WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-fold hake gain

  1. Hake Survey ADCP (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  2. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  3. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  4. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  5. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  6. Two hake species, deep-water Cape hake Merluccius paradoxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    paradoxus and shallow-water Cape hake M. capensis, are found along the ... For both species, average length increased with depth. M. paradoxus expanded its ..... Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Oceano-.

  7. Adaptive response of Peruvian Hake to overfishing

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo, C.W.; Carrasco, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms of the Peruvian hake population (Merluccius gayi peruanus) in response to heavy exploitation and changes in species interaction are discussed. Changes in the rate of cannibalism, diet composition, maximization of fecundity and behavioral adaptation are noted.

  8. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  10. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knowledge of the behaviour of Cape hake in general. ... Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, National Marine Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia. E-mail: ... (BEI) post-processing system, which allows for better ..... deep water, where hake density is generally low and.

  11. There are two commercially exploited species of hake off Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    on average 93% of the total landings of hake between. 1991 and ..... virtual population analysis (VPA) to formulate man- agement ... the same species below optimum levels, allowing the stock to .... 2001 — Depth-stratified density estimates.

  12. Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, Autecology: A Timely Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ressler, Patrck H.; Holmes, John A.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Thomas, Rebecca E.; Cooke , Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, the most abundant groundfish in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), is a species of both commercial significance, supporting a large international fishery, and ecological importance, connecting other species as both predator and prey. Coastal Pacific hake migrations are characterized by movements between northern summer feeding areas and southern winter spawning areas, with variations in annual abundance, distribution, and the extent o...

  13. Trophic relationships of hake ( Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic relationships of two hake species (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) and three shark species (Centrophorus squamosus, Deania calcea and D. profundorum) were investigated using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (δ15N and δ13C) of their muscle tissues. The sharks were more enriched in ...

  14. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    are to be chosen by decision-makers, and adjust the TAC up or down from one year to the next according to whether trends in ... ment of the Nambian hake resource at that time was ...... Distribution medians, together with 90% probability.

  15. Radioactivity levels in peruvian hake Merluccius gayi peruanus (Guitchenot)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine background levels of natural and artificial radionuclides in Peruvian hakes, collected in the Pacific coast of Peru, as a mechanism to establish a biomonitoring model for human radiation exposure resulting from the ingestion of this species. The concentration range overall dry weight of beta activity was between 39 and 79 Bq/kg; for K-40, the range was between 66 and 116 Bq/kg and for Cs-137, the range was between 0.0 and 0.4 Bq/kg. No detectable levels of Co-60, Cs-134 and Ra-226 were found. The dose derived from K-40 was negligible. Data show that Peruvian hakes do not represent a public health risk because of their intake as food. (author).

  16. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  18. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  19. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  20. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  1. Two-fold Mellin–Barnes transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A., E-mail: kniehl@desy.de [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kondrashuk, Igor [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Carrera de Pedagogia en Matemática, Facultad de Educación y Humanidades, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Castilla, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Rojas-Medar, Marko [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile)

    2013-11-01

    In our previous paper (Allendes et al., 2013 [10]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin–Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper, we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double-uniform limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms. This finite double-uniform limit is represented in terms of a differential operator with respect to an auxiliary parameter which acts on the integrand of a certain two-fold MB integral. To demonstrate that our result is compatible with original representations of UD functions, we reproduce the integrands of these original integral representations by applying this differential operator to the integrand of the simple integral representation of the scalar triangle four-dimensional integral J(1,1,1−ε)

  2. Two-fold Mellin–Barnes transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan; Rojas-Medar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    In our previous paper (Allendes et al., 2013 [10]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin–Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper, we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double-uniform limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms. This finite double-uniform limit is represented in terms of a differential operator with respect to an auxiliary parameter which acts on the integrand of a certain two-fold MB integral. To demonstrate that our result is compatible with original representations of UD functions, we reproduce the integrands of these original integral representations by applying this differential operator to the integrand of the simple integral representation of the scalar triangle four-dimensional integral J(1,1,1−ε)

  3. Magnetocrystalline two-fold symmetry in CaFe2O4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Das, Rajasree; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in CaFe 2 O 4 is a matter of importance for its future applications. A high quality single crystal CaFe 2 O 4 sample is studied by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, a magnetometer and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. A broad feature of the susceptibility curve around room temperature is observed, indicating the development of 1D spin interactions above the on-set of antiferromagnetic transition. The angular dependency of ESR reveals an in-plane two-fold symmetry, suggesting a strong correlation between the room temperature spin structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This finding opens an opportunity for the device utilizing the anisotropy field of CaFe 2 O 4 . (paper)

  4. Magnetocrystalline two-fold symmetry in CaFe2O4 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaganlal Gandhi, Ashish; Das, Rajasree; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-05-01

    Understanding of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in CaFe2O4 is a matter of importance for its future applications. A high quality single crystal CaFe2O4 sample is studied by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, a magnetometer and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. A broad feature of the susceptibility curve around room temperature is observed, indicating the development of 1D spin interactions above the on-set of antiferromagnetic transition. The angular dependency of ESR reveals an in-plane two-fold symmetry, suggesting a strong correlation between the room temperature spin structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This finding opens an opportunity for the device utilizing the anisotropy field of CaFe2O4.

  5. Two-fold Mellin-Barnes transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Facultad de Educacion y Humanidades; Rojas-Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas

    2013-04-15

    In our previous paper (Nucl.Phys.B 870 (2013) 243) we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of the Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double uni-form limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms.

  6. Two-fold Mellin-Barnes transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd; Kondrashuk, Igor; Bielefeld Univ.; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan; Rojas-Medar, Marko

    2013-04-01

    In our previous paper (Nucl.Phys.B 870 (2013) 243) we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of the Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double uni-form limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms.

  7. The behavior of hake prices in Chile: is the world market leading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Quezada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed price determination throughout the Chilean hake market chain. To analyze the relationship between different prices participating in this chain, a VECM model was successfully estimated. One cointegration vector was identified. Tests for weak exogenous variables, causality, and significance of different variables were performed, and a parsimonious version of the model was selected. The results obtained in this paper outline a price determination process that, in the end, is governed by world market conditions. Moreover, the diverse links in the hake market chain seem to be well integrated, which implies that there is little room for domestic price determination.

  8. Metabarcoding analysis of European hake diet in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Riccioni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available European hake (EH, Merluccius merluccius, is a demersal fish distributed from the North Sea and Atlantic to the Levantine Sea in the Mediterranean. EH is an important predator of deep Mediterranean upper shelf slope communities and it is currently characterised by growth overexploitation. EH adults feed mainly on fish and squids whereas the young (<16 cm feed on crustaceans. All current EH diet studies relied on the morphological identification of prey remains in stomach content, however this method is labour intensive and it precludes the identification of strongly digested food. The development of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS approaches provide more accurate methods for dietary studies revealing many consumed species simultaneously (DNA metabarcoding. The aim of this study is to use a HTS approach based on COI amplification, contextually to classic microscopic morphological identification, to analyse EH stomach content and to evaluate the efficiency of the molecular method. HTS sequencing has been carried out on the amplicons obtained by PCR amplification (Leray et al. 2013 of stomach remains and all the Miseq Illumina paired-end reads have been analysed by using bioinformatic tools (Boyer et al. 2015 for taxonomic assignment. The selected sequences clustered in OCTUs (Operational Clustered Taxonomic Units and taxonomically assigned, will be used in diversity analyses to compute distance matrices among samples, to compare taxa summaries from different samples, to create networks and perform PCA and PcoA analysis. Classic microscopic morphological analyses on stomach content remains have been carried out contextually to compare the results of the two methods. The molecular approach has proven a promising method to study marine fish dietary habits. All the data will be summarized to reconstruct EH trophic dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. The generic unfolding of a codimension-two connection to a two-fold singularity of planar Filippov systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Douglas D.; Teixeira, Marco A.; Zeli, Iris O.

    2018-05-01

    Generic bifurcation theory was classically well developed for smooth differential systems, establishing results for k-parameter families of planar vector fields. In the present study we focus on a qualitative analysis of 2-parameter families, , of planar Filippov systems assuming that Z 0,0 presents a codimension-two minimal set. Such object, named elementary simple two-fold cycle, is characterized by a regular trajectory connecting a visible two-fold singularity to itself, for which the second derivative of the first return map is nonvanishing. We analyzed the codimension-two scenario through the exhibition of its bifurcation diagram.

  10. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  11. The diurnal vertical dynamics of cape hake and their potential prey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cephalopods. Together with their cohabitant potential prey, hake are known to undertake diurnal vertical migrations, aggregating near the bottom during daylight, but migrating off the bottom at night. An attempt to determine the ... predation dominating. This may indicate a feeding strategy where vision is not important.

  12. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantatore, D.M.P.; Irigoitia, M.M.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Timi, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2016), s. 732-740 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological markers * Kudoa rosenbuschi * Myxoproteus meridionalis * Fabespora sp. * common hake * stock discrimination * South West Atlantic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  13. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis (shallow-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    tinguish them in commercial catch statistics. Conse- ... and hence are taken incidentally in hake-directed fishing, instead of only species whose capture requires a different .... catch of these species is determined only at the landing site, and is ...

  14. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  15. Effect of superconductivity on the cubic to tetragonal structural transition due to a two-fold degenerate electronic band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, S.K.; Khanra, B.C.; Ray, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the BCS superconductivity on the cubic to tetragonal structural transition arising from a two-fold degenerate electronic band is investigated within the mean field approximation. The phase diagram of the two transitions is given for a half filled esub(g)-band. Modification of the two transitions when they are close together is also discussed. (author)

  16. Multi-sensor Oceanographic Correlations for Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozen, M.; Hillyer, N.; Holt, B.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), the most abundant groundfish along the Pacific coast of northwestern America, are an essential source of income for the coastal region from southern California to British Columbia, Canada. However, hake abundance and distribution are highly variable among years, exhibiting variance in both the north-south and east-west distribution as seen in the results from biannual acoustic surveys. This project is part of a larger undertaking, ultimately focused on the prediction of hake distribution to improve the distribution of survey effort and precision of stock assessments in the future. Four remotely sensed oceanographic variables are examined as a first step in improving our understanding the relationship between the intensity of coastal upwelling and other ocean dynamics, and the north-south summer hake distribution. Sea surface height, wind vectors, chlorophyll - a concentrations, and sea surface temperature were acquired from several satellites, including AVHRR, SeaWifs, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, SSM/I, ASMR-E, and QuikScat. Data were aligned to the same spatial and temporal resolution, and these re-gridded data were then analyzed using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). EOFs were used as a spatio-temporally compact representation of the data and to reduce the co-variability of the multiple time series in the dataset. The EOF results were plotted and acoustic survey results were overlaid to understand differences between regions. Although this pilot project used data from only a single year (2007), it demonstrated a methodology for reducing dimensionality of linearly related satellite variables that can used in future applications, and provided insight into multi-dimensional ocean characteristics important for hake distribution.

  17. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  18. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  19. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    an area important for acoustical testing and tactical exercises, the most abundant species by biomass is Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, a fish...scattering characteristics of the animal especially if the animal has eaten hard- shelled mollusc prey. Figure 7. A dorsal scan (similar to an x-ray) of a...kHz echogram. 11 In order to generate abundance and biomass estimates for organisms using active acoustics, one assumption that can be made is

  20. Juvenile hake predation on Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae: Quantifying an energy transfer between mesopelagic and neritic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Larissa; Cartes, Joan E.; Velasco, Francisco; Bozzano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal study of the diet and food consumption of juvenile hake has been carried out in the Central Mediterranean Sea (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Fish were the most important food resource in terms of weight (ca. 70%). Among the fish, Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae, which are usually distributed deeper than juvenile hake, are most important. During summer, Ceratoscopelus maderensis constituted up to 21% of weight of all prey, and Maurolicus muelleri represented almost 10%. During autumn M. muelleri became the most important food resource. The way in which these more deeply distributed prey enter shallower food webs relates to the daily vertical migrations of lanternfish. In upper water column strata at night or near dawn they become prey of the juvenile hake. Considering that trophic energy flows primarily downward, in the direction of the productivity gradient, the observed flow of energy from deep strata into epipelagic layers could be considered an inverse energy transfer. Daily food consumption of juvenile hake ranged between 4.11 and 4.72% of the body wet-weight (BWW). The application of a square-root model allowed calculation of the fraction of this consumption derived by ingestion of the more deeply distributed mesopelagic fish. Between 11.6% and 17.8% of food consumption was sustained by this energy flow. Such information is useful for understanding the interaction between communities distributed in different depth ranges and to reinforce the idea that marine communities are open systems in which migratory movements can dramatically change the assumptions and results of mass-balance models.

  1. Sensory evaluation of irradiated hake (Merluccius merluccius hubbsi) by an expert trade panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1989-01-01

    Commercial high quality hake (Merluccius merluccius hubbsi) scaled, headless and eviscerated, caught in the South Atlantic Ocean, was analyzed by an expert testing panel. The samples were the following: one lot vacuum packed, another lot previously dipped in 10% sodium poliphosphate, both irradiated with 3.3 kGy and then stored at 0deg C±1deg C, and a third lot, air-packed, frozen, kept at -20deg C±2 deg C, and used as control. The analysis was made on day 36 after catch. The evaluations were performed by a panel of 5 experts in buying fish to export. The following attributes were analyzed: on raw fish: external appearance, muscle elasticity, shine, bone adhesion, muscle cohesion, odor, natural odor, unpleasant odor and purchase acceptability. On oven cooked samples: odor, natural odor, unpleasant odor, flavor, natural flavor, unpleasant flavor, oral texture and general acceptability. Data were analyzed by student test (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that the raw irradiated fish (with and without dip in polyphosphate) were generally significantly better than the raw frozen hake; and cooked frozen hake was better than the irradiated one but not significantly different. An undesirable off odor on cooked irradiated samples was detected, that would be an irradiation effect. It could be minimized with a lower dose. The polyphosphate dip did not modify the amount of drip loss. (Author) [es

  2. Determination of effective effort on hake Merluccius merluccius in a Mediterranean trawl fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alemany

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct control of fishing effort as a management tool is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where the lack of effective international management systems and the high diversity of the catches significantly increases the complexity of implementing TAC´s as an indirect control of fishing effort. However, its enforcement should be based on the precise knowledge of the relationship between the fishing effort and its corresponding fishing mortality. In this sense, the general aim of this study was to develop an approach for analysing this relationship. In order to estimate the annual effective fishing effort on hake, a relational data base including daily landings by vessel and species of trawl fleet based on the port of Palma, Mallorca island (western Mediterranean during the period 1983-1991 was built. Fishing mortalities were available from VPA. Fishing effort and fishing mortality were split by subfleets or métiers which were identified by cluster analysis. Significant linear relationships between the two parameters were obtained when fishing effort was considered as the number of days in which hake catch was higher than 10 kg multiplied by GRT of correspondent vessels. These CPUE values are mainly obtained when trawlers operate in the muddy bottoms of the shelf and on the upper slope, where hake populations are mostly distributed. On the other hand, no clear trends in catchability by métier were found during the period analysed.

  3. Integrating microsatellite DNA markers and otolith geochemistry to assess population structure of European hake (Merluccius merluccius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Pérez, Montse; Presa, Pablo; Thorrold, Simon R.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2014-04-01

    Population structure and natal origins of European hake were investigated using microsatellite DNA markers and otolith geochemistry data. Five microsatellites were sequenced and otolith core geochemical composition was determined from age-1 hake collected in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Microsatellites provided evidence of a major genetic split in the vicinity of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating the Atlantic and the Mediterranean populations, with the exception of the Gulf of Cádiz. Based on classification models using otolith core geochemical values, individual natal origins were identified, although with an increased error rate. Coupling genotype and otolith data increased the classification accuracy of individuals to their potential natal origins while providing evidence of movement between the northern and southern stock units in the Atlantic Ocean. Information obtained by the two natural markers on population structure of European hake was complementary as the two markers act at different spatio-temporal scales. Otolith geochemistry provides information over an ecological time frame and on a fine spatial scale, while microsatellite DNA markers report on gene flow over evolutionary time scales and therefore act on a broader spatio-temporal resolution. Thus, this study confirmed the value of otolith geochemistry to complement the assessment of early life stage dispersal in populations with high gene flow and low genetic divergence.

