WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-frequency slr measurements

  1. Measuring Two Decades of Ice Mass Loss using GRACE and SLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    We use Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to extend the time series of ice mass change back in time to 1994. The SLR series is of far lesser spatial resolution than GRACE, so we apply a constrained inversion technique to better localize the signal. We approximate the likely errors due to SLR's measurement errors combined with the inversion errors from using a low-resolution series, then estimate the interannual mass change over Greenland and Antarctica.

  2. Using an SLR inversion to measure the mass balance of Greenland before and during GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE mission has done an admirable job of measuring large-scale mass changes over Greenland since its launch in 2002. However before that time, measurements of large-scale ice mass balance were few and far between, leading to a lack of baseline knowledge. High-quality Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data existed a decade earlier, but normally has too low a spatial resolution to be used for this purpose. I demonstrate that a least squares inversion technique can reconstitute the SLR data and use it to measure ice loss over Greenland. To do so, I first simulate the problem by degrading today's GRACE data to a level comparable with SLR, then demonstrating that the inversion can re-localize Greenland's contribution to the low-resolution signal, giving an accurate time series of mass change over all of Greenland which compares well with the full-resolution GRACE estimates. I then utilize that method on the actual SLR data, resulting in an independent 1994-2014 time series of mass change over Greenland. I find favorable agreement between the pure-SLR inverted results and the 2012 Ice-sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) results, which are largely based on the "input-output" modeling method before GRACE's launch.

  3. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  4. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  5. Two-frequency method for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with charge-carrier low mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.L.; Vedeneev, A.S.; Gulyaev, I.B.; Zhdan, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with low mobility of charge carriers by the two-frequency method using digital synchronous integration is described. The facility permits to detect the minimum Hall emf approxamatety equat to 5 μV at approximatety equal to 1 T Ohm of the investigated.sample resistance during the measuring time of approximately equal to 2000 s. Sensitivity by Hall mobility makes up >= 0.01 cm 2 /Vxs at the same measuring time. Measuring results of the Hall emf on GaAs monocrystals, CdSe films and island film of gold are presented

  6. Modal effects on amplitude perturbations on subionospheric signals (trimpis) deduced from two-frequency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Interference between the first two modes of Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation at the high end of the VLF band (> 18 kHz) increases with distance from the transmitter out to very large distances and can add amplitude perturbations to the phase perturbations (trimpis) produced by lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) on the great circle path. Since the two modes have slightly different phase velocities, an interference pattern or standing wave is formed which is shifted slightly along the propagation path by the LEP-induced change in differential phase velocity. The model effect at the receiver depends on the local gradient (along the great circle path) of amplitude with respect to the differential phase. Since this differential or mode beat phase varies with frequency, measurement of the resultant amplitude at two close frequencies enables an estimation of the modal effects. In this study, measurements were made at Dunedin at the two MSK frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, of the transmitter NWC, during a night of frequent one-dimensional trimpis (i.e., those produced by large-area LEP occurring close to the great circle path) and of strong and varying modal interference. Modal generation or modification of trimpi amplitude was related to the local gradient of amplitude as expected. From these results it was deduced that modal modification of echo trimpis (those produced by small area LEP occurring well off the great circle path), even under extreme conditions, is insignificant

  7. CDDIS_SLR_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), a short pulse of coherent light generated by a laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is transmitted in a...

  8. VLF group delay of lightning-induced electron precipitation echoes from measurement of phase and amplitude perturbations at two frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.D.D.; Dowden, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of phase and amplitude perturbations (trimpis) of the NWC signal at Dunedin at both the NWC frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, enables measurement of the received phase of the echo signal (phasor difference of the perturbed and unperturbed signals) at each frequency and so the rate of decrease of phase with frequency. This, of course, is the group delay. The 100-Hz difference implies that measurement of echo group delays of up to 5 ms could be made without ambiguity, though other factors limit this to about 2.5 ms. Some 38 difference trimpis during May and June 1988 showed echo delays up to 2 ms corresponding to reflection from points displaced more than 1,000 km from the NWC-Dunedin great circle path. The echo amplitudes observed at such large displacements are much greater than expected from smooth circular depressions of the ionosphere modifying the waveguide phase velocity and so imply sharper discontinuities in the waveguide

  9. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of blue-light receptor Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Lehmpfuhl, C; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2007-01-03

    The BLUF protein Slr1694 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Slr1694 expressed from E. coli which non-covalently binds FAD, FMN, and riboflavin (called Slr1694(I)), and reconstituted Slr1694 which dominantly contains FAD (called Slr1694(II)) are investigated. The receptor conformation of Slr1694 (dark adapted form Slr1694(r)) is transformed to the putative signalling state (light adapted form Slr1694(s)) with red-shifted absorption and decreased fluorescence efficiency by blue-light excitation. In the dark at 22 degrees C, the signalling state recovers back to the initial receptor state with a time constants of about 14.2s for Slr1694(I) and 17s for Slr1694(II). Quantum yields of signalling state formation of approximately 0.63+/-0.07 for both Slr1694(I) and Slr1694(II) were determined by transient transmission measurements and intensity dependent steady-state transmission measurements. Extended blue-light excitation causes some bound flavin conversion to the hydroquinone form and some photo-degradation, both with low quantum efficiency. The flavin-hydroquinone re-oxidizes slowly back (time constant 5-9 min) to the initial flavoquinone form in the dark. A photo-cycle dynamics scheme is presented.

  10. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  11. First results from plasma density measurements in the FTU tokamak by means of a two-frequency pulsed time-of-flight refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V. G.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; Markov, V. K.; Petrov, A. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Avino, F.; Angelis, R. de; Tudisco, O. [ENEA-UT Fusione Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    A pulsed time-of-flight refractometer was developed and tested to determine the mean plasma density in the T-11M tokamak by measuring the propagation time of nanosecond microwave pulses in plasma. Later, it was also proposed to use such an instrument to measure and control the mean plasma density in the ITER tokamak by probing the plasma with an extraordinary wave, the electric field of which is perpendicular to the magnetic field in plasma, in the transparency window at frequencies of 50-100 GHz. To avoid the effect of the density profile shape on the measurement results in the nonlinear mode of refractometer operation (near the cutoff), a system operating at two different probing frequencies was developed and tested. Such a system provides two values of the time delay, which can be used to estimate the peaking factor of the density distribution {alpha} and correctly determine the linear density Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Nl Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , regardless of the density profile (assuming a smooth density profile of the form of N({rho}) = N(0)(1 - {rho}{sup 2}){sup {alpha}}, where N(0) is the central plasma density and {rho} = r/a is the normalized plasma radius). The first experiments on density measurements in the FTU tokamak performed with this refractometer are described, and results from these experiments are presented. The formation of a thin dense plasma layer in the zone of a strong magnetic field (the so-called MARFE layer) at a relatively low (for FTU) plasma density of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was detected. The thickness of this layer, determined from the refractometry data, agrees well with the data obtained using a digital camera.

  12. EUPOS and SLR Contribution to GOCE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, J.; Caunite, M.; Janpaule, I.; Kenyeres, A.; Rubans, A.; Silabriedis, G.; Rosenthal, G.; Zarinsjh, A.; Zvirgzds, J.; Abel, M.

    2010-12-01

    After the interest of geodesists from several East European countries on successful use of SAPOS in Germany the European Position Determination System EUPOS® project has been established at 2002 under the leadership of Gerd Rosenthal, Berlin State Department of Urban Development. Currently the ground based GNSS augmentation system EUPOS® sub-networks has been developed successfully in 17 countries and the wish to join has been expressed by several other countries. EUPOS® is widely used in many practical applications. Two proposals - "EUPOS® Contribution to GOCE Mission" (Id 4307), "GOCE Observations using SLR for LEO satellites" (Id 4333), were submitted to ESA when ESA in autumn 2006 invited research people to submit proposals for GOCE mission applications. The report is presented in this article on the work which has been done in EUPOS® community and at the University of Latvia. During last 3 years the EUPOS® sub- networks has been completed (Poland, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, they tied to the National levelling networks, detailed system behaviour has been depicted on the bases of EUPOS®-Riga network. The development of the SLR for LEO satellites is presented. Initially it was developed for GOCE spacecraft positioning. However, SLR till now was able to observe satellites at night.

  13. The ATF two-frequency correlation reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Anabitarte, E.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Thomas, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) density fluctuation reflectometer system consists of two individual reflectometers operating in the 30- to 40-GHz band. Each reflectometer consists of a tunable microwave source and a quadrature phase detector connected to the same antenna system. This arrangement allows two-frequency operation along the same radial chord for radial coherence measurements. The technique used in making radial coherence measurements is discussed and the results of such experiments are given. Initial experiments have shown high coherence when the frequencies of the two reflectometers are tuned close together and a clear loss of coherence as the radial separation of the cutoff layers is increased by increasing the frequency separation of the two reflectometers. Recent results have shown that local measurements of density fluctuations in plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are possible and that detailed structure can be seen in the fluctuation spectra. In addition, radial correlation lengths have been found to be from 0.5 to 1.0 cm in ECH plasmas, with some frequency structures having correlation lengths up to 3 cm. In plasmas with neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial correlation lengths in the edge region have been found to be approximately 0.1--0.2 cm. 4 figs

  14. SLR and GPS spatial techniques in ITRF. Argentine results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Eloy Vicente; Huang, Dongping; Márquez, Raúl; Adarvez, Sonia; Flores, Matías; Brizuela, Diego; Nievas, Jesica; Podestá, Ricardo; Pacheco, Ana M.; Rojas, Hernán Alvis; Yin, Zhiqiang; Li, Jinzeng; Han, Yanben; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Along the late 30 years spatial geodetic techniques enable us to measure horizontal and vertical deformations of the Earth’s surface with a very high precision. Performing this task we made Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Positioning System (GPS) observations in South America ILRS 7406 Station placed at Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina, accomplishing a Cooperation Agreement between CAS - NAOC and OAFA - UNSJ. Trough LAGEOS II Satellite observations we obtain rectangular coordinates of San Juan ILRS Station in the Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITR 2000), standing out that Argentine Station data were included in the late arrangements ITRF given by International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). Spatial and temporary variations of the epoch 2010 - 2011 were evaluated finding out remarkable displacements, of about a half meter, related with seismic events on the region. We confirm these deformations by means of GP S determinations referred to Permanent GPS Station placed nearby the SLR Station.

  15. LOD First Estimates In 7406 SLR San Juan Argentina Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Adarvez, S.; Liu, W.; Zhao, L.; Alvis Rojas, H.; Actis, E.; Quinteros, J.; Alacoria, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show results derived from satellite observations at the San Juan SLR station of Felix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory (OAFA). The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) telescope was installed in early 2006, in accordance with an international cooperation agreement between the San Juan National University (UNSJ) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The SLR has been in successful operation since 2011 using NAOC SLR software for the data processing. This program was designed to calculate satellite orbits and station coordinates, however it was used in this work for the determination of LOD (Length Of Day) time series and Earth Rotation speed.

  16. Two frequency ICRF operation on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.H.; Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Phillips, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications have been made recently to allow two of the ICRF antennas (bays L and M) on TFTR to operate at either of two frequencies, 43 MHz or 64 MHz. This was accomplished by lengthening the resonant loops (2Λ at 43 MHz, 3Λ at 64 MHz) and replacing the conventional quarter wave impedance transformers with a tapered impedance design. The other two antennas (bays K and N) will operate at a fixed frequency, 43 MHz. The two frequency operation will allow a combination of 3 He-minority and H-minority heating at near full field on TFTR. The higher frequency, 64 MHz, may also be useful in direct electron heating and current drive experiments at lower toroidal fields. Models of the antenna, resonant loops and impedance matching system are presented

  17. Co-location satellite GPS and SLR geodetic techniques at the Felix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory of San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá, R.; Pacheco, A. M.; Alvis Rojas, H.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.; Albornoz, E.; Navarro, A.; Luna, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the strategy followed for the co-location of the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) ILRS 7406 telescope and the antenna of the permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) station, located at the Félix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The accomplishment of the co-location consisted in the design, construction, measurement, adjustment and compensation of a geodesic net between the stations SLR and GPS, securing support points solidly built in the soil. The co-location allows the coordinates of the station to be obtained by combining the data of both SLR and GPS techniques, achieving a greater degree of accuracy than individually. The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) considers the co-located stations as the most valuable and important points for the maintenance of terrestrial reference systems and their connection with the celestial ones. The 3 mm precision required by the IERS has been successfully achieved.

  18. Orbit Determination Using SLR Data for STSAT-2C:Short-arc Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of orbit determination (OD using satellite laser ranging (SLR data for the Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT-2C by a short-arc analysis. For SLR data processing, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software with one year (2013/04 – 2014/04 of normal point observations is used. As there is only an extremely small quantity of SLR observations of STSAT-2C and they are sparsely distribution, the selection of the arc length and the estimation intervals for the atmospheric drag coefficients and the empirical acceleration parameters was made on an arc-to-arc basis. For orbit quality assessment, the post-fit residuals of each short-arc and orbit overlaps of arcs are investigated. The OD results show that the weighted root mean square post-fit residuals of short-arcs are less than 1 cm, and the average 1-day orbit overlaps are superior to 50/600/900 m for the radial/cross-track/along-track components. These results demonstrate that OD for STSAT-2C was successfully achieved with cm-level range precision. However its orbit quality did not reach the same level due to the availability of few and sparse measurement conditions. From a mission analysis viewpoint, obtaining the results of OD for STSAT-2C is significant for generating enhanced orbit predictions for more frequent tracking.

  19. Second-degree Stokes coefficients from multi-satellite SLR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blossfeld, M.; Mueller, H.; Gerstl, M.; Štefka, Vojtěch; Bouman, J.; Goettl, F.; Horwath, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2015), s. 857-871 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : multi-satellite SLR * stokes coefficients * equatorial excitation functions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.486, year: 2015

  20. Release of the repressive activity of rice DELLA protein SLR1 by gibberellin does not require SLR1 degradation in the gid2 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Hirano, Ko; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-09-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) DELLA protein SLR1 acts as a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA perception by GID1 causes SLR1 protein degradation involving the F-box protein GID2; this triggers GA-associated responses such as shoot elongation and seed germination. In GA-insensitive and GA biosynthesis mutants, SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) accumulates to high levels, and the severity of dwarfism is usually correlated with the level of SLR1 accumulation. An exception is the GA-insensitive F-box mutant gid2, which shows milder dwarfism than mutants such as gid1 and cps even though it accumulates higher levels of SLR1. The level of SLR1 protein in gid2 was decreased by loss of GID1 function or treatment with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, and dwarfism was enhanced. Conversely, overproduction of GID1 or treatment with GA(3) increased the SLR1 level in gid2 and reduced dwarfism. These results indicate that derepression of SLR1 repressive activity can be accomplished by GA and GID1 alone and does not require F-box (GID2) function. Evidence for GA signaling without GID2 was also provided by the expression behavior of GA-regulated genes such as GA-20oxidase1, GID1, and SLR1 in the gid2 mutant. Based on these observations, we propose a model for the release of GA suppression that does not require DELLA protein degradation.

