should be treated .... If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in ...

  12. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  13. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  14. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  15. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  16. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  17. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  18. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  19. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  20. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  1. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  2. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  3. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  4. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  5. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  6. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  7. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  8. N.7 notice presented for the Finances Commission, of the budget control and the economical accounts of the Nation on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.7 avis presente au nom de la commission des Finances, du controle budgetaire et des comptes economiques de la Nation sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Ph

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the privatization of Gaz de France and the new control of the State on this society. It underlines the necessity of a financial independence of the Commission of the Energy regulation (CRE). (A.L.B.)

  9. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  10. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  11. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  12. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  13. Cortical Correlates of Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIfft

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitts' law describes the fundamental trade-off between movement accuracy and speed: It states that the duration of reaching movements is a function of target size and distance. While Fitts' law has been extensively studied in ergonomics and has guided the design of human-computer interfaces, there have been few studies on its neuronal correlates. To elucidate sensorimotor cortical activity underlying Fitts’ law, we implanted two monkeys with multielectrode arrays in the primary motor (M1 and primary somatosensory (S1 cortices. The monkeys performed reaches with a joystick-controlled cursor towards targets of different size. The reaction time, movement time and movement velocity changed with target size, and M1 and S1 activity reflected these changes. Moreover, modifications of cortical activity could not be explained by changes of movement parameters alone, but required target size as an additional parameter. Neuronal representation of target size was especially prominent during the early reaction time period where it influenced the slope of the firing rate rise preceding movement initiation. During the movement period, cortical activity was mostly correlated with movement velocity. Neural decoders were applied to simultaneously decode target size and motor parameters from cortical modulations. We suggest using such classifiers to improve neuroprosthetic control.

  14. The inherent contradictions in data protection law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2012-01-01

    • The purpose of data protection law is to make it possible for controllers to process personal data, and the protection of data subjects is necessary on order to achieve this purpose. • The leading player in data protection law is the controller at the same time as they limit his freedom • However...... data protection law also ought to empower the data subject. It is discussed whether the position of consent should be strengthened and consent be either the exclusive or primary ground for processing. Consent entails risks for the data subject and such a change of the law is not in general advisable....... • Transparency is seen as important and through an information policy, real transparency may be achieved. • Another issue concerns whether it is expedient that the same data protection rules apply to the private and to the public sector. Having separate rules should be considered, as this would give the rules...

  15. Anomalous law of cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  17. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  18. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  19. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  1. F-generation law and recognition of system law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

    2007-01-01

    If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

  2. Predictive Scaling Laws for Spherical Rotating Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, Ludivine

    2013-01-01

    State of the art numerical models of the Geodynamo are still performed in a parameter regime extremely remote from the values relevant to the physics of the Earth's core. In order to establish a connection between dynamo modeling and the geophysical motivation, scaling laws have been proposed. Such scaling laws establish the dependence of essential quantities (such as the magnetic field strength) on measured or controlled quantities. They allow for a direct confrontation of advanced models with geophysical observations.(...)

  3. Reflections on the Real Estate Macro-control From the View of Econmic Law%经济法视野下房地产市场宏观调控的相关思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 陈希

    2016-01-01

    Real estate is an important part of the whole national economy , the real estate industry is the development of China's housing security pol-icy .The stable and healthy development of the real estate market is of great significance to the stable and healthy development of our country's social economy.The real estate market needs the macro adjustment and control, from the perspective of economic law, it is not only in line with the spirit of the times of the rule of law, but also in line with the overall interests of society.The goals and principles of legitimacy and the real estate market macro-control of economic law from the perspective of the real estate market macro -control guidance were analyzed.Analysis three policies of China, explore how to improve China’ s real estate market macroeconomic regulation and control policy from the perspective of financial , taxation, land three macro control policies.%房地产业是整个国民经济的重要组成部分,也是我国公民住房保障政策的发展领域。房地产市场的平稳健康发展对我国社会经济具有重大意义。房地产市场需要宏观调控,从经济法学的视角研究宏观调控问题不仅符合法治社会的时代精神,也更符合社会整体利益。通过对经济法视野下房地产市场宏观调控的正当性及房地产市场宏观调控的指导目标和原则进行分析,进而解析我国房地产市场的三大政策,探索从金融、税收、土地等方面完善我国房地产市场宏观调控政策。

  4. Three laws of robotics and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In 1939, Isaac Asimov solidified the modern science fiction genre of robotics in his short story "Strange Playfellow" but altered our thinking about robots in Runaround in 1942 by formulating the Three Laws. He took an engineer's perspective on advanced robotic technologies. Surgical robots by definition violate the first law, yet his discussions are poignant for our understanding of future potential of robotic urologic surgery. We sought to better understand Asimov's visions by reading his fiction and autobiography. We then sought to place his perceptions of science fact next to the Three Laws (he later added a fourth law, the zeroth). Asimov's Three Laws are often quoted in medical journals during discussions about robotic surgery. His First Law states: "A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. " This philosophy would directly conflict with the application in surgery. In fact, most of his robotic stories deal with robots that come into conflicts with the laws. Robots in his cleverly orchestrated works evolve unique solutions to complex hierarchical conflicts with these laws. Asimov anticipated the coming maelstrom of intelligent robotic technologies with prescient unease. Despite his scholarly intuitions, he was able to fathom medical/surgical applications in many of his works. These fictional robotic physicians were able to overcome the first law and aid in the care and management of the sick/injured. Isaac Asimov published over 500 books on topics ranging from Shakespeare to science. Despite his widespread influence, he refused to visit the MIT robotics laboratory to see current, state-of-the-art systems. He managed to lay the foundation of modern robotic control systems with a human-oriented safety mechanism in his laws. "If knowledge can create problems, it is not through ignorance that we can solve them " (I Asimov).

  5. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  6. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  7. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  8. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  9. Causal Newton Gravity Law

    CERN Document Server

    Zinoviev, Yury M

    2012-01-01

    The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

  10. law - the Zambian experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    secondly to consider the quest for enacting a freedom of information law in ... Zambia; and thirdly, to highlight the principles of the Freedom of Information. Bill that was ..... contract negotiations, or place them at a competitive disadvantage.

  11. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... by containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

  12. Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  13. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device .... contesting public purpose or for cultural reasons, general anti-expropriation .... expropriation law in the sense of permanent physical takeover of farmland by.