  4. Group theoretical classification of broken symmetry states of the two-fold degenerate Hubbard model on a triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masago, Akira; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2001-01-01

    By a group theoretical procedure we derive the possible spontaneously broken-symmetry states for the two-fold degenerate Hubbard model on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. For ordering wave vectors corresponding to the points Γ and K in the first BZ we find 22 states which include 16 collinear and six non-collinear states. The collinear states include the usual SDW and CDW states which appear also in the single-band Hubbard model. The non-collinear states include exotic ordering states of orbitals and spins as well as the triangular arrangement of spins

  5. Differential biomagnification of PCB, PBDE, Hg and Radiocesium in the food web of the European hake from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bodiguel, Xavier; Charmasson, Sabine; Loizeau, Véronique; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Tronczyński, Jacek; Cossa, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of marine organisms represents one of the main exposure sources of contaminants for human populations. To obtain a global view of the contamination in commercial fish in the NW Mediterranean Sea, we analysed four types of priority contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs, Hg and 137 Cs) in the European hake, Merluccius merluccius, from the Gulf of Lions in relation with organism’s trophic level (δ 15 N). All contaminants presented a significant increase in concentration in hake muscle with trophic level. However, obvious differences between contaminants were evidenced. Biomagnification factors (BMF and FWMF) along the hake food web were higher for Hg and CB-153 than for BDE-47 and 137 Cs, and increase in contaminant concentration with trophic level occurred at different rates depending on contaminants. Such differences of biomagnification patterns can be related to physico-chemical properties of the different contaminants.

  6. T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds and non-Kähler manifolds in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a geometric model of eight-dimensional manifolds and realize them in the context of type II string theory. These eight-manifolds are constructed by non-trivial T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds. These give rise to eight-dimensional non-Kähler Hermitian manifolds with SU(4 structure. The eight-manifold is also a circle fibration over a seven-dimensional G2 manifold with skew torsion. The eight-manifolds of this type appear as internal manifolds with SU(4 structure in type IIB string theory with F3 and F7 fluxes. These manifolds have generalized calibrated cycles in the presence of fluxes.

  7. Controllable group velocity of the probe light in a Λ-type system with two fold levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Lihui; Gong Shangqing; Niu Yueping; Li Ruxin; Jin Shiqi

    2006-01-01

    The group velocities of the probe laser field are studied in a Λ-type system where one lower state has two fold levels coupled by a control field. It is found that the interaction of double dark states leads to controllable group velocity of the probe field in this system. It can be easily realized, due to the interacting double dark resonances, that one of the group velocities at transparency positions is much slower than the other by tuning the control field to be off resonance. In particular, when the control field is on resonance, we can obtain two equal slow group velocities with a broader EIT width, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light

  8. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, I.; Babbucci, M.; Cariani, A.

    2014-01-01

    fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (FCT = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins...... even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess largeand fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European...

  9. An unprecedented two-fold nested super-polyrotaxane: sulfate-directed hierarchical polythreading assembly of uranyl polyrotaxane moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Lei; Wu, Qun-yan; Yuan, Li-yong; Wang, Lin; An, Shu-wen; Xie, Zhen-ni; Hu, Kong-qiu; Shi, Wei-qun [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Chemistry and Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chai, Zhi-fang [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Chemistry and Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Burns, Peter C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The hierarchical assembly of well-organized submoieties could lead to more complicated superstructures with intriguing properties. We describe herein an unprecedented polyrotaxane polythreading framework containing a two-fold nested super-polyrotaxane substructure, which was synthesized through a uranyl-directed hierarchical polythreading assembly of one-dimensional polyrotaxane chains and two-dimensional polyrotaxane networks. This special assembly mode actually affords a new way of supramolecular chemistry instead of covalently linked bulky stoppers to construct stable interlocked rotaxane moieties. An investigation of the synthesis condition shows that sulfate can assume a vital role in mediating the formation of different uranyl species, especially the unique trinuclear uranyl moiety [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O(OH){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, involving a notable bent [O=U=O] bond with a bond angle of 172.0(9) . Detailed analysis of the coordination features, the thermal stability as well as a fluorescence, and electrochemical characterization demonstrate that the uniqueness of this super-polyrotaxane structure is mainly closely related to the trinuclear uranyl moiety, which is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Environmental eff ects on the availability of shallow and deep-water hake to the demersaltrawl survey in Namibian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    at different size groups (juvenile, small, medium and large) of the two hake species. Most of the years, the environmental data were collected independent of the fishing operations usually on few selected transects with limited spatial overlap between the CTD and the trawl stations. The results, however...

  11. Seasonal and annual variation in Chilean hake Merluccius gayi spawning locations and egg size off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castro, Leonardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in Chilean hake reproductive tactics off central Chile was assessed by analyzing ichthyoplankton samples from nine oceanographic cruises (1996-2005) and through experimental trials with early life stages (eggs, yolk-sac larvae) during the main (austral spring) and secondary (late summer-early autumn) spawning seasons. Abundant eggs in the plankton (1300-2000 eggs per 10 m 2) and historical adult reproductive data showed the highest reproductive activity in austral spring, with large egg aggregations near shelf break (50-100 m depth). Large, recently spawned eggs (1.15-1.20 mm diameter) were advected nearshore by coastward subsurface flows in the spring upwelling season. Experimental trials indicated that recently hatched larvae (3.4-3.5 mm) consumed their yolk-sac (0.17-0.41 mm 3) in 3-4 days at 10-12 °C; plankton sampling indicated that larval hake remained at mid-depth (50-100 m) without showing daily vertical migrations until completing their caudal fin formation (∼15 mm). During the secondary reproductive peak, hake spawned nearshore, when smaller eggs (0.95-1.13 mm) and recently hatched larvae (2.2-2.6 mm notochord length) occurred in surface waters (0-10 m depth). Their relatively large yolk-sac volumes (0.57 ± 0.11 mm 3) provided endogenous nourishment for at least 5 days at 10 °C, according to experiments. In the field, preflexion larvae occurred mainly in the mixed layer (0-25 m) and started ontogenetic daily vertical migrations at 7 mm. A strong decline occurred after 2002 in the adult Chilean hake biomass (estimated by hydroacoustic surveys) and body size, coinciding with variations in spawning locations (more coastward in early spring 2004 and 2005) and decline in egg size. Thus, recent variations in Chilean hake reproductive tactics may reflect an indirect effect of declines in the parental population size.

  12. Links between the recruitment success of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) and a regime shift on the NE Atlantic continental shelf

    KAUST Repository

    Goikoetxea, Nerea; Irigoien, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    variables in the North Sea also affected the Northeast Atlantic shelf oceanography. Hake recruitment success as well as parameters such as the sea surface temperature, wind patterns and copepod abundance changed significantly at the end of the 1980s

  13. The impact of overfishing and El Niño on the condition factor and reproductive success of Peruvian hake, Merluccius gayi peruanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballón, Michael; Wosnitza-Mendo, Claudia; Guevara-Carrasco, Renato; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine physiological responses of Peruvian hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) to changes in their population structure and physical environment during the period 1971-2004. In particular, we assess the relative investment of energy in growth and/or reproduction of small (20-35 cm) and large (35-50 cm) hake. We calculated the (i) condition (Fulton’s K), (ii) gonad and (iii) gut fullness indices for 42,761 female hakes sampled from commercial landings; these indices indicate fish somatic, reproductive and feeding condition, respectively. Using Generalized Additive Models we then examined potential relationships between these indices and sea surface temperature anomalies and date. Drastic energy exhaustion and a decrease in female hake fecundity were observed during El Niño events. The long-term trend showed a general increase in condition factor and a decrease in gonad index for large hake between 1971 and 2004. Small hake exhibited a different trend with an increase in reproductive activity, which was accompanied by an earlier maturation. We hypothesise that the observed low investment of energy in reproduction by large female hake might be related to the lack of large males, due to a sex-selective fishery and the impact of El Niño. We suggest that fishing diminished hake reproductive capacity, modified the sex ratio in favour of females and increased population vulnerability to environmental stress, in particular to the El Niño. The impact of multidecadal variability and predators like the squid, Dosidicus gigas, remain unresolved until longer time series become available.

  14. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  15. Protein gels and emulsions from mixtures of Cape hake and pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Ana Sofia; Pires, Carla; Batista, Irineu; Sousa, Isabel; Raymundo, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Portioning of frozen fish generates by-products such as fish 'sawdust' and cut-offs which can be further processed into protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of the present work was to produce gels and emulsions using recovered Cape hake protein powder (HPP). In previous works, the structures of the gels produced by HPP were found to be strong, with a high rubbery character. In this work, the addition of commercial pea proteins (PPC) to HPP gels and emulsions was studied. Physical properties of gels and emulsions prepared with different proportions of mixtures of PPC and HPP were evaluated. In general, gels and emulsions showed high values for whiteness and, as expected, the higher content of HPP in the protein mixtures led to higher firmness values of the gels. The gel network was rapidly formed upon heating due to the fish protein macromolecules and further reinforced by the pea protein macromolecules when cooled to 5 °C. Both visco-elastic parameters, storage and loss moduli, of the produced gels increased with the HPP proportion in the protein mixtures, corresponding to more structured systems. For the emulsions, two different pH environments were studied: 3.8 and 7.0. At neutral pH a synergy was found between the vegetable and fish protein, which is not so strong when pH is lowered to 3.8, near the isoelectric point of pea proteins (pI = 4.5). This evidence was supported by the results from the texture measurements, viscosity and visco-elastic parameters. Gels made from Cape hake proteins showed a softer texture and were less rubbery with the addition of pea proteins. Emulsions stabilised by these mixtures showed slightly different behaviour when produced at pH 7.0 or pH 3.8. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou-Rahma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66% out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water.

  17. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  18. Selectivity of Standard, Narrow and Square Mesh Panel Trawl Codends for Hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Poor Cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBİLGİN, Hüseyin; TOSUNOĞLU, Zafer; AYDIN, Celalettin; KAYKAÇ, Hakan; TOKAÇ, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    The selectivity of 3 trawl codends, (1) a commercially used standard codend, (2) a narrow codend (100 meshes on its circumference instead of 200) and (3) a square mesh top panel codend, was tested for hake (Merluccius merluccius) and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus) between 8 and 24 October 2003, in the Aegean Sea. Data were collected using the covered codend technique, and analysed by means of a logistic equation with the maximum likelihood method. The results show that the commer...

  19. Pacific Hake Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-04

    Blois , L. C. Hufnagle, A. R. Kronlund, J. A. Holmes, and C. D. Wilson, "The 2003 Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake, Merluccius...Center, Seattle, WA, 2005. 17. Fleischer, G. W., K. D. Cooke, P. H. Ressler, R. E. Thomas, S. K. de Blois , and L. C. Hufnagle, "The 2005 Integrated...Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA, 2008. 18. de Blois , S. K., D. Chu, and K. D. Cooke, "Results of the 2007

  20. [IMPACT OF SIX COOKING TECHNIQUES ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MARLIN (MAKAIRA NIGRICANS) AND HAKE (MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Carrillo-Domínguez, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    the regular consumption of fish brings benefits to health due to its content of n-3 fatty acids, but cooking enhances or damages the concentration of fatty acids (FA) since they are susceptible to oxidation by temperatures and cooking times. to analyze the effect of six cooking techniques on total lipids (TL) and (FA) content in marlin and hake and select which one helps the best conservation of health beneficial FA. fillets were subjected to different cooking techniques: steam (ST), foiled-aluminum-paper (FAP), foiled- banana-leaf (FBL), gas-oven (GO), microwave-oven (MO) and fried-lightly (FL). FA were identified by gas chromatography/FID. Marlin: FL increased the concentration of TL and MO decreased it. Statistically, PUFA, SFA and EPA + DHA increased with FAP, MUFA decreased with FBL and increased in FL. Hake: FL increased concentration in all groups of FA while ST decreased it. SFA values and index of atherogenicity (IA), thrombogenicity (IT), peroxidisability and hipocolesterolemic/ hipercolesterolemic fatty acid ratio (HH) found, suggested that hake is a fish with greater health benefits, regardless of the technique you employ. By its EPA + DHA content, marlin seems to be an excellent choice if cooked FAP. FL technique in both species decreased the IA, IT and significantly increased the HH; however n3/n6 ratio decreased. ST seems to be the least desirable cooking technique for both species. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Links between the recruitment success of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) and a regime shift on the NE Atlantic continental shelf

    KAUST Repository

    Goikoetxea, Nerea

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) extends from the Bay of Biscay up to Norwegian waters. However, despite its wide geographical distribution, there have been few studies on fluctuations in the European hake populations. Marine ecosystem shifts have been investigated worldwide and their influence on trophic levels has been studied, from top predator fish populations down to planktonic prey species, but there is little information on the effect of atmosphere-ocean shifts on European hake. This work analyses hake recruitment success (recruits per adult biomass) in relation to environmental changes over the period 1978-2006 in order to determine whether the regime shift identified in several abiotic and biotic variables in the North Sea also affected the Northeast Atlantic shelf oceanography. Hake recruitment success as well as parameters such as the sea surface temperature, wind patterns and copepod abundance changed significantly at the end of the 1980s, demonstrating an ecological regime shift in the Northeast Atlantic. Despite the low reproductive biomass recorded during the last decades, hake recruitment success has been higher since the change in 1989/90. The higher productivity may have sustained the population despite the intense fishing pressure; copepod abundance, warmer water temperatures and moderate eastward transport were found to be beneficial. In conclusion, in 1988/89 the Northeast Atlantic environment shifted to a favourable regime for northern hake production. This study supports the hypothesis that the hydro-climatic regime shift that affected the North Sea in the late 1980s may have influenced a wider region, such as the Northeast Atlantic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Age, growth and mortality of Hake larvae (Merluccius hubbsi in the north Patagonian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Brown

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth and mortality rates were estimated in Argentinean hake (Merlucius hubbsi larvae by counting and measuring otolith daily increments. Larvae were captured with a Bongo net in January and February 2001. Length-at-age data were represented by a linear model whose fitted expression was: L(t = 0.156 t + 1.7. Slope represented mean the daily growth rate (0.156 mm/day. This value was quite similar to the values recorded by other authors for larvae of other Merluccius species. Individual growth rates were not significantly different between January and February. This homogeneity in the larval growth was coincident with the great thermal homogeneity recorded between months. Statistical analysis of the larval growth rates from different areas did not show significant differences. Daily mortality coefficients derived from the exponential decline models were 0.27 and 0.12 for January and February respectively. The difference between the two mortality coefficients could be attributable to the patchinnes, or larval recruitment pulses of distinct intensity between the two months.

  3. Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Lisa; Martuzzi, Francesca; Vivo, Valentina; Ghirri, Alessia; Salomi, Enrico; Bignetti, Enrico; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is recognized as an essential nutritional factor for bone health. An adequate intake is important to achieve or maintain optimal bone mass in particular during growth and old age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of hake fish bone (HBF) as a calcium source for bone mineralization: in vitro on osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells, cultured in Ca-free osteogenic medium (OM) and in vivo on young growing rats fed a low-calcium diet. Lithotame (L), a Ca supplement derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, was used as control. In vitro experiments showed that HBF supplementation provided bone mineralization similar to standard OM, whereas L supplementation showed lower activity. In vivo low-Ca HBF-added and L-added diet similarly affected bone deposition. Physico-chemical parameters concerning bone mineralization, such as femur breaking force, tibia density and calcium/phosphorus mineral content, had beneficial effects from both Ca supplementations, in the absence of any evident adverse effect. We conclude HBF derived from by-product from the fish industry is a good calcium supplier with comparable efficacy to L.

  4. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fine-scale effects of environmental variables associated with habitat distribution for 4 size groups of Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, using generalized additive models (GAMs) with a negative binominal error distribution. This study took place during the Namibian...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...

  5. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1

  6. Spawning of the chilean hake (Merluccius gayi in the upwelling system off Talcahuano in relation to oceanographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Vargas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the upwelling area off Talcahuano, in central-south Chile, is an important spawning zone for the hake Merluccius gayi. We document the results of a study designed to assess the importance of oceanographic features on the horizontal and vertical distribution of hake eggs and larvae. Ichthyoplankton samples and oceanographic data (CTDO casts, and wind speed and direction were collected during a cruise carried out off Talcahuano (36º22´S-37º10´S in early spring (October 1996, which included a grid of 61 stations up to 60 nm offshore. The oceanographic information obtained revealed the presence of an upwelling plume at Lavapie Point (southern zone extending northward over the shelf, and the presence of a warmer water parcel close to shore in the northern area. Peak egg densities occurred in this northern area over the shelf, in a nucleus located at the shoreward moving deeper layer (40-100 m deep and associated with the upwelling front about 20-30 nm from shore. The highest larval abundance also occurred in the northern area over the shelf and in the deeper layer but closer to shore than the egg nucleus. Because the timing (early spring and location of spawning (at depth, over the shelf and in association with frontal structures are also shared by other hake species in upwelling areas, we propose that they may be part of a more commonly developed strategy to enhance offspring survival in coastal upwelling areas of eastern boundary currents.

  7. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  8. What can gene flow and recruitment dynamics tell us about connectivity between European hake stocks in the Eastern North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Alfonso; Pérez, Montse; Cerviño, Santiago; Presa, Pablo

    2011-04-01

    Systematic genetic analyses of fish populations allow the testing of temporal stability in their genetic structures and better understanding their pattern of connectivity. In this study the pattern of gene flow between the two Atlantic stocks of the European hake has been examined for the period 2000-2002. Present analyses indicate that a large genetic homogeneity existed among all Atlantic populations in that period, and that a systematic grouping occurred between Porcupine Bank samples and Cantabric ones. This scenario is congruent with an inter-annual gene flow from central grounds of the northern stock (Porcupine and Great Sole) to Iberian grounds inhabited by the southern stock. Additionally, estimated migration figures were in agreement with the good recruitments observed in the southern stock after 2003 despite the spawning biomass was at its historical minimum. Altogether these results highlight the central role of Porcupine bank and Great Sole in making sustainable both stocks and advocate the integrative management of this hake fishery by means of a multidisciplinary assessment.