  1. GNSS-SLR satellite co-location for the estimate of local ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2013-04-01

    The current realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is based on four different space-geodetic techniques, so that the benefits brought by each observing system to the definition of the frame can compensate for the drawbacks of the others and technique-specific systematic errors might be identified. The strategy used to combine the observations from the different techniques is then of prominent importance for the realization of a precise and stable reference frame. This study concentrates, in particular, on the combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations by exploiting satellite co-locations. This innovative approach is based on the fact that laser tracking of GNSS satellites, carrying on board laser reflector arrays, allows for the combination of optical and microwave signals in the determination of the spacecraft orbit. Besides, the use of satellite co-locations differs quite significantly from the traditional combination method in which each single technique solution is carried out autonomously and is interrelated in a second step. One of the benefits of the approach adopted in this study is that it allows for an independent validation of the local tie, i.e. of the vector connecting the SLR and GNSS reference points in a multi-techniques station. Typically, local ties are expressed by a single value, measured with ground-based geodetic techniques and taken as constant. In principle, however, local ties might show time variations likely caused by the different monumentation characteristics of the GNSS antennas with respect to those of a SLR system. This study evaluates the possibility of using the satellite co-location approach to generate local-ties time series by means of observations available for a selected network of ILRS stations. The data analyzed in this study were acquired as part of the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems and are archived and distributed by the Crustal

  2. Two-frequency, one-detector reactivity system (TFODRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.D.; Woodall, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    A two-frequency, one-detector reactivity system (TFODRS) was experimentally verified on the University of New Mexico (UNM) AGN-201M thermal reactor. That system was used to obtain the absolute steady-state reactivity and to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring the transient reactivity. A detailed description of TFODRS hardware and software is given in this paper. The TFODRS obtains the absolute and net reactivity by computing the frequency spectrum of the reactor neutron-detector signal. The ratio of the high-frequency to the low-frequency components about an empirical break point is used to determine the reactivity. The TFODRS was successfully used to measure a known AGN-201M steady-state reactivity, with a relative error of 18%. TFODRS transient curves as a function of reactivity were shown to be different from the steady-state curves. The transient curves appear to be a function of the rate of reactivity insertion. The authors speculate that a modified TFODRS, using state-of-the-art microprocessors, could be used for fast reactors. The TFODRS is not presently a practicable reactimeter. However, with more research and development, it is felt it could be used in near-term nuclear industry applications, such as monitoring fuel storage pools

  3. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  4. Demonstration of a tunable two-frequency projected fringe pattern with acousto-optic deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, S.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a fringe projector for three-dimensional shape measurement. The developed instrument is able to project a two-frequency fringe pattern, each frequency is independently controlled by electronics. Moreover, each phase of the two fringe patterns is also independently adjusted. The projection system is based on the use of a pair of custom large bandwidth (40 MHz) and high efficiency (60%) TeO 2 deflectors. The developed instrument offers the combined advantages of a static two-frequency fringe projector and of a tunable single frequency fringe projector

  5. Identification of a transporter Slr0982 involved in ethanol tolerance in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce ethanol through recent synthetic biology efforts. However, one major challenge to the cyanobacterial systems for high-efficiency ethanol production is their low tolerance to the ethanol toxicity. With a major goal to identify novel transporters involved in ethanol tolerance, we constructed gene knockout mutants for 58 transporter-encoding genes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and screened their tolerance change under ethanol stress. The efforts allowed discovery of a mutant of slr0982 gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter which grew poorly in BG11 medium supplemented with 1.5% (v/v ethanol when compared with the wild type, and the growth loss could be recovered by complementing slr0982 in the ∆slr0982 mutant, suggesting that slr0982 is involved in ethanol tolerance in Synechocystis. To decipher the tolerance mechanism involved, a comparative metabolomic and network-based analysis of the wild type and the ethanol-sensitive ∆slr0982 mutant was performed. The analysis allowed the identification of four metabolic modules related to slr0982 deletion in the ∆slr0982 mutant, among which metabolites like sucrose and L-pyroglutamic acid which might be involved in ethanol tolerance, were found important for slr0982 deletion in the ∆slr0982 mutant. This study reports on the first transporter related to ethanol tolerance in Synechocystis, which could be a useful target for further tolerance engineering. In addition, metabolomic and network analysis provides important findings for better understanding of the tolerance mechanism to ethanol stress in Synechocystis.

  6. Contribution of Multi-GNSS Constellation to SLR-Derived Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, K.; Bury, G.; Zajdel, R.

    2018-03-01

    All satellites of new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are equipped with laser retroreflectors dedicated to Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper demonstrates the contribution of SLR tracking of multi-GNSS constellations to the improved SLR-derived reference frame and scientific products. We show a solution strategy with estimating satellite orbits, SLR station coordinates, geocenter coordinates, and Earth rotation parameters using SLR observations to 2 Laser Geodynamics Satellites (LAGEOS) and 55 GNSS satellites: 1 GPS, 31 Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema, 18 Galileo, 3 BeiDou Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit, 1 BeiDou Medium Earth Orbit, and 1 Quasi-Zenith Satellite System satellite for the period 2014.0-2017.4. Due to a substantial number of GNSS observations, the number of weekly solutions for some SLR stations, for example, Arkhyz, Komsomolsk, Altay, and Brasilia, is larger up to 41% in the combined LAGEOS + GNSS solution when compared to the LAGEOS-only solution. The SLR observations to GNSS can transfer the orientation of the reference frame from GNSS to SLR solutions. As a result, the SLR-derived pole coordinates and length-of-day estimates become more consistent with GNSS microwave-based results. The root-mean-square errors of length-of-day are reduced from 122.5 μs/d to 43.0 μs/d, whereas mean offsets are reduced from -81.6 μs/d to 0.5 μs/d in LAGEOS only and in the combined LAGEOS + GNSS solutions, respectively.

  7. Simulating and Testing a DC-DC Half-Bridge SLR Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    future pulse power demands with ship power, a large bank of capacitors or similar rapid discharge source is required. If capacitors are charged...Single Pulsed Avalanche Energy (j) I" Avalanche Current (i) E,, Repetilive Avalanche Energy (i) dv/dt Peak Diode Recovery dv/dt ® Po Total Power...SLR), battery charging, DC-DC, pulse power, power electronics, SLR converter 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 119 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  8. Investigation of two-frequency Paul traps for antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leefer, Nathan; Krimmel, Kai, E-mail: kkrimmel@students.uni-mainz.de [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Bertsche, William [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Budker, Dmitry [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Fajans, Joel [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Folman, Ron [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics (Israel); Häffner, Hartmut [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Radio-frequency (rf) Paul traps operated with multifrequency rf trapping potentials provide the ability to independently confine charged particle species with widely different charge-to-mass ratios. In particular, these traps may find use in the field of antihydrogen recombination, allowing antiproton and positron clouds to be trapped and confined in the same volume without the use of large superconducting magnets. We explore the stability regions of two-frequency Paul traps and perform numerical simulations of small samples of multispecies charged-particle mixtures of up to twelve particles that indicate the promise of these traps for antihydrogen recombination.

  9. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  10. ILRS Activities in Monitoring Systematic Errors in SLR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Luceri, V.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.; Bianco, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) contributes to ITRF development unique information that only Satellite Laser Ranging—SLR is sensitive to: the definition of the origin, and in equal parts with VLBI, the scale of the model. For the development of ITRF2014, the ILRS analysts adopted a revision of the internal standards and procedures in generating our contribution from the eight ILRS Analysis Centers. The improved results for the ILRS components were reflected in the resulting new time series of the ITRF origin and scale, showing insignificant trends and tighter scatter. This effort was further extended after the release of ITRF2014, with the execution of a Pilot Project (PP) in the 2016-2017 timeframe that demonstrated the robust estimation of persistent systematic errors at the millimeter level. ILRS ASC is now turning this into an operational tool to monitor station performance and to generate a history of systematics at each station, to be used with each re-analysis for future ITRF model developments. This is part of a broader ILRS effort to improve the quality control of the data collection process as well as that of our products. To this end, the ILRS has established a "Quality Control Board—QCB" that comprises of members from the analysis and engineering groups, the Central Bureau, and even user groups with special interests. The QCB meets by telecon monthly and oversees the various ongoing projects, develops ideas for new tools and future products. This presentation will focus on the main topic with an update on the results so far, the schedule for the near future and its operational implementation, along with a brief description of upcoming new ILRS products.

  11. Two-frequency radiospectrometer for studying paramagnetics under a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertii, A.A.; Gudym, I.Y.; Ivanchenko, I.V.

    1994-01-01

    A two-frequency radiospectrometer for studying electron paramagnetic resonance in the 120-150-GHz band and nuclear magnetic resonance in the 180-200-MHz band is described. The spectrometer is used to measure the properties of paramagnetics by a double-resonance technique in a magnetic field of up to 5 T at a temperature ranging from 1.7 to 20 degrees K

  12. Silencing OsSLR1 enhances the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Luo, Ting; Wang, Wanwan; Cao, Tiantian; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-10-01

    DELLA proteins, negative regulators of the gibberellin (GA) pathway, play important roles in plant growth, development and pathogen resistance by regulating multiple phytohormone signals. Yet, whether and how they regulate plant herbivore resistance remain unknown. We found that the expression of the rice DELLA gene OsSLR1 was down-regulated by an infestation of female adults of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. On one hand, OsSLR1 positively regulated BPH-induced levels of two mitogen-activated protein kinase and four WRKY transcripts, and of jasmonic acid, ethylene and H 2 O 2 . On the other hand, silencing OsSLR1 enhanced constitutive levels of defence-related compounds, phenolic acids, lignin and cellulose, as well as the resistance of rice to BPH in the laboratory and in the field. The increased resistance in rice with silencing of OsSLR1 is probably due to impaired JA and ethylene pathways, and, at least in part, to the increased lignin level and mechanical hardness of rice leaf sheaths. Our findings illustrate that OsSLR1, acting as an early negative regulator, plays an important role in regulating the resistance of rice to BPH by activating appropriate defence-related signalling pathways and compounds. Moreover, our data also provide new insights into relationships between plant growth and defence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Future global SLR network evolution and its impact on the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Alexander; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Seitz, Florian

    2018-06-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is an important technique that contributes to the determination of terrestrial geodetic reference frames, especially to the realization of the origin and the scale of global networks. One of the major limiting factors of SLR-derived reference frame realizations is the datum accuracy which significantly suffers from the current global SLR station distribution. In this paper, the impact of a potential future development of the SLR network on the estimated datum parameters is investigated. The current status of the SLR network is compared to a simulated potential future network featuring additional stations improving the global network geometry. In addition, possible technical advancements resulting in a higher amount of observations are taken into account as well. As a result, we find that the network improvement causes a decrease in the scatter of the network translation parameters of up to 24%, and up to 20% for the scale, whereas the technological improvement causes a reduction in the scatter of up to 27% for the translations and up to 49% for the scale. The Earth orientation parameters benefit by up to 15% from both effects.

  14. The role of Slr0151, a tetratricopeptide repeat protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, during Photosystem II assembly and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eRast

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The assembly and repair of photosystem II (PSII is facilitated by a variety of assembly factors. Among those, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR protein Slr0151 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis has previously been assigned a repair function under high light conditions (Yang et al., 2014, J. Integr. Plant Biol. 56, 1136-50. Here, we show that inactivation of Slr0151 affects thylakoid membrane ultrastructure even under normal light conditions. Moreover, the level and localization of Slr0151 are affected in a variety of PSII-related mutants. In particular, the data suggest a close functional relationship between Slr0151 and Sll0933, which interacts with Ycf48 during PSII assembly and is homologous to PAM68 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed a punctate distribution of Slr0151 within several different membrane types in Synechocystis cells.

  15. 78 FR 7331 - SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket Number USCG-2012-1098] RIN 1625-AA08 SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the...

  16. J2 : An evaluation of new estimates from GPS, GRACE, and load models compared to SLR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavallée, D.A.; Moore, P.; Clarke, P.J.; Petrie, E.J.; Van Dam, T.; King, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in J2, resulting from past and present changes in Earth's climate, are traditionally observed by Satellite Laser ranging (SLR). Assuming an elastic Earth, it is possible to infer changes in J2 from changes in Earth's shape observed by GPS. We compare estimates of non-secular J2 changes from

  17. SLR-induced changes on storm flooding in coastal areas: the role of accommodation space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Dockx, Stijn; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2015-04-01

    Most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in coastal storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of any significant increasing trend in neither wave height nor surge. However, this does not mean that magnitude and/or frequency of storm-induced coastal hazards will not be affected by climate change. Thus, sea level rise will induce a series of long-term changes in coastal areas that although not directly affecting storminess will interact with storm-induced processes and, thus, changing coastal storm risks. A typical approach to account SLR-induced effects on coastal inundation by storms is to modify present water level extreme climate by adding expected MWL increase. This implies to consider the coast as a static and passive system to SLR maintaining its configuration from actual to projected (rised) sea level and, as a result of this, the frequency of flood events should increase and, the magnitude of flooding associated to a probability of occurrence will also increase. This will only be realistic for really passive or rigid coasts. However, sandy coastlines will response to SLR and, thus, this approach should undervalue coastal resilience. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to propose a method to assess the effects of SLR on the magnitude of storm-induced coastal flooding on sandy coastlines taking into account their capacity of response. It combines the use of a inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP) for delineating the flood-prone area for given storm conditions and, a coastal module to account for SLR-induced changes in the coastal fringe. The method assumes an equilibrium-type coastal response to SLR which, ideally, implies that the beach profile will be reconstructed under the new higher water level, in such a way that the relative beach configuration will be the same. However, this should only be possible provided there is enough accommodation space in the hinterland. In most of developed coasts, the existence of human built

  18. Predicting impact of SLR on coastal flooding in Banda Aceh coastal defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'ala, Musa; Syamsidik, Kato, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Banda Aceh is a low-lying city located at the northern tip of Sumatra Island and situated at the conjuncture of Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea. A Sea Level Rise (SLR) rate at 7 mm/year has been observed around this region. In the next 50 years, this city will face a serious challenge to encounter impacts of the sea level rise, such as frequent coastal floodings. This study is aimed at estimating impacts of the sea level rise induced coastal floodings on several types of coastal structures and city drainage system. Numerical simulations of Delft3D were applied to investigate the influence of the gradual sea level rise in 50 years. The hydrodynamic process of coastal flooding and sediment transport were simulated by Delft3D-Flow. Topography and bathymetry data were collected from GEBCO and updated with the available nautical chart (DISHIDROS, JICA, and field measurements). Hydrodynamic process gains the flow process revealing the level of the sea water intrusion also observed in the model. Main rivers (Krueng Aceh, Krueng Neng, and Alue Naga Flood Canal) and the drainage system were observed to see the tides effects on coastal structures and drainage system. The impact on coastal community focusing on affected area, shoreline retreat, the rate of sea intrusion was analyzed with spatial tools. New coastal line, coastal flooding vulnerable area, and the community susceptibility properties map influenced by 50 years sea level rise is produced. This research found that the city needs to address strategies to anticipate the exacerbating impacts of the sea level rise by managing its coastal spatial planning and modify its drainage system, especially at the drainage outlets.

  19. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 with roseoflavin cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2009-11-09

    The wild-type BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (BLUF=blue-light sensor using FAD) has flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) as natural cofactor. This light sensor causes positive phototaxis of the marine cyanobacterium. In this study the FAD cofactor of the wild-type Slr1694 was replaced by roseoflavin (RoF) and the roseoflavin derivatives RoFMN and RoFAD during heterologous expression in a riboflavin auxotrophic E. coli strain. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of the cofactor-exchanged-Slr1694 (RoSlr) was carried out both under dark conditions and under illuminated conditions. The behaviour of RoF embedded in RoSlr in aqueous solution at pH 8 is compared with the behaviour of RoF in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of RoF and RoSlr is quenched by photo-induced twisted intra-molecular charge transfer at room temperature with stronger effect for RoF. The fluorescence quenching is diminished at liquid nitrogen temperature. Light exposure of RoSlr causes irreversible conversion of the protein embedded roseoflavins to 8-methylamino-flavins, 8-dimethylamino-lumichrome and 8-methylamino-lumichrome.

  20. New results on spin determination of nanosatellite BLITS from High Repetition Rate SLR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Lim, H.-C.; Koidl, F.

    2013-03-01

    The nanosatellite BLITS (Ball Lens In The Space) demonstrates a successful design of the new spherical lens type satellite for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). The spin parameters of the satellite were calculated from more than 1000 days of SLR data collected from 6 High Repetition Rate (HRR) systems: Beijing, Changchun, Graz, Herstmonceux, Potsdam, Shanghai.Analysis of the 892 passes (September 26, 2009-June 18, 2012) shows precession of the spin axis around orientation of the along track vector calculated at the launch epoch of the satellite RA = 9h16m39s, Dec = 43.1°. The spin period of BLITS remains stable with the mean value Tmean = 5.613 s, RMS = 11 ms. The incident angle between the spin axis and the symmetry axis of the body changes within 60° range.

  1. Overview of current status of SLR production and uses in Japan and other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of short-lived radionuclide (SLR) production and use in Japan and other Asian countries is reviewed. The activities of six cyclotrons for medical use in Asia (except Japan) and Australia are reported. In Japan 10 dedicated medical cyclotrons were installed by 1983. Even though SLR application in Japan is in the cradle stage and is limited to only a few institutions, an analysis of these applications indicates the high efficacy of the dedicated small cyclotrons as compared with large, multipurpose cyclotrons. Because of the lack of high-energy commercial cyclotrons by 1982, a satisfactory iodine-123 supply of labeling quality has been limited. However, since two of the three medical cyclotron manufacturers and more than three positron camera producers are located there, Japan has high potential for the routine practice of nuclear medicine

  2. Long-term mass variations from SLR, VLBI and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luceri, Vincenza; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Bianco, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The second-degree geopotential coefficients reflect the behaviour of the Earth's inertia tensor of order 2 which describes the main mass variations of our planet impacting polar motion and length of day (EOP). SLR, VLBI and GPS allow the estimation of those variations, either directly in the case of SLR through its dynamics, and indirectly, for all the three geodetic techniques, by deriving excitation functions from the EOP estimations. The geodetic estimates include the influence of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, both from their mass and motion components, which can be modelled using the atmospheric and oceanic angular momenta variations. The different C21, S21 and C20 geodetic time series are compared in order to evaluate their coherence and their response to the mass variations after the removal of the motion terms. Moreover, the residual signal contents of the geodetic values, deprived by the atmospheric and oceanic mass and motion components, will be investigated.