  14. Bullying Policies and Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  15. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  16. Health Law: Notifiable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work made up the ultimate Health Law, latest new law branch from older date in the whole world but recently appearance in our country. As usual in other cases, we increase one of de most relevant events: the endless number of diseases that we advise obligatory, because they have been regulated for consecutive by-laws en the codex from 1946, 1958 and 2004. Since 2012 in order of the successful transformations in the modern technology with the change of rules in our order-law, it was necessary to recall their contents and we achieve in order of the promulgation the decree number 41/12 dated in February 16. In the second chapter we analyse one of the most bothersome contents: the diseases becoming from the food habitudes (named eia´s, whatever we considered a real significance for the common of the citizens and consumers, because they prevail notoriously in the human health.

  17. Fault in Contract Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric A. Posner

    2009-01-01

    A promisor is strictly liable for breaching a contract, according to the standard account However, a negligence-based system of contract law can be given an economic interpretation, and this Article...

  18. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of the. Western Cape ... In this article, the current socio-economic position of persons with disabilities in. South Africa will be ..... (b) To ensure access by persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls.

  19. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... by containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

  20. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  2. [The law of Talion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daich, D

    1994-06-01

    This law is here analized since its origin (Bible and Code of Hammurabi), and signification, pointing out the importance given to the tooth in ist statements. It'is also made a comparison between the Old Times and different situations in History. It's remarkable that Argentine law fixes the indemnity porcentage for invalidity, considering the relative value of different parts of the body. The big importance given to the tooth is here depicted, something usually disregarded.

  3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  4. NDO based anti-disturbance control law design for aircraft trajectory tracking%基于 NDO 的飞机轨迹跟踪抗干扰控制律设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏磊; 姚宏; 杜军

    2014-01-01

    A robust sliding mode control law of trajectory tracking is described and demonstrated for the coupled and under-actuated aircraft longitudinal dynamic model.Firstly,by introducing a virtual state variable, the state counterchange is applied to realize the control decoupling.Secondly,a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO)is proposed for the compensation of system uncertainty which consists of modeling error and atmosphere disturbance.Thirdly,the curves of angle of attack (AOA)and the virtual state variable during extremely short takeoff and landing (ESTOL)are set up,which are treated as the tracking trajectories of the designed sliding mode control law.Finally,the simulation results are given,which demonstrates that the proposed NDO can re-alize accurate estimation and compensation of system uncertainty,as well as that the designed control law can be effectively applied to longitudinal trajectory tracking of AOA against system modeling error and atmosphere dis-turbance.%针对飞机纵向欠驱动耦合动力学模型设计鲁棒轨迹跟踪滑模控制律。首先,通过引入虚拟状态变量进行状态变换实现模型控制解耦。其次,考虑由系统建模误差和大气干扰组成的复合不确定性,设计非线性干扰观测器(nonlinear disturbance observer,NDO)进行观测补偿。然后,建立飞机极短距起降中攻角变化轨迹曲线,设计滑模控制律实现对虚拟状态变量和攻角轨迹指令的稳定跟踪。仿真结果表明,NDO 可以实现对系统不确定性的精确观测和补偿,滑模控制律具有对系统建模误差和大气风切变的鲁棒性和抗干扰性。

  5. 预算法修改后地方政府债务风险控制机制研究%Research on Local Government Debt Risk Control Mechanism after Budget Law Revised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温来成; 王遥; 王鼎

    2015-01-01

    我国预算法修改后,允许省级政府发行地方债券,因此地方政府的债务管理走上规范化、制度化和法制化轨道。同时,地方政府债务风险管理也面临新的挑战。本文论述了预算法修改涉及地方政府债务管理的内容,分析了预算法修改后地方政府债务风险控制面临的挑战,在此基础之上,提出建立全口径债务预算管理与分级控制机制、逐步建立地方政府财政破产制度、以中期预算管理为核心严格控制隐性债务增长,以及完善党政官员任期与责任追究制度等政策建议,以进一步加强我国地方政府债务风险控制,促进我国地方经济社会稳定可持续发展。%After budget law revised in our country , the provincial government is allowed to issue local bonds which made local government debt management embark on a track of standardization , institutionali-zation and legalization .Meanwhile , local government debt risk management also faces new challenges . This paper discusses the contents of the budget law revision which related to local government debt man -agement and analysis the challenges faced by local government debt risk control after the budget law re -vised .On this basis , we proposed a full -caliber debt budget management and hierarchical control mech-anism and gradually established a local government financial bankruptcy system .With medium -term budget management as our core , we suggest strictly control the growth of implicit debt and use policy sug-gestions to improve Party officials term pursuit and assigning responsibility system .In this way, can wefurther strengthen local government debt risk control and promote the sustainable development of local e -conomic and social stability in China .

  6. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  7. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  8. On the Law in The Law of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷

    2016-01-01

    This article discussed the two main laws in the novel, The Law of Life, written by the famous American realistic writer Jack London. The laws discussed in this article are Social Darwinism and Fatalism. By discussing those two laws, the article tries to look into the philosophy of life that Jack London trying to reveal in the novel.

  9. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

  10. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does compar

  11. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  12. 小型飞翼布局无人机控制律设计与试飞验证%Flight Control Law Design and Flight Test for Small Flying Wing Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雯; 张宁; 马蓉; 陈小龙; 张奕煊

    2015-01-01

    For a due to the cancellation of the vertical tail and horizontal tail result in decreased stability, especially unstable heading for flying-wing. We design the flight control law for the full process base on the scaled flying-wing aircraft. Taking certain type shrinkage ratio aircraft of flying-wing as the control object, analysis aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft longitudinal and lateral directional, and using eigenstructure assignment method, respectively, the longitudinal and lateral directional add stability design. The simulation results and actual test data show that, the control law can track a desired trajectory effectively, inhibit the gust disturbance, and has great practical significance.%针对无尾飞翼布局的无人机由于取消了水平尾翼和垂直尾翼,导致纵向、横航向的稳定下降,特别是横航向变为静不安定的问题,设计一种小型飞翼布局无人机全流程飞行控制律。以某型飞翼布局飞机的缩比飞机为控制对象,分析该飞机纵向与横航向的气动特性,采用特征结构配置方式,分别对纵向与横航向进行增稳设计。仿真与实际试飞结果表明:该控制律能够很好地跟踪期望的轨迹,并能有效地抑制侧风扰动,具有良好的工程应用价值。