  9. Emergence of a new predator in the North Sea: evaluation of potential trophic impacts focused on hake, saithe, and Norway pout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cormon, Xochitl; Kempf, Alexander; Vermard, Youen

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius) has increased in abundance, and its spatial distribution has expanded in the North Sea region in correlation with temperature. In a context of global warming, this spatial shift could impact local trophic interactions: direc...

  10. Novel Tools for Conservation Genomics: Comparing Two High-Throughput Approaches for SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of the European Hake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, Ilaria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Panitz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The growing accessibility to genomic resources using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the application of molecular genetic tools to ecology and evolutionary studies in non-model organisms. Here we present the case study of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius),...

  11. Migration, distribution and population (stock) structure of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred using a geostatistical population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    2016-01-01

    Shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) is of considerable ecological and economic importance in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem in South Africa and Namibia. Optimal management of the resource is currently constrained by the limited understanding of migration patterns and population...

  12. Effects of environmental variables on survey catch rates and distribution by size of shallow- and deep-water Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus off Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; van der Plas, A. K.; Bartholomae, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the effects of temperature, oxygen, salinity and time of day on survey trawl catches, we modeled observed catches of juvenile, small, medium and large hakes per station as functions of zenith angle of the sun, geographical position, year, temperature, salinity, oxygen and depth....

  13. Analysis of transitions at two-fold redundant sites in mammalian genomes. Transition redundant approach-to-equilibrium (TREx distance metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exchange of nucleotides at synonymous sites in a gene encoding a protein is believed to have little impact on the fitness of a host organism. This should be especially true for synonymous transitions, where a pyrimidine nucleotide is replaced by another pyrimidine, or a purine is replaced by another purine. This suggests that transition redundant exchange (TREx processes at the third position of conserved two-fold codon systems might offer the best approximation for a neutral molecular clock, serving to examine, within coding regions, theories that require neutrality, determine whether transition rate constants differ within genes in a single lineage, and correlate dates of events recorded in genomes with dates in the geological and paleontological records. To date, TREx analysis of the yeast genome has recognized correlated duplications that established a new metabolic strategies in fungi, and supported analyses of functional change in aromatases in pigs. TREx dating has limitations, however. Multiple transitions at synonymous sites may cause equilibration and loss of information. Further, to be useful to correlate events in the genomic record, different genes within a genome must suffer transitions at similar rates. Results A formalism to analyze divergence at two fold redundant codon systems is presented. This formalism exploits two-state approach-to-equilibrium kinetics from chemistry. This formalism captures, in a single equation, the possibility of multiple substitutions at individual sites, avoiding any need to "correct" for these. The formalism also connects specific rate constants for transitions to specific approximations in an underlying evolutionary model, including assumptions that transition rate constants are invariant at different sites, in different genes, in different lineages, and at different times. Therefore, the formalism supports analyses that evaluate these approximations. Transitions at synonymous

  14. Effects of High-Pressure Treatment on the Muscle Proteome of Hake by Bottom-Up Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Saraiva, Jorge A; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2018-05-02

    A bottom-up proteomics approach was applied for the study of the effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the muscle proteome of fish. The performance of the approach was established for a previous HP treatment (150-450 MPa for 2 min) on frozen (up to 5 months at -10 °C) European hake ( Merluccius merluccius). Concerning possible protein biomarkers of quality changes, a significant degradation after applying a pressure ≥430 MPa could be observed for phosphoglycerate mutase-1, enolase, creatine kinase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase; contrary, electrophoretic bands assigned to tropomyosin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and beta parvalbumin increased their intensity after applying a pressure ≥430 MPa. This repository of potential protein biomarkers may be very useful for further HP investigations related to fish quality.

  15. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.cresson@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, RHMN, Centre Manche — Mer du Nord, BP 669, F-62 321 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bouchoucha, Marc [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Morat, Fabien [IRSTEA, 3275 Route Cézanne, CS 40061, F-13 182 Aix en Provence Cedex 5 (France); Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Loizeau, Veronique [Ifremer, LBCO, Centre Atlantique, BP 70, F-29 280 Plouzané (France); Cossa, Daniel [ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38 041 Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g{sup −1} dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g{sup −1} dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g{sup −1} dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations.

  16. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Morat, Fabien; Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne; Loizeau, Veronique; Cossa, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g −1 dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g −1 dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g −1 dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g −1 dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations

  17. Criteria for sustainable fisheries on juveniles illustrated for Mediterranean hake: control the juvenile harvest, and safeguard spawning refugia to rebuild population fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Caddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a broad overview of issues relevant to management of fisheries for juvenile fish in contrast to the many stock assessments following Beverton and Holt’s (1957 approach for rational exploitation of mature fishes. A perspective on assessing these fisheries is illustrated for juvenile European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the northwestern Mediterranean. Here, a constant natural mortality (M assumption is incorrect, as is the assumption that high fecundities are necessarily adequate for stock replacement. The high Ms-at-age for juveniles generated by the reciprocal model are shown to be a logical counterpart to the high fecundity of hake. Charnov’s criterion of intergenerational reproductive replacement is used to test for a sustainable population, analogous to a limit reference point warning of the dangers of overfishing beyond population replacement. Once peak mortality rates of age 2 hake exceed F(2=1.1-1.2, which is currently the case, reproductive replacement may be at risk. Adult exploitation by inshore trawls is low, and maturing hake surviving the fine-mesh trawl fishery migrate offshore with a reduced vulnerability to fine-mesh gears. Early research suggested that rough bottom near the shelf edge once formed a refugium protecting offshore spawners from trawling, and led to abundant recruitment of juveniles nearer shore. It may not do so if offshore fishing effort by reinforced bottom trawls, gill nets and longlines is uncontrolled. Restoring offshore refugia to protect spawners and controlling peak fishing mortality of juveniles would be a precautionary strategy aimed at restoring previous levels of recruitment to the small-mesh trawl fishery.

  18. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  19. Spatial patterns of copepod biodiversity in relation to a tidal front system in the main spawning and nursery area of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperoni, B.; Viñas, M. D.; Martos, P.; Marrari, M.

    2014-11-01

    Copepods play an important role in marine ecosystems as a direct link of energy transfer between primary producers and higher trophic level consumers, such as fish. In the Argentine Sea, the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi spawns from late austral spring (December) to early autumn (April) in the northern Patagonian shelf region (43°-45°30‧S), in association with a highly productive tidal front system. Since hake larvae prey mainly upon copepods, the objective of this study was to assess the spatial variability in the abundance and diversity of these potential food items in different sectors of the front, as one of the possible factors affecting hake recruitment success. Two complementary mesh sizes (67 and 300 μm) were used to accurately target the entire copepod size spectrum. The copepod community was dominated by developmental stages sustain M. hubbsi larval growth resulting from high availability of adequate prey, the suitable thermal ranges, and the existence of retention mechanisms.

  20. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Morat, Fabien; Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne; Loizeau, Veronique; Cossa, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g(-1) dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average valuesLions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g(-1) dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributes were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)

  2. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi waste from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretton, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi. The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia, together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz, in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC. Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0, oleic acid (18:1 n9, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3 and palmitoleic acid (16:1 were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment.El procesamiento de pescados en Patagonia produce gran cantidad de residuos. El recurso de pesca más importante en la Argentina es la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. En Patagonia

  3. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  4. Cooperation between scientists, NGOs and industry in support of sustainable fisheries: the South African hake Merluccius spp. trawl fishery experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J G; Attwood, C G; Jarre, A; Sink, K; Atkinson, L J; Petersen, S

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the increasingly close interaction between natural and social scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and industry, in pursuit of responsible ecosystem-based management of fisheries. South Africa has committed to implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Management advice stems from multi-stakeholder representation on government-led scientific and management working groups. In the hake Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus fishery, the primary management measure is an annual total allowable catch (TAC), the level of which is calculated using a management procedure (MP) that is revised approximately every 4 years. Revision of the MP is a consultative process involving most stakeholders, and is based on simulation modelling of projected probable scenarios of resource and fishery dynamics under various management options. NGOs, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature in South Africa (WWF-SA), have played an important role in influencing consumers, the fishing industry and government to develop responsible fishing practices that minimize damage to marine ecosystems. Cooperation between industry, government and scientists has helped to improve sustainability and facilitated the meeting of market-based incentives for more responsible fisheries. Research includes ecosystem modelling, spatial analysis and ecosystem risk assessment with increasing research focus on social and economic aspects of the fishery. A four-year cooperative experiment to quantify the effect of trawling on benthic community structure is being planned. The food requirements of top predators still need to be included in the TAC-setting formulae and more social and economic research is needed. This paper also demonstrates how NGO initiatives such as Marine Stewardship Council certification and the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, a traffic light system of classifying seafood for consumers, have contributed to responsible fishing

  5. Age estimation of juvenile European hake Merluccius merluccius based on otolith microstructure analysis: a slow or fast growth pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattoura, P; Lefkaditou, E; Megalofonou, P

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine otolith microstructure and to estimate the age and growth of European hake Merluccius merluccius from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. One hundred and twenty-nine specimens ranging from 102 to 438 mm in total length (LT ) were used. Age estimations were based on the study of the otolith microstructure, which was revealed after grinding both frontal sides of otoliths. The enumerations of the daily growth increments (DGI) as well as their width (WDGI ) measurements were made on calibrated digital images. The number of DGI in otoliths ranged between 163 and 717. Four phases in the WDGI evolution were distinguished: (1) larval-juvenile pelagic phase, with an increasing trend in WDGI up to the 60th DGI, (2) settlement phase, with a short-term deceleration in WDGI between the 61st and 150th DGI, (3) juvenile demersal phase, characterized by a stabilization of WDGI from 151st to 400th DGI and (4) adult phase, with a decreasing trend in WDGI after the 400th DGI. Age, sex and month of formation were found to affect the WDGI in all phases, with the exception of age at the juvenile demersal phase. The power curve with intercept model described best the relationship of M. merluccius LT with age (TDGI ), according to Akaike criteria, revealing differences in growth between females [LT = 65 · 36(TDGI )(0 · 40) - 388 · 55] and males [LT = 69 · 32(TDGI )(0 · 37) - 352 · 88] for the sizes examined. The mean daily growth rates were 0·61 mm day(-1) for females and 0·52 mm day(-1) for males, resulting in an LT of 283 and 265 mm at the end of their first year of life. In comparison with previous studies on the Mediterranean Sea, the results of this study showed a greater growth rate, similar to results from tagging experiments and otolith microstructure analyses for M. merluccius in other geographic areas. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Tradition haking s up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more years before her hopes become a real- ... spend time with my children whenever possible. Although I ... 12 years of her marriage traveling between. India and ... The real breakthrough for Asia, according to Vijayalakshmi, will come only ...

  7. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  9. Influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on PCB and p,p'DDE concentrations and repartitions in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) from the Gulf of Lions (N.W. Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Loizeau, Véronique; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Roupsard, François; Philippon, Xavier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine

    2009-12-20

    The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on the contamination of the demersal fish Merluccius merluccius by organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'DDE were quantified in muscle, liver and gonads of female and male hakes collected in the Gulf of Lions in 2004 and 2005. Observed levels appeared higher than the population of the Bay of Biscay and lower than the population of the Thyrrenian Sea. Contaminant fingerprints were roughly constant whatever the studied organ and the hake biological condition. Concentrations varied significantly according to the sex and maturity of hakes. Mature specimens were more contaminated than immature, and males presented higher levels than females. This sex effect can be linked to a lower growth rate of males, and a contaminant elimination during female spawning. Gonadal contamination depends on the importance of lipid content and increases with the maturation degree. Although the main organ of energy and PCB storage is the liver, muscle appears as the main contributor to the gonad contamination.

  10. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  12. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  13. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  14. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  15. Structural Variations in β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 at Low Temperature and under Pressure: Charge-Ordered State with a Two-Fold Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamori, Kota; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Kodama, Takeshi; Fujita, Wataru; Kikuchi, Koichi; Yamada, Jun-ichi

    2013-05-01

    The pressure-induced organic superconductor β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 [BDA-TTP = 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene], which shows a metal--insulator (MI) transition at TMI = 113 K under ambient pressure, has been found by X-ray study to have a two-fold crystal structure along the c-axis in the insulating state at 10 K. In the donor layer, there are four independent BDA-TTP molecules, which are divided into two charge-poor ones and two charge-rich ones on the basis of the folding dihedral angles around the intramolecular sulfur-to-sulfur axes of two outer dithiane rings in BDA-TTP. The charge separation leads to the formation of two types of dimers: a dimer consisting of two charge-poor donors and a dimer consisting of two charge-rich ones. The tight-binding band calculation revealed a band gap of 5.3 meV in the energy dispersion. The MI transition can be therefore accounted for by the charge separation. In addition, we investigated the crystal and electronic structures of β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 at different pressures up to 21 kbar, and found that the application of pressures causes variations in both the conformation of donor molecule and the donor arrangement, which are responsible for almost uniform interaction in the donor stacking and for an increase in bandwidth (W). As a result, the suppression of MI transition and subsequent occurrence of superconductivity in β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 would be observed with increasing pressure.

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. Photomultiplier gain stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.; Sautiez, B.

    1958-07-01

    By the control and adjustment of magnetic deflection applied to the electron beam of a photomultiplier it has proved possible to flatten the gain curve, forming plateaux at levels dependent upon the voltage at intake. It should be possible to add this simple device to most photomultipliers on the market today. (author) [fr

  18. Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. females from the Adriatic sea with respect to environmental influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Slađan Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the integrated response of antioxidant defense enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and phase II biotransformation enzyme, glutathione- S-transferase (GST in the liver and white muscle of females of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. from the Adriatic Sea (Montenegro in winter and spring. The activity of GSH-Px in the liver was significantly increased, while GST activity was decreased in spring compared to the winter. In white muscle, the activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD were increased, while the activities of MnSOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST were decreased in spring when compared to the matching values in winter. The activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD in winter were markedly lower in the muscle than in the liver, while the activity of MnSOD in the muscle was higher when compared to the liver. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed clear separation of the investigated antioxidant biomarkers between tissues and seasons, while the integrated biomarker response (IBR showed that the most intensive antioxidant biomarker response was in the liver in spring. Star plots of IBR showed a dominant contribution of glutathione-dependent biomarkers (GSH-Px, GR and GST and CAT in both tissues and seasons with respect to SOD isoenzymes. All enzyme activities (except MnSOD were greater in the liver in comparison to the white muscle. Our results show that the liver possesses a greater capacity to establish and maintain homeostasis under changing environmental conditions in winter and spring. At the same time, seasonal effects are more pronounced in muscle tissue. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173041

  19. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  20. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... and output composition (mix). To illustrate our approach, data from the Danish fishery are used to calculate the potential gains from introducing individually transferable fishing quotas. Data envelopment analysis is used to model the production technology. We find that pure reallocation is as important...

  1. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  2. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  3. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  4. Operational gain : measuring the capture of genetic gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of operational gain is more than the weighted average of the genetic quality of planted hectares, and encompasses tree breeding efficiencies, propagation efficiencies, matching of species and genotype to site, plant use efficiency and early measures of stand density and growth. To test the operational gain ...

  5. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  6. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  7. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  8. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  9. Indirect and two fold measurements in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fer, Francis

    1981-01-01

    Keeping strictly in the positivist, probabilistic and hilbertian frame of quantum mechanics, the author develops a criticism of the accepted theory of indirect and twofold measurements. He shows that this theory cannot logically derive from the usual axiomatics, namely from the so-called reduction-of-state axiom. He proposes a modified statement (already used sometimes) of this axiom, which leads to a reliable theory of indirect and twofold measurements. The results are particularly: a) that a measurement made on a sub-system does not modify the mathematical representation of the complementary system, nor its prior probability distributions; b) that measurement is nothing else than an information which enables to correct the probabilities of further measurements according to the classical rules of the calculus of probabilities [fr

  10. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusiv...

  11. Optomechanical transistor with mechanical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Tian, Lin; Li, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study an optomechanical transistor, where an input field can be transferred and amplified unidirectionally in a cyclic three-mode optomechanical system. In this system, the mechanical resonator is coupled simultaneously to two cavity modes. We show that it only requires a finite mechanical gain to achieve the nonreciprocal amplification. Here the nonreciprocity is caused by the phase difference between the linearized optomechanical couplings that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of this system. The amplification arises from the mechanical gain, which provides an effective phonon bath that pumps the mechanical mode coherently. This effect is analogous to the stimulated emission of atoms, where the probe field can be amplified when its frequency is in resonance with that of the anti-Stokes transition. We show that by choosing optimal parameters, this optomechanical transistor can reach perfect unidirectionality accompanied with strong amplification. In addition, the presence of the mechanical gain can result in ultralong delay in the phase of the probe field, which provides an alternative to controlling light transport in optomechanical systems.