  3. Spermidine promotes Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation by activating expression of the matrix regulator slrR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Li, Bin; Wood, Jennifer L; Kim, Sok Ho; Naidoo, Jacinth; Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alexey; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Michael, Anthony J

    2017-07-21

    Ubiquitous polyamine spermidine is not required for normal planktonic growth of Bacillus subtilis but is essential for robust biofilm formation. However, the structural features of spermidine required for B. subtilis biofilm formation are unknown and so are the molecular mechanisms of spermidine-stimulated biofilm development. We report here that in a spermidine-deficient B. subtilis mutant, the structural analogue norspermidine, but not homospermidine, restored biofilm formation. Intracellular biosynthesis of another spermidine analogue, aminopropylcadaverine, from exogenously supplied homoagmatine also restored biofilm formation. The differential ability of C-methylated spermidine analogues to functionally replace spermidine in biofilm formation indicated that the aminopropyl moiety of spermidine is more sensitive to C -methylation, which it is essential for biofilm formation, but that the length and symmetry of the molecule is not critical. Transcriptomic analysis of a spermidine-depleted B. subtilis speD mutant uncovered a nitrogen-, methionine-, and S -adenosylmethionine-sufficiency response, resulting in repression of gene expression related to purine catabolism, methionine and S -adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and methionine salvage, and signs of altered membrane status. Consistent with the spermidine requirement in biofilm formation, single-cell analysis of this mutant indicated reduced expression of the operons for production of the exopolysaccharide and TasA protein biofilm matrix components and SinR antagonist slrR Deletion of sinR or ectopic expression of slrR in the spermidine-deficient Δ speD background restored biofilm formation, indicating that spermidine is required for expression of the biofilm regulator slrR Our results indicate that spermidine functions in biofilm development by activating transcription of the biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide and TasA operons through the regulator slrR . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  4. Precise Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation using SLR Observations for ILRS AAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present results of precise orbital geodetic parameter estimation using satellite laser ranging (SLR observations for the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS associate analysis center (AAC. Using normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2 in SLR consolidated laser ranging data format, the NASA/ GSFC GEODYN II and SOLVE software programs were utilized for precise orbit determination (POD and finding solutions of a terrestrial reference frame (TRF and Earth orientation parameters (EOPs. For POD, a weekly-based orbit determination strategy was employed to process SLR observations taken from 20 weeks in 2013. For solutions of TRF and EOPs, loosely constrained scheme was used to integrate POD results of four geodetic SLR satellites. The coordinates of 11 ILRS core sites were determined and daily polar motion and polar motion rates were estimated. The root mean square (RMS value of post-fit residuals was used for orbit quality assessment, and both the stability of TRF and the precision of EOPs by external comparison were analyzed for verification of our solutions. Results of post-fit residuals show that the RMS of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 1.20 and 1.12 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 1.02 and 1.11 cm, respectively. The stability analysis of TRF shows that the mean value of 3D stability of the coordinates of 11 ILRS core sites is 7.0 mm. An external comparison, with respect to International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS 08 C04 results, shows that standard deviations of polar motion Xp and Yp are 0.754 milliarcseconds (mas and 0.576 mas, respectively. Our results of precise orbital and geodetic parameter estimation are reasonable and help advance research at ILRS AAC.

  5. 集胞藻PCC6803基因slr2049定点突变及其体内重组功能研究%Site-directed mutation of the gene slr2049 from Synechocy-stis sp.PCC 6803 and the study on the function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 陈思礼

    2013-01-01

    在Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803中找到与cpeS具有高度同源性的基因slr2049.采用PCR从Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 DNA中扩增出cpcB,slr2049,hol,pcyA 4个基因;定点突变试剂盒构建8个突变体slr2049 (H21S)、slr2049 (L23S)、slr2049 (A24S)、slr2049 (F25S)、slr2049(W72L)、slr2049(G84S)、slr2049(R107S)和slr2049(Y124S);将它们与表达载体pCDFDuet-1和pET-23a(+)相连构建pCDF-cpcB-slr2049野生型和pCDF-cpcB-slr2049突变体以及pET-ho1-pcyA,进行高效表达,用亲和层析柱纯化,产物用SDS-PAGE和光谱检测.研究表明:突变体slr2049(H21S)、slr2049(L23S)、slr2049(F25S)、slr2049 (W72L)、slr2049 (G84S)、slr2049(Y124S)与野生型slr2049催化获得的重组藻蓝蛋白β亚基具有与天然藻蓝蛋白β亚基相似的光谱特性,其他2个突变体slr2049 (A24S)和slr2049(R107S)催化的产物则没有光谱特性.由此推测,第24位丙氨酸和第107位精氨酸可能是slr2049酶活性的必需氨基酸,其所处位置是slr2049的活性位点.%We have found gene slr2049 in Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 which was homol ogous to the bilin lyase gene cpeS by some softwares for homologous analysis.Four genes were amplifed from DNA of Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 by PCR.Eight mutants which were slr2049 (H21S),slr2049 (L23S),slr2049 (A24S),slr2049 (F25S),slr2049 (W72L),slr2049(G84S),slr2049(R107S)and sl-r2049(Y124S)were constructed by Mutan BEST Kit.pCDF-cpcB-slr2049,pCDF-cpcB-slr2049 mutants and pET-ho1-pcyA were formed from the linkage of four genes and mutants with pCDFDuet-land pET-23a (+).They were expressed and purified by affinity column.Proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE,absorption and fluorescence spectra.The results showed that phycocyanin β-subunit which had the same spectral characteristic with native phycocyanin β-subunit were catalysed by the protein encoded by gene slr2049 and mutants slr2049 (H21S),slr2049(L23S),slr2049(F25S),slr2049 (W72L),slr2049 (G84S),slr2049 (Y124S).The rest of mutants slr2049(A24S

  6. Two-frequency operation of a hybrid TEA CO2 laser and its application to two-frequency pulse injection locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Ohno, Hirotaka; Fujii, Takaharu; Tsukishima, Takashige.

    1990-10-01

    Simultaneous two-frequency oscillation of a hybrid TEA CO 2 laser is exhibited when the cw section is operated in a 'below threshold' state. The output of the hybrid laser thus obtained is injected into a main TEA CO 2 laser to obtain a power-modulated, long-pulse output with a well suppressed gain-switched spike. (author)

  7. A Global Terrestrial Reference Frame from simulated VLBI and SLR data in view of GGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Susanne; König, Rolf; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Flechtner, Frank; Schuh, Harald

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of two combination strategies, namely local ties (LT) and global ties (GT), on the datum realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Frames in view of the Global Geodetic Observing System requiring 1 mm-accuracy. Simulated Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data over a 7 year time span was used. The LT results show that the geodetic datum can be best transferred if the precision of the LT is at least 1 mm. Investigating different numbers of LT, the lack of co-located sites on the southern hemisphere is evidenced by differences of 9 mm in translation and rotation compared to the solution using all available LT. For the GT, the combination applying all Earth rotation parameters (ERP), such as pole coordinates and UT1-UTC, indicates that the rotation around the Z axis cannot be adequately transferred from VLBI to SLR within the combination. Applying exclusively the pole coordinates as GT, we show that the datum can be transferred with mm-accuracy within the combination. Furthermore, adding artificial stations in Tahiti and Nigeria to the current VLBI network results in an improvement in station positions by 13 and 12%, respectively, and in ERP by 17 and 11%, respectively. Extending to every day VLBI observations leads to 65% better ERP estimates compared to usual twice-weekly VLBI observations.

  8. Geocenter Motion Derived from GNSS and SLR Tracking Data of LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. S.; Ning, F. S.; Tseng, K. H.; Tseng, T. P.; Wu, J. M.; Chen, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Space geodesy techniques can provide the monitoring data of global variations with high precision and large coverage through the satellites. Geocenter motion (GM) describes the difference of CF (Center of Figure) respect to CM (Center of Mass of the Earth System) due to the re-distribution and deformation of the earth system. Because satellite tracking data between ground stations and satellites orbit around the CM, geocenter motion is related to the realization of the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) origin. In this study, GPS (Global Positioning System) observation data of IGS (International GNSS Service) and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data are applied to estimate the coordinates of observing sites on Earth's surface. The GPS observing sites are distributed deliberately and globally by 15° ×15° grids. Meanwhile, two different global ocean tide models are applied here. The model used in ITRF comparison and combination is parameter transformation, which is a mathematical formula allowing to transform the different frames between ITRF and CM system. Following the parameter transformation, the results of geocenter motion can be determined. The FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7C2) mission is a constellation of LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit) satellites, which will be launched in 2018. Besides the observing system for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate, the F7C2 will be equipped with LRR (Laser Ranging Retroreflector). This work is a pilot survey to study the application of LEO SLR data in Taiwan.

  9. Progress in SLR-GPS co-location at San Juan (Argentina) station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Hernan; Rojas, Alvis; Adarvez, Sonia; Quinteros, Johana; Cobos, Pablo; Aracena, Andrés; Pacheco, Ana M.; Podestá, Ricardo; Actis, Eloy V.; Li, Jinzeng; Yin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rui; Huang, Dongping; Márquez, Raúl

    2012-08-01

    From February, 2006, performing a Cooperation Agreement with National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) of Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ) is operating a SLR System (ILRS 7406 Station). From the beginning of 2012 a GPS Aztech - Micro Z CGRS is operative at the same place, which made the SLR - GPS co - location possible. The prior objective is to reach co - location between both techniques, so the Station became of 1st order in ITRF net. For that we study and adopt an appropriate strategy to select and place Survey Control Points that ensures higher precision in determination of 3D vectors between the selected reference point s. Afterwards we perform translocation tasks of receptor and antenna checking that the GPS verifies builder standards. Then we design and compensate survey control network, by means of software of our own draught. We expect to obtain definitive local ties with precision better than 3 mm, as suggested by IERS for co - located stations. There are very few stations with co - located spatial techniques in the Southern Hemisphere, so it is of great importance to have one in Argentina for improve our participation in IERS on the new realizations of ITRF from now on.

  10. Controller Design and Experiment for Tracking Mount of Movable SLR, ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controller design procedure for prototype tracking mount of Movable SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging, ARGO-M is presented. Tracking mount of ARGO-M is altitude-azimuth type and it has two axes of elevation and azimuth to control its position. Controller consists of velocity and acceleration feed-forward controller, position controller at outer loop, velocity controller at inner loop. There are two kinds of position control modes. One is the pointing mode to move from one position to the other position as fast as possible and the other one is tracking mode to follow SLR trajectory as precise as possible. Because the requirement of tracking accuracy is less than 5 arcsec and it is very tight error budget, a sophisticated controller needs to be prepared to meet the accuracy. Especially, ARGO-M is using the cross-roller bearing at each axis to increase the mechanical accuracy, which requires add-on controller DOB (Disturbance observer to suppress friction load and low frequency disturbances. The pointing and tracking performance of the designed controller is simulated and visualized using MATLAB/ Simulink and SimMechanics and the experimental results using test are presented as well.

  11. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  12. Large scale mass redistribution and surface displacement from GRACE and SLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Ries, J. C.; Tapley, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mass transport between the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth results in the temporal variations in the Earth gravity field and loading induced deformation of the Earth. Recent space-borne observations, such as GRACE mission, are providing extremely high precision temporal variations of gravity field. The results from 10-yr GRACE data has shown a significant annual variations of large scale vertical and horizontal displacements occurring over the Amazon, Himalayan region and South Asia, African, and Russian with a few mm amplitude. Improving understanding from monitoring and modeling of the large scale mass redistribution and the Earth's response are a critical for all studies in the geosciences, in particular for determination of Terrestrial Reference System (TRS), including geocenter motion. This paper will report results for the observed seasonal variations in the 3-dimentional surface displacements of SLR and GPS tracking stations and compare with the prediction from time series of GRACE monthly gravity solution.

  13. SLR-induced temporal and spatial changes in hotspots to storms along the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Sanuy, Marc; Valdemoro, Herminia

    2017-04-01

    any significant increasing trend, this does not imply that storm-induced coastal hazards will not change. Thus, SLR will induce a series of long-term changes in coastal areas that although not directly affecting storminess will modify the coastal resilient capacity and, thus, changing coastal storm risks. To provide long-term predictions of hotspot, we have assessed the long-term SLR influence on erosion and inundation risks. To do this, an equilibrium-based approach has been adopted in which background SLR-induced shoreline retreat and beach vertical response are assessed for different SLR scenarios. Obtained values are used to predict future coastal morphology and to compute the resilient capacity for each beach at any time horizon. With this information, future erosion and inundation risks and corresponding new spatial distributions of coastal hotspots are calculated for selected probabilities. Obtained results show a significant increase in hotspots along the coast, with most of the changes concentrated in areas with small accommodation space and dominated by mild slope shorefaces. The extension of the new hotspots seems to indicate than unless land planning is considered as a tool for risk reduction, massive protection need to be implemented in certain areas.

  14. Nonlinear integral equations for thermodynamics of the sl(r + 1) Uimin-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Zengo

    2003-01-01

    We derive traditional thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations for the sl(r+1) Uimin-Sutherland model from the T-system of the quantum transfer matrix. These TBA equations are identical to the those from the string hypothesis. Next we derive a new family of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs). In particular, a subset of these NLIEs forms a system of NLIEs which contains only a finite number of unknown functions. For r=1, this subset of NLIEs reduces to Takahashi's NLIE for the XXX spin chain. A relation between the traditional TBA equations and our new NLIEs is clarified. Based on our new NLIEs, we also calculate the high-temperature expansion of the free energy

  15. 78 FR 7663 - SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 1625-AA08 SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See...

  16. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  17. Earth rotation parameter and variation during 2005–2010 solved with LAGEOS SLR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time series of Earth rotation parameters were estimated from range data measured by the satellite laser ranging technique to the Laser Geodynamics Satellites (LAGEOS-1/2 through 2005 to 2010 using the dynamic method. Compared with Earth orientation parameter (EOP C04, released by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, the root mean square errors for the measured X and Y of polar motion (PM and length of day (LOD were 0.24 and 0.25 milliarcseconds (mas, and 0.068 milliseconds (ms, respectively. Compared with ILRSA EOP, the X and Y of PM and LOD were 0.27 and 0.30 mas, and 0.054 ms, respectively. The time series were analyzed using the wavelet transformation and least squares methods. Wavelet analysis showed obvious seasonal and interannual variations of LOD, and both annual and Chandler variations of PM; however, the annual variation could not be distinguished from the Chandler variation because the two frequencies were very close. The trends and periodic variations of LOD and PM were obtained in the least squares sense, and PM showed semi-annual, annual, and Chandler periods. Semi-annual, annual, and quasi-biennial cycles for LOD were also detected. The trend rates of PM in the X and Y directions were 3.17 and −1.60 mas per year, respectively, and the North Pole moved to 26.8°E relative to the crust during 2005–2010. The trend rate of the LOD change was 0.028 ms per year.

  18. Identification of a New Target slr0946 of the Response Regulator Sll0649 Involving Cadmium Tolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Survival of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is challenged by environmental contaminations like heavy metals. Among them, deciphering the regulatory mechanisms for cadmium (Cd in cyanobacteria would facilitate the construction of Cd-resistant strains. In this study, the DNA-Affinity-Purified-chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was employed to identify the direct targets of Sll0649, which was a Cd2+-related response regulator identified in our previous work in model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. As a result, the promoter region of slr0946 encoding the arsenate reductase was enriched fourfolds by quantitative real time PCR analysis. Further, deletion of slr0946 led to a sensitive phenotype to Cd2+ stress compared with the wild type (WT and the sensitive phenotype of Δslr0946 could be rescued by complementation assay via introducing slr0946 back into Δslr0946. Finally, individually overexpression of slr0946 as well as two Cd2+-related genes identified priviously (i.e., sll1598 and slr0798 in WT could significantly improve the tolerance of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to Cd2+. This study provided a better understanding of the tolerance mechanism to Cd2+ in cyanobacteria and also feasible strategies for tolerance modifications to heavy metals in the future.

  19. Diode-pumped two-frequency lasers based on c-cut vanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A; Garnov, Sergei V; Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Vlasov, V I; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2009-01-01

    The luminescent and lasing properties of the neo-dymium ion at the 4 F 3/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition in c-cut vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO 4 , Nd:GdVO 4 , and Nd:Gd 1-x Y x VO 4 ) are studied. Tuning of the laser radiation wavelength (Δλ = 5.4 nm) is demonstrated. Two-frequency laser schemes with the use of a Lyot filter, a Fabry-Perot etalon, and a Brewster prism as spectral selection elements are proposed and experimentally realised. Stable two-frequency lasing of a laser based on the c-cut Nd:GdVO 4 crystal was obtained in the cw, Q-switched (nanosecond pulses), and active acousto-optic mode-locked (picosecond pulses) regimes. (lasers)

  20. Breakup of inverse golden mean shearless tori in the two-frequency standard nontwist map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, A.; Martini, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    The breakup of shearless invariant tori with winding number ω=(√(5)−1)/2 (inverse golden mean) is studied using Greene's residue criterion in the recently derived two-frequency or extended standard nontwist map (ESNM). Depending on the frequency ratio, the ESNM has or does not have a particular spatial symmetry. If the symmetry is present, the breakup is shown to be the same as in the standard nontwist map; if not, the results are very different.