  13. Multi-UAVs cooperative target tracking control law design based on computer vision%基于视觉的多无人机协同目标跟踪控制律设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大东; 孙秀霞; 李湘清

    2012-01-01

    针对基于视觉的多无人机协同目标跟踪控制律设计问题,对无人机协同控制策略进行了研究.分别提出了两架及多架无人机协同速度控制律,使无人机能够动态调整速度,以较低速度跟踪目标.针对多架无人机提出了一种最小化各无人机到目标夹角误差平方和的夹角误差定义方法,提高了无人机协同效率.仿真实验验证了本文提出的夹角误差定义方法和协同控制律的有效性.%In view of multi-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) cooperative target tracking problem, multi-UAVs cooperative control strategy is studied. Both two UAV sets and multi-UAVs cooperative target tracking control laws are designed respectively, which could adjust the UAV's velocity dynamically so as to track targets at a lower velocity. An optimal solution of the included angle error which minimizes the square sum of the included angle error between each UAV to the target is proposed. The efficiency of achieving cooperation is improved by this solution. The effectiveness of the solution of included angle error and cooperative control law is verified by simulations.

  14. OIL DISTRIBUTION LAWS AND THEIR CONTROLLING FACTORS OF DAMOGUAIHE FORMATION IN URXUN SAG%乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组油分布规律及控制因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪宇

    2012-01-01

    虽然在海拉尔盆地乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组的油气勘探获得了工业油流,但对其油气分布规律及成藏的主控因素尚存在争议.通过对海拉尔盆地乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组地层的构造演化特征研究和系统的油藏解剖,对其油气分布规律及成藏主控因素进行了探讨.分析反转构造、断裂系统以及砂体展布等主控因素认为,油主要分布在反转构造带上,纵向上乌尔逊凹陷北部油主要分布在大磨拐河组一段下部,乌南油主要分布在大磨拐河组二段中部.%In recent years, the hydrocarbon exploration of Damoguaihe Formation in Urxun Sag of Hailar Basin has obtained commercial oil flow, but the hydrocarbon distribution laws and main controlling factors of the reservoir formation have been the foci of the attention and discussion. Through the researches of the tectonic evolution and sys-tematc anatomy of the oil reservoir, the hydrocarbon distribution laws and their main controlling factors are discussed. The analyses of the following main controlling factors such as reverse structure, fault system, sand-body spread and so on show that the oil is generally distributed on the top of the structural belt; the oil in North Urxun Sag is principally accumulated vertically in Lower Member-1 of Damoguaihe Formation; the oil in the south of the sag is mainly enriched in Middle Member-2 of the formation.

  15. Miniature Transportable Communications Central (MTCC): answering law enforcement needs for worldwide access to command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, W. John

    1997-02-01

    The Mini-Transportable Communications Central (MTCC), developed by Rome Laboratories C3 Directorate, provides the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with a transportable, fast reaction communications terminal. The MTCC is capable of operating as a self-contained miniature command center supporting efforts such as the President's War on Drugs, or the rescue services necessary in the wake of man-made or natural disasters. The MTCC is capable of communicating with field elements including ships, small water-craft, aircraft, other elements of the USCG law enforcement agencies (LEAs), the FAA, and a wide range of U.S. and foreign armed forces. The MTCC terminal is contained in a trailer-mounted shelter suitable for towing by a 3/4 ton truck or for transport by C-130 aircraft. The MTCC provides simultaneous one-way and two-way communications in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequency bands, as well as the INMARSAT international satellite band. The MTCC also offers communications through subscriber and trunk telephone connectivity via ISDN compatible PABX. The MTCC's three channel operations personnel cellular telephone system provides self-contained cellular telephone operations in the vicinity of the deployed shelter. In the USCG application, an operator console inside the air-conditioned shelter serves as the source and destination for voice, data, and fax traffic, by means of secure fax telephone, operator headsets, and a powerful computer workstation that provides word processing, e-mail, and data communications capabilities. The communications operator may reconfigure the system for a specific mission by means of patchfields that enable the selection of radios, encrypted or clear-text operations, audio termination, and antennas.

  16. 舰载机弹射起飞上升段控制律研究%Control Law for Climbing Stage of Carrier-Based Aircraft in Catapult-Assisted Take-Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熠; 江驹; 甄子洋; 王新华; 焦鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对舰载机的安全弹射起飞要求,研究了弹射起飞上升段控制律设计问题.分析了常用弹射装置原理以及弹射起飞的工作流程.构建了弹射起飞过程中的上升段相关数学模型,包括某型舰载机的纵向模型、前起落架突伸结构和阵风模型.设计了舰载机起飞离舰后上升段的飞行姿态控制律,在仿真中将加速滑跑阶段的各种因素转化成初始条件,同时分析了阵风干扰对上升段飞机飞行特性的影响.仿真结果表明:设计的姿态控制律可以改善舰载机在离舰上升段的姿态,抵抗气流干扰等因素的影响,提高弹射起飞的安全性.%According to the safety requirements of catapult-assisted take-off,the control law design for the aircraft in the climbing stage was studied. The principle of a common catapult device was studied and the process of catapult-assisted take-off was introduced. The mathematic models in the climbing stage were established, including the model of longitudinal small perturbation equations of the aircraft, the sudden stretch structure of the nose gear and the gust disturbance. The attitude control law of the climbing stage was designed. In simulation, the initial value was based on the influence of different factors in speeding stage. The influence of the gust disturbance on flight performance of the aircraft in its climbing stage was also analyzed. The results of simulation showed that the designed control law can improve the aircraft attitude in the climbing stage, decrease the adverse effect of gust disturbance, and thus can enhance the security of the catapult-assisted take-off.

  17. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  18. National courts and the international rule of law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper

    2011-01-01

    This book explores how domestic courts contribute to the maintenance of the rule of international law by providing judicial control over the exercises of public powers that may conflict with international law. The main focus of the book is on judicial control of exercise of public powers by states.