  12. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  13. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braase, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  14. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  15. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  16. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  19. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  20. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  1. Boesmanland gains from nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is being claimed that the geobotany of the Boesmanland will gain from the use of the farm Vaalputs for radioactive waste disposal from the Koeberg nuclear power station. Only 1 km 2 of the 10 000 ha that was bought for the purpose will be used for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and 2 m 3 to 3 m 3 per year will be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The rest of the area, Nucor plans to develop as a nature reserve, restoring the natural botany and ecology. Before Vaalputs was selected as site for radioactive waste disposal, a regional analysis was done. According to this there is more or less 500 people staying within a radius of 25km from the farm. Geological surveys showed no mineral deposits of economic value. During the past 100 million years the area was also free from seismic activity

  2. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  3. Review of High Gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-01

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator

  4. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  5. Determination of the STIS CCD Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Allyssa; Monroe, TalaWanda; Lockwood, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis and absolute gain results of the STIS Cycle 23 special calibration program 14424 that was designed to measure the gain of amplifiers A, C and D at nominal gain settings of 1 and 4 e-/DN. We used the mean-variance technique and the results indicate a mean-variance technique.

  6. Influences of finite gain bandwidth on pulse propagation in parabolic fiber amplifiers with distributed gain profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Chen Xiao-Dong; Feng Su-Juan; Mao Qing-He

    2012-01-01

    The evolutions of the pulses propagating in decreasing and increasing gain distributed fiber amplifiers with finite gain bandwidths are investigated by simulations with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results show that the parabolic pulse propagations in both the decreasing and the increasing gain amplifiers are restricted by the finite gain bandwidth. For a given input pulse, by choosing a small initial gain coefficient and gain variation rate, the whole gain for the pulse amplification limited by the gain bandwidth may be higher, which is helpful for the enhancement of the output linearly chirped pulse energy. Compared to the decreasing gain distributed fiber amplifier, the increasing gain distributed amplifier may be more conducive to suppress the pulse spectral broadening and increase the critical amplifier length for achieving a larger output linearly chirped pulse energy

  7. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  8. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  9. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  10. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  11. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  12. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Mišta, L.; Fiurášek, J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes...

  13. Efficiency gains, bounds, and risk in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarisoy, Cisil

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter analyzes efficiency gains in the estimation of expected returns based on asset pricing models and examines the economic implications of such gains in portfolio allocation exercises. The second chapter provides nonparametric efficiency bounds

  14. Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...

  15. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive wires. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the passive view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g. putting in a contact lens to highly forceful (emergency reactions. Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation.

  16. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  17. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  18. Controlling gain one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

  19. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  20. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  1. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  2. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  3. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutosh.bhardwaj@cern.ch; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-11

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  4. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  5. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  6. MOS current gain cells with electronically variable gain and constant bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, Evert

    1989-01-01

    Two MOS current gain cells are proposed that provide linear amplification of currents supplied by several linear MOS V-I converters. The gain is electronically variable by a voltage or a current and can be made insensitive to temperature and IC processing. The gain cells have a constant

  7. Detective quantum efficiency gains compared with speed gains for hypersensitized astronomical plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that gains in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are far better criteria for assessing the performance of hypersensitizing techniques than gains in speed. It is shown here that gains in speed can be misleading, for some methods of hypersensitization give plates of increased speed but reduced detective quantum efficiency. (author)

  8. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  9. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  10. Transient optical gain in germanium quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sangam; Lange, Christoph; Koester, Niko S.; Schaefer, Martin; Kira, Mackillo; Koch, Stephan W. [Faculty of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Kaenel, Hans von [CNISM, Como (Italy); L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Como (Italy); Sigg, Hans [Laboratory for Micro and Nanotecnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    One of today's most-sought goals in semiconductor technology is the monolithic integration of microelectronics and photonics on Si. Optical gain is, in general, not expected for Si and Ge or its alloys due to the indirect nature of the band gap in this material system. Here, we show that Ge/SiGe QWs show transient optical gain and may thus be used as an optically-pumped amplifier at room temperature. Further, the nonequilibrium effects which govern the relaxation dynamics of the optically injected carrier distributions in this material were observed and analyzed using a microscopic many-body theory. Strong non-equilibrium gain was obtained on a sub-100 fs time scale. Long-lived gain arising from {gamma}-point transitions is overcompensated by a process bearing the character of free carrier absorption.

  11. Renyi information gain on quantum key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2007-01-01

    The concept of maximum Renyi information gain from quantum key is important in eavesdropping and security analyses of quantum key distribution. It is particularly useful in the design optimization of eavesdropping probes. The present work reviews the quantitative measure of Renyi information gain, its optimization, and application to the design of eavesdropping probes in which single-photon probe states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver

  12. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  13. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  14. Central gain control in tinnitus and hyperacusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Auerbach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders.

  15. Potential gains from hospital mergers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Troels; Bogetoft, Peter; Pedersen, Kjeld Moeller

    2010-12-01

    The Danish hospital sector faces a major rebuilding program to centralize activity in fewer and larger hospitals. We aim to conduct an efficiency analysis of hospitals and to estimate the potential cost savings from the planned hospital mergers. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate a cost frontier. Based on this analysis, we calculate an efficiency score for each hospital and estimate the potential gains from the proposed mergers by comparing individual efficiencies with the efficiency of the combined hospitals. Furthermore, we apply a decomposition algorithm to split merger gains into technical efficiency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains. The motivation for this decomposition is that some of the apparent merger gains may actually be available with less than a full-scale merger, e.g., by sharing best practices and reallocating certain resources and tasks. Our results suggest that many hospitals are technically inefficient, and the expected "best practice" hospitals are quite efficient. Also, some mergers do not seem to lower costs. This finding indicates that some merged hospitals become too large and therefore experience diseconomies of scale. Other mergers lead to considerable cost reductions; we find potential gains resulting from learning better practices and the exploitation of economies of scope. To ensure robustness, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using two alternative returns-to-scale assumptions and two alternative estimation approaches. We consistently find potential gains from improving the technical efficiency and the exploitation of economies of scope from mergers.

  16. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  17. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  18. Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum

  19. Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Kartashov, Alex I; Ebbeling, Cara B; Van Horn, Linda; Slattery, Martha L; Jacobs, David R; Ludwig, David S

    Fast-food consumption has increased greatly in the USA during the past three decades. However, the effect of fast food on risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the association between reported fast-food habits and changes in bodyweight and insulin resistance over a 15-year period in the USA. Participants for the CARDIA study included 3031 young (age 18-30 years in 1985-86) black and white adults who were followed up with repeated dietary assessment. We used multiple linear regression models to investigate the association of frequency of fast-food restaurant visits (fast-food frequency) at baseline and follow-up with 15-year changes in bodyweight and the homoeostasis model (HOMA) for insulin resistance. Fast-food frequency was lowest for white women (about 1.3 times per week) compared with the other ethnic-sex groups (about twice a week). After adjustment for lifestyle factors, baseline fast-food frequency was directly associated with changes in bodyweight in both black (p=0.0050) and white people (p=0.0013). Change in fast-food frequency over 15 years was directly associated with changes in bodyweight in white individuals (pfast-food restaurant use at baseline and follow-up (n=203), those with frequent (more than twice a week) visits to fast-food restaurants at baseline and follow-up (n=87) gained an extra 4.5 kg of bodyweight (p=0.0054) and had a two-fold greater increase in insulin resistance (p=0.0083). Fast-food consumption has strong positive associations with weight gain and insulin resistance, suggesting that fast food increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Two-user opportunistic scheduling using hierarchical modulations in wireless networks with heterogenous average link gains

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-03-01

    Our contribution, in this paper, is two-fold. First, we analyze the performance of a hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) scheme, which was proposed by the authors, in a fading environment where different users have different average link gains. Specifically, we present a new expression for the spectral efficiency (SE) of the users and using this expression, we compare the degrees of fairness (DOF) of the TBS scheme with that of classical single user opportunistic scheduling schemes, namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) based single-best user scheduling (SBS) and normalized CNR based proportional fair scheduling (PFS) schemes. The second contribution is that we propose a new hybrid two-user opportunistic scheduling (HTS) scheme based on our earlier proposed TBS scheme. This HTS scheme selects the first user based on the largest absolute CNR value among all the users while the second user is selected based on the ratios of the absolute CNRs to the corresponding average CNRs of the remaining users. The total transmission rate i.e., the constellation size is selected according to the absolute CNR of the first best user. The total transmission rate is then allocated among these selected users by joint consideration of their absolute CNRs and allocated number of information bit(s) are transmitted to them using hierarchical modulations. Numerical results are presented for a fading environment where different users experience independent but non-identical (i.n.d.) channel fading. These selected numerical results show that the proposed HTS scheme can considerably increase the system\\'s fairness without any degradation of the link spectral efficiency (LSE) i.e., the multiuser diversity gain compared to the classical SBS scheme. These results also show that the proposed HTS scheme has a lower fairness in comparison to the PFS scheme which suffers from a considerable degradation in LSE. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  2. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  3. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  4. Capital Gains Taxation and House Price Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuest, Clemens; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen large swings in house prices in many countries. Motivated by housing price variations, proposals for taxing capital gains on housing have repeatedly been put forth. The idea seems to be that such taxes would curb the redistribution occurring between those owning houses...... and those trying to get into the market for owner-occupied housing. Our paper shows that at least in simple settings, a tax on real capital gains on housing will only lead to even bigger price swings and will not be able to redistribute between people appearing on either side of the housing market.......Keywords: capital gains tax, housing market, price fluctuationsJEL-Classification: H23, H24, R 31.Addresses:...

  5. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  6. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2+1)-dimensi......Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2...

  7. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  8. Causes and Consequences of Interdialytic weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with higher predialysis blood pressure and increased mortality. IDWG is also increasingly being recognized as an indicator of nutritional status. We studied in detail the associations of various patient factors and nutritional

  9. The Biology of Intron Gain and Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffares, Daniel C; Mourier, Tobias; Penny, David

    2006-01-01

    Intron density in eukaryote genomes varies by more than three orders of magnitude, so there must have been extensive intron gain and/or intron loss during evolution. A favored and partial explanation for this range of intron densities has been that introns have accumulated stochastically in large...... on introns depending on the biology of the organism and the gene involved....

  10. Visually induced gains in pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cecilie; Højlund, Andreas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2018-01-01

    Perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. The principle of inverse effectiveness (PoIE) states how the multisensory gain is maximal when responses to the unisensory constituents of the stimuli are weak. It is one of the basic principles underlying multisensory processing of spatiotem...

  11. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    -ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered...

  12. Gains and losses in nonadditive expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakesh, S.; Wakker, P.P.; Machina, M.J.; Munier, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a simple approach for deriving cumulative prospect theory. The key axiom is a cumulative dominance axiom which requires that a prospect be judged more attractive if in it greater gains are more likely and greater losses are less likely. In the presence of this cumulative

  13. Leaving home for college and gaining independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    As more and more young US adults attend college it has become an increasingly important filter in the process of becoming an independent household. Now for a large number of young adults living in the USA, living away at college is a first step in the process of gaining residential and economic

  14. Beyond Multiplexing Gain in Large MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Müller, Ralf R.; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    growth (multiplexing gain). Even when the channel entries are i.i.d. the deviation from the linear growth is significant. We also find an additive property of the deviation for a concatenated MIMO system. Finally, we quantify the deviation of the large SNR capacity from the exact capacity and find...

  15. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Maternal weight gain in pregnancy can offer a good means of assessing the well being of the pregnant mother and by inference, her baby. The cross – sectional prospective study was carried out carried out between November 1996 and December 1997, in Jos University Teaching hospital to assess the influence ...

  16. Measured stimulated Raman gain in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopert, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report is about the stimulated Raman effect in methane due to the nu 1 vibration. For various gas pressures between 150 torr and 30 atm, the Raman lineshape function was both experimentally measured and synthesized using a computer model. The stimulated Raman gain was measured by sending a pump laser beam provided by an argon-ion laser and a weak probe beam provided by a tunable dye laser through a cell of methane gas. The stimulated Raman effect caused some of the energy from the pump beam to be transferred to the probe beam. The intensity of the pump beam was low so the gain of the probe beam was on the order of parts per million. A two detector arrangement and a differential amplifier system that had a feedback loop to balance the detectors was constructed to measure the small gains. A detailed description of this detection system that was able to measure gains as small as 0.2 parts per million is provided

  17. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  18. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  19. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...... of information in an era which developed a sophisticated commercial press and telegraphic communication. Improved market efficiency probably stimulated trade more than falling transport costs......This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer...

  20. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  1. The gain from improved market efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    demand as well as excess supply, which triggered off the tâtonnement process. Over time, adjustments to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, became faster and violations of the law of one price become smaller. There were significant gains from improved market efficiency, which took place......This article looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the nineteenth century, when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer......, Liverpool, are analysed. We show that the law of one price equilibrium was an ‘attractor equilibrium'. The implication is that prices converged to that equilibrium in a tâtonnement process. Because of asymmetrically timed information between markets separated by long distances there were periods of excess...

  2. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  3. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  4. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  5. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  6. Brain Gain am Beispiel Österreich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschbacher Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly – the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost.

  7. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  8. Water on fire: Gains from electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, N.H. von der; Sandsbraaten, L.

    1997-01-01

    In light of the ongoing liberalization of electricity trade in the Nordic countries, and perhaps in Northern Europe, we argue that gains from electricity trade may be different from those traditionally associated with comparative advantages and economics of scale. In particular, we consider gains arising from the exploitation of technological complementaries between hydro and thermal systems. Our theoretical framework highlights essential features of the two systems and allows for an analysis of effects of trade. We study three trading regimes, which may arise either endogenously or because of trade regulations: day-night power exchange, seasonal energy banking and unbalanced trade. The analysis suggests that gradual trade liberalization may be costly. 13 refs, 7 figs

  9. Gaining the Edge: Connecting with the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Cleaver’s and Partridge’s) entered Americans’ living rooms nightly. The Osmond’s and Beatles captivated music of the Boomer’s youth. Powerful...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING THE EDGE: CONNECTING WITH THE MILLENNIALS by Kay A. Smith, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report Submitted to... the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements 1 December 2008 DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research

  10. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  11. A therapeutic gain model for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    When treating with continuous irradiation the potential therapeutic gain or loss depends on several treatment, normal tissue and tumour variables. There are similarities between equations defining tissue effects with fractionated treatment and brachytherapy. The former is sensitive to dose per fraction (and incomplete repair for short intervals between treatments) and the later is sensitive to dose rate and continuous repair factors. Because of these similarities, for typical tumours and normal tissues, dose per fraction and dose rates generally work in similar directions. As the dose per fraction or dose rate increases the therapeutic gain falls. With continuous irradiation the dose rates effects are determined by Beta cell kill and hence the absolute value of Beta . Minimal sensitivity occurs at very low and very high dose rates. The magnitude of cell kill also depends on the Continuous Repair Factor (g) which is a function of the treatment time and the Repair Half Time (in hours) of the tissues (Repair Half Time T 1/2Ln(2)/h, when h the Repair Constant). An interactive optimising model has been written to predict the therapeutic gain or loss as the parameter values are varied. This model includes the tumour and normal tissue parameters alpha and beta Gy (or individual values), their Repair Half Times, dose rates and overall treatment time. The model is based on the Linear-Quadratic equation and the Total Effect (TE) method of Thames and Hendry although the Extrapolated Response Dose (ERD) method of Barendsen produces the same results. The model is written so that the gain or loss may be seen when treatment is always to normal tissue tolerance doses. The magnitude of the therapeutic loss as the dose rate increases and its sensitivity to changes in normal tissue and tumour parameter values is clearly demonstrated

  12. Insights gained through probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants

  13. Capital gains taxation under different tax regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...

  14. How Subsidiaries Gain Power in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    in multinational firms. Data collected from 2107 foreign-owned subsidiaries in seven European countries is used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that mutual dependence and dependence imbalance provide strong explanations for subsidiary power. Furthermore, subsidiary power over strategic decisions...... in the MNC is gained through functional power, notably the possession of technological, rather than business-related, power or by the possession of both as they reinforce each other in strengthening the subsidiary's strategic power in the MNC network...