  1. One Step Solution to the Local Tie Vectors of GNSS/SLR in ITRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Xiaping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a one-step solution of local tie vectors,the solution takes RP (Reference Point and axes offsets of SLR telescope as unknown parameters,GNSS baselines network and conventional terrestrial observation (horizontal,vertical angle and distance are combined in ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame,and multiply constraint conditions are established between RP and observation marks and two axes offsets.Local tie vectors and related covariance matrices of the 3 co-located sites in Beijing,Kunming,Xi'an of CMONOC (Crustal Movement Observation Network of China are solved with the proposed one step solution.The results show that the RMS (root mean square error of local tie vectors is less than 2.0 mm.Besides,the differences are less than 2.0 mm compared with the traditional step by step solution,and the offsets and corresponding RMS between the horizontal axis and vertical axis are 3.8 mm,0.7 mm,3.6 mm and 1.3 mm,1.2 mm,1.3 mm,respectively.

  2. First Attempt of Orbit Determination of SLR Satellites and Space Debris Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Descosta, R.; Fernier, A.; Richard, P.

    2013-08-01

    We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects that appear in images obtained from robotic telescopes such as the TAROT ones. We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit ; in this case, the basic observations are made up of time series of ranges, obtained from various tracking stations. We show as well the results obtained from the observations acquired by the two TAROT telescopes on the Telecom-2D satellite operated by CNES ; in that case, the observations are made up of time series of azimuths and elevations, seen from the two TAROT telescopes. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen. The algorithm is supposed to converge towards an optimum over a reasonable computational time.

  3. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  4. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Filipe, Osvaldo; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof; Höfte, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Comparison of long-term SLR and GNSS solutions from selected stations in the frame of GGOS realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranek, K.; Schillak, S.; Araszkiewicz, A.; Figurski, M.; Lehmann, M.; Lejba, P.

    2012-04-01

    Up-to-date investigations concerning space geodesy are mostly aimed at data of various techniques joint processing. The poster presents solutions (North, East, Up components) of selected stations (McDonald, Yarragadee, Greenbelt, Monument Peak, Zimmerwald, Borowiec, Mt.Stromlo-Orroral, Potsdam, Graz, Herstmonceux and Wettzell), which adopted Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques and which were gathering the data in the same time (from 1994 to 2010). Processing of both types of data was made according to Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) recommendations, the same models and parameters from IERS Conventions 2010 were used in both processing strategies (if it was possible). The main goal was to obtain coordinates and their changes in time (velocities) basing on both techniques and to compare the results. The station coordinates were determined for the common reference epoch of both techniques - for first day of each month. Monthly orbital arcs for laser observations were created basing on solutions from several SLR sites (observations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites) with the best solutions quality and the highest amount of observations. For GNSS coordinates determination about 130 sites belonging to International GNSS Service (IGS) were selected: 30 with local ties to SLR sites and others basing on their geolocalization (length of the baselines) and solutions time series analysis. Mainly, core IGS stations were used. Solutions of both techniques were analyzed in order to verify agreement of both techniques and for independent control of local ties.

  6. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities

  7. Breakup of inverse golden mean shearless tori in the two-frequency standard nontwist map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, A., E-mail: awurm@wne.edu [Department of Physical and Biological Sciences, Western New England University, Springfield, MA 01119 (United States); Martini, K.M. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The breakup of shearless invariant tori with winding number ω=(√(5)−1)/2 (inverse golden mean) is studied using Greene's residue criterion in the recently derived two-frequency or extended standard nontwist map (ESNM). Depending on the frequency ratio, the ESNM has or does not have a particular spatial symmetry. If the symmetry is present, the breakup is shown to be the same as in the standard nontwist map; if not, the results are very different.

  8. Multicascade X-Ray Free-Electron Laser with Harmonic Multiplier and Two-Frequency Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K. V.

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of generation of powerful x-ray radiation by a cascade free-electron laser (FEL) with amplification of higher harmonics using a two-frequency undulator is studied. To analyze the FEL operation, a complex phenomenological single-pass FEL model is developed and used. It describes linear and nonlinear generation of harmonics in the FEL with seed laser that takes into account initial electron beam noise and describes all main losses of each harmonic in each FEL cascade. The model is also calibrated against and approved by the experimental FEL data and available results of three-dimensional numerical simulation. The electron beam in the undulator is assumed to be matched and focused, and the dynamics of power in the singlepass FEL with cascade harmonic multipliers is investigated to obtain x-ray laser radiation in the FEL having the shortest length, beam energy, and frequency of the seed laser as low as possible. In this context, the advantages of the two-frequency undulator used for generation of harmonics are demonstrated. The evolution of harmonics in a multicascade FEL with multiplication of harmonics is investigated. The operation of the cascade FEL at the wavelength λ = 1.14 nm, generating 30 MW already on 38 m with the seed laser operating at a wavelength of 11.43 nm corresponding to the maximal reflectivity of the multilayered mirror MoRu/Be coating is investigated. In addition, the operation of the multicascade FEL with accessible seed UVlaser operating at a wavelength of 157 nm (F2 excimer UV-laser) and electron beam with energy of 0.5 GeV is investigated. X-ray radiation simulated in it at the wavelength λ 3.9 nm reaches power of 50 MW already at 27 m, which is by two orders of magnitude shorter than 3.4 km of the x-ray FEL recently put into operation in Europe.

  9. Time series of low-degree geopotential coefficients from SLR data: estimation of Earth's figure axis and LOD variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luceri, V.; Sciarretta, C.; Bianco, G.

    2012-12-01

    The redistribution of the mass within the earth system induces changes in the Earth's gravity field. In particular, the second-degree geopotential coefficients reflect the behaviour of the Earth's inertia tensor of order 2, describing the main mass variations of our planet impacting the EOPs. Thanks to the long record of accurate and continuous laser ranging observations to Lageos and other geodetic satellites, SLR is the only current space technique capable to monitor the long time variability of the Earth's gravity field with adequate accuracy. Time series of low-degree geopotential coefficients are estimated with our analysis of SLR data (spanning more than 25 years) from several geodetic satellites in order to detect trends and periodic variations related to tidal effects and atmospheric/oceanic mass variations. This study is focused on the variations of the second-degree Stokes coefficients related to the Earth's principal figure axis and oblateness: C21, S21 and C20. On the other hand, surface mass load variations induce excitations in the EOPs that are proportional to the same second-degree coefficients. The time series of direct estimates of low degree geopotential and those derived from the EOP excitation functions are compared and presented together with their time and frequency analysis.

  10. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation with temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaobing; Huang, Chaohui; Chen, Lincong; Peng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate temperature effects on the nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation. For this purpose, two combination and simultaneous resonances are chosen and studied in detail. First of all, based on the assumptions of the temperature effects, the partial differential equations of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions with thermal effects under multi-frequency excitations are obtained. The Galerkin method is adopted to discretize the nonlinear dynamic equations, and the single-mode planar discretization is considered. Then, in the absence of the primary and internal resonances, the frequency response equations are obtained by using the multiple scales method. The stability analyses are conducted via investigating the nature of the singular points of equations. After that, temperature effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of the first symmetric mode are studied. Parametric investigations of temperature effects on corresponding non-dimensional factors and coefficients of linear and nonlinear terms are performed. Numerical results are presented to show the temperature effects via the frequency-response curves and detuning-phase curves of four different sag-to-span ratios. It is found out that effects of temperature variations would lead to significant quantitative and/or qualitative changes of the nonlinear vibration properties, and these effects are closely related to the sag-to-span ratio and the degree of the temperature variation. Specifically, the softening/hardening-type spring behaviors, the response amplitude, the range of the resonance, the intersection and number of branches, the number and phase of the steady-state solutions are all affected by the temperature changes.

  11. CSF-2F control apparatus using eddy currents of two frequencies. Case of the Fessenheim 1 exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Michel; Saglio, Robert.

    1976-01-01

    The CFS-2F is a control apparatus using eddy currents which, through a proper choice of two frequencies can eliminate non-essential defects given by dimensional variations, plates, dudgeoning, etc... which could hide actual defects. An application of this apparatus for the control of exchanger tubes for Fessenheim 1 is then described [fr

  12. Nonlinear oscillations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations under combined external and two-frequency parametric excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchim Bemmo, D.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.

    2011-01-01

    The continuous FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN for short) model is transformed into modified van der Pol oscillator with asymmetry under external and two-frequency parametric excitations. At the first, the dependence of the solutions on a combined external and two-frequency parametric stimulus forcing is investigated. By using the multiple scale method, ranges of applied current and/or parametric forcing in which nonlinear oscillations are observed are described. Second, when the multiple scale method cannot be used, we numerically prove that in the modified van der Pol oscillator with asymmetry under external and two-frequency parametric excitations, chaos and periodic solution depending on the combination between different frequencies of the model should appear. We also show that the amplitude of the oscillations can be reduced or increased. To do this, we perform the study of the FHN model by choosing a range of parameters exhibiting Hopf bifurcation and two qualitative different regimes in phase portrait. - Highlights: → We model both external and two-frequency parametric excitations in FHN equations. → We examine effects of harmonic forcing on coupled nonlinear oscillator. → Jump and hysteresis phenomena are observed in the dynamical response. → By increasing the constant stimulus we obtain limit cycle. → Some combinations of frequencies produce limit cycle and chaos for other.

  13. A Main Ring bunch length monitor by detecting two frequency components of the beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Jackson, G.

    1989-01-01

    The bunch length is measured by detecting two revolution frequency harmonics of the beam and taking the ratio of their amplitudes. Two heterodyne receivers have been made to direct them, one at 53MHz and the other at 159MHz. These signals are picked-up by a stripline detector. An analog circuit provides a signal proportional to the bunch length. The monitor measures variation of the bunch length as a function of time in the Main Ring. The measured signal, which sometimes shows that the bunches are tumbling in phase space, can be damped by feedback to the RF amplitude modulator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  14. Cadmium triggers an integrated reprogramming of the metabolism of Synechocystis PCC6803, under the control of the Slr1738 regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Jean-Christophe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a persistent pollutant that threatens most biological organisms, including cyanobacteria that support a large part of the biosphere. Using a multifaceted approach, we have investigated the global responses to Cd and other relevant stresses (H2O2 and Fe in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Results We found that cells respond to the Cd stress in a two main temporal phases process. In the "early" phase cells mainly limit Cd entry through the negative and positive regulation of numerous genes operating in metal uptake and export, respectively. As time proceeds, the number of responsive genes increases. In this "massive" phase, Cd downregulates most genes operating in (i photosynthesis (PS that normally provides ATP and NADPH; (ii assimilation of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur that requires ATP and NAD(PH; and (iii translation machinery, a major consumer of ATP and nutrients. Simultaneously, many genes are upregulated, such as those involved in Fe acquisition, stress tolerance, and protein degradation (crucial to nutrients recycling. The most striking common effect of Cd and H2O2 is the disturbance of both light tolerance and Fe homeostasis, which appeared to be interdependent. Our results indicate that cells challenged with H2O2 or Cd use different strategies for the same purpose of supplying Fe atoms to Fe-requiring metalloenzymes and the SUF machinery, which synthesizes or repairs Fe-S centers. Cd-stressed cells preferentially breakdown their Fe-rich PS machinery, whereas H2O2-challenged cells preferentially accelerate the intake of Fe atoms from the medium. Conclusion We view the responses to Cd as an integrated "Yin Yang" reprogramming of the whole metabolism, we found to be controlled by the Slr1738 regulator. As the Yin process, the ATP- and nutrients-sparing downregulation of anabolism limits the poisoning incorporation of Cd into metalloenzymes. As the compensatory Yang process, the PS breakdown

  15. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. A New Model of the Mean Albedo of the Earth: Estimation and Validation from the GRACE Mission and SLR Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, F.; Sammuneh, M. A.; Coulot, D.; Pollet, A.; Biancale, R.; Marty, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This talk provides new results of a study that we began last year, and that was the subject of a poster by the same authors presented during AGU FM 2016, entitled « Mean Effect of the Albedo of the Earth on Artificial Satellite Trajectories: an Update Over 2000-2015. »The emissivity of the Earth, split into a part in the visible domain (albedo) and the infrared domain (thermic emissivity), is at the origin of non gravitational perturbations on artificial satellite trajectories. The amplitudes and periods of these perturbations can be investigated if precise orbits can be carried out, and reveal some characteristics of the space environment where the satellite is orbiting. Analyzing the perturbations is, hence, a way to characterize how the energy from the Sun is re-emitted by the Earth. When led over a long period of time, such an approach enables to quantify the variations of the global radiation budget of the Earth.Additionally to the preliminary results presented last year, we draw an assessment of the validity of the mean model based on the orbits of the GRACE missions, and, to a certain extent, of some of the SLR satellite orbits. The accelerometric data of the GRACE satellites are used to evaluate the accuracy of the models accounting for non gravitational forces, and the ones induced by the albedo and the thermic emissivity in particular. Three data sets are used to investigate the mean effects on the orbit perturbations: Stephens tables (Stephens, 1980), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) data sets and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) data sets (publickly available). From the trajectography point of view, based on post-fit residual analysis, we analyze what is the data set leading to the lowest residual level, to define which data set appears to be the most suitable one to derive a new « mean albedo model » from accelerometric data sets of the GRACE mission. The period of investigation covers the full GRACE

  17. Cognitive Demands during Quiet Standing Elicit Truncal Tremor in Two Frequency Bands: Differential Relations to Tissue Integrity of Corticospinal Tracts and Cortical Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to stand quietly is disturbed by degradation of cerebellar systems. Given the complexity of sensorimotor integration invoked to maintain upright posture, the integrity of supratentorial brain structures may also contribute to quiet standing and consequently be vulnerable to interference from cognitive challenges. As cerebellar system disruption is a common concomitant of alcoholism, we examined 46 alcoholics and 43 controls with a force platform to derive physiological indices of quiet standing during cognitive (solving simple, mental arithmetic problems and visual (eyes closed challenges. Also tested were relations between tremor velocity and regional gray matter and white matter tissue quality measured with the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI metric of mean diffusivity (MD, indexing disorganized microstructure. Spectral analysis of sway revealed greater tremor in alcoholic men than alcoholic women or controls. Cognitive dual-tasking elicited excessive tremor in two frequency bands, each related to DTI signs of degradation in separate brain systems: tremor velocity at a low power (2-5 Hz/0-2 Hz correlated with higher MD in the cerebellar hemispheres and superior cingulate bundles, whereas tremor velocity at a higher power (5-7 Hz correlated with higher MD in the motor cortex and internal capsule. These brain sites may represent tremorgenic networks that when disturbed by disease and exacerbated by cognitive dual-tasking contribute to postural instability, putting affected individuals at heightened risk for falling.

  18. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of two-frequency solid-state lasers in the GHz to THz ranges. Opto-microwave applications waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, N.D.

    2003-07-01

    We explored some new features of single- and dual-frequency solid-state lasers oscillating in continuous-wave or pulsed regimes. First, we have developed some techniques to optimise the characteristics of pulsed lasers. A weak modulation of the pump power made it possible to obtain a stable repetition rate with a relative stability of 10 -6 . The pulse duration was continuously controlled from ten nanoseconds to a few hundreds nanoseconds by three different methods: adjustment of the laser beam diameter in the absorber, adjustment of the pump beam diameter in the active medium, and, in particular, the use of forked eigenstates in a two-axis laser. Moreover, the forked eigenstates allows to increase the pulse energy by coherent addition of the pulses. A compact two-frequency Nd:YAG-Cr:YAG laser with a beat note frequency continuously adjustable up to 2,7 GHz was demonstrated. The two-frequency pulses are ideal sources to meet various needs of applications such as the Doppler lidar-radar. Moreover, we show that two-frequency pulses at 1,55 μm can be obtained by using a new c-cut Co:ASL saturable absorber in an Er-Yb:glass laser. These pulses are perfectly adapted to free-space detection systems requiring eye safety. The coherence time of the beat note in these lasers was also studied: it is limited by the pulse duration. A new technique of modulating the pump power of a solid-state laser at frequencies close to its relaxation oscillation frequency was studied and made it possible to generate a beat note coherence from pulse to pulse. Frequency conversion techniques using the nonlinear optical effects make it possible to obtain tunable two-frequency sources in the visible spectrum. Green and red two-frequency pulses were obtained by using different conversion techniques, intra-cavity or extra-cavity. A two-frequency THz source in the red spectrum was also obtained by doubling the frequencies of a two-frequency THz Er-Yb:glass laser using a mixed fan-out PPLN crystal

  20. Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T 1) and Spin-Spin (T 2) Relaxation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

  1. Spin motion determination of the Envisat satellite through laser ranging measurements from a single pass measured by a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.