  19. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  20. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

  1. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

  2. On Administrative Law Enforcement Discretion and Its Legal Control%论行政执法自由裁量权及其法律控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何富

    2014-01-01

    In administration the executor enjoys the discretionary power in the aspects of fact finding,pro-cedure selection and legal application,but sometimes such power may be abused and result in the violation on the executed or the society.Therefore,to avoid the abuse of the discretionary power,it is necessary to build a sound legal control system from the aspects of legislative control,judicial control,administrative control and power control.%在行政执法过程中,执法者在事实认定、程序选择、法律适用等方面具有裁量权,这种裁量权虽然可以发挥积极的作用,但很容易被滥用,导致对相对人权益的侵害或造成对社会利益的损害。要防止行政执法自由裁量权的滥用,必须构建一套完善的法律控制体系,这个体系应该包括立法控制、司法控制、行政控制和权利控制四个层面。

  3. 煤炭地下气化空间扩展规律及控制方法研究综述%REVIEW ON CAVITY GROWTH LAWS AND CONTROL IN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王在泉; 华安增

    2001-01-01

    The influences of cavity growth in underground coal gasification on gasification process are analyzed on the basis of introduction of underground coal gasification. The development of space expanding laws and control methods in underground coal gasification are reviewed. The problems and ideas to be studied deeply are put forward combining with the gasification characteristics of China.%在介绍煤炭地下气化特点的基础上,对地下气化空间扩展及气化过程影响进行了分析,综述了国内外在煤炭地下气化空间扩展规律及控制方法的研究进展,结合中国的气化工艺特点,提出了需进一步研究的课题。

  4. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... 9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5...

  5. Fractal probability laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    We explore six classes of fractal probability laws defined on the positive half-line: Weibull, Frechét, Lévy, hyper Pareto, hyper beta, and hyper shot noise. Each of these classes admits a unique statistical power-law structure, and is uniquely associated with a certain operation of renormalization. All six classes turn out to be one-dimensional projections of underlying Poisson processes which, in turn, are the unique fixed points of Poissonian renormalizations. The first three classes correspond to linear Poissonian renormalizations and are intimately related to extreme value theory (Weibull, Frechét) and to the central limit theorem (Lévy). The other three classes correspond to nonlinear Poissonian renormalizations. Pareto's law--commonly perceived as the "universal fractal probability distribution"--is merely a special case of the hyper Pareto class.

  6. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law...... of Morals, of the obligation of citizens of a state to subject themselves unconditionally to the sovereign in power, must be seen in connection with his earlier moral writings in order to maintain a proper Kantian conception of the relation between legality and morality. To this end, Kant's use....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  7. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    . Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter...... 9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5...

  8. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  9. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  10. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  11. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  12. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  13. Law in the Books” and “Law in the Actions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidzina Savaneli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normative order’s notion does not pretend to develop some kind of a rigorous science of perfectunderstanding of human and social processes, nor does it claim to provide the final truth of normativeprocesses at all levels. What I want to argue by way of the above brief account of gap in the laws and theirimplementation is that the capability of law to control behavior is highly circumscribed. Law as an instrumentof social reform has a limited utility if at all.

  14. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  15. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  16. Law and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  17. Presenting Distributive Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.; Heckel, R.; Milius, S.

    2013-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancements

  18. Presenting Distributive Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specication of well-behaved structural operational se- mantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen

  19. Presenting distributive laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.

    2015-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen

  20. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  1. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  2. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  3. Financial Disclosure Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Carol

    1983-01-01

    A study of school board presidents and superintendents in Washington, Missouri, and New Jersey reveals that strict financial disclosure laws tend to reduce the number of professionals on boards; however, board members with professional occupations differ from other board members on a number of measures. (MLF)

  4. Law... For what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Merino Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the work “El Derecho... ¿para qué?” of Jaime Baquero de la Calle. The overview analyzes the sources, the type of documents and examples that are used in it. Includes an explanation of the structure of the document, emphasizing the utility that provides this publication for students of law.

  5. Law and individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law conceptions is an acknowledgement of the all-pervading influence of modern nominalism. This orientation was characterised by employing two related distinctions, namely the distinction between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge, and that between rationalism and irrationalism. From a systematic point of view, various aspectual terms provide a frame of reference for the idea of a law of nature as a compound basic concept of science. Special attention is given to the nature of normative principles and physical laws. In the last part of the article, these perspectives are applied to a brief assessment of differences and similarities in the thought of Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.

  6. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  7. The Gas Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  8. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  9. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  10. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  11. Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China establishes a comprehensive socialist legal system The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC),China’s top legislature,adopted an amendment to the Criminal Law at a bimonthly session in February,reducing the number of capital punishment by 13 to 55.

  12. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    13 John D International law, a South African perspective 3 ed (Cape Town: Juta .... 32 McGregor A “After Garissa: Kenya revises its security strategy to counter .... consider other relevant issues like limited resources, porous boundaries and the mass ..... refugee rights.128 The Court based its reasoning on five grounds:.

  13. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  14. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  15. Bribery offences under Vietnamese criminal law in comparision with Swedish and Australian criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Dao Le, Thu

    2011-01-01

    There have been attempts, all over the world, to address bribery with recourse to criminal law. As many other countries, Vietnam has been doing activities that show the determination of combating and controlling corruption, including strengthening penal provisions in terms of bribery. However, the situation of bribery in Vietnam is still alarming. For Vietnamese law enforcement authorities, criminal provisions concerning bribery are neither adequate nor clear. Analysis starts with bot...

  16. Research on control law accelerator of digital signal process chip TMS320F28035 for real-time data acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangle; Zhang, Xueyi; Sun, Shengli; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    TI C2000 series digital signal process (DSP) chip has been widely used in electrical engineering, measurement and control, communications and other professional fields, DSP TMS320F28035 is one of the most representative of a kind. When using the DSP program, need data acquisition and data processing, and if the use of common mode C or assembly language programming, the program sequence, analogue-to-digital (AD) converter cannot be real-time acquisition, often missing a lot of data. The control low accelerator (CLA) processor can run in parallel with the main central processing unit (CPU), and the frequency is consistent with the main CPU, and has the function of floating point operations. Therefore, the CLA coprocessor is used in the program, and the CLA kernel is responsible for data processing. The main CPU is responsible for the AD conversion. The advantage of this method is to reduce the time of data processing and realize the real-time performance of data acquisition.