  15. Weight gain in children on oxcarbazepine monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoufi, Anastasia; Vartzelis, George; Tsentidis, Charalambos; Attilakos, Achilleas; Koemtzidou, Evangelia; Kossiva, Lydia; Katsarou, Eustathia; Soldatou, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on body growth of children with epilepsy are rare and their results are controversial. To the contrary, many studies have shown significant weight gain following valproate (VPA) treatment. To prospectively evaluate the effect of OXC monotherapy on growth patterns of children with epilepsy and compare it with the effect of VPA monotherapy. Fifty-nine otherwise healthy children, aged 3.7-15.9 years, with primary generalized, partial or partial with secondary generalization seizure disorder, were included in the study. Twenty six children were placed on OXC and thirty three on VPA monotherapy. Body weight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their standard deviation scores (SDS), were evaluated prior to as well as 8 months post initiation of OXC or VPA therapy. Eight months post OXC-treatment, BW, SDS-BW, BMI and SDS-BMI increased significantly. The increase was similar to that observed in the VPA group. An additional 15.4% of children in the OXC group and 21.2% in the VPA group became overweight or obese. The effect of both OXC and VPA therapy on linear growth did not reach statistical significance. Similarly to VPA, OXC monotherapy resulted in a significant weight gain in children with epilepsy. Careful monitoring for excess weight gain along with counseling on adapting a healthy lifestyle should be offered to children on OXC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G; Cohn, T; Remington, G

    2007-01-24

    Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD -3.38 kg CI -4.2 to -2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD - 1.16 kg CI -1.9 to -0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD -1.69 kg CI -2.8 to -0.6) compared with standard care. Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size

  17. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  18. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Neutron gain for converging guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1982-01-01

    The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytical expressions for the neutron gain of a one-dimensional converging guide tube. It is found that the results are more easily expressed by analyzing the acceptance diagram at the exit of the funnel. The results are compared with those for the straight guide. When both guides have the same dimensions at the guide exit, the converging guide has higher transmitted intensity but with greater divergence of the beam. This analytical method is useful to assess the performance of a converging guide, though numerical computations may be required for detailed analysis of a guide system. (orig.)

  20. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    . Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...... phase which is usually neglected by start-up firms focused on the engineering driven innovativeness of the products. The processes developed along with guidelines facilitate future use which can help such firms to proactively consider logistics requirements at the design stage....

  1. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  2. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  3. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  4. Brain Gain am Beispiel Österreich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Christine; Gejguš, Mirko; Sablik, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly - the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost. Moreover, many students have received a good education in a state university, however afterwards they have not secured a satisfactory job in the country where they have studied, therefore they are moving away to utilise their know-how. Measures to retain the know-how include a common placement and a welcome-culture in the country, and also exchanges on an international level.

  5. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  6. Predictive Variable Gain Iterative Learning Control for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictive variable gain strategy in iterative learning control (ILC is introduced. Predictive variable gain iterative learning control is constructed to improve the performance of trajectory tracking. A scheme based on predictive variable gain iterative learning control for eliminating undesirable vibrations of PMSM system is proposed. The basic idea is that undesirable vibrations of PMSM system are eliminated from two aspects of iterative domain and time domain. The predictive method is utilized to determine the learning gain in the ILC algorithm. Compression mapping principle is used to prove the convergence of the algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the predictive variable gain is superior to constant gain and other variable gains.

  7. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Charge Gain, Voltage Gain, and Node Capacitance of the SAPHIRA Detector Pixel by Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, Izabella M.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Baker, Ian M.; Jacobson, Shane M.; Goebel, Sean B.

    2018-01-01

    The University of Hawai`i Institute for Astronomy has partnered with Leonardo (formerly Selex) in the development of HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (L-APD) SAPHIRA detectors. The SAPHIRA (Selex Avalanche Photodiode High-speed Infra-Red Array) is ideally suited for photon-starved astronomical observations, particularly near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) wave-front sensing. I have measured the stability, and linearity with current, of a 1.7-um (10% spectral bandpass) infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) used to illuminate the SAPHIRA and have then utilized this source to determine the charge gain (in e-/ADU), voltage gain (in uV/ADU), and node capacitance (in fF) for each pixel of the 320x256@24um SAPHIRA. These have previously only been averages over some sub-array. Determined from the ratio of the temporal averaged signal level to variance under constant 1.7-um LED illumination, I present the charge gain pixel-by-pixel in a 64x64 sub-array at the center of the active area of the SAPHIRA (analyzed separately as four 32x32 sub-arrays) to be about 1.6 e-/ADU (σ=0.5 e-/ADU). Additionally, the standard technique of varying the pixel reset voltage (PRV) in 10 mV increments and recording output frames for the same 64x64 subarray found the voltage gain per pixel to be about 11.7 uV/ADU (σ=0.2 uV/ADU). Finally, node capacitance was found to be approximately 23 fF (σ=6 fF) utilizing the aforementioned charge and voltage gain measurements. I further discuss the linearity measurements of the 1.7-um LED used in the charge gain characterization procedure.

  10. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Rfq With An Increased Energy Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery

    2004-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs are widely used in the initial part of ion accelerators. For industrial and medical applications, the size of RFQ linac as well as the construction and operation costs are important. Therefore, there is a interest to design a compact RFQ linac. In this paper, RFQ linac is studied with the aim of increasing the energy gain. Parameters of a conventional RFQ linac are usually chosen to ensure beam acceleration and stability, providing the autophasing and strong quadrupole focusing in the longitudinal and transverse directions simultaneously. As results, the accelerating efficiency of RFQ is limited by the transverse defocusing effect, and its value is below of a maximum value, which can be provided by RFQ electrodes. To facilitate these limitations, the well-known idea of alternating phase focusing (APF) is utilized. The APF effects boost transverse focusing, allowing to increase an accelerating efficiency, electrode voltage and decreasing average value of the synchron...

  12. Pressure Gain Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    downstream of a large  diesel  engine, they tested three turbine geometries the best experienced  a drop in efficiency of 10%.   A few people have  looked...Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo 1995 [3] Heffer, J., 2010, Integration of Pressure Gain Combustion with Gas Turbines, Ph.D. Thesis...investigated  an  axial  turbocharger  designed  for  use  downstream  of  a  large  diesel   engine,  they  tested  three  turbine geometries the best

  13. High Gain Antenna Calibration on Three Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the alignment calibration of spacecraft High Gain Antennas (HGAs) for three missions. For two of the missions (the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Solar Dynamics Observatory) the calibration was performed on orbit. For the third mission (the Global Precipitation Measurement core satellite) ground simulation of the calibration was performed in a calibration feasibility study. These three satellites provide a range of calibration situations-Lunar orbit transmitting to a ground antenna for LRO, geosynchronous orbit transmitting to a ground antenna fer SDO, and low Earth orbit transmitting to TDRS satellites for GPM The calibration results depend strongly on the quality and quantity of calibration data. With insufficient data the calibration Junction may give erroneous solutions. Manual intervention in the calibration allowed reliable parameters to be generated for all three missions.

  14. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet.

  15. Unconventional modes in lasers with spatially varying gain and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Li; Tuereci, H. E.; Chong, Y. D.; Stone, A. D.; Rotter, S.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a class of lasing modes created by a spatially inhomogeneous gain profile. These lasing modes are ''extra modes,'' in addition to, and very different from, conventional lasing modes, which arise from the passive cavity resonances. These new modes do not have high intensity across the entire gain region, but instead are localized at the gain boundary and throughout the gain-free region. They are surface modes, originating from the transmission resonances of the gain-free region. Using an S-matrix description we connect these surface modes to the lasing modes in PT-symmetric (balanced gain-loss) cavities.

  16. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  17. Gaining public acceptance for Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Miroslav

    1995-01-01

    , this gave the CEZ utility the opportunity to communicate efficiently with the public about nuclear energy and Temelin in the way Western European and American utilities do. CEZ became a recognized partner and was in a position to begin gaining (or losing) credit. How to gain public credit ( experience of 1993-1994): by always telling the truth, of course. We resumed discussions with representatives of towns and villages around Temelin, who initially were against the completion of the plant. We began to meet regularly every two months. They asked questions and we answered them. Their attitude changed: they were no more resolutely against but demanded supervision of the construction and securing absolute safety. We have adopted rules that prevent appreciable financial help to be given to the communes before the power plant is put in operation. There was another aspect that had to be confirmed, namely, that the Czech Republic really needs electricity from Temelin and that Temelin is the cheapest option in the new political and economic environment. Public opinion as a whole continued to support nuclear power but the voices of opponents, among whom were important persons such as the prime minister in the first Czech post-revolution government, were gaining in strength. Communities in the surroundings of Temelin formed an association against completion of the plant and began to exert pressure on the government to put a stop to the construction. The public was kept informed about nuclear power, the Information center at the plant was active, but it was vital that the government should support the construction and say its clear and unambiguous 'yes'. The utility on its own could not affect the state of affairs. In March 1993, the Czech government discussed the completion of Temelin and gave its nearly unanimous consent. So, for the first time since 1989, the CEZ utility got into a position which the majority of utilities operating nuclear power plants worldwide enjoys. In

  18. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS. Nonetheless, a new CS type has been introduced and investigated in the last few decades in what regards its medical potentials. It is named fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS). This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic properties in various pathophysiological systems which are inexistent in the common CS explored in the market. Examples of these systems are coagulation, thrombosis, hemodialysis, atherosclerosis, cellular growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, inflammation, viral and protozoan infections, hyperglycemia, diabetes-related pathological events and tissue damage. This report aims at describing the medical benefits gained upon fucosylation of CS. Clinical prospects of these medical benefits are also discussed herein.

  19. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.

    1988-01-01

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig

  20. Intelligent control of diesel generators using gain-scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jepsen, Kasper; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    The development of an intelligent control solution for a wide range of diesel generators is discussed. Compared with most existing solutions, the advantages of the proposed solution lie in two folds: (i) The proposed control has the plug-and-play capability which is reflected by an automatic...... recognition procedure when it is plugged into a specific diesel generator, such that some extensive manual-tuning of the installed controller can be significantly reduced; (ii) The proposed control has an real-time adaptability by using the online external load estimation, such that the integrated system can...... keep a consistent performance for a wide range of operating conditions. Technically, a general nonlinear dynamic model is firstly developed based on fundamental principles of diesel generators. Then, the system parameters of this model can be identified experimentally or partially retrieved from...

  1. Ricardian Productivity Differences and the Gains from Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. Levchenko; Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of sectoral heterogeneity in determining the gains from trade. We first show analytically that in the presence of sectoral Ricardian comparative advantage, a one- sector sufficient statistic formula that uses total trade volumes as a share of total absorption systematically understates the true gains from trade. Greater relative sectoral productivity differences lead to larger disparities between the gains implied by the one-sector formula and the true gains. Usi...

  2. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Antenna gain impact on UWB wind turbine blade deflection sensing is studied in this paper. Simulations are applied with a 4.5-meter blade tip. The antennas with high gain (HG) and low gain (LG) in free space are simulated inside a blade. It is interesting to find that tip antennas with HG and LG...

  4. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  5. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... portion of the excess capital gains were designated. The amount so includible by the partnership shall be... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of capital gains. 1.1247-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-3 Treatment of...

  7. Gain tuning and fidelity in continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Furusawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation can be optimized by changing the gain in the modulation of the output field. We discuss the gain dependence of fidelity for coherent, vacuum, and one-photon inputs and propose optimal gain tuning strategies for corresponding input selections

  8. 26 CFR 1.737-1 - Recognition of precontribution gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of precontribution gain. 1.737-1... gain. (a) Determination of gain—(1) In general. A partner that receives a distribution of property (other than money) must recognize gain under section 737 and this section in an amount equal to the...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... gain. Information necessary to calculate the home cooling load shall be provided as specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat loss...

  10. Stimulated Raman gain scattering in thin planar dielectric waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The stimulated Raman gain effect in planar dielectric waveguides is analyzed for the study of thin layers. Calculations show high gain factors and predict the possibility of detecting monolayers. Compared with those for methods based on ref lection, the gain can be 4 orders of magnitude higher for a

  11. Fundamental Limitations to Gain Enhancement in Periodic Media and Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wang, Fengwen

    2012-01-01

    A common strategy to compensate for losses in optical nanostructures is to add gain material in the system. By exploiting slow-light effects it is expected that the gain may be enhanced beyond its bulk value. Here we show that this route cannot be followed uncritically: inclusion of gain inevitably...

  12. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  13. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Oei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames. Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the action videogames because the action videogames and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-action videogames to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in action videogames, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking, rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision. In non-action videogames, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g, Tetris. In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning. Thus, the common demands hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in action videogames, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  14. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  15. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associ...

  16. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed.

  17. Geoffrey Keynes's Two-Fold Vision: Medical Savant-Connoisseur and Literary Bibliographer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, the British surgeon Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1982) treated breast cancer with radium instead of the hegemonic radical mastectomy, while vehemently attacking the "radicalists" for mutilating women. Keynes was also a leading bibliographer of literary figures from Sir Thomas Browne to William Blake through Jane Austen. This article argues that these endeavors did not inhabit separate worlds, but rather his bibliographic methods of collecting and sorting were deeply interwoven with his therapeutic practices and medical ways of knowing. The article also examines the profound influence his engagement with the works of William Blake had on his battle against the reigning medical orthodoxy and on the humanity of his relationship with his patients. It concludes that Keynes' story sheds light on a now distant medico-cultural world where literary studies, often centered on book collecting and critique, were not only highly valued, but were influential in guiding the vision and behavior of a number of physicians. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-fold sustainability – Adobe with sawdust as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, Gul A.; Syed Mohsin, Sharifah M.; Gul, Yasmeen

    2018-04-01

    Adobe is a material that is economic, environment friendly, and provides better indoor air quality. The material required for the preparation of adobe include clay, sand, and sometimes straw or other organic materials. These materials do not require industrial processing or transportation, however, sand mining has been recently posing a threat to the environment. Therefore, to enhance the existing sustainability of adobe, sand can be partially or fully replaced by other waste materials. This approach will not only solve the problem of excessive sand mining, it will also address the issue of waste management. Sawdust is one such waste material that can be used to partially replace sand in Adobe. This paper presents the results of compressive and flexural test carried out on Adobe samples with partial sand replacement by sawdust. The results show that about 4% sand replacement by volume produces higher compressive strength, whereas the flexural strength reduces with the use of sawdust. However, since flexural strength is not a critical property for adobe, it is concluded that replacing sand with sawdust by about 4% of volume will be beneficial.

  20. A two-fold interpenetrated flexible bi-pillared-layer framework of Fe(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the rational synthesis of such framework is often baffl- ... especially guest-induced dynamic behaviour based on sliding between the .... used and were changed by 0.5. ◦ per frame and ..... Copies of this information may be obtained ...

  1. Regularizations of two-fold bifurcations in planar piecewise smooth systems using blowup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Hogan, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    type of limit cycle that does not appear to be present in the original PWS system. For both types of limit cycle, we show that the criticality of the Hopf bifurcation that gives rise to periodic orbits is strongly dependent on the precise form of the regularization. Finally, we analyse the limit cycles...... as locally unique families of periodic orbits of the regularization and connect them, when possible, to limit cycles of the PWS system. We illustrate our analysis with numerical simulations and show how the regularized system can undergo a canard explosion phenomenon...

  2. Concept project of joining segment, connecting two folding bridge structures MS-54 and widened DMS-65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes the concept project of truss segment enabling the constructions of MS-54 and DMS-65 bridges to joint. At the beginning, the basic technical and exploitative characteristics of joined constructions are introduced. On the basis of this data, geometrical analysis of the component is carried out. As a result, the concept project of fitting, enabling the crossing from two types of foldable constructions to be built, is developed. Sequentially, the computer calculations of the bridge including the part of the designed fitting are carried out.The article contains the fragments of M.A. dissertation awarded by the rector of Military University of Technology as the best from the Faculty of Civil Engineering in 2014. The article is summarized with the conclusions.[b]Keywords[/b]: construction, folding bridges, truss segment

  3. Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain of a system is defined as the ratio of its output energy divided by the energy provided to operate the system. Most familiar systems have energy gains less than one due to various inefficiencies. By contrast, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR) offer high energy gains. Theoretical values in excess of 1000 are possible. Energy gains over 100 have already been reported. But, they have not yet been sustained for commercially significant durations. This article summarizes the current status of LENR energy gains. (author)

  4. Spontaneous indices are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ruth D; Salisbury, Julie K; Taylor, J Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneously occurring, parallel fluctuations in arterial pressure and heart period are frequently used as indices of baroreflex function. Despite the convenience of spontaneous indices, their relation to the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. Therefore, in 97 volunteers, we derived 5 proposed indices (sequence method, alpha-index, transfer function, low-frequency transfer function, and impulse response function), compared them with arterial baroreflex gain (by the modified Oxford pharmacologic technique), and examined their relation to carotid distensibility and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The subjects comprised men and women (n=41) aged 25 to 86 years, 30% of whom had established coronary artery disease. Generally, the indices were correlated with each other (except alpha-index and low-frequency transfer function) and with baroreflex gain. However, the Bland-Altman method demonstrated that the spontaneous indices had limits of agreement as large as the baroreflex gain itself. Even in individuals within the lowest tertile of baroreflex gain for whom baroreflex gain appears to be the most clinically relevant, spontaneous indices failed to relate to baroreflex gain. In fact, for these individuals, there was no correlation between any index and baroreflex gain. Forward stepwise linear regression showed that all spontaneous indices and baroreflex gain were related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but only baroreflex gain was related to carotid distensibility. Therefore, these data suggest that spontaneous indices are inadequate estimates of gain and are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex function.