  2. Temporal evolution of electron density in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz) capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirse, N; Ellingboe, A R; Jeon, M H; Yeom, G Y

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved electron density, n e , is measured in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharge sustained in Ar and in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 (80 : 10 : 10) gas mixture using a floating resonance hairpin probe. The top electrode is powered by 60 MHz in pulse mode and the bottom electrode is powered by 2 MHz in continuous wave mode. The dependence of time-resolved n e on the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power levels, operating gas pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and duty cycle are investigated. It is found that the steady state n e in the long on-phase is greatly influenced by the HF power level and slightly affected by the LF power level in both Ar and Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma. The decay time of n e is slow (∼30–90 µs) in the case of Ar plasma and strongly depends on the LF power level, whereas in the case of Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture it is very fast (∼15 µs) and marginally dependent on LF power level. In Ar plasma the steady state n e is increasing with a rise in operating gas pressure, however, in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma it first increases with gas pressure reaching to the maximum (at 20 mTorr) value and then decreases. The pressure dependence of decay time constant mimics the pressure variation of steady state n e . Furthermore, it is observed that the on-phase electron density is greatly affected by changing the PRF and duty cycle. This effect is more prominent in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma when compared to Ar discharge. In addition, n e is observed to overshoot the steady state densities in the beginning of the on-phase in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture, but this effect is either small or absent in the case of Ar plasma. (paper)

  3. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D . Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  4. Improvement of the software Bernese for SLR data processing in the Main Metrological Centre of the State Time and Frequency Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, E.; Kaufman, M.

    2015-08-01

    Preparatory works for resuming operational calculations of the Earth rotation parameters based on the results of satellite laser ranging data processing (LAGEOS 1, LAGEOS 2) are to be completed in the Main Metrology Centre Of The State Time And Frequency Service (VNIIFTRI) in 2014. For this purpose BERNESE 5.2 software (Dach & Walser, 2014) was chosen as a base software which has been used for many years in the Main Metrological Centre of the State Time and Frequency Service to process phase observations of GLONASS and GPS satellites. Although in the BERNESE 5.2 software announced presentation the possibility of the SLR data processing is declared, it has not been fully implemented. In particular there is no such an essential element as corrective action (as input or resulting parameters) in the local time scale ("time bias"), etc. Therefore, additional program blocks have been developed and integrated into the BERNESE 5.2 software environment. The program blocks are written in Perl and Matlab program languages and can be used both for Windows and Linux, 32-bit and 64-bit platforms.

  5. Venus night ionosphere according to results of two-frequency radioscopy by means of the Venera 9 and Venera 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.N.; Vasil'ev, M.B.; Vyshlov, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    The night ionosphere of the planet Venus has been studied. The experiments were conducted by the radioscopy method from 24.10 till 7.12. 1975 using the Venus-9 and Venus-10 space probes in 32 and 8 cm wavelengths. The signals reflected from the planet were received at a terrestrxal station where their frequencies and the reduced phase differences between them were measured. The measurement data processing yielded distribution of the electron density (ED) with height over the planet surface. The ED profiles obtained were divided into two groups. Each of the first group profiles (13 profiles) has two distinct maxima. The ED in the upper maximum is generally greater than in the lower one. The ED values equal (3-8.8)x10 3 cm -3 and 2x10 3 cm -3 respectively. The upper maximum lies at an altitude from 134 to 114 km, the lower maximum is shifted relative to the upper one by 17-24 km. The second group profiles (3 profiles) have the same maximum at the same altitudes as the upper maximum in the first group. The ED value in the maximum equal to 1.6x10 4 cm -3 drops to 7x10 3 cm -3 . According to the author opinion of the authors, the variability of the Venus night ionosphere parameters reflects considerable variations of an ionization source

  6. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  7. Mallinckrodt's position on SLR production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine applications and Mallinckrodt's position are discussed. An update of Mallinckrodt's activities and future plans are also given. The keen interest of Mallinckrodt, Inc., in the application and development of short-lived radionuclides for medical use is stressed, as well as envisioned innovations

  8. The ORF slr0091 of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 encodes a high-light induced aldehyde dehydrogenase converting apocarotenals and alkanals

    KAUST Repository

    Trautmann, Danika

    2013-07-05

    Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids and peroxidation of lipids lead to apocarotenals and aliphatic aldehydes called alkanals, which react with vitally important compounds, promoting cytotoxicity. Although many enzymes have been reported to deactivate alkanals by converting them into fatty acids, little is known about the mechanisms used to detoxify apocarotenals or the enzymes acting on them. Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic organisms must cope with both classes of aldehydes. Here we report that the Synechocystis enzyme SynAlh1, encoded by the ORF slr0091, is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that mediates oxidation of both apocarotenals and alkanals into the corresponding acids. Using a crude lysate of SynAlh1-expressing Escherichia coli cells, we show that SynAlh1 converts a wide range of apocarotenals and alkanals, with a preference for apocarotenals with defined chain lengths. As suggested by in vitro incubations and using engineered retinal-forming E. coli cells, we found that retinal is not a substrate for SynAlh1, making involvement in Synechocystis retinoid metabolism unlikely. The transcript level of SynAlh1 is induced by high light and cold treatment, indicating a role in the stress response, and the corresponding gene is a constituent of a stress-related operon. The assumptions regarding the function of SynAlh are further supported by the surprisingly high homology to human and plant aldehyde dehydrogenase that have been assigned to aldehyde detoxification. SynAlh1 is the first aldehyde dehydrogenase that has been shown to form both apocarotenoic and fatty acids. This dual function suggests that its eukaryotic homologs may also be involved in apocarotenal metabolism, a function that has not been considered so far. Aldehyde dehydrogenases play an important role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes. Here, we report on a cyanbacterial enzyme capable in converting two classes of lipid-derived aldehydes, apocaotenals and alkanals. The corresponding gene is a

  9. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yastikli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was

  10. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  11. A measurement error approach to assess the association between dietary diversity, nutrient intake, and mean probability of adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate.

  12. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (organize photographs that could be combined with related external data (e.g., gauged water levels) to create an information mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  13. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  14. Systematic effects in LOD from SLR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloßfeld, Mathis; Gerstl, Michael; Hugentobler, Urs; Angermann, Detlef; Müller, Horst

    2014-09-01

    Beside the estimation of station coordinates and the Earth’s gravity field, laser ranging observations to near-Earth satellites can be used to determine the rotation of the Earth. One parameter of this rotation is ΔLOD (excess Length Of Day) which describes the excess revolution time of the Earth w.r.t. 86,400 s. Due to correlations among the different parameter groups, it is difficult to obtain reliable estimates for all parameters. In the official ΔLOD products of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), the ΔLOD information determined from laser ranging observations is excluded from the processing. In this paper, we study the existing correlations between ΔLOD, the orbital node Ω, the even zonal gravity field coefficients, cross-track empirical accelerations and relativistic accelerations caused by the Lense-Thirring and deSitter effect in detail using first order Gaussian perturbation equations. We found discrepancies due to different a priories by using different gravity field models of up to 1.0 ms for polar orbits at an altitude of 500 km and up to 40.0 ms, if the gravity field coefficients are estimated using only observations to LAGEOS 1. If observations to LAGEOS 2 are included, reliable ΔLOD estimates can be achieved. Nevertheless, an impact of the a priori gravity field even on the multi-satellite ΔLOD estimates can be clearly identified. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of empirical cross-track accelerations and the effect of relativistic accelerations of near-Earth satellites on ΔLOD. A total effect of 0.0088 ms is caused by not modeled Lense-Thirring and deSitter terms. The partial derivatives of these accelerations w.r.t. the position and velocity of the satellite cause very small variations (0.1 μs) on ΔLOD.

  15. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  16. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  17. Low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-DIC system and its application in high-temperature deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuxi; Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2018-05-01

    A low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) system for accurate surface three-dimensional (3D) shape and deformation measurements is described. This system adopts a single consumer-grade high-resolution digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera and a four-mirror adaptor, rather than two synchronized industrial digital cameras, for stereo image acquisition. In addition, monochromatic blue light illumination and coupled bandpass filter imaging are integrated to ensure the robustness of the system against ambient light variations. In contrast to conventional binocular stereo-DIC systems, the developed pseudo-stereo-DIC system offers the advantages of low cost, portability, robustness against ambient light variations, and high resolution. The accuracy and precision of the developed single SLR camera-based stereo-DIC system were validated by measuring the 3D shape of a stationary sphere along with in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a translated planar plate. Application of the established system to thermal deformation measurement of an alumina ceramic plate and a stainless-steel plate subjected to radiation heating was also demonstrated.

  18. Low frequency phase signal measurement with high frequency squeezing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Zehui; Gao, Jiangrui

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the utility of high-frequency squeezed-state enhanced two-frequency interferometry for low-frequency phase measurement. To use the high-frequency sidebands of the squeezed light, a two-frequency intense laser is used in the interferometry instead of a single-frequency laser as usual. We find that the readout signal can be contaminated by the high-frequency phase vibration, but this is easy to check and avoid. A proof-of-principle experiment is in the reach of modern quantum optic...

  19. The role of SLR and LLR in relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, John C.

    1994-01-01

    While General Relativity has been adopted as the standard theory of relativity, there are alternative theories, with important implications for gravitational physics, which can only be discounted with tests of sufficient accuracy. In addition to its contributions to lunar and solar system dynamics, Lunar Laser Ranging, in combination with other solar system data continues to refine some important limits. Satellite laser ranging tracking of geodetic satellites can provide similar tests, but the accuracy is usually limited by gravitational and nongravitational perturbations.

  20. Photon Pressure Force on Space Debris TOPEX/Poseidon Measured by Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Bennett, J. C.; Lachut, M.; Sośnica, K.; Koshkin, N.; Shakun, L.; Koidl, F.; Steindorfer, M.; Wang, P.; Fan, C.; Han, X.; Grunwaldt, L.; Wilkinson, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Bianco, G.; Vespe, F.; Catalán, M.; Salmins, K.; del Pino, J. R.; Lim, H.-C.; Park, E.; Moore, C.; Lejba, P.; Suchodolski, T.

    2017-10-01

    The (TOPography EXperiment) TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry mission operated for 13 years before the satellite was decommissioned in January 2006, becoming a large space debris object at an altitude of 1,340 km. Since the end of the mission, the interaction of T/P with the space environment has driven the satellite's spin dynamics. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements collected from June 2014 to October 2016 allow for the satellite spin axis orientation to be determined with an accuracy of 1.7°. The spin axis coincides with the platform yaw axis (formerly pointing in the nadir direction) about which the body rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The combined photometric and SLR data collected over the 11 year time span indicates that T/P has continuously gained rotational energy at an average rate of 2.87 J/d and spins with a period of 10.73 s as of 19 October 2016. The satellite attitude model shows a variation of the cross-sectional area in the Sun direction between 8.2 m2 and 34 m2. The direct solar radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the spin-up of the body, and the exerted photon force varies from 65 μN to 228 μN around the mean value of 138.6 μN. Including realistic surface force modeling in orbit propagation algorithms will improve the prediction accuracy, giving better conjunction warnings for scenarios like the recent close approach reported by the ILRS Space Debris Study Group—an approximate 400 m flyby between T/P and Jason-2 on 20 June 2017.

  1. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  2. Initial results of centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation BDS satellites with inter-satellite link measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Liu, Li; Pan, Junyang; Chen, Liucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Lingfeng; Hu, Guangming; Li, Xiaojie; He, Feng; Chang, Zhiqiao

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous orbit determination is the ability of navigation satellites to estimate the orbit parameters on-board using inter-satellite link (ISL) measurements. This study mainly focuses on data processing of the ISL measurements as a new measurement type and its application on the centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation Beidou navigation satellite system satellites for the first time. The ISL measurements are dual one-way measurements that follow a time division multiple access (TDMA) structure. The ranging error of the ISL measurements is less than 0.25 ns. This paper proposes a derivation approach to the satellite clock offsets and the geometric distances from TDMA dual one-way measurements without a loss of accuracy. The derived clock offsets are used for time synchronization, and the derived geometry distances are used for autonomous orbit determination. The clock offsets from the ISL measurements are consistent with the L-band two-way satellite, and time-frequency transfer clock measurements and the detrended residuals vary within 0.5 ns. The centralized autonomous orbit determination is conducted in a batch mode on a ground-capable server for the feasibility study. Constant hardware delays are present in the geometric distances and become the largest source of error in the autonomous orbit determination. Therefore, the hardware delays are estimated simultaneously with the satellite orbits. To avoid uncertainties in the constellation orientation, a ground anchor station that "observes" the satellites with on-board ISL payloads is introduced into the orbit determination. The root-mean-square values of orbit determination residuals are within 10.0 cm, and the standard deviation of the estimated ISL hardware delays is within 0.2 ns. The accuracy of the autonomous orbits is evaluated by analysis of overlap comparison and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and is compared with the accuracy of the L-band orbits. The results indicate

  3. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  4. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rade

    Full Text Available Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described.Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves.Controlled radiologic study.Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared.The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD with unilateral (p≤.001 and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542. Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively.Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment.

  5. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  6. First laser measurements to space debris in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejba, Paweł; Suchodolski, Tomasz; Michałek, Piotr; Bartoszak, Jacek; Schillak, Stanisław; Zapaśnik, Stanisław

    2018-05-01

    The Borowiec Satellite Laser Ranging station (BORL 7811, Borowiec) being a part of the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) went through modernization in 2014-2015. One of the main tasks of the modernization was the installation of a high-energy laser module dedicated to space debris tracking. Surelite III by Continuum is a Nd:YAG pulse laser with 10 Hz repetition rate, a pulse width of 3-5 ns and a pulse energy of 450 mJ for green (532 nm). This new laser unit was integrated with the SLR system at Borowiec performing standard satellite tracking. In 2016 BORL 7811 participated actively to the observational campaigns related to the space debris targets from LEO region managed by the Space Debris Study Group (SDSG) of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). Currently, Borowiec station regularly tracks 36 space debris from the LEO regime, including typical rocket bodies (Russian/Chinese) and cooperative targets like the inactive TOPEX/Poseidon, ENVISAT, OICETS and others. In this paper the first results of space debris laser measurements obtained by the Borowiec station in period August 2016 - January 2017 are presented. The results gained by the SRC PAS Borowiec station confirm the rotation of the defunct TOPEX/Poseidon satellite which spins with a period of approximately 10 s. The novelty of this work is the presentation of the sample results of the Chinese CZ-2C R/B target (NORAD catalogue number 31114) which is equipped (probably) with retroreflectors. Laser measurements to space debris is a very desirable topic for the next years, especially in the context of the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) activity. Some targets are very easy to track like defunct ENVISAT or TOPEX/Poseidon. On the other hand, there is a big population of different LEO targets with different orbital and physical parameters, which are challenging for laser ranging like small irregular debris and rocket boosters.