  17. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  18. Vibration Suppression of Flexible Beam Based on Discrete Sliding Mode Control with Reaching Law%基于趋近律离散滑模控制的柔性梁振动抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占金青; 胡俊峰; 张宪民

    2012-01-01

    Application study of discrete sliding mode control based on reaching law on vibration control of smart flexible cantilever beam is performed. The actuator is piezoceramic patch, the sensor is strain gauge. The finite element method and modal truncation technique are used to obtain the dynamic model of the structure. Because flexible structure system is influenced by uncertain external disturbances and measurement noise, and its parameters are uncertain, sliding mode variable structure control can assure that sliding mode of the system is independent on exogenous disturbances and parameter perturbation, that is, it has invariancc of the sliding mode. The purpose of vibration control is that the controller enables the system to be zero state as the system states are away from the equilibrium one due to external disturbances. The discrete sliding mode control approach with reaching law is used to design the state regulator. The discrete Kalman filtering technique is employed to construct state estimator because the state variables cannot be directly measured. The first four natural frequencies and damping ratio are obtained by using experimental modal testing. Comparing with the results obtained by the finite element method, it shows that the model is correct. Using dSPACE real-time simulation system and MATLAB/Simulink, the control system is built and the active vibration control study is carried out. Experimental results show that the designed estimator is effective and the proposed controller can suppress the vibration response of the structure.%研究了基于趋近律的离散滑模控制在智能柔性悬臂梁振动控制中的应用.以压电陶瓷为作动器,电阻应变片为传感器,采用有限元方法和模态截断技术建立结构动力学模型.由于柔性结构系统受到不确定外部扰动和量测噪声的影响以及参数的不确定性,滑模变结构控制可以实现滑动模态与系统的外干扰和参数摄动无关,即滑动模态

  19. Different (key)strokes for different folks: How standard and nonstandard typists balance Fitts' law and Hick's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gordon D; Ulrich, Jana E; Lindsey, Dakota R B

    2016-12-01

    Fine motor skills like typing involve a mapping problem that trades Fitts' law against Hick's law. Eight fingers have to be mapped onto 26 keys. Movement time increases with distance, so Fitts' law is optimized by recruiting more fingers. Choice difficulty increases with the number of alternatives, so Hick's law is optimized by recruiting fewer fingers. The effect of the number of alternatives decreases with consistent practice, so skilled typists achieve a balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law through learning. We tested this hypothesis by comparing standard typists who use the standard QWERTY mapping consistently with nonstandard typists who use fewer fingers less consistently. Typing speed and accuracy were lower for nonstandard typists, especially when visual guidance was reduced by removing the letters from the keys or covering the keyboard. Regression analyses showed that accommodation to Fitts' law (number of fingers) and Hick's law (consistency) predicted typing speed and accuracy. We measured the automaticity of typing in both groups, testing for hierarchical control in 3 tasks: word priming, which measures parallel activation of keystrokes, keyboard recall, which measures explicit knowledge of letter locations, and hand cuing, which measures explicit knowledge of which hand types which letter. Standard and nonstandard typists showed similar degrees of hierarchical control in all 3 tasks, suggesting that nonstandard typists type as automatically as standard typists, but their suboptimal balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law limits their ability to type quickly and accurately. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Discrete power law with exponential cutoff and Lotka's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Smolinsky, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The first bibliometric law appeared in Alfred J. Lotka's 1926 examination of author productivity in chemistry and physics. The result is that the productivity distribution is thought to be described by a power law. In this paper, Lotka's original data on author productivity in chemistry is reconsidered by comparing the fit of the data to both a discrete power law and a discrete power law with exponential cutoff.

  1. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  2. European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2

  3. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  4. Teaching "Law and Education" Outside the Law School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.

    A symposium discussion is presented on the topic, "Teaching 'Law and Education' Outside the Law School." The participants were: Walter J. McCann of Harvard Graduate School of Education; E. Edmund Reutter, Jr., of Teachers College of Columbia University; Robert J. Simpson of University of Miami Center for Policy and Law in Education; Tyll Van Geel…

  5. NOTES ON ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: THE AMERICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    The principle of separation of powers is adversely affected if law making, executive .... of price and profit regulation, the need to control excessive profit, the need to .... agency official, the delivery of a clear and final decision, the provision of an.

  6. Reflections on Thukwane v Law Society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mtshabe v Law Society of the Cape of Good Hope 2014 5 SA 376 (ECM) .... controlling the exercise of power and upholding the Bill of Rights.25 The principles ..... register the applicant's contract of articles on the ground that as a parolee he ...

  7. 城市交通拥堵传播规律与消散控制策略研究%Congestion propagation law and dissipation control strategies for urban traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高自友; 龙建成; 李新刚

    2011-01-01

    The key issue to solve urban traffic congestion is that deeply understanding the mechanism for traffic congestion formation and evolution, then make scientific manage and control strategy. In this paper, some basic concepts for urban traffic congestion, and the progress on studies for urban traffic congestion propagation and dissipation control strategies are firstly given, then the works by our group in urban traffic congestion propagation and dissipation control strategies are mainly introduced. It includes establishing the congestion propagation model by combine the micro and macro methods, analyzing the formation and evolution law of urban traffic congestion induced by accident, identifying the congestion bottleneck with high traffic demand, proposing dynamic congestion dissipation control strategies.%解决城市交通拥堵的关键是深入理解城市交通拥堵的形成机理与演变规律,从而制定科学的管理控制策略.本文首先介绍了城市交通拥堵基本概念,以及城市交通拥堵传播规律与消散策略的最新研究进展,在此基础上重点介绍了本课题组在城市交通拥堵传播规律与消散控制策略方面的研究成果.包括采用微观与宏观相结合的方法建立拥堵传播模型,分析突发事件所导致交通拥堵传播规律,交通需求增长所导致拥堵瓶颈识别,提出动态拥堵消散控制策略.

  8. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  9. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  10. Labor Law Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Benjamin Ian

    2007-01-01

    This essay challenges the conventional wisdom that American labor law has reached a dead end. I argue that the dysfunctionality of the National Labor Relations Act has led not to "ossification" - as many believe - but to a hydraulic effect: unable to find an outlet through the NLRA, the continuing demand for collective action has forced open alternative legal channels. The essay outlines three examples to illustrate these emerging trends. The first involves the ability of several thousand ...