  5. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  6. A wide range and high speed automatic gain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

    1993-05-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) techniques have been largely used since the beginning of electronics, but in most of the applications the dynamic response is slow compared with the carrier frequency. The problem of developing an automatic gain control with high dynamic response and wide control range simultaneously is analyzed in this work. An ideal gain control law, with the property that the total loop gain remains constant independent of the carrier amplitude, is obtained. The resulting AGC behavior is compared by computer simulations with a linear multiplier AGC. The ideal gain control law can be approximated using a transconductance amplifier. A practical circuit that has been used at CERN in the radio frequency loops of the Booster Synchrotron is presented. The circuit has high speed and 80-dB gain control range

  7. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    CERN Document Server

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  8. Sleeve Push Technique: A Novel Method of Space Gaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev; Bhupali, Nameksh Raj; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Sombir; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2018-01-01

    Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel-titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel-titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT). The nickel-titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing) can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel-titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  9. Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

  10. If there is dissipation the particle can gain energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Carvalho, R Egydio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we summarize two different mechanisms to gain energy from the presence of dissipation in a time-dependent non-linear system. The particles can gain energy, in the average, from two different scenarios: i) for very week dissipation with the creation of an attractor with high velocity, and ii) in the opposite limit, for very strong dissipation, the particles can also gain energy from a boundary crisis. From the thermodynamic viewpoint both results are totally acceptable. (paper)

  11. Capital gains in economic theory and national accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. STEINDL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Capital gains are ironically one of the least studied concepts in economics despite their crucial role in national accounting. Although capital gains are technically not involved in the circular flow of production and incomes, they are a vital determinants of consumer credit and personal savings. Recent findings, in fact, correlate capital gains with the prevalence of inflationary pressures and gyrations on spending in assets.

  12. Subpicosecond gain dynamics in GaAlAs laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.P.; Ippen, E.P.

    1987-11-30

    Ultrafast gain dynamics in GaAlAs diode amplifiers have been studied using 100 fs optical pulses. Pulse propagation through the amplifier resulted in temporal broadening and pulse shaping due to both gain saturation and material dispersion. Pump-probe experiments indicate the presence of two processes contributing to the gain dynamics but give no evidence of spectral hole burning. A dynamic carrier heating model is presented to explain all of the observed gain nonlinearities, and the implications of our results on the dynamic response of laser diodes are discussed.

  13. On the relation between gene flow theory and genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolliams John A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In conventional gene flow theory the rate of genetic gain is calculated as the summed products of genetic selection differential and asymptotic proportion of genes deriving from sex-age groups. Recent studies have shown that asymptotic proportions of genes predicted from conventional gene flow theory may deviate considerably from true proportions. However, the rate of genetic gain predicted from conventional gene flow theory was accurate. The current note shows that the connection between asymptotic proportions of genes and rate of genetic gain that is embodied in conventional gene flow theory is invalid, even though genetic gain may be predicted correctly from it.

  14. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  15. Stability, gain, and robustness in quantum feedback networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helon, C.; James, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the problem of stability for quantum feedback networks. We demonstrate in the context of quantum optics how stability of quantum feedback networks can be guaranteed using only simple gain inequalities for network components and algebraic relationships determined by the network. Quantum feedback networks are shown to be stable if the loop gain is less than one--this is an extension of the famous small gain theorem of classical control theory. We illustrate the simplicity and power of the small gain approach with applications to important problems of robust stability and robust stabilization

  16. Radiation hardness of thin Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, G.; Carulla, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Cindro, V.; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Grinstein, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Lange, J.; Mandić, I.; Medin, G.; Merlos, A.; McKinney-Martinez, F.; Mikuž, M.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Petek, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-05-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) are based on a n++-p+-p-p++ structure where an appropriate doping of the multiplication layer (p+) leads to high enough electric fields for impact ionization. Gain factors of few tens in charge significantly improve the resolution of timing measurements, particularly for thin detectors, where the timing performance was shown to be limited by Landau fluctuations. The main obstacle for their operation is the decrease of gain with irradiation, attributed to effective acceptor removal in the gain layer. Sets of thin sensors were produced by two different producers on different substrates, with different gain layer doping profiles and thicknesses (45, 50 and 80 μm). Their performance in terms of gain/collected charge and leakage current was compared before and after irradiation with neutrons and pions up to the equivalent fluences of 5 ṡ 1015 cm-2. Transient Current Technique and charge collection measurements with LHC speed electronics were employed to characterize the detectors. The thin LGAD sensors were shown to perform much better than sensors of standard thickness (∼300 μm) and offer larger charge collection with respect to detectors without gain layer for fluences gain prolongs the beneficial performance of LGADs. Pions were found to be more damaging than neutrons at the same equivalent fluence, while no significant difference was found between different producers. At very high fluences and bias voltages the gain appears due to deep acceptors in the bulk, hence also in thin standard detectors.

  17. The effects of subsampling and between-haul variation on the size-selectivity estimation of Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi Los efectos de submuestreo y variación entre lances en la estimación de la selectividad a la talla de la merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the data collected in a size selectivity experiment on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi carried out in 2000, the selectivity parameters for four codend mesh sizes (100, 110, 130, and 140 mm of mesh size opening were estimated and modelled by the SELECT model. These analyses included considerations of the sampling proportions of the catch in the codend and cover. Furthermore, the analyses took into account between-haul variation. The l50 values were 30.8, 29.9, 30.0, and 41.2 cm of total length, respectively, values lower than the estimates obtained from previous studies. The contribution of explanatory variables to the selectivity model was also tested in order to determine the role of mesh size, catch size (in number, and towing speed. Increases in catch size and in towing speed were accompanied by decreases in the l50 estimates. These results demonstrate how incorporation of subsampling effect and explanatory variables to model between-haul variation can improve selectivity estimates and management of a valuable resource.Usando los datos recolectados en un experimento de selectividad a la talla de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi realizado en el año 2000, se estimaron y modelaron los parámetros de selectividad para copos de cuatro tamaños de malla (100, 110, 130 y 140 mm de tamaño de malla interno mediante el modelo SELECT. Los análisis incluyeron consideraciones de las proporciones de muestreo de la captura en el copo y en el cubrecopo. Además, los análisis tuvieron en cuenta la variación entre lances. Los valores de l50 fueron 30,8; 29,9; 30,0 y 41,2 cm longitud total respectivamente, valores menores que los obtenidos en estudios previos. Se probó también la contribución de variables explicatorias al modelo de selectividad, para determinar el aporte del tamaño de malla, el volumen de captura (en número y la velocidad de arrastre. Los incrementos en el volumen de captura y en la velocidad de arrastre produjeron una

  18. Efecto del uso de paneles de escape de malla cuadrada sobre la reducción de peces juveniles en la pesquería de arrastre de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi Effect of the use of square mesh escape panels on the reduction of young fish in the common hake (Merluccius gayi gayi trawl fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de paneles de escape de malla cuadrada en redes de arrastre de fondo usadas en la pesquería de merluza común se realizó empleando dos metodologías complementarias: lances con sobrecopo y lances alternados. Los lances con sobrecopo permitieron cuantificar la fracción de la captura que escapa a través de los paneles de escape, y determinar la estructura de tallas y pesos medios, estimando longitudes de retención y rangos de selección. Se determinó la fracción bajo 30 y 36 cm de longitud total presentes en el copo y en el sobrecopo, ambos como indicadores del efecto selectivo que éstas producen. Los lances alternados permitieron verificar la disminución de los rendimientos de captura, tanto en número como en peso, aumentando los pesos medios de los ejemplares retenidos y disminuyendo la proporción de ejemplares bajo tallas de referencia, lo que indica la existencia de un efecto de escape en la fracción juvenil del stock.The evaluation of square mesh escape panels in bottom trawl nets used in the common hake fishery was carried out employing two complementary methodologies: top cover and alternated hauls. The top cover hauls were used to quantify the fraction of the catch that escapes through the panels and to determine the size structure and mean weight of the catch, estimating the retention sizes and selection ranges. The fractions under 30 and 36 cm of total length present in the codend and in the top cover were determined as proxies for the selective effect produced by the escape panels. The alternated hauls were used to verify the decrease in the catch rate, both in number and in weight, increasing the mean weight of the retained catch and decreasing the proportion under the reference length, for which we concluded that an escape effect does occur on the young fraction of the stock.

  19. Soft measures and incremental gains in mines; Mesures douces et gains incrementaux : mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laliberte, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a variety of measures that mine operators can adopt to save energy. Researchers at the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada have conducted a joint study with Hydro-Quebec to investigate the impact of alternate energy technologies and control systems on energy savings. The impacts of a range of technologies were evaluated and rates of energy efficiency were compared. Technologies included hybrid vehicles; fuel cell-powered vehicles; automated ventilation control systems; heat recovery; compressed air; and electrical mining equipment. Energy profiles for various industrial applications were included. This paper also provided details of computerized simulations currently being conducted to estimate the potential incremental gains associated with the use of technology innovations in mining applications. 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Nothing Risked, Nothing Gained: Richard Powers' Gain and the Horizon of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Jaffe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interprète Gain, sixième roman de Richard Powers, à la lumière du concept de « seconde modernité » proposé par le sociologue allemand Ulrich Beck. Ce concept souligne la dissémination du risque et la manière dont celle-ci invalide les marchés conclus par la « première modernité » entre l’avenir et le présent, entre l’intérieur du corps et l’extérieur. Cet article entend montrer que Beck fournit un cadre interprétatif utile à la compréhension de ces rapports, hors des impasses catégorielles que suscite l’opposition entre les deux régimes narratifs à l’œuvre dans le texte : le récit biographique, local et individuel, de la maladie de Laura Rowen Bodey, et l’histoire collective de l’entreprise Clare devenue conglomérat.This essay interprets Richard Powers' sixth novel Gain with reference to the German sociologist Ulrich Beck's concept of “second modernity.” The concept underscores the dispersal of risk and how it shreds promissory notes understood in “first modernity” between the future and present and the insides and outsides of the body. It argues that Beck supplies an apt interpretive framework for understanding these relationships and overcoming the categorical impasses between the two narrative words at work in Power's novel, the biographical situatedness of Laura Rowen Bodey's illness and the corporate history of the Clare conglomerate.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nut rition and Allergies ) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the c onsum ption of 2 g/day of plant stanols (as plant stanol ester s ) as part of a diet low in saturated fat and a two - fold greater, reduction in blood LDL - chol esterol concentrations compared to the consumption of a diet low in saturated fat alone pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from McNeil Nutritionals and Raisio Nutrition Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the consumption of 2 g/day of plant stanols (as plant stanol esters) as part of a diet low in saturated fat and a two-fold greater reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the consumption of a diet low...... an evaluation of the quantitative effects of diets low in saturated fat per se on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Therefore, the effect of consuming 2 g/day plant stanols as part of a diet low in saturated fat relative to the effect of consuming a diet low in saturated fat alone cannot be determined...

  2. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  3. DNA gains at 8q23.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Veiga, Luciana Caricati; Bérgamo, Nádia Aparecida; dos Reis, Patrícia Pintor

    2003-01-01

    Gains or amplifications involving chromosome arm 8q are one of the most recurrent chromosomal alterations in head and neck tumors. To characterize previously reported gains, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the sequences BAC RP1179E1 and 8-centromere PMJ 128 as probes....

  4. Perception of gain in U.S.-Soviet arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anieri, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Most current work in the field of international cooperation focuses on the resolution of the 'prisoners dilemma.' Such work begins by assuming that the issues under consideration are defined by absolute gains, where both sides can gain simultaneously. But the realist strand of international relations literature holds that this assumption is suspect - that international relations are usually characterized by relative gains, where gain for one side comes only at the others expense. The model developed here uses the question of absolute versus relative gains not as a theoretical assumption, but as a variable to be measured empirically. The hypothesis is that whether or not the US and the Soviet Union cooperate to limit arms competition is largely determined by whether the two sides define the issue in question as one of absolute or relative gains. The 'perception of gain' hypothesis is compared to explanations at the levels of the international system (rational choice), domestic politics, and individual belief systems. Three case studies are used to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each hypothesis. The findings confirmed that perception of gain is an important independent variable affecting arms control outcomes, but none of the theories were completely supported or rejected

  5. Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljan, Marija; Frankish, Adam; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Protein domains are protein regions that are shared among different proteins and are frequently functionally and structurally independent from the rest of the protein. Novel domain combinations have a major role in evolutionary innovation. However, the relative contributions of the different molecular mechanisms that underlie domain gains in animals are still unknown. By using animal gene phylogenies we were able to identify a set of high confidence domain gain events and by looking at their coding DNA investigate the causative mechanisms. Here we show that the major mechanism for gains of new domains in metazoan proteins is likely to be gene fusion through joining of exons from adjacent genes, possibly mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination. Retroposition and insertion of exons into ancestral introns through intronic recombination are, in contrast to previous expectations, only minor contributors to domain gains and have accounted for less than 1% and 10% of high confidence domain gain events, respectively. Additionally, exonization of previously non-coding regions appears to be an important mechanism for addition of disordered segments to proteins. We observe that gene duplication has preceded domain gain in at least 80% of the gain events. The interplay of gene duplication and domain gain demonstrates an important mechanism for fast neofunctionalization of genes.

  6. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Species Gains and Losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardle, D.A.; Bardgett, R.D.; Callaway, R.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are losing some species and gaining others, resulting in an interchange of species that is having profound impacts on how these ecosystems function. However, research on the effects of species gains and losses has developed largely independently of one another. Recent conceptual

  7. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to species gains and losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardle, D.A.; Bardgett, R.D.; Callaway, R.M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are losing some species and gaining others, resulting in an interchange of species that is having profound impacts on how these ecosystems function. However, research on the effects of species gains and losses has developed largely independently of one another. Recent conceptual

  8. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement,…

  9. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Konttinen, H.M.; Homberg, J.R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Winkens, L.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to

  10. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  11. Smith-Purcell oscillator in an exponential gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Ron, A.

    1988-01-01

    A Smith-Purcell oscillator with a thick electron beam is analyzed in its exponential gain regime. A threshold current less than 1[A] is found for a 1 mm wavelength; this threshold is much lower than that of a similar oscillator operating in a linear gain regime

  12. Backseeding of higher order gain processes in picosecond spercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    In photonic crystal fibers with closely spaced zero dispersion wavelengths it is possible to have two pairs of four-wave mixing (FWM)gain peaks. Here, we demonstrate both numerically and experimentally how the outer four-wave mixing gain peaks can be used to produce a strong amplification peak...

  13. The ethical aspects of gain sharing with physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Gain sharing arrangements involving physicians can be a model combination of ethical business practices and maximizing profits. Or, gain sharing can be as unethical as fee-splitting was at the turn of the century, and as corrupt as any conflict of interest. The devil is--or is not--in the details.

  14. Bumpless Transfer between Observer-based Gain Scheduled Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with bumpless transfer between a number of observer-based controllers in a gain scheduling architecture. Linear observer-based controllers are designed for a number of linear approximations of a nonlinear system in a set of operating points, and gain scheduling control can...

  15. Calibration of the SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents the measurement of the linearly polarized SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn. The measurement comprises on-axis gain, on-axis polarization characteristics, and reflection coefficient at 111 frequencies in the frequency range from 22-33 GHz. The measurement was carried out at the DTU...

  16. Scaling the Raman gain coefficient: Applications to Germanosilicate fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bromage, J.; Stentz, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the temperature dependence of a Raman amplifier and the scaling of the Raman gain coefficient with wavelength, modal overlap, and material composition. The temperature dependence is derived by applying a quantum theoretical description, whereas...... the scaling of the Raman gain coefficient is derived using a classical electromagnetic model. We also present experimental verification of our theoretical findings....

  17. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  18. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation in preweaning gain and in milk production measured by the weigh-suckle-weigh method was partitioned into genetic and non-genetic components.

  19. Gain reduction measurements in transient stimulated Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeman, R.J.; Godfried, H.P

    1995-01-01

    Threshold energy measurements of transient rotational stimulated Raman scattering are compared to Raman conversion calculations from semiclassical theories using a simple concept of a gain reduction factor which expresses the reduction of the gain from its steady-state value due to transient

  20. Stimulation of confocal unstable resonators using thin gain sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanyi

    2000-01-01

    Mode calculation in unstable resonators with flowing saturable gain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm and thin gain sheet just nearly inside the big mirror. This method is in resonators of small disturbance (ψ 0max = π/2), middle magnification (m 0 ∼= 1%)

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  2. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  3. The weigght gain effect of Periactin in Anorexic patients | Silbert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain effect of Periactin tablets in anorexic patients. Periactin doses of 2 mg, 4 mg and 8 mg were found to be statistically significantly better than placebo in regard to weight gain. Periactin 4-mg and 8-mg dosage groups showed a statistically significantly higher incidence ...