  7. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bonin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  8. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer A.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Minkang

    2018-01-01

    A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  9. Hamstring Elongation Quantified Using Ultrasonography During the Straight Leg Raise Test in Individuals With Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Ellinoudis, Athanasios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Although the straight leg raise (SLR) test frequently is used to assess hamstring extensibility in individuals with low back pain (LBP), evidence relating LBP, SLR, and hamstring extensibility remains unclear. The SLR measures the angle between the lifted leg and the horizontal, however, and, as such, it is not a direct measure of the elongation capacity of the hamstrings. To examine the differences in hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography) and SLR score between individuals with LBP and asymptomatic controls and to determine the relationship between hamstring elongation, SLR, and functional disability scores. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Forty men and women with chronic LBP (mean ± SD, age 43.51 ± 3.71 years and 40 control subjects (age 45.11 ± 4.01 years) participated in this study. Passive SLR, elongation assessed via ultrasonography, and functional disability. SLR score, elongation of tendinous tissue within the semitendinosus muscle, and Oswestry Disability Index. Two-way analysis of variance tests indicated a significantly lower SLR score and a greater Oswestry score in LBP group compared with control subjects (P hamstring elongation (P > .05). Gender did not have an effect on all dependent measures (P > .05). Hamstring elongation showed a low correlation with SLR score and a minimal correlation with Oswestry score. These results indicate that the SLR score is not determined by hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using DORIS measurements for ionosphere modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmering, Denise; Schmidt, Michael; Limberger, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, most of the ionosphere models used in geodesy are based on terrestrial GNSS measurements and describe the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) depending on longitude, latitude, and time. Since modeling the height distribution of the electrons is difficult due to the measurement geometry, the VTEC maps are based on the the assumption of a single-layer ionosphere. Moreover, the accuracy of the VTEC maps is different for different regions of the Earth, because the GNSS stations are unevenly distributed over the globe and some regions (especially the ocean areas) are not very well covered by observations. To overcome the unsatisfying measurement geometry of the terrestrial GNSS measurements and to take advantage of the different sensitivities of other space-geodetic observation techniques, we work on the development of multi-dimensional models of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques. Our approach consists of a given background model and an unknown correction part expanded in terms of B-spline functions. Different space-geodetic measurements are used to estimate the unknown model coefficients. In order to take into account the different accuracy levels of the observations, a Variance Component Estimation (VCE) is applied. We already have proven the usefulness of radio occultation data from space-borne GPS receivers and of two-frequency altimetry data. Currently, we test the capability of DORIS observations to derive ionospheric parameters such as VTEC. Although DORIS was primarily designed for precise orbit computation of satellites, it can be used as a tool to study the Earth's ionosphere. The DORIS ground beacons are almost globally distributed and the system is on board of various Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) with different orbit heights, such as Jason-2, Cryosat-2, and HY-2. The last generation of DORIS receivers directly provides phase measurements on two frequencies. In this contribution, we test the DORIS

  11. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  12. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  13. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  14. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  15. New perspectives for high accuracy SLR with second generation geodesic satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the accuracy limitations imposed by geodesic satellite signatures, and on the potential for achieving millimetric performances by means of alternative satellite concepts and an optimized 2-color system tradeoff. Long distance laser ranging, when performed between a ground (emitter/receiver) station and a distant geodesic satellite, is now reputed to enable short arc trajectory determinations to be achieved with an accuracy of 1 to 2 centimeters. This state-of-the-art accuracy is limited principally by the uncertainties inherent to single-color atmospheric path length correction. Motivated by the study of phenomena such as postglacial rebound, and the detailed analysis of small-scale volcanic and strain deformations, the drive towards millimetric accuracies will inevitably be felt. With the advent of short pulse (less than 50 ps) dual wavelength ranging, combined with adequate detection equipment (such as a fast-scanning streak camera or ultra-fast solid-state detectors) the atmospheric uncertainty could potentially be reduced to the level of a few millimeters, thus, exposing other less significant error contributions, of which by far the most significant will then be the morphology of the retroreflector satellites themselves. Existing geodesic satellites are simply dense spheres, several 10's of cm in diameter, encrusted with a large number (426 in the case of LAGEOS) of small cube-corner reflectors. A single incident pulse, thus, results in a significant number of randomly phased, quasi-simultaneous return pulses. These combine coherently at the receiver to produce a convolved interference waveform which cannot, on a shot to shot basis, be accurately and unambiguously correlated to the satellite center of mass. This paper proposes alternative geodesic satellite concepts, based on the use of a very small number of cube-corner retroreflectors, in which the above difficulties are eliminated while ensuring, for a given emitted pulse, the return of a single clean pulse with an adequate cross-section.

  16. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  17. Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  18. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  19. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  20. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  1. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  2. MEASURING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J.R.

    1963-01-29

    A measuring and balancing arrangement for mass spectrometers permits the ready determination of isotopic ratios and mole and weight percentages by employing a selection of amplifier input resistors to vary sensitivity in a bridge arrangement. (AEC)

  3. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  4. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  5. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  6. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  7. Frequency Comb Driven Raman Transitions in the THz Range: High Precision Isotope Shift Measurements in Ca+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) are used, and the two frequency comb systems used for the experiments are thoroughly characterized, a Coherent Mira Ti:sapph oscillator and a MenloSystems fiber based frequency comb system. The potential of frequency comb driven Raman transitions is shown...... transition frequencies typically are on the order of a few THz. High precision measurements on these ions have many intriguing applications, for example the test of time-variations of fundamental constants, ultracold chemistry on the quantum level, and quantum information and computing, to name just a few...

  8. Determination of NIR informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy relies on wavebands that provide reliable information about spectral absorption. In this study, we investigated wavebands which are informative for blood glucose in the NIR shortwave band (900˜1450 nm) and the first overtone band (1450˜1700 nm) through a specially designed NIR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which featured a test fixture (where a sample or subject's finger could be placed) and all-reflective optics, except for a Michelson structure. Different concentrations of glucose solution and seven volunteers who had undergone oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were studied to acquire transmission spectra in the shortwave band and the first overtone band. Characteristic peaks of glucose absorption were identified from the spectra of glucose aqueous solution by second-order derivative processing. The wavebands linked to blood glucose were successfully estimated through spectra of the middle fingertip of OGTT participants by a simple linear regression and correlation coefficient. The light intensity difference showed that glucose absorption in the first overtone band was much more prominent than it was in the shortwave band. The results of the SLR model established from seven OGTTs in total on seven participants enabled a positive estimation of the glucose-linked wavelength. It is suggested that wavebands with prominent characteristic peaks, a high correlation coefficient between blood glucose and light intensity difference and a relatively low standard deviation of predicted values will be the most informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods. This work provides a guidance for waveband selection for the development of non-invasive NIR blood glucose measurement.

  9. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  10. Measurements of

    CERN Document Server

    Angerami, Aaron; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement is presented of $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ in Pb+Pb collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$. The angular and transverse momentum correlations between the muons are measured as a function of collision centrality. The lepton pairs are produced from $\\gamma \\gamma$ through the interaction of the large electromagnetic fields of the nuclei. The contribution from background sources of muon pairs is removed using a template fit method. In peripheral collisions, the muons exhibit a strong back-to-back correlation consistent with previous measurements of muon pair production in ultra-peripheral collisions. The angular correlations are observed to broaden significantly in central collisions. The modifications are qualitatively consistent with rescattering of the muons while passing through the hot matter produced in the collision.

  11. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  12. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  13. Measuring anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self......-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders...

  14. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  15. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  16. A novel non-contact profiler design for measuring synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yao; Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Wang, Run-Wen

    1990-08-01

    A novel optical profiler is described in this paper for measurement of surface profiles of synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The measurement is based on a combination of an optical heterodyne technique and a precise phase measurement procedure without a reference surface. A Zeeman two-frequency He-Ne laser is employed as the light source. The common-path optical system, which uses a birefringent lens as the beam splitter, minimizes the effects of air turbulence, sample vibration and temperature variation. A special autofocus system allows the profiler to measure the roughness and shape of a sample surface. The optical system is mounted on a large linear air-bearing slide, and is capable of scanning over distances covering the spatial period range from several microns to nearly one meter with a high measurement accuracy. 9 refs., 5 figs

  17. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  18. A comparison of radiographic anatomic axis knee alignment measurements and cross-sectional associations with knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulston, L.M.; Sanchez-Santos, M.T.; D'Angelo, S.; Leyland, K.M.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Cooper, C.; Dennison, E.M.; Hunter, D.; Arden, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Malalignment is associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), however, the optimal anatomic axis (AA) knee alignment measurement on a standard limb radiograph (SLR) is unknown. This study compares one-point (1P) and two-point (2P) AA methods using three knee joint centre locations and examines cross-sectional associations with symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (SRKOA), radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) and knee pain. Methods AA alignment was measured six different ways using the KneeMorf software on 1058 SLRs from 584 women in the Chingford Study. Cross-sectional associations with principal outcome SRKOA combined with greatest reproducibility determined the optimal 1P and 2P AA method. Appropriate varus/neutral/valgus alignment categories were established using logistic regression with generalised estimating equation models fitted with restricted cubic spline function. Results The tibial plateau centre displayed greatest reproducibility and associations with SRKOA. As mean 1P and 2P values differed by >2°, new alignment categories were generated for 1P: varus 182° and for 2P methods: varus 185°. Varus vs neutral alignment was associated with a near 2-fold increase in SRKOA and RKOA, and valgus vs neutral for RKOA using 2P method. Nonsignificant associations were seen for 1P method for SRKOA, RKOA and knee pain. Conclusions AA alignment was associated with SRKOA and the tibial plateau centre had the strongest association. Differences in AA alignment when 1P vs 2P methods were compared indicated bespoke alignment categories were necessary. Further replication and validation with mechanical axis alignment comparison is required. PMID:26700504

  19. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  20. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  1. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New...

  2. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  3. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  4. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  5. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  6. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of ± 50 μm for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  7. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  8. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  9. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  10. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzeix, S.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  11. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  12. Solar wind electron densities from Viking dual-frequency radio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.; Anderson, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous phase coherent, two-frequency measurements of the time delay between the Earth station and the Viking spacecraft have been analyzed in terms of the electron density profiles from 4 solar radii (R/sub sun/) to 200 R/sub sun/. The measurements were made during a period of solar activity minimum (1976--1977) and show a strong solar latitude effect. The data were analyzed with both a model independent, direct numerical inversion technique and with model fitting, yielding essentially the same results. It is shown that the solar wind density can be represented by two power laws near the solar equator proportional to r/sup -2.7/ and r/sup -2.04/. However, the more rapidly falling term quickly disappears at moderate latitudes (approx.20 0 ), leaving only the inverse-square behavior

  13. High-efficiency interaction-free measurement with an unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Liu; Jinhong, Liu; Junxiang, Zhang; Shiyao, Zhu

    2018-06-01

    The presence of an object can be detected without the absorption of photons in an interaction-free measurement (IFM) system based on the Zeno effect in chained Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). In this paper, we propose a scheme with an unbalanced MZI to perform the transmission of two frequency components of input light simultaneously. The two components are separated at two output ports of the MZI, achieving a high probability of asserting the absence of the object. The two final outputs of the MZI can also be extended to perform special information processing via IFM. As a result, this proposal contributes to the improvement of efficiency in interaction-free measurements with a very small number of interferometers for potential practical implementations of quantum information technology.

  14. Measuring the global distribution of intense convection over land with passive microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.; Santek, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The global distribution of intense convective activity over land is shown to be measurable with satellite passive-microwave methods through a comparison of an empirical rain rate algorithm with a climatology of thunderstorm days for the months of June-August. With the 18 and 37 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the strong volume scattering effects of precipitation can be measured. Even though a single frequency (37 GHz) is responsive to the scattering signature, two frequencies are needed to remove most of the effect that variations in thermometric temperatures and soil moisture have on the brightness temperatures. Because snow cover is also a volume scatterer of microwave energy at these microwavelengths, a discrimination procedure involving four of the SMMR channels is employed to separate the rain and snow classes, based upon their differences in average thermometric temperature.

  15. Measure and dimension functions: measurability and densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pertti; Mauldin, R. Daniel

    1997-01-01

    During the past several years, new types of geometric measure and dimension have been introduced; the packing measure and dimension, see [Su], [Tr] and [TT1]. These notions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in various aspects of dynamics and measure theory. Packing measure is a sort of dual of Hausdorff measure in that it is defined in terms of packings rather than coverings. However, in contrast to Hausdorff measure, the usual definition of packing measure requires two limiting procedures, first the construction of a premeasure and then a second standard limiting process to obtain the measure. This makes packing measure somewhat delicate to deal with. The question arises as to whether there is some simpler method for defining packing measure and dimension. In this paper, we find a basic limitation on this possibility. We do this by determining the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the packing functions. Whereas the Hausdorff dimension function on the space of compact sets is Borel measurable, the packing dimension function is not. On the other hand, we show that the packing dimension functions are measurable with respect to the [sigma]-algebra generated by the analytic sets. Thus, the usual sorts of measurability properties used in connection with Hausdorff measure, for example measures of sections and projections, remain true for packing measure.

  16. Two frequency beam-loading compensation in the drive-beam accelerator of the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    1999-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) is a prototype two-beam accelerator, in which a high-current "drive beam" is used to generate the RF power for the main-beam accelerator. The drive-beam accelerator consists of two S-band structures which accelerate a bunch train with a total charge of 500 nC. The substantial beam loading is compensated by operating the two accelerating structures at 7.81 MHz above and below the bunch repetition frequency, respectively. This introduces a change of RF phase from bunch to bunch, which leads, together with off-crest injection into the accelerator, to an approximate compensation of the beam loading. Due to the sinusoidal time-dependency of the RF field, an energy spread of about 7% remains in the bunch train. A set of idler cavities has been installed to reduce this residual energy spread further. In this paper, the considerations that motivated the choice of the parameters of the beam-loading compensation system, together with the experimental results, are presented.

  17. Effects of chirping on the dissociation dynamics of H2 in a two-frequency laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Avijit; Bhattacharyya, S.S.; Kim, Bongsoo

    2002-01-01

    We present the effects of frequency chirping of laser pulses on (1+1)-photon resonance-enhanced dissociation dynamics of H 2 . The dissociation occurs via two closely spaced nonadiabatically coupled intermediate levels which are in one-photon resonance or near resonance with the initial level. Predissociating levels embedded into continua are considered. When the first laser field is sufficiently intense and suitably chirped, the dissociation probability is enhanced by adiabatic rapid passage through the avoided crossing arising from the frequency swept radiative interaction. The whole population of the ground level can be effectively transferred to the intermediate levels by this technique facilitating the dissociation process by the second field. We also report the effect of frequency detuning and chirp width on the dissociation probability. Widths of the two peaks of the dissociation line shape increase with an increase in chirp width, resulting in the possibility of control in the dissociation yield. When the first field is a laser pulse of low intensity and constant frequency and the second laser frequency is chirped, predissociating levels take important parts in the dissociation dynamics and we obtain a signature of the nonadiabatic effect of the first step on the second step of photodissociation dynamics. This feature is due to the presence of the predissociating levels and the nonadiabatic mixing of two intermediate levels. All these results can be explained in terms of the adiabatic dressed levels

  18. 78 FR 38442 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Transmission Braking Effect, 103 Windshield Defrosting and Defogging Systems, 104 Windshield Wiping and Washing... Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, 124 Accelerator Control Systems, 135 Light Vehicle Brake Systems, 201...: Reprogramming the vehicle computer to activate the systems. Standard No. 118 Power-operated Window, Partition...

  19. Development of a software package for determination of geodynamic parameters from combined processing of SLR data from LAGEOS and LEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Ebauer

    2017-05-01

    Results of different solutions with the use of only LAGEOS data or LAGEOS plus LEO satellites data are presented. Pole coordinates obtained from both solutions show comparable accuracy relative to IERS 08 C04 solution. As for UT1 corrections in terms of Length-of-Day an additional improvement in accuracy is found: 1.0 ms for LAGEOS and 0.2 ms for the combined LAGEOS + LEO solution. Time series of the estimated degree-2 gravity field coefficients show a very good agreement with results of the Center of Space Research (Austin/USA. As a final remark, some future mandatory steps are outlined.

  20. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP impact multiple modalities of sensation including light touch, temperature, position sense and vibration perception. No study to date has examined the mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerves during limb movement in this population. The objective was to determine the unique effects T2DM and DSP have on nerve mechanosensitivity in the lower extremity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 43 people with T2DM. Straight leg raise neurodynamic tests were performed with ankle plantar flexion (PF/SLR and dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Hip flexion range of motion (ROM, lower extremity muscle activity and symptom profile, intensity and location were measured at rest, first onset of symptoms (P1 and maximally tolerated symptoms (P2. Results The addition of ankle dorsiflexion during SLR testing reduced the hip flexion ROM by 4.3° ± 6.5° at P1 and by 5.4° ± 4.9° at P2. Individuals in the T2DM group with signs of severe DSP (n = 9 had no difference in hip flexion ROM between PF/SLR and DF/SLR at P1 (1.4° ± 4.2°; paired t-test p = 0.34 or P2 (0.9° ± 2.5°; paired t-test p = 0.31. Movement induced muscle activity was absent during SLR with the exception of the tibialis anterior during DF/SLR testing. Increases in symptom intensity during SLR testing were similar for both PF/SLR and DF/SLR. The addition of ankle dorsiflexion induced more frequent posterior leg symptoms when taken to P2. Conclusions Consistent with previous recommendations in the literature, P1 is an appropriate test end point for SLR neurodynamic testing in people with T2DM. However, our findings suggest that people with T2DM and severe DSP have limited responses to SLR neurodynamic testing, and thus may be at risk for harm from nerve overstretch and the information gathered will be of limited clinical value.

  1. Satellite passive microwave rain measurement techniques for land and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiseasonal rainfall was found to be measurable over land with satellite passive microwave data, based upon comparisons between Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMME) brightness temperatures (T sub B) and operational WSR-57 radar rain rates. All of the SMMR channels (bipolarized 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6. GHz T sub B) were compared to radar reflectivities for 25 SMMR passes and 234 radar scans over the U.S. during the spring, summer, and fall of 1979. It was found that the radar rain rates were closely related to the difference between 37 and 21 GHz T sub B. This result is due to the volume scattering effects of precipitation which cause emissivity decreases with frequency, as opposed to emissive surfaces (e.g., water) whose emissivities increase with frequency. Two frequencies also act to reduce the effects of thermometric temperature variations on T sub B to a miminum. During summer and fall, multiple correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.75 were obtained. These approach the limit of correlation that can be expected to exist between two very different data sources, especially in light of the errors attributable to manual digitization of PPI photographs of variable quality from various operational weather radar not calibrated for research purposes. During the spring, a significantly lower (0.63) correlation was found. This poorer performance was traced to cases of wet, unvegetated soil being sensed at the lower frequencies through light rain, partly negating the rain scattering signal.