  11. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  12. Kidnapping Law Mapped Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1994-01-01

    THE Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Regarding the Severe Punishment of Criminals Who Abduct and Traffic in or Kidnap Women or Children (abbreviated to "Decision" in the following of the article), was adopted at the 21st Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress on September 4, 1991. As an important lawful document on the protection of the personal safety of women and children, its publica-

  13. Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  14. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  15. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  16. Research on the Thickness Change Laws in Numerical Control Incremental Sheet Forming%板料数控渐进成形变形区厚度变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周六如

    2011-01-01

    板料数控渐进成形工艺是一种柔性的成形工艺,这种工艺非常适合于加工小批量、多品种和复杂的板料产品.通过数控机床进行圆锥台及直壁筒形件数控渐进成形,对成形零件变形区厚度进行测量,并对所得数据进行分析.试验结果表明,数控渐进成形中材料厚度变化遵循正弦定律.相同厚度的板料,材料不同,成形极限厚度不同.成形极限厚度不仅与材料有关,而且与板料初始厚度有关,即板料初始厚度越大,允许的变形区厚度减薄越大.对于必须采用多道次成形方法的直壁筒形件成形,工具路径不同,变形区厚度变化也不同.采用平行直线型工具路径,直壁部分厚度比较均匀.利用厚度变化规律指导翼子板成形并试验验证其正确性.厚度变化规律对于复杂零件的数控渐进成形具有一定的指导作用.%The numerical control (NC) incremental sheet metal forming process is a flexible forming process, this process is very suitable for the small-lot, varied and complex sheet metal product. The thickness change laws of the truncated cone and vertical wall cylinder by NC incremental sheet metal forming on NC machine are researched. The thickness of the deformed region is measured, the data is analyzed. It is shown that the thickness of the deformed region in NC incremental forming of the sheet metal conforms to the sine law. The ultimate forming thickness is different for the different material. The ultimate forming thickness is related to the raw thickness, the thinning is larger for the larger thickness of the raw sheet. A vertical wall cylinder must be formed with multi processes. The thickness change is different for the different tool paths. A vertical wall cylinder of uniform wall-thickness can be formed by NC incremental forming process with parallel line type multi tool-paths. The fender forming is guided by the thickness change laws. The thickness change laws are verified by the

  17. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  18. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  19. 涉案产品查控机制及执法责任体系的规范化研究%Research on the Standardization of Inspection and Control Mechanism on Case-involved Products and the Law Enforcement Responsibility System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海昭; 都晓春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze current status of control and inspection of case-involved products, discuss issues related to inspection and control mechanism on case-involved products and put forward suggestions on establishment of the law enforcement responsibility system so as to provide reference for food and drug administration institutes to exercise the power of administrative punishment, strengthen management according to law and protect lawful rights and interests. Methods:Literature survey, social investigation, semi-structural interview and law consulting were adopted to investigate the current status of legitimation of inspection and control of case-involved products and the existing problems and inlfuencing factors were analyzed. Results: At present our country has not specifically formulated relevant laws and regulations on inspection and control of food, health care products, cosmetics, medicines, medical devices and other products many problems occur in the process of the law enforcement and the check and control by law enforcement ofifcers. Conclusion:Aiming at the current status of inspection and control of products, authorities should establish an inspection and control system and related laws and regulations on the products, establish and improve the inspection and control system on the law enforcement and the scientific supervision responsibility system, strengthen the construction of the comprehensive coordination mechanism, and enhance law consciousness of law enforcement ofifcers, standardize the inspection and control procedures, and strive to set up a pattern of group-prevention and group-control and social co-governance.%目的:分析涉案产品查控现状,讨论影响涉案产品查控机制的相关问题,提出建立执法责任体系的建议,为规范食品药品监督管理部门行使行政处罚权,强化依法管理,保护合法权益提供参考。方法:采用文献调查法、社会调查法、访谈、法律咨询等方

  20. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the distances to stars listed in the 2011 HYG database "follow well the probabilities predicted by Benford's law", the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why star distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. Conversely, with the logical derivation given here, the empirical observations may be viewed as new independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  1. 飞翼无人机的一种鲁棒自适应控制律设计方法%A Robust Adaptive Control Law Design Method for Flying-Wing UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫星; 李秀娟; 李春涛; 杨艺

    2014-01-01

    针对飞翼无人机纵向全包线飞行时非线性特性明显和操纵效率变化显著的问题,采用鲁棒伺服 LQR ( RSLQR)与L1自适应相结合的综合自适应控制方法( RSLQR-L1),以C倡(加速度、角速率)为被控变量,设计了飞翼无人机纵向飞行控制系统。结合无人机实际飞行控制品质需求,采用RSLQR方法,设计无人机纵向主控制器;在RSLQR控制器的基本结构上扩展设计L1自适应输出反馈补偿控制器。在系统阐述RSLQR-L1综合自适应控制原理和设计方法的基础上,通过数值仿真验证了控制结构的先进性和鲁棒性,满足了飞翼无人机的控制要求。%To solve the problems of nonlinearity and obviously changed manipulating efficiency in flight of UAV,a longitudinal control law is designed for a Flying-wing UAV,which is the integrating of Robustness Servomechanism Linear Quadratic Regulator ( RSLQR ) and L1 adaptive control method .The controlled variable is chosen as C*,which is a combination of longitudinal acceleration and pitch rate .The baseline controller is based on RSLQR method to fit the control requirement of the UAV .The controller is augmented by L1 adaptive output feedback structure to maintain the desired close-loop system characteristics in the presence of the aerodynamic uncertainties and the significant change of the elevator coefficient caused by the transformation of flight state .This paper summarizes the theory,the design,simulation testing and flight test results using a RSLQR-L1 method,which validates the performance and the robustness of the designed control system.

  2. Is law science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolien MC Roos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, distinguish between legal practice and legal science, but the basis of the distinction is not clear. However, an entire body of literature in the philosophy of science has developed around the question of when a discipline will amount to science. Various demarcation criteria proposed in the philosophy of science are considered. These include that science uses the scientific method, is susceptible to falsification, is puzzle-solving within a paradigm or renders beneficial results. None of these criteria offers a satisfactory solution to the problem. The proposition by a group of philosophers including Herman Dooyeweerd, Marinus Stafleu and DFM Strauss, that the answer to the demarcation question is to be found in modal abstraction, is then considered. Modal abstraction amounts to a consideration of reality (persons, things, theories and rules from one or more defined point(s of entry. It is an artificial and learnt manner of thinking as it approaches reality from the perspective of one of the modalities of being. For example, juridical abstraction would mean that a cow is considered as the object of someone's proprietary rights. An abstract idea of the cow's characteristics, from a juridical point of view, is formed and the rules of property law are applied. A number of South African legal philosophers, amongst others Van Zyl, Van der Vyver and LM du Plessis, have followed this approach. The South African legislature has also attempted to define the terms "science" and "research", mainly for funding purposes. These definitions are considered and the conclusion is that they do not provide the clear-cut answers one would expect

  3. Estimation in the Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1981-01-01

    Psychophysicists neglect to consider how error should be characterized in applications of the power law. Failures of the power law to agree with certain theoretical predictions are examined. A power law with lognormal product structure is proposed and approximately unbiased parameter estimates given for several common estimation situations.…

  4. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  5. Principles of the continental copyright law

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev A.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two key copyright law traditions: English–American and Roman–Germanic copyright laws. The French and German copyright law is in the vanguard of the continental copyright law, with the copyright law of Russia being among the others in this copyright law system. However, the Russian copyright law has some specific characteristics. Copyright law is based on the defined principles. The purpose of the present article is to define the principles Continental Copyright Law....