  4. SiPM Gain Stabilization Studies for Adaptive Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074257; Zalieckas, Justas; Cvach, Jaroslav; Kvasnicka, Jiri; Polak, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    We present herein gain stabilization studies of SiPMs using a climate chamber at CERN. We present results for four detectors not tested before, three from Hamamatsu and one from KETEK. Two of the Hamamatsu SiPMs are novel sensors with trenches that reduce cross talk. We use an improved readout system with a digital oscilloscope controlled with a dedicated LabView program. We improved and automized the analysis to deal with large datasets. We have measured the gain-versus-bias-voltage dependence at fixed temperature and gain-versus-temperature dependence at fixed bias voltage to determine the bias voltage dependence on temperature $V(T)$ for stable gain. We show that the gain remains stable to better than $\\pm 0.5\\%$ in the $20^\\circ \\rm C - 30^\\circ C$ temperature range if the bias voltage is properly adjusted with temperature.

  5. Brillouin gain enhancement in nano-scale photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Jouybari, Soodabeh

    2018-05-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nano-scale waveguides has a great contribution in the improvement of the photonic devices technology. The key factors in Brillouin gain are the electrostriction force and radiation pressure generated by optical waves in the waveguide. In this article, we have proposed a new scheme of nano-scale waveguide in which the Brillouin gain is considerably improved compared to the previously-reported schemes. The role of radiation pressure in the Brillouin gain was much higher than the role of the electrostriction force. The Brillouin gain strongly depends on the structural parameters of the waveguide and the maximum value of 12127 W-1 m-1 is obtained for the Brillouin gain.

  6. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  7. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...

  8. Gain curves and hydrodynamic modeling for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition of a precompressed thermonuclear fuel by means of a converging shock is now considered as a credible scheme to obtain high gains for inertial fusion energy. This work aims at modeling the successive stages of the fuel time history, from compression to final thermonuclear combustion, in order to provide the gain curves of shock ignition (SI). The leading physical mechanism at work in SI is pressure amplification, at first by spherical convergence, and by collision with the shock reflected at center during the stagnation process. These two effects are analyzed, and ignition conditions are provided as functions of the shock pressure and implosion velocity. Ignition conditions are obtained from a non-isobaric fuel assembly, for which we present a gain model. The corresponding gain curves exhibit a significantly lower ignition threshold and higher target gains than conventional central ignition.

  9. Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The

  10. Comparison of normalized gain and Cohen's d for analyzing gains on concept inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Talbot, Robert M.; Nasim Thompson, Amreen; Van Dusen, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Measuring student learning is a complicated but necessary task for understanding the effectiveness of instruction and issues of equity in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Our investigation focused on the implications on claims about student learning that result from choosing between one of two commonly used metrics for analyzing shifts in concept inventories. The metrics are normalized gain (g ), which is the most common method used in physics education research and other discipline based education research fields, and Cohen's d , which is broadly used in education research and many other fields. Data for the analyses came from the Learning About STEM Student Outcomes (LASSO) database and included test scores from 4551 students on physics, chemistry, biology, and math concept inventories from 89 courses at 17 institutions from across the United States. We compared the two metrics across all the concept inventories. The results showed that the two metrics lead to different inferences about student learning and equity due to the finding that g is biased in favor of high pretest populations. We discuss recommendations for the analysis and reporting of findings on student learning data.

  11. Study of gain-coupled distributed feedback laser based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Qin, Li; Chen, Yongyi; Jia, Peng; Chen, Chao; Cheng, LiWen; Chen, Hong; Liang, Lei; Zeng, Yugang; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Hao; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-03-01

    Single-longitudinal-mode, gain-coupled distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings are achieved. Periodic surface metal p-contacts with insulated grooves realize gain-coupled mechanism. To enhance gain contrast in the quantum wells without the introduction of effective index-coupled effect, groove length and depth were well designed. Our devices provided a single longitudinal mode with the maximum CW output power up to 48.8 mW/facet at 971.31 nm at 250 mA without facet coating, 3dB linewidth (39 dB). Optical bistable characteristic was observed with a threshold current difference. Experimentally, devices with different cavity lengths were contrasted on power-current and spectrum characteristics. Due to easy fabrication technique and stable performance, it provides a method of fabricating practical gain-coupled distributed feedback lasers for commercial applications.

  12. Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, W; Rimer, B K; Winer, E P

    1997-05-01

    This review of the literature indicates that weight gain is a common observation among women after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Gains in weight range from 0 to 50 lb and are influenced by menopausal status; nodal status; and the type, duration, and intensity of treatment. Weight gain appears to be greater among premenopausal women; among those who are node positive; and among those receiving higher dose, longer duration, and multiagent regimens. Psychosocial research suggests that weight gain has a profoundly negative impact on quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Recent findings also suggest that weight gain during therapy may increase the risk of recurrence and decrease survival. Although weight gain in patients with breast cancer is clinically well appreciated, little research has been conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms of energy imbalance. Changes in rates of metabolism, physical activity, and dietary intake are all plausible mechanisms and call for more research. Further study will provide valuable insight into the problem of weight gain and encourage effective interventions to improve the quality and quantity of life for the woman with breast cancer. Until more is known, however, dietetics practitioners will have to monitor and work individually with patients with breast cancer and use empirical approaches to achieve the important goal of weight management.

  13. Effects of having a baby on weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy J; Hockey, Richard; Dobson, Annette J

    2010-02-01

    Women often blame weight gain in early adulthood on having a baby. The aim was to estimate the weight gain attributable to having a baby, after disentangling the effects of other factors that influence weight change at this life stage. A longitudinal study of a randomly selected cohort of 6458 Australian women, aged 18-23 years in 1996, was conducted. Self-report mailed surveys were completed in 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2006, and data were analyzed in 2008. On average, women gained weight at the rate of 0.93% per year (95% CI=0.89, 0.98) or 605 g/year (95% CI=580, 635) for a 65-kg woman. Over the 10-year study period, partnered women with one baby gained almost 4 kg more, and those with a partner but no baby gained 1.8 kg more, than unpartnered childless women (after adjustment for other significant factors: initial BMI and age; physical activity, sitting time, energy intake (2003); education level, hours in paid work, and smoking). Having a baby has a marked effect on 10-year weight gain, but there is also an effect attributable to getting married or living with a partner. Social and lifestyle as well as energy balance variables should be considered when developing strategies to prevent weight gain in young adult women. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  15. Temporal Gain Correction for X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

    2016-01-01

    Calorimetric X-ray detectors are very sensitive to their environment. The boundary conditions can have a profound effect on the gain including heat sink temperature, the local radiation temperature, bias, and the temperature of the readout electronics. Any variation in the boundary conditions can cause temporal variations in the gain of the detector and compromise both the energy scale and the resolving power of the spectrometer. Most production X-ray calorimeter spectrometers, both on the ground and in space, have some means of tracking the gain as a function of time, often using a calibration spectral line. For small gain changes, a linear stretch correction is often sufficient. However, the detectors are intrinsically non-linear and often the event analysis, i.e., shaping, optimal filters etc., add additional non-linearity. Thus for large gain variations or when the best possible precision is required, a linear stretch correction is not sufficient. Here, we discuss a new correction technique based on non-linear interpolation of the energy-scale functions. Using Astro-HSXS calibration data, we demonstrate that the correction can recover the X-ray energy to better than 1 part in 104 over the entire spectral band to above 12 keV even for large-scale gain variations. This method will be used to correct any temporal drift of the on-orbit per-pixel gain using on-board calibration sources for the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory.

  16. Characterization of transient gain x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.; Shlyaptsev, V.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p J = 0 → 1 147 angstrom laser transition recently observed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The high gain ∼35 cm results from the experiment are compared with detailed modeling simulations from the 1-D RADEX code in order to better understand the main physics issues affecting the measured gain and x-ray laser propagation along the plasma column. Simulations indicate that the transient gain lifetime associated with the short pulse pumping and refraction of the x-ray laser beam out of the gain region are the main detrimental effects. Gain lifetimes of ∼7 ps(1/e decay) are inferred from the smoothly changing gain experimental observations and are in good agreement with the simulations. Furthermore, the modeling results indicate the presence of a longer-lived but lower gain later in time associated with the transition from transient to quasi-steady state excitation

  17. Optimal weight gain in obese and overweight pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka-Nakama, Junko; Enomoto, Kimiko; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Miyagi, Etsuko; Aoki, Shigeru

    2018-03-20

    We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.

  18. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  19. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  20. Maximizing gain in high-throughput screening using conformal prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Fredrik; Afzal, Avid M; Norinder, Ulf; Bender, Andreas

    2018-02-21

    Iterative screening has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficiency of screening campaigns compared to traditional high throughput approaches. By learning from a subset of the compound library, inferences on what compounds to screen next can be made by predictive models, resulting in more efficient screening. One way to evaluate screening is to consider the cost of screening compared to the gain associated with finding an active compound. In this work, we introduce a conformal predictor coupled with a gain-cost function with the aim to maximise gain in iterative screening. Using this setup we were able to show that by evaluating the predictions on the training data, very accurate predictions on what settings will produce the highest gain on the test data can be made. We evaluate the approach on 12 bioactivity datasets from PubChem training the models using 20% of the data. Depending on the settings of the gain-cost function, the settings generating the maximum gain were accurately identified in 8-10 out of the 12 datasets. Broadly, our approach can predict what strategy generates the highest gain based on the results of the cost-gain evaluation: to screen the compounds predicted to be active, to screen all the remaining data, or not to screen any additional compounds. When the algorithm indicates that the predicted active compounds should be screened, our approach also indicates what confidence level to apply in order to maximize gain. Hence, our approach facilitates decision-making and allocation of the resources where they deliver the most value by indicating in advance the likely outcome of a screening campaign.

  1. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  2. Modified Vivaldi antenna with improved gain and phase center stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A modified Vivaldi antenna is proposed with improved gain and phase centre stability. By applying a high permittivity dielectric substrate, the realized gain is enlarged while maintaining the compactness of the designed antenna. With a redistributed comb-shape corrugation the phase centre stabili...... of the antenna is significantly improved. The designed modified Vivaldi antenna covers the lower UWB band of 3.1-5 GHz with a realized gain higher than 10 dBi. A stable phase centre and radiation patterns over the operating band are realized....

  3. Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    -11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....

  4. Variety Gains and the Extensive Margin of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Findings from the literature suggest that previous estimates of the variety gains from trade are too small because of the imprecise measurement of the imported variety set under the Armington assumption. In this contribution, I use results from the literature on multi-product firms to obtain variety gain estimates that account for the entry and exit of firms as well as for product turnover within firms and find that welfare gains increase by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline Armington ...

  5. Microchannel electron multiplier: improvement in gain performances and detection dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audier, M.; Delmotte, J.C.; Boutot, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The performances of an MCP are a function of its geometrical characteristics (diameter d and ratio 1/d of a channel, useful area) and of the applied voltage. Gain and mean output current are limited by saturation phenomena. By using a particular cascaded MCP's configuration, it is possible to simultaneously improve the gain, its associated fluctuations and the detection dynamics (detected level, counting rate). For gains 10 6 7 , the fluctuations, can be kept as low as 20% and an improvement by a factor > 10 can be obtained on the detection dynamics [fr

  6. Computer simulation of gain fluctuations in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Nelgun; Tapan, . Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    A computer simulation code has been developed in order to examine the fluctuation in gas amplification in wire proportional counters which are common in detector applications in particle physics experiments. The magnitude of the variance in the gain dominates the statistical portion of the energy resolution. In order to compare simulation and experimental results, the gain and its variation has been calculated numerically for the well known Aleph Inner Tracking Detector geometry. The results show that the bias voltage has a strong influence on the variance in the gain. The simulation calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (authors)

  7. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  8. Healthy Weight Gain for Teens: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids with each meal and snack. What about protein bars? Protein bars are another type of supplement. ... gain but remember to have discussions about school, sports, current events, and feelings with your teen. Related ...

  9. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  10. Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life financial outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Knutson

    Full Text Available Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt. In a community sample of healthy adults (n = 75, rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes.

  11. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  12. Programmable gain equalizer for multi-core fiber amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, N.K.; Guan, B.; Ryf, R.; Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Ben Yoo, S.J.; Abedin, K.; Fini, J.; Taunay, T.F.; Neilson, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a programmable gain equalizer for 7-core fiber that can independently equalize spectra or block wavelengths in each core across the C-band. It is spliced directly to a side-pumped multi-core amplifying fiber.

  13. Utilization of Compliance-Gaining Strategies: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglan, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the use of compliance-gaining strategies among a group of environmentalists. Results indicated that prosocial strategies were used more often than anti-social strategies across all situations. (SRT)

  14. Scaling the Raman Gain Coefficient of Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bromage, J; Leng, L

    2002-01-01

    Scaling rules for the Raman gain coefficient are provided with emphasis on the effective area and wavelength dependence. Translation from measurements made at one pump wavelength to other pump wavelengths is demonstrated....

  15. Light propagation in composite materials with gain layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeenko, Aleksandr V; Zyablovsky, A A; Pukhov, Aleksandr A; Lisyansky, A A; Vinogradov, Aleksei P

    2012-01-01

    Light propagation through a single gain layer and a multilayer system with gain layers is studied. Results obtained using the Fresnel formulas, Airy's series summation, and the numerical solution of the nonlinear Maxwell-Bloch equations by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method are analyzed and compared. Normal and oblique propagation of a wave through a gain layer and a slab of a photonic crystal are examined. For the latter problem, the gain line may be situated in either the pass or stop band of the photonic crystal. It is shown that the monochromatic plane-wave approximation is generally inapplicable for active media, because it leads to results that violate causality. But the problem becomes physically meaningful and correct results can be obtained for all three approaches once the structure of the wavefront and the finite aperture of the beam are taken into account. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  17. Enhancement in the gain recovery of a semiconductor optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, ... 2015; revised 15 January 2016; accepted 7 March 2016; published online ... investigation on the temperature dependence of gain recovery, of a semi-.

  18. Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.K.; Fujita, M.; Yamanaka, C.; Yoshida, H.; Kodama, R.; Fujita, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)

  19. Distribución estival del stock sureño de la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 en el área de cría (44°-47°S en relación con parámetros oceanógraficos (1996-2001 Summer distribution of the southern stock of the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 in the nursery area (44°-47°S in relation to oceanographic parameters (1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Louge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las variables temperatura y salinidad en verano, durante el período 1996-2001 en el área de cría del efectivo patagónico de la merluza argentina Merluccius hubbsi. Estas variables oceanógraficas se relacionaron con las variaciones en la abundancia de la población, a través de un modelo lineal general. Se determinaron los valores medios y las anomalías de temperatura y salinidad de fondo. Las anomalías térmicas positivas más extremas se produjeron en 1999 y 2000, mientras que el año más frío fue 1996. La anomalía de salinidad más baja se registró en 1996 y la más alta en el 2000. La merluza se concentró principalmente en las zonas de gradientes térmicos y salinos Los juveniles se hallaron preferentemente en el Golfo San Jorge en aguas con temperaturas entre 8º y 10°C y salinidades entre 33,2 y 33,6 y los adultos dentro y fuera del mismo, con temperaturas de fondo entre 8º y 12°C y salinidades 33,2 y 33,5. Las mayores densidades de juveniles se hallaron en aguas de menor profundidad, con valores elevados de salinidad y menores valores de temperatura respecto de los adultos. Estos se concentraron tanto en el sector norte del golfo y en la Bahía Camarones, en aguas con relativamente alta temperatura y escasa profundidad, como sobre la plataforma frente al golfo, donde las aguas tienen menor salinidad debido a la deriva de la Corriente Patagónica de aguas diluidas. No se observaron cambios en la distribución de la población en los años con anomalías ambientales marcadas.Summer temperature and salinity data in the nursery ground of the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi recorded from 1996 to 2001 were analyzed. These oceanographic variables were related to variations in the hake population abundance by means of a general linear model. Mean values and anomalies of bottom temperatures and salinity fields were determined. The most extreme positive thermal anomalies occurred in 1999 and 2000

  20. Temporal Evolution of “Automatic Gain-Scaling”

    OpenAIRE

    Pruszynski, J. Andrew; Kurtzer, Isaac; Lillicrap, Timothy P.; Scott, Stephen H.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest neural response to a mechanical perturbation, the short-latency stretch response (R1: 20–45 ms), is known to exhibit “automatic gain-scaling” whereby its magnitude is proportional to preperturbation muscle activity. Because gain-scaling likely reflects an intrinsic property of the motoneuron pool (via the size-recruitment principle), counteracting this property poses a fundamental challenge for the nervous system, which must ultimately counter the absolute change in load regardle...

  1. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-14

    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  2. Calculation of gas gain fluctuations in uniform fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, H; Veenhof, R

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of the charge amplification factor (gain) are a key element for assessing the performance of gas-based particle detectors In this report we present Monte Carlo calculations of electron avalanches based on the Magboltz program In terms of a simple model extracted from the simulation an intuitive explanation for the impact of the gas mixture and the electric field on the gain spectrum is proposed.

  3. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  4. Transparent dispersion compensator with built-in gain equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Doerr, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated.......In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated....

  5. A Fast and Robust Method for Measuring Optical Channel Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob; Villemoes, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions......We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions...