  2. Measuring probe for measurement of local velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Arnold, G.; Kirchner, R.; Kussmaul, H.; Miller, H.

    1988-03-01

    The report describes a method for measurement of local velocities. It bases on the detection of the propagation of a temperature pulse induced into the fluid. The method can also be applied in flowing liquid metals with superimposed magnetic field; in this case common measuring principles fail application. The measuring system discussed consists of, a measuring head, a heating system, amplifiers and a PC. The latter performs process operation, data sampling, and evaluation of velocity. The measuring head itself includes a miniaturized heater (as a pulse marker) heated by the heating system in a short pulse, and a number of thermocouples (sensors) for detection of signals. The design, construction, and examination of a developed measuring device is described. (orig.) [de

  3. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  4. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  5. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  6. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  7. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  8. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  9. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2004-01-01

    growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured mRNA...... or VEGF mRNA was not changed with prolonged hypoxic exposure in SLR, and both genes were similarly expressed in SLR and HAN. In SLR, whole body mass, mean muscle fibre area and capillary to muscle fibre ratio remained unchanged during acclimatization. The capillary to fibre ratio was lower in HAN than...... in SLR (2.4+/-0.1 vs 3.6+/-0.2; PRNA expression and capillary density are not significantly increased by 8 weeks of exposure to high altitude and are not increased in Aymara high-altitude natives compared with sea level residents....

  11. Perspectives on Measurement Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airasian, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify ways of making measurement more relevant to classroom teachers, and making classroom realities more apparent to measurement specialists. Measurement elements of teacher education textbooks and courses, nontraditional assessment topics, informal classroom measurement techniques, terminological issues, and three types of…

  12. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  13. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  14. Measuring thermal neutron characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for providing a background-compensated measurement of the level of inducted radiation within an earth formation is claimed. The formation is irradiated with a discrete burst of neutrons and the level of radiation in the formation measured. The level of background radiation is then measured. An average level of both measurements is obtained

  15. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  16. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  17. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  18. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  19. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  20. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  1. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  2. Multipath detection with the combination of SNR measurements - Example from urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špánik, Peter; Hefty, Ján

    2017-12-01

    Multipath is one of the most severe station-dependent error sources in both static and kinematic positioning. Relatively new and simple detection technique using the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) measurements on three frequencies will be presented based on idea of Strode and Groves. Exploitation of SNR measurements is benefi cial especially for their unambiguous character. Method is based on the fact that SNR values are closely linked with estimation of pseudo-ranges and phase measurements during signal correlation processing. Due to this connection, combination of SNR values can be used to detect anomalous behavior in received signal, however some kind of calibration in low multipath environment has to be done previously. In case of multipath, phase measurements on different frequencies will not be affected in the same manner. Specular multipath, e.g. from building wall introduces additional path delay which is interpreted differently on each of the used carrier, due to different wavelengths. Experimental results of multipath detection in urban environment will be presented. Originally proposed method is designed to work with three different frequencies in each epoch, thus only utilization of GPS Block II-F and Galileo satellites is possible. Simplification of detection statistics to use only two frequencies is made and results using GPS and GLONASS systems are presented along with results obtained using original formula.

  3. Multipath detection with the combination of SNR measurements – Example from urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špánik Peter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipath is one of the most severe station-dependent error sources in both static and kinematic positioning. Relatively new and simple detection technique using the Signal-to-Noise (SNR measurements on three frequencies will be presented based on idea of Strode and Groves. Exploitation of SNR measurements is benefi cial especially for their unambiguous character. Method is based on the fact that SNR values are closely linked with estimation of pseudo-ranges and phase measurements during signal correlation processing. Due to this connection, combination of SNR values can be used to detect anomalous behavior in received signal, however some kind of calibration in low multipath environment has to be done previously. In case of multipath, phase measurements on different frequencies will not be affected in the same manner. Specular multipath, e.g. from building wall introduces additional path delay which is interpreted differently on each of the used carrier, due to different wavelengths. Experimental results of multipath detection in urban environment will be presented. Originally proposed method is designed to work with three different frequencies in each epoch, thus only utilization of GPS Block II-F and Galileo satellites is possible. Simplification of detection statistics to use only two frequencies is made and results using GPS and GLONASS systems are presented along with results obtained using original formula.

  4. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  5. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  6. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  8. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  9. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  10. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Is it PTSD? » How is PTSD Measured? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here How is PTSD Measured? Public This section is for Veterans, General ...

  11. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  12. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the structural measures they report. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients, for example, whether...

  13. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  14. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  15. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  16. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  17. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  18. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  19. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  20. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  2. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  6. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  7. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  8. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  9. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the previous two sessions, it was assumed that the measurement error variances were known quantities when the variances of the safeguards indices were calculated. These known quantities are actually estimates based on historical data and on data generated by the measurement program. Session 34 discusses how measurement error parameters are estimated for different situations. The various error types are considered. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) estimate systematic error variances from standard data; (2) estimate random error variances from data as replicate measurement data; (3) perform a simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure when biases vary over time

  10. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  11. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  12. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  13. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  14. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  15. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  16. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  17. An approach to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to measurement theory is presented. The definition of measurement is motivated by direct laboratory procedures as they are carried out in practice. The theory is developed within the quantum logic framework. The work clarifies an important problem in the quantum logic approach; namely, where the Hilbert space comes from. The relationship between measurements and observables is considered, and a Hilbert space embedding theorem is presented. Charge systems are also discussed. (author)

  18. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  19. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  20. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  1. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  2. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  4. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  5. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  6. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  7. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  8. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  9. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  10. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  11. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  12. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  13. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  14. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  15. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  16. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  17. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  18. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  19. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  20. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  1. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  2. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  4. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  5. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  6. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  7. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  8. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  9. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  10. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  11. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  12. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  13. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  14. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  15. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  16. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  17. Measurement environments and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, A. C.

    1991-06-01

    The various methods used to assess both the emission (interference generation) performance of electronic equipment and the immunity of electronic equipment to external electromagnetic interference are described. The measurement methods attempt to simulate realistic operating conditions for the equipment being tested, yet at the same time they must be repeatable and practical to operate. This has led to the development of a variety of test methods, each of which has its limitations. Concentration is on the most common measurement methods such as open-field test sites, screened enclosures and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells. The physical justification for the methods, their limitations, and measurement precision are described. Ways of relating similar measurements made by different methods are discussed, and some thoughts on future measurement improvements are presented.

  18. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  20. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  1. DOAS urban pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Vossler, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc., was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 and path 2, ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (HNO 2 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRM) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for O 3 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRM's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o-xylene

  2. Mathematics and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, R F; Donahue, M J; Lozier, D W; McMichael, R; Rust, B W

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST's current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years.

  3. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  4. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  5. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  6. Measurement of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  7. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  8. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  9. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  10. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  11. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.

  12. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-08-25

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10{sup -7}. The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  13. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-01-01

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10 -7 . The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  14. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  15. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  17. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  18. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  19. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  20. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  1. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  2. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  3. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  4. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  5. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  6. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  7. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  8. Acceleration measurements in JEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshitami; Murakami, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Since summer in 1996, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has continued a concept study for a microgravity measurement apparatus (MMA) to be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The concept study was finished in 1998, and then we have been proceeding for a basic design. For experiments conducted with some of NASDA payloads in JEM-PM (Pressurized Module), measuring detailed microgravity environment was required. In addition, experiments to be performed with payload equipment attached on the JEM-EF (Exposed Facility) are requiring for obtaining the microgravity measurement data. Thus, we are adding some modification to the concept design of MMA in order to make the common hardware available for measurement of both environment in the JEM-PM and that of the JEM-EF. In this paper, the current development status of Japanese payloads and the modified concept of the MMA are introduced

  9. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  10. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  12. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  16. Measuring what's missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2016-01-01

    mass. Using the UNDP's Human Development Index, the empirical performance of such coverage metrics are compared to alternative measures of convergence. The former are advantageous -- they provide probabilistic estimates of simulation coverage and permit calculation of strict bounds on estimates...

  17. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  19. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  1. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  2. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  3. Improvement by GQM measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Trienekens, J.; Veenendaal, van E.

    1997-01-01

    Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collectionfor software development is termed ‘Software Measurement’. Software measurement is a poweiful aid to quality

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  7. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  9. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  10. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  11. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  12. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  13. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  14. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  15. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  16. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  17. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  18. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  19. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  20. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  1. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  2. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  3. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  4. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  5. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  6. 4. Measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is noted that in nuclear medicine a most widely the scintillation detectors are applying. Action of these detectors is based on registration of light flares in visible and ultraviolet field arising in scintillator under ionizing radiation action. In the chapter following subchapters are included: gamma-spectrometer and gamma radiation detectors; counter of whole body; measuring of accumulated activity (uptake measurements); scanner; scintillation chamber; single-photon emission computed tomography; positron emission computed tomography; magnet resonance tomography; computer technique, images making

  7. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  8. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  9. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  10. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  11. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  12. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Measure problem in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Turok, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of general relativity provides a natural canonical measure on the space of all classical universes, i.e., the multiverse. We review this construction and show how one can visualize the measure in terms of a 'magnetic flux' of solutions through phase space. Previous studies identified a divergence in the measure, which we observe to be due to the dilatation invariance of flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes. We show that the divergence is removed if we identify universes which are so flat they cannot be observationally distinguished. The resulting measure is independent of time and of the choice of coordinates on the space of fields. We further show that, for some quantities of interest, the measure is very insensitive to the details of how the identification is made. One such quantity is the probability of inflation in simple scalar field models. We find that, according to our implementation of the canonical measure, the probability for N e-folds of inflation in single-field, slow-roll models is suppressed by of order exp(-3N) and we discuss the implications of this result.

  14. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  15. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  16. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  17. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  18. Calibration Plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, S. W.; Flaming, G. M.; Adams, W. J.; Everett, D. F.; Mendelsohn, C. R.; Smith, E. A.; Turk, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international effort led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the U.S.A. and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the purpose of improving research into the global water and energy cycle. GPM will improve climate, weather, and hydrological forecasts through more frequent and more accurate measurement of precipitation world-wide. Comprised of U.S. domestic and international partners, GPM will incorporate and assimilate data streams from many spacecraft with varied orbital characteristics and instrument capabilities. Two of the satellites will be provided directly by GPM, the core satellite and a constellation member. The core satellite, at the heart of GPM, is scheduled for launch in November 2007. The core will carry a conical scanning microwave radiometer, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and a two-frequency cross-track-scanning radar, the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The passive microwave channels and the two radar frequencies of the core are carefully chosen for investigating the varying character of precipitation over ocean and land, and from the tropics to the high-latitudes. The DPR will enable microphysical characterization and three-dimensional profiling of precipitation. The GPM-provided constellation spacecraft will carry a GMI radiometer identical to that on the core spacecraft. This paper presents calibration plans for the GPM, including on-board instrument calibration, external calibration methods, and the role of ground validation. Particular emphasis is on plans for inter-satellite calibration of the GPM constellation. With its Unique instrument capabilities, the core spacecraft will serve as a calibration transfer standard to the GPM constellation. In particular the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar aboard the core will check the accuracy of retrievals from the GMI radiometer and will enable improvement of the radiometer retrievals

  19. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  20. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  1. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  2. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  3. Neutron fluence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    For research reactor work dealing with such subjects as radiation effects on solids and such disciplines as radiochemistry and radiobiology, the radiation dose or neutron fluence is an essential parameter in evaluating results. Unfortunately it is very difficult to determine. Even when the measurements have been accurate, it is difficult to compare results obtained in different experiments because present methods do not always reflect the dependence of spectra or of different types of radiation on the induced processes. After considering the recommendations of three IAEA Panels, on 'In-pile dosimetry' held in July 1964, on 'Neutron fluence measurements' in October 1965, and on 'In-pile dosimetry' in November 1966, the Agency established a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements. This group consisted of eleven experts from ten different Member States and two staff members of the Agency. In the measurement of energy absorbed by materials from neutrons and gamma rays, there are various reports and reviews scattered throughout the literature. The group, however, considered that the time was ripe for all relevant information to be evaluated and gathered together in the form of a practical guide, with the aim of promoting consistency in the measurement and reporting of reactor radiation. The group arranged for the material to be divided into two manuals, which are expected to be useful both for experienced workers and for beginners

  4. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  5. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  6. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  7. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  8. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  9. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  10. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Christian; Lions, Noel.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a temperature measuring system that can be applied in particular to monitoring the temperature of the cooling liquid metal of the outlet of the core assemblies of a fast reactor. Said device combines a long hollow metallic pole, at least partially dipped into the liquid metal and constituting a first thermocouple junction between said pole, and two metallic conductors of different nature, joined at one of their ends to constitute the second thermocouple junction. Said conductors suitably insulated are arranged inside a sheath. Said sheath made of the same metals as the pole extends inside the latter and is connected with the pole through a soldered joint. Said reliable system permits an instantaneous measurement of a quantity representing the variations in the recorded temperature and a measurement of the mean surrounding temperature that can be direcly used as a reference for calibrating the first one [fr

  11. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  12. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  13. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  14. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  17. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    . The project partnership aims (composed by 7 partners in 5 countries, thus covering a real European spread in high tech production technology) to develop and implement an advanced e-learning system that integrates contributions from quite different disciplines into a user-centred approach that strictly....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  18. Post Fukushima measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    'Stress test' of all nuclear power plants initiated in European Union examines robustness of the plant against extreme natural events coupled with loss of all electric power supplies and ultimate heat sink and ineffective counter measures. 'Complementary Safety Measures' suggested by the French Regulatory Authority have enhanced scope of the assessment of resistance to extreme natural events to all nuclear facilities. A truncated system of equipment and systems hardened against extreme events would evolve from such an exercise so that possibility of radioactive release and evacuation of people does not rise again. Computer simulation of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi plant was initiated almost simultaneously with the accident. Apart from bench marking the analysis programs, such an exercise will help in quantitative implementation of counter measures and identification of research areas. Additional regulatory requirements are being proposed to prevent core damage or containment failure and to suppress dispersal of radioactive materials

  19. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  20. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  1. Measuring ambivalence to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  2. The measurement of sparkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Bayón, S.

    2015-04-01

    Sparkle is a non-uniform texture effect consisting of very bright spots distributed on a dark surround. To date the only commercially-available instrument able to quantify sparkle is BYK-mac. This instrument allows sparkle parameters to be obtained, which should correlate with the visual experience. However, the measurands corresponding to these parameters are not clearly defined and they cannot be measured by any other instruments. In this article, we describe a procedure to measure quantities of well-defined sparkle measurands. We present experimental results at a combination of well-distributed illumination/viewing geometries within the incident plane. From this study, four descriptors are derived which may be correlated with visual attributes of sparkle. Finally, the procedure to estimate the perceived sparkle at any given surround luminance from the measured sparkle quantities is explained.

  3. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  4. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  5. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  7. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  8. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  9. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  10. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  11. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  12. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  15. Creep Measurement Video Extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John

    2011-01-01

    Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

  16. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  17. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  18. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  19. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  20. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...

  1. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Transverse betatron tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serio, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of the betatron tune and the techniques to measure it are discussed. The smooth approximation is introduced along with the terminology of betatron oscillations, phase advance and tune. Single particle and beam spectra in the presence of synchro-betatron oscillations are treated with emphasis on the consequences of sampling the beam position. After a general presentation of various kinds of beam position monitors and transverse kickers, the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the beam response to a transverse excitation are discussed and several methods and applications of the tune measurements are listed

  3. Satellite laser ranging to low Earth orbiters: orbit and network validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel; Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Sośnica, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to low Earth orbiters (LEOs) provides optical distance measurements with mm-to-cm-level precision. SLR residuals, i.e., differences between measured and modeled ranges, serve as a common figure of merit for the quality assessment of orbits derived by radiometric tracking techniques. We discuss relevant processing standards for the modeling of SLR observations and highlight the importance of line-of-sight-dependent range corrections for the various types of laser retroreflector arrays. A 1-3 cm consistency of SLR observations and GPS-based precise orbits is demonstrated for a wide range of past and present LEO missions supported by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). A parameter estimation approach is presented to investigate systematic orbit errors and it is shown that SLR validation of LEO satellites is not only able to detect radial but also along-track and cross-track offsets. SLR residual statistics clearly depend on the employed precise orbit determination technique (kinematic vs. reduced-dynamic, float vs. fixed ambiguities) but also reveal pronounced differences in the ILRS station performance. Using the residual-based parameter estimation approach, corrections to ILRS station coordinates, range biases, and timing offsets are derived. As a result, root-mean-square residuals of 5-10 mm have been achieved over a 1-year data arc in 2016 using observations from a subset of high-performance stations and ambiguity-fixed orbits of four LEO missions. As a final contribution, we demonstrate that SLR can not only validate single-satellite orbit solutions but also precise baseline solutions of formation flying missions such as GRACE, TanDEM-X, and Swarm.