  6. Euthanasia: is there a case for changing the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2007-06-01

    Calls for a change in the law to allow strictly controlled forms of voluntary euthanasia and assisted dying in the United Kingdom continue following two recent cases. In this article Richard Griffith reviews the current stance of the law on euthanasia and assisted dying and discusses attempts at reform made by Lord Joffe in the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill 2005 (HL).

  7. Innovation and the Exploitation of Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    . Examples of the strategic abuse of the patent institutional machinery are given, including: the lobbying efforts to change the law to favour private control over the public interest function of intellectual propery law; the suggestion that corporations may attempt to register patents that they know...

  8. The Effects of Laws on Divorce in American States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Dorothy M.; Wright, Gerald C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Explores the extent to which state divorce laws have an independent effect on divorce rates. Two findings, using regression analysis, are (1) a strong relationship exists between permissiveness of divorce laws and divorce rates; (2) the relationship remains when effects of variations in economic development and social costs are controlled. (Author)

  9. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  10. Area law violations in a supersymmetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijse, Liza; Swingle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We study the structure of entanglement in a supersymmetric lattice model of fermions on certain types of decorated graphs with quenched disorder. In particular, we construct models with controllable ground-state degeneracy protected by supersymmetry and the choice of Hilbert space. We show that in certain special limits, these degenerate ground states are associated with local impurities and that there exists a basis of the ground-state manifold in which every basis element satisfies a boundary law for entanglement entropy. On the other hand, by considering incoherent mixtures or coherent superpositions of these localized ground states, we can find regions that violate the boundary law for entanglement entropy over a wide range of length scales. More generally, we discuss various criteria for constructing violations of the boundary law for entanglement entropy and discuss possible relations of our work to recent holographic studies.

  11. International law and global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R.; Freestone, D. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    If climatic change is a global problem, it can only have a global solution, which must be brought about through the development of appropriate international law. This book tackles the legal problems that are at the heart of the matter. It has chapters on the following: international law and the protection of the global atmosphere; the precautionary principle; international equity and global warming; tropical forests; development issues; the role of international non-governmental organisations; international law and sea level rise; the international legal protection of wildlife; controlling emissions of greenhouse gases; institutional and legal reponses to global warming; and the negotiation and drafting of the climate change convention. There are a number of appendices containing documents on global climate change. Seven chapters are abstracted separately.

  12. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development.

  13. Study on Occurrence Law and Control of Powdery Mildew of Mahonia fortunei%狭叶十大功劳白粉病的发病规律及防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿晓东; 周英; 陈君君

    2013-01-01

      为了防治狭叶十大功劳白粉病,在充分了解其发病规律的基础上,对狭叶十大功劳白粉病的发病情况进行了较系统的观察和调查,同时应用4种药剂对狭叶十大功劳白粉病进行了药剂防治试验。结果表明:狭叶十大功劳白粉病在苏州全年发病具有明显的季节性,每年的5月上旬至6月中旬和10月下旬至11月下旬是2个发病高峰期。在发病初期使用15%三唑酮可湿性粉剂2000倍液进行药剂处理,可以有效控制病情的蔓延。%  In order to control the powdery mildew of Mahonia fortunei ,based on its occurrence law ,the inci-dences of powdery mildew of Mahonia f ortunei were observed and investigated systematically ,and chemical control experiment on powdery mildew of Mahonia f ortunei were tested by 4 kinds of chemicals .The results showed that the powdery mildew of Mahonia f ortunei had obvious seasonal character in Suzhou .It occurred in early May to mid June and late October to late November as two peak period of disease .Using 15% triadimefon WP 2 000 times liquid could effectively control the disease at the early stage .

  14. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  15. THE FRAMEWORK OF INSOLVENCY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA IANCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of ways to classify the legal systems or legal families of the world, but in general legal families across the globe will in many jurisdictions either have an English law, or what can broadly be termed a Civil law, orientated foundation. When analyzing the insolvency laws of various jurisdictions such foundation will also show up in the variety of insolvency laws. But certain aspect of insolvency law will be affected by local legal culture, basic rights and the way in which a system deals with related matters such as the security rights provided for, or the approach to labor issues for instance.

  16. Steering laws analysis of SGCMGs based on singular value decomposition theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The steering laws of single gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) are analyzed and compared in this paper for a spacecraft attitude control system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. The mechanism of steering laws escaping singularity, especially how the steering laws affect singularity of gimbal configuration and the output torque error, is studied using SVD theory. Performance of various steering laws are analyzed and compared quantitatively by simulation. The obtained results can be used as a reference for designers.

  17. Robotic Manipulator Control Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    torque technique produces a control law analogous to the mathematically based exact linearization 1951, nonlinear feedback [201, and optimal control...law analogous to the mathematically based exact linearization [951, nonlinear feedback [201, and optimal control methods [651. Therefore the results...control law analogous to the mathematically based exact linearization [951, nonlinear feedback [201, and optimal control methods [65]. Knowledge about

  18. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  19. Market Sentiments Distribution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Stock Exchange is basically ruled by the extreme market sentiments of euphoria and fear. The type of sentiment is given by the color of the candlestick (white = bullish sentiments, black = bearish sentiments, meanwhile the intensity of the sentiment is given by the size of it. In this paper you will see that the intensity of any sentiment is astonishingly distributed in a robust, systematic and universal way, according to a law of exponential decay, the conclusion of which is supported by the analysis of the Lyapunov exponent, the information entropy and the frequency distribution of candlestick size.