  6. Superluminal plasmons with resonant gain in population inverted bilayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Low, Tony

    2017-12-28

    AB-stacked bilayer graphene with a tunable electronic bandgap in excess of the optical phonon energy presents an interesting active medium, and we consider such theoretical possibility in this work. We argue the possibility of a highly resonant optical gain in the vicinity of the asymmetry gap. Associated with this resonant gain are strongly amplified plasmons, plasmons with negative group velocity and superluminal effects, as well as directional leaky modes.

  7. Superluminal plasmons with resonant gain in population inverted bilayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Low, Tony; Chen, Pai-Yen; Basov, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    AB-stacked bilayer graphene with a tunable electronic bandgap in excess of the optical phonon energy presents an interesting active medium, and we consider such theoretical possibility in this work. We argue the possibility of a highly resonant optical gain in the vicinity of the asymmetry gap. Associated with this resonant gain are strongly amplified plasmons, plasmons with negative group velocity and superluminal effects, as well as directional leaky modes.

  8. Measuring the Gains from International Trade Allocated Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Dongsik

    2004-01-01

    The intraindustry trade, multiple posttrade equilibria and multiple pretrade equilibria almost invalidate the role of the terms of trade as a divider of trade gains and as a predictor of the direction of trade. The indices of international trade benefits (ITB), which will be developed in this paper, aim at complementing what the terms of trade lacks as well as making it possible to utilize the estimated trade gains in a meaningful manner.The indices relatively measure the portion that a tradi...

  9. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul; Khalid, Muhammad Umair; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  10. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  11. Capital Gains Realizations of the Rich and Sophisticated

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach; Jonathan M. Siegel

    2000-01-01

    This paper attempts to bring theoretical and empirical research on capital gains realization behavior closer together by considering whether investors who appear to engage more in strategic tax avoidance activity also respond differently to tax rates. We find that such investors exhibit significantly smaller responses to permanent tax rate changes than other investors. Put another way, a larger part of their response to capital gains tax rates reflects timing, consistent with their closer adh...

  12. Association of Group Prenatal Care With Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.

  13. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  14. Effect of revised IOM weight gain guidelines on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Wall, Terry C; Guild, Camelia; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-03-01

    We sought to examine perinatal outcomes in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) comparing those whose weight gain met 2009 IOM guidelines to women meeting 1990 IOM guidelines. This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing birth records linked to hospital discharge data for all term, singleton infants born to overweight, Missouri residents (2000-2006) with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). We excluded congenital anomalies, mothers with diabetes, hypertension, or previous cesarean delivery. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-five women gained 25-35 lbs (1990 guidelines); 1.6% delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants and 1.1% delivered macrosomic infants. Eight thousand three hundred fifty women gained 15-25 lbs (2009 guidelines); 3.4% delivered LBW infants and 0.6% delivered macrosomic infants. Women who gained 15-25 lbs were 1.99 (95% CI 1.67, 2.38) times more likely to have a LBW infant and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) times less likely to deliver a macrosomic infant. Limiting weight gain in women with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), per the 2009 guidelines, increases the risk of LBW deliveries and decreases the risk of macrosomia but does not reduce associated adverse perinatal outcomes. Further studies should explore the optimal weight gain to reduce these outcomes.

  15. Sleeve push technique: A novel method of space gaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel–titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel–titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT. The nickel–titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel–titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  16. Specification of merger gains in the Norwegian electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Electricity distribution often exhibits economies of scale. In Norway, a number of smaller distribution system operators exist and thus there is potential to restructure the industry, possibly through mergers. However, the revenue cap regulatory model in Norway does not incentivize firms to merge as merging leads to a stricter revenue cap for the merged company. Thus the regulator compensates the firms in order to create such incentives. The amount of compensation is based on the potential gains of the merger estimated using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) based frontier approach introduced by Bogetoft and Wang (2005). DEA is however only one of many possible frontier estimators that can be used in estimation. Furthermore, the returns to scale assumption, the operating environment of firms and the presence of stochastic noise and outlier observations are all known to affect to the estimation of production technology. In this paper we explore how varying assumptions under two alternative frontier estimators shape the distribution of merger gains within the Norwegian distribution industry. Our results reveal that the restructuring policies of the industry may be significantly altered depending how potential gains from the mergers are estimated. - Highlights: • The merger gains of Norwegian electricity distribution firm are investigated. • Different estimators and model specifications are applied. • Results show that the gains are significantly affected by the model choice. • Incentives to merge may be shaped through the estimation of gains.

  17. High gain requirements and high field Tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Operation at sufficiently high gain (ratio of fusion power to external heating power) is a fundamental requirement for tokamak power reactors. For typical reactor concepts, the gain is greater than 25. Self-heating from alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas can greatly reduce ητ/temperature requirements for high gain. A range of high gain operating conditions is possible with different values of alpha-particle efficiency (fraction of alpha-particle power that actually heats the plasma) and with different ratios of self heating to external heating. At one extreme, there is ignited operation, where all of the required plasma heating is provided by alpha particles and the alpha-particle efficiency is 100%. At the other extreme, there is the case of no heating contribution from alpha particles. ητ/temperature requirements for high gain are determined as a function of alpha-particle heating efficiency. Possibilities for high gain experiments in deuterium-tritium, deuterium, and hydrogen plasmas are discussed

  18. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...

  19. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.

  20. Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed

  1. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Sample: The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. Methods: A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. Results: A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37–2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27–2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09–1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30–1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27–1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09–1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86–0.91). Conclusions: Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain. PMID:26741198

  2. Weight Gain and Hair Loss during Anti-TNF Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Lutf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.

  3. Dot gain compensation in the blue noise mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Meng; Parker, Kevin J.

    1995-04-01

    Frequency modulated (FM) halftoning or 'stochastic screening,' has attracted a great deal of attention in the printing industry in recent years. It has several advantages over conventional halftoning. But one serious problem that arises in FM halftoning is dot gain. One approach to stochastic screening uses a specially constructed halftone screen, the blue noise mask (BNM), to produce an unstructured and visually appealing pattern of halftone dots at any gray level. In this paper, we will present methods to correct dot gain with the BNM. Dot gain is related to the area-to-perimeter ration of printed spots. We can exploit this feature in different ways. At a medium level, a B>NM pattern will have 'connected' as well as 'isolated' dots. Normally, as we build down BNM patterns to lower levels, a specific number of white dots will be replace by black dots. Since connected white dots are more likely to be picked than isolated white dots, this will results in substantial dot gain because of the increasing number of isolated white dots. We show that it is possible to constrain the process of constructing a BNM such that isolated dots are preferentially removes, thus significantly reducing dot gain in a BNM.

  4. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  5. Dye gain gold NW array of surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Plasmon lasers can support ultrasmall mode confinement and ultrafast dynamics with device feature sizes below the diffraction limit. At present in the single visible light frequency, the optical gain method of constraint SPP on metal nanowires structure reported less. We design the gold nanowire array structure, consisting of PMMA and R6G dye molecules as gain, by 488 nm pump in the middle of the nanowires position for wide range of light, use symmetry broken overcome that momentum does not match the photonic and SPP energy conversion. Theoretical analysis shows that dyes provide coherent optical feedback, resulting in nanowires face will observe laser properties of surface plasmons. Feature analysis: the incident light and pump joint strength is greater than the sum of strength which is the incident light, pump respectively. Under the effect of dye molecules gain effective, length of SPP transmission can increase 1 µm. The results achieved in a single optical frequency of stimulated radiation, application of dye optical gain can achieve continuous gain effect. This is for the future development of plasma amplifier and the wavelength laser. Keywords: SPP, Stimulated radiation, Gold nanowires array, Dye molecules

  6. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [de

  7. [Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Odatzidu, L; Kiencke, P; Schicha, H

    2002-02-01

    Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas.

  8. Cape hake Merluccius capensis are abundant over the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In summer 1994, oxygen depletion was very pro- nounced in bottom waters over the Namibian shelf, from 18 to 25°S. In January, bottom water of the inner and midshelf regions of northern and central Namibia was depleted of oxygen to levels as low as <0.5 ml.l–1, with levels of between 1 and 2 ml.l–1 at the shelf edge.

  9. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar eMeshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our reputation is important to us; we’ve experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one’s character has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others’ behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one’s degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  10. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  11. Definition of breeding gain for molten salt reactors - 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The graphite-moderated Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a potential breeder reactor using the thorium fuel cycle. The MSR has unique properties due to the possibility of making changes to the salt composition during operation. Most important is the extraction of protactinium, which separates the fissile uranium production into two volumes: the reactor core and the external stockpile. The paper focuses on the definition of breeding gain in such a system. The prospects of using breeding gain expressions defined for solid fuel reactors are investigated and new definitions are given which incorporate the processes occurring in the reactor core and the external stockpile. The difference of the growth rate of the mass of fissile material and breeding gain is pointed out. The new definitions are applied to an optimization study of the graphite-salt lattice of a breeder MSR. (authors)

  12. Investigation of fusion gain in fast ignition with conical targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new scheme for inertial confinement fusion (ICF. In this scheme, at first the interaction of ultraintense laser beam with the hohlraum wall surrounding a capsule containing deuterium-tritium (D-T fuel causes implosion and compression of fuel to high density and then laser produced protons penetrate in the compressed fuel and deposit their energy in it as the ignition hot spot is created. In this paper, following the energy gain of spherical target and considering relationship of the burn fraction to burn duration, we have obtained the energy gain of conical targets characterized by the angle β, and found a hemispherical capsule (β=π/2 has a gain as high as 96% of that of the whole spherical capsule. The results obtained in this study are qualitatively consistent with Atzeni et al.'s studies of simulations.

  13. Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.

    1978-01-01

    The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)

  14. Capacity gains of buffer-aided moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2017-03-14

    This work investigates the gain due to reduction in path loss by deploying buffer-aided moving relaying. In particular, the increase in gain due to moving relays is studied for dual-hop broadcast channels and the bidirectional relay channel. It is shown that the exploited gains in these channels due to buffer-aided relaying can be enhanced by utilizing the fact that a moving relay can communicate with the terminal closest to it and store the data in the buffer and then forward the data to the intended destination when it comes in close proximity with the destination. Numerical results show that for both the considered channels the achievable rates are increased as compared to the case of stationary relays. Numerical results also show that more significant increase in performance is seen when the relay moves to-and-fro between the source and the relay.

  15. Directional amplifier in an optomechanical system with optical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, L. N.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal devices in both classical and quantum information processing. Here we propose a scheme for realizing a directional amplifier between optical and microwave fields based on an optomechanical system with optical gain, where an active optical cavity and two passive microwave cavities are coupled to a common mechanical resonator via radiation pressure. The two passive cavities are coupled via hopping interaction to facilitate the directional amplification between the active and passive cavities. We obtain the condition of achieving optical directional amplification and find that the direction of amplification can be controlled by the phase differences between the effective optomechanical couplings. The effects of the gain rate of the active cavity and the effective coupling strengths on the maximum gain of the amplifier are discussed. We show that the noise added to this amplifier can be greatly suppressed in the large cooperativity limit.

  16. Design of Gain Scheduling Control Using State Derivative Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Ismael Hardy Llins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of systems subject to time-varying parameters has awakened the interest of many researchers. The gain scheduling control strategy guarantees a good performance for systems of this type and also is considered as the simplest to deal with problems of this nature. Moreover, the class of systems in which the state derivative signals are easier to obtain than the state signals, such as in the control for reducing vibrations in a mechanical system, has gained an important hole in control theory. Considering those ideas, we propose sufficient conditions via LMI for designing a gain scheduling controller using state derivative feedback. The D-stability methodology was used for improving the performance of the transitory response. Practical implementation in an active suspension system and comparison with other methods validates the efficiency of the proposed strategy.

  17. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, pmathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ivy Krystal; Seeley, Zachary M.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Duoss, Eric B.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y2.97Nd0.03Al5.00O12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y3Al5O12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a "top hat" geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scatter at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.

  19. Mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Sarid, Eyal; Wart, Maxim; Granot, Er'el

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of pump and Stokes light in a Brillouin medium, where both beams are modulated, can be utilized for controlling the group velocity of the amplified Stokes (or depleted pump). The dependence of the group velocity for this mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM) technique on the Brillouin gain parameter is studied. A sharp transition to slow light occurs in the G 1 α/β≈1 regime, where G 1 is the Brillouin gain parameter, and α and β are the pump and Stokes modulation indices, respectively. A comparison of MMXGM slow light to the Brillouin dispersion-based slow-light technique reveals the fundamental differences between them. The formation of higher harmonics of the modulation frequency is also discussed. The theoretical predictions are experimentally corroborated and potential applications in fiber-based sensing and interferometry are discussed

  20. Amplifying mirrors with saturated gain without and with a resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of amplifying mirrors with a view to their use in resonator structures has been performed. Both non-saturated and saturated amplifying mirrors are demonstrated. It was found that relatively high values of gain (typical 5-10 times) can be obtained even when saturation is taken...... into account. Several resonator structures containing from two up to four mirrors, some including beamsplitters, are investigated. It was found that the gain to a first approximation depends only on the ratio between the pumping power and the input power on the amplifying mirror. It was also found...... that the configuration with four mirrors is well suited as an amplifier device working as an optical transistor since high values of gain up to 40 times could be obtained....

  1. Measurements and modeling of gain coefficients for neodymium laser glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Trenholme, J.B.; Weber, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Small-signal gain coefficients are reported for neodymium in silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and fluoroberyllate laser glasses. Measurements were made in a disk amplifier under identical conditions. Using spectroscopic data as the input, amplifier gain is calculated as a fucntion of flashlamp energy, pumping pulse duration, disk thickness, and Nd-doping. The agreement between predicted and measured gains is generally with ;plus or minus;10 percent, consistent with experimental uncertainties in the model and the parameters used. The operating conditions which optimize amplifier performance and efficiency for a given laser glass may be found using spectroscopic data alone. This process can be extended to derive the most cost-effective staging of amplifier chains for fusion lasers. A discussion of the model and examples of calculations are presented

  2. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  3. Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus

    2018-01-01

    effective (or equivalent) isotropic radiated power (EIRP), an HG tip antenna inside a blade gives stronger direct pulse amplitudes and better pulse waveforms for accurate and reliable distance estimations than the LG. Moreover, the direct pulse with the HG antenna is also closer to the blade surface, which...... in free space have similar realized gain when allocated inside blades, so that the emission power for the HG and LG antennas in blades can be the same. The antenna gain impacts on time-domain pulse waveforms and power distributions around a blade are carefully investigated (with the tip antenna inside...... a blade). Higher antenna gain enlarges both direct pulse and multipath but in different levels. To verify the simulations, time-domain measurements are performed with a full 37-meter blade. Pulse waveforms and power delay profiles are measured. From all the studies, it follows that: with the similar...

  4. Capacity gains of buffer-aided moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the gain due to reduction in path loss by deploying buffer-aided moving relaying. In particular, the increase in gain due to moving relays is studied for dual-hop broadcast channels and the bidirectional relay channel. It is shown that the exploited gains in these channels due to buffer-aided relaying can be enhanced by utilizing the fact that a moving relay can communicate with the terminal closest to it and store the data in the buffer and then forward the data to the intended destination when it comes in close proximity with the destination. Numerical results show that for both the considered channels the achievable rates are increased as compared to the case of stationary relays. Numerical results also show that more significant increase in performance is seen when the relay moves to-and-fro between the source and the relay.

  5. Gain control network conditions in early sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Serrano

    Full Text Available Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models.

  6. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Govert E; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L H

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944-1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy.

  7. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  8. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H

    2016-05-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sauleau

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN or the globus pallidus internus (GPi. Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040. There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6, left superior gyrus (BA 8, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46, and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7. However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067. These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  10. Abnormal Auditory Gain in Hyperacusis: Investigation with a Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Diehl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperacusis is a frequent auditory disorder that is characterized by abnormal loudness perception where sounds of relatively normal volume are perceived as too loud or even painfully loud. As Hyperacusis patients show decreased loudness discomfort levels (LDLs and steeper loudness growth functions, it has been hypothesized that hyperacusis might be caused by an increase in neuronal response gain in the auditory system. Moreover, since about 85% of hyperacusis patients also experience tinnitus, the conditions might be caused by a common mechanism. However, the mechanisms that give rise to hyperacusis have remained unclear.Here we have used a computational model of the auditory system to investigate candidate mechanisms for hyperacusis. Assuming that perceived loudness is proportional to the summed activity of all auditory nerve fibers, the model was tuned to reproduce normal loudness perception. We then evaluated a variety of potential hyperacusis gain mechanisms by determining their effects on model equal-loudness contours and comparing the results to the LDLs of hyperacusis patients with normal hearing thresholds. Hyperacusis was best accounted for by an increase in nonlinear gain in the central auditory system. Good fits to the average patient LDLs were obtained for a general increase in gain that affected all frequency channels to the same degree, and also for a frequency-specific gain increase in the high-frequency range. Moreover, the gain needed to be applied after subtraction of spontaneous activity of the auditory nerve, which is