  4. Mapping Sea Level Rise Behavior in an Estuarine Delta System: A Case Study along the Shanghai Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Q. Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise (SLR is a major projected threat of climate change that is expected to affect developing coastal cities located in estuarine delta regions. Shanghai is one such city, being located in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD. It is difficult, however, for decision-makers to implement adaptation due to the uncertain causes, magnitudes, and timings of SLR behaviors. This paper attempts to map the causes and magnitudes of SLR behaviors on a decadal scale. We analyze the tidal level records from 11 tidal gauge stations and the corresponding bathymetry measurements around these stations since 1921. We identify three new SLR behaviors along the Shanghai coast due to anthropogenic geomorphologic changes (AGCs, besides the well-known eustatic sea level rise (ESLR, tectonic subsidence (TS, and urban land subsidence (ULS. The first new behavior is regional sea level rise (RSLR, which occurs as a result of land reclamation and deep waterway regulation. The second is regional sea level fall (RSLF, which occurs because the channel bed is eroded due to sediment supply decline in the river catchment. The last SLR behavior is local tidal datum rise (LTDR. Thus, we project that the magnitude of SLR for the Shanghai coast ranges from 10 cm to 16 cm from 2011 to 2030. Clarifying SLR behaviors is important to aid local decision-makers in planning structural and non-structural measures to combat escalating flood damage costs in an estuarine delta system; this field is full of future challenges. Keywords: Sea level rise behavior, Anthropogenic geomorphologic change, Local tidal datum, Flood management, Adaptation

  5. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  6. Health Physics Measurements Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  7. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  8. NSR superstring measures revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Review of remarkable progress in evaluation of NSR superstring measures, originated by E.D'Hoker and D.Phong. These recent results are presented in the old-fashioned form, what allows to highlight the options which have been overlooked in original considerations in late 1980's.

  9. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  10. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  11. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  12. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  13. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  14. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  15. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  16. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  17. EBRII cask characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to provide the radionuclide content and verify the stated mass of special nuclear material (SNM) in Experimental Breeder Reactor EBRII casks stored in Trench 1, Burial Ground 4C, 218-WAC 200 West Area. this information is needed to characterize the curie content of each cask and the total curies in the storage area. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for nondestructive assay (NDA) were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in each cask, which were fission and activation products from the spent fuel. Passive neutron counting was selected to verify the stated plutonium content because the fission and activation products masked any gamma emissions from plutonium. The fast neutrons emitted by plutonium are highly penetrating and easily detected through several inches of shielding. A slab neutron detector containing five 3 He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. The measurements followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguard measurements. The measured neutron yields confirmed the declared plutonium content for the fuel elements, with the exception of several casks that contained recycled plutonium or americium target material. In these casks, the 244 Cm content masked the neutron emissions from any plutonium. For these casks, the plutonium content was estimated by correlation with the 244 Cm neutron emissions

  18. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  19. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  20. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.

  1. Measurement of Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  2. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  3. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  4. Measuring Neurotic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  5. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  6. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  7. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  8. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  9. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  10. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  11. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  12. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  13. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  14. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  15. Health Physics Measurements Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  16. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  17. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  18. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  19. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  20. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  1. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  2. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  3. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  4. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  5. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  6. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, G.S.; Wu, X.D.; Kapitulnik, A.; Fishman, I.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a new photothermal technique to investigate electronic phase transitions of high temperature superconductors. The phase shift of the thermal wave yields the anisotropic thermal diffusivity coefficient of the sample. The amplitude of the photothermal signal is sensitive to electronic phase transitions of the second kind. The technique is completely noncontacting and nondestructive, and is well suited to measure small and fragile single-crystal high-T c superconductors. The measurements give good agreement with fluctuation theory near the transition temperature. They have studied diffusion in, and superconducting fluctuations of, single crystals of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . Both systems show fluctuation effects beyond Gaussian fluctuations. While YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ behaves as a three-dimensional anisotropic superconductor, results on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 indicate strong two-dimensional effects

  7. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  8. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  9. Measuring Idiosyncratic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper offers two refinements of the traditional risk measure based on the volatility of growth. First, we condition GDP growth on structural characteristics of the host country that move only slowly and therefore can be partly predicted by an investor. Second, we adjust conditional risk...... for the systematic components due to the global and regional interdependence between alternative investment locations. The decomposition of conditional risk into its systematic and idiosyncratic components reveals that not only are African countries on average characterised by a larger conditional risk than Asian...... and Latin American countries, but the idiosyncratic risk factor also represents a larger share than in other developing countries. As a final contribution, we search the empirical literature on foreign direct investment and risk in order to determine which of the suggested risk measures provide the best...

  10. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  11. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  12. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  13. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  14. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability.

  15. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  16. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  18. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  19. Infrared Measurement Variability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    collecting optics of the measurement system. The first equation for tile blackbody experiment has the form 4.0 pim _ Ae W ,T) r(X,D) 3.5 pm - 4.0 pm JrD2 f3.5...potential for noise reduction by identifying and reducing contributing system effects. The measurement variance ott . of an infinite population of possible...irradiance can be written 4.0 pm I r()A A+ A ) 2 4.0 X C1(, = W(XT + AT)d 3.5 pim I since c + Af =2 r +Ar I Using the two expressions juSt devclopCd

  20. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  1. Measurement of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Intensive research has been going on in many countries to remove the uncertainties and to develop and perfect the methods of measuring the absolute value of the activity of a radionuclide. The importance of this research would be obvious in the context of the rapidly growing use of radioisotopes all over the world. The use of radionuclides had increased not only in regard to the variety of applications but also in respect of the quantities involved. Until recently these uses had been confined to a few scientifically advanced countries but now they were spreading to more and more countries of the world. Development in this direction was bound to continue, and this increased the importance of improving the measuring methods. The Scientific Advisory Committee of IAEA had expressed the view that it was important to attempt a synthesis of the experience in this field gained in different countries. The Vienna symposium was meant to serve that purpose

  2. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  4. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen; Laser continu a 205 nm: application a la mesure du deplacement de lamb dans l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourzeix, S

    1995-01-15

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  5. AMOS Seeing Quality Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Measurement Atmosphere Turbulence Propagation Observatory Acoustic Sounder Maui Optical Station Astronomy Microthermal Probe TEAL BLUE Degradation...presence of the site structures. Instruments used were an acoustic sounder (to probe the altitudes of 100 to 1000 ft), fine- wire microthermal probes...responsibility during the experiment for the microthermal probes. The report itself, while compiled and edited at RADC, may be considered as coming from

  6. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  7. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  8. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  9. Measurement in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Kieu, T.D.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell's inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs

  10. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  11. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  12. Temperature measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  13. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  14. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  15. Methods for measuring shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...

  16. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  17. Measuring the patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complex issues of measuring the patient experience and evaluating the quality of health care. It discusses the use of surveys, patient stories and narrative methods of data collection in an attempt to define quality and how it should be measured. A recent Department of Health (DH) document insists that patients will be at the heart of decision making in the NHS by having greater control in informing strategic commissioning decisions (DH 2010c). The government aims to improve patient experience, enabling patients to rate services according to the quality of care they receive. This will be carried out using information generated by patients. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys in gathering patient satisfaction data. It considers the value of surveys in measuring quality of care and appraises their usefulness in strengthening patients' collective voice. The paper investigates the use of another source of feedback - it examines the design of qualitative data collection methods as a means of gaining feedback from service users in encouraging providers of health care to be more responsive to their needs. Too often, patients are expected to fit the services, rather than services meeting the patients' needs. The most effective way of exploring and representing the patient's experience is by using a mixed-method approach. In other words, an integrated approach with the use of surveys and more narrative methods, such as patient stories, will effectively define quality and how it should be measured, ensuring that the focus is always on what matters most to patients.

  18. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  19. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  20. Can We Measure Memes?

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented ...

  1. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  2. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  3. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  4. Improving precipitation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2004-09-01

    Although rainfall has been measured for centuries scientifically and in isolated brief episodes over millennia for agriculture, it is still not measured adequately even today for climatology, water resources, and other precise applications. This paper outlines the history of raingauges, their errors, and describes the field testing over 3 years of a first guess design for an aerodynamic rain collector proposed by Folland in 1988. Although shown to have aerodynamic advantage over a standard 5 gauge, the new rain collector was found to suffer from outsplash in heavy rain. To study this problem, and to derive general basic design rules for aerodynamic gauges, its performance was investigated in turbulent, real-world conditions rather than in the controlled and simplified environment of a wind tunnel or mathematical model as in the past. To do this, video records were made using thread tracers to indicate the path of the wind, giving new insight into the complex flow of natural wind around and within raingauges. A new design resulted, and 2 years of field testing have shown that the new gauge has good aerodynamic and evaporative characteristics and minimal outsplash, offering the potential for improved precipitation measurement.

  5. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  6. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  7. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  8. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  9. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  10. Neutron measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Seki, Eiji; Kita, Yoshio; Nishitani, Takeo.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns measurement for neutrons in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and it can measure total amount of generated neutrons accurately throughout the operation period even if an error is caused in counted values by plasma disruption. That is, the device comprises (1) a means for detecting presence or absence of occurrence of plasma disruption and the time for the initiation of the occurrence, (2) a first data processing means for processing detection signals, (3) a means for detecting neutrons generated in plasmas and (4) a second data processing means for calculating integrated values for the number of neutrons generated from the start to the completion of electric discharge when no disruption occurs and calculating integrated values for the number of generated neutrons from the start of electric discharge to the time at the initiation of occurrence of the disruption when disruption is present. In the thus constituted device, even if an error is caused by frequent occurrence of plasma disruption, total time integrated amount of neutrons generated in the plasmas can be measured accurately. (I.S.)

  11. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  12. Bolometric measurements in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, S.; Wilgen, J.B.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Gandy, R.F.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Kindsfather, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Bolometer measurements are made under various plasma conditions in ATF. Each bolometer module includes four pairs of detectors; each pair consists of a sensor and a reference detector. Two or three detector pairs in each module were installed with various types of aperture masks to serve as radiation detectors. The rest were completely shielded from plasma emissions and used as blind detectors to measure background levels. When electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power was applied to ATF, the radiation signal was more than 10 times higher than that expected for 100 kW of radiated power. Surprisingly, similar signal levels were observed on the blind detectors. It is hypothesized that the bolometers are sensitive to ECH power at 53 GHz. (This problem may be general in near-term fusion experiments, in which microwave power will be an important tool for plasma heating.) In this paper, experiments aimed at proving this hypothesis are reported; bolometric signals before and after chromium gettering are discussed; and measurements of the microwave power deposition profile around the torus, made by using the observed microwave interference with the blind detectors, are presented. 4 refs., 4 figs

  13. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  14. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  15. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  16. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  17. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  18. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  19. Multi-GNSS orbit determination using satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Grzegorz; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Radosław

    2018-04-01

    Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and NavIC are emerging global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) and regional navigation satellite systems all of which are equipped with laser retroreflector arrays for range measurements. This paper summarizes the GNSS-intensive tracking campaigns conducted by the International Laser Ranging Service and provides results from multi-GNSS orbit determination using solely SLR observations. We consider the whole constellation of GLONASS, all active Galileo, four BeiDou satellites: 1 MEO, 3 IGSO, and one QZSS. We analyze the influence of the number of SLR observations on the quality of the 3-day multi-GNSS orbit solution. About 60 SLR observations are needed for obtaining MEO orbits of sufficient quality with the root mean square (RMS) of 3 cm for the radial component when compared to microwave-based orbits. From the analysis of a minimum number of tracking stations, when considering the 3-day arcs, 5 SLR stations do not provide a sufficient geometry of observations. The solution obtained using ten stations is characterized with RMS of 4, 9, and 18 cm in the radial, along-track, and cross-track direction, respectively, for MEO satellites. We also investigate the impact of the length of orbital arc on the quality of SLR-derived orbits. Hence, 5- and 7-day arcs constitute the best solution, whereas 3-day arcs are of inferior quality due to an insufficient number of SLR observations and 9-day arcs deteriorate the along-track component. The median RMS from the comparison between 7-day orbital arcs determined using SLR data with microwave-based orbits assumes values in the range of 3-4, 11-16, and 15-27 cm in radial, along-track, and cross-track, respectively, for MEO satellites. BeiDou IGSO and QZSS are characterized by RMS values higher by a factor of 8 and 24, respectively, than MEO orbits.

  20. Electrophysiological measurement of binaural beats: effects of primary tone frequency and observer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Mamo, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the electrophysiological binaural beat steady state response as a gauge of temporal fine structure coding, particularly as it relates to the aging auditory system. The hypothesis was that the response would be more robust in a lower, than in a higher, frequency region and in younger, than in older, adults. Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured the 40 Hz binaural beat steady state response elicited by tone pairs in two frequency regions: lower (390 and 430 Hz tone pair) and higher (810 and 850 Hz tone pair). Frequency following responses (FFRs) evoked by the tones were also recorded. Ten young adults with normal hearing participated. The second experiment measured the binaural beat and FFRs in older adults but only in the lower frequency region. Fourteen older adults with relatively normal hearing participated. Response metrics in both experiments included response component signal-to-noise ratio (F statistic) and magnitude-squared coherence. Experiment 1 showed that FFRs were elicited in both frequency regions but were more robust in the lower frequency region. Binaural beat responses elicited by the lower frequency pair of tones showed greater amplitude fluctuation within a participant than the respective FFRs. Experiment 2 showed that older adults exhibited similar FFRs to younger adults, but proportionally fewer older participants showed binaural beat responses. Age differences in onset responses were also observed. The lower prevalence of the binaural beat response in older adults, despite the presence of FFRs, provides tentative support for the sensitivity of this measure to age-related deficits in temporal processing. However, the lability of the binaural beat response advocates caution in its use as an objective measure of fine structure coding.

  1. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (8 h) exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  3. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  4. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  5. Imaginative Practices and Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haeren, Kristen Danielle

    The Welfare State in Denmark, as established during a great surge of post-war technological developments, was firmly rooted in a time motivated by Modernist ideas of rationalization and regulation. The dreams and desires of establishing the Functionist City resulted in architectural and landscape...... projects being dictated by notions of objective truth. Motivated by the new industrial efficiency, social-housing projects became an experiment of standardization, fabricated from factual analysis and modern measure. It is the position of this paper that the notion of ‘the good life’ that the Modernist...

  6. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  8. The quantum measurement problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, A J

    2005-02-11

    Despite the spectacular success of quantum mechanics (QM) over the last 80 years in explaining phenomena observed at the atomic and subatomic level, the conceptual status of the theory is still a topic of lively controversy. Most of the discussion centers around two famous paradoxes (or, as some would have it, pseudoparadoxes) associated, respectively, with the names of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and with Schrodinger's cat. In this Viewpoint, I will concentrate on the paradox of Schrodinger's cat or, as it is often known (to my mind somewhat misleadingly), the quantum measurement paradox.

  9. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  10. Which firms use measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption...... this study indicate that the relationship between PM adoption and the organisational characteristics/external environment is more complicated than anticipated....

  11. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  12. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self......The self-generated validity theory (Feldman and Lynch 1988) uses the following arguments: First, re-existing intentions may become more accessible in memory when the researcher asks the question. The measurement process thereby leads survey respondents to form judgments that they otherwise would...

  13. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  14. Principles of electromigration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.

    1988-01-01

    Basing on experimental applications of a modified version of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials conceptions on calculation of stoichiometric and thermodynamic stability constants are carried out. Normalized ion mobilities were discussed, reflecting changes of the overall ion mobility of the radioelement in its equilibrium reaction in respect to the individual ion mobilities of the central ion at identic electrolyte parameters (temperature, overall ionic strength). With model reactions as well as with complex formations of Tl(I) with bromide and sulfate, respectively, examples of practical realizations of the conceptions are shown. (author)

  15. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...... the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...

  16. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  17. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  18. Tritium measurement and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, L.; Miller, J.M.; Yin, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Jesse effect - the effect of impurities and intentionally added components on ionization in noble gases - is briefly described. Experiments to measure this effect in a specially constructed system with a 63 Ni beta-particle source are described. Results show that ionization chamber calibrations with helium carrier gas change rapidly with gaseous additions or impurities at low concentrations, and reach a plateau (approximately 50% calibration change) at 4000 ppm addition. Only small changes are seen with argon carrier gas. Implications of this effect in fusion blanket sweep-gas experiments are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  20. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of