  20. The Law of Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Sproul, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The law of reflux is explained using an example of backed money. In the example, government-issued money is backed by the government’s assets (mainly taxes receivable) while bank-issued money is backed by the bank’s assets. The value of both kinds of money is determined by the amount of backing held per unit of money issued. The example shows that reflux maintains money’s value, not by assuring that excessive issues of money reflux to their issuers, but by providing people with access to the ...

  1. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    smooth, due to the formation of shock waves. However, global solutions exist in the class of functions of bounded variation ,/in the sense of Tonelli...hyperbolic conservation law (2.2) ut + f(u)x -0 The Cauchy problem for (2.2), with initial data u(x,O), of bounded variation , admits a solution in the class...BV of functions of bounded variation ,.in the sense of Tonelli-Cesari. No gain would be made by assuming that u(x,O) is smoother, even analytic! In

  2. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  3. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  4. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  5. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  6. 青龙矿构造发育规律及其演化对瓦斯的控制%Structure Development Law and Evolution to Gas Control in Qinglong Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞刚; 窦新钊

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent the gas accidents occurred in Qinglong Mine,based on the systematic regulation and analysis on the geological information and gas information of Qinglong Mine,in combination with the analysis on the regional structure evolution,the paper had a discussion on the structure development law and evolution features of Qinglong Mine,an introduction on the structure control effect of the mine gas deposits and a prediction on the gas outburst danger areas.The results showed that the structure formation of the Qinglong Mine was in Yanshan period,the structural complexity was medium-complicated,the reversed fault was developed,the gas content was high and the gas content of each seam almost was over 10 m3/t.In combination with the analysis on the seam depth and structure coal distribution law,it held that the structure complicated area in the south-west part of the minefield was a gas outburst danger area and the east part of the minefield was a gas outburst threatened area.%为了预防和防止青龙矿瓦斯事故的发生,在系统整理、分析青龙矿地质资料和瓦斯资料的基础上,结合区域构造演化分析,探讨了青龙矿构造发育规律及其演化特征,阐述了矿井瓦斯赋存的构造控制作用,并对瓦斯突出危险区进行了预测。结果表明:青龙矿构造定型于燕山期,构造复杂程度属中等-复杂,逆断层发育,瓦斯含量较高,各煤层瓦斯含量几乎都大于10 m3/t;结合煤层埋深和构造煤分布规律分析认为井田西南部构造复杂区为瓦斯突出危险区,东部(浅部)为瓦斯突出威胁区。

  7. Healthy by law: heading towards a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    The law is a tool used by Government to protect public health. Health is an omnipresent preoccupation, inviting each one of us to protect ourselves against potential risks at all times and in all places. The right to health protection is a source of benefit entitlements and rights-obligations that render it effective. However, believing that the law can and should regulate all sectors of human life, still a utopian belief. International law suffers from intrinsic weaknesses that limit its effectiveness. The current economic context has lead to stricter controls over healthcare expenditure faced with the ever-growing demand for treatment, limiting the right to healthcare protection. Through health law, the State has developed controls over individuals. Individual liberties tend to be limited to the cause of the public health policy. Healthy by law, raises a question: are we heading towards a brave new world as described by Aldous Huxley?

  8. Generalized Kirchhoff law

    CERN Document Server

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Brucoli, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Thermal emission can be conveniently described using Kirchhoff law which states that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity for isothermal bodies. For a finite size system, absorptivity is replaced by an absorption cross section. Here, we study the link between thermal emission and absorption by a finite size object which is not isothermal. We define a local absorption rate for a given incident plane wave and we prove that it is equal to the local emissivity rate. Hence, Kirchhoff law can be extended to anisothermal media. A practical consequence is the possibility of analysing thermal radiation by a variety of non-equilibrium systems such as microwave radiation in geophysical remote sensing or X-UV radiation by plasmas. This result provides a theoretical framework to analyse thermal emission by hot electrons in quantum wells, tunnel junctions or graphene. It paves the way to the design of a new generation of incandescent emitters made of subwavelength hot emitters coupled to cold antennas. The antennas ...

  9. MODELING OF THE BEHAVIOUR REOLOGICHESKIH TEL UNDER DIFFERENT LAW NAGRUZHENIYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bendyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Offered model of the behaviour reologicheskogo bodies (the viscous-elasticity of the materia, designs or systems under controlling influence of the load, acting on given law for some time.

  10. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... gaps that could compromise quality and safety of poultry products in Nigeria. ... Animal Disease Control Edict and Meat Hygiene Act should be passed into law, Nigerian live ... 2010). The role of modern organized slaughtering.

  11. Federal Workplace Laws: Are Business Work Experience Programs in Compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Kurth, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews federal laws (Fair Labor Standard Act's child labor regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act) for their implications for cooperative education and school-to-work programs. (SK)

  12. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  13. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  14. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...... rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  15. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  16. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands: how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weyers, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    .... I examine whether socio-legal propositions, with respect to the emergence of laws which focus on social control, offer a better approach to understanding the development of rules allowing and governing euthanasia...

  17. Law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings and sick-building syndrome. Control of indoor air environment in the 21st century; Biru kanriho to sick building syndrome. 21 seiki no shitsunai kuki kankyo kanri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, A. [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-31

    Interest has arisen for the sanitation and comfort of daily life. This paper explains a direction and other matters toward the 21st century, in retrospect of the history of housing sanitation from prewar days in the Ministry of Welfare and Education. Both urban and rural communities were in unsanitary dwellings and lives in prewar times. Various laws were established as measures against epidemics; and in 1927, the law for improving inferior housing land was enacted. In 1947, the Health Center Law was enacted, placing the sanitation for sewerage, wastes, etc. as its projects. In 1970, the `law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings` was enacted in the move beginning with the 1966 report by the Antipollution Council; the law resulting in extremely few problems such as the sick-building syndrome compared with the advanced nations today. Nowadays, changes being great in a mode of living, the Welfare Ministry is preparing various guidelines. Problems to deal with from now are numerous including a review on the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the preparation of environmental air standard, and so on.

  18. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  19. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Mortensen, N A; Raza, S; Stenger, N; Yan, W; Jauho, A -P; Xiao, S; Wubs, M

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behavior with important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. We report on our most recent developments of a real-space formulation of an equation-of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples of applying the nonlocal framework to calculation of extinction cross sections and field enhancement in isolated particles, dimers, and corrugated surfaces.

  20. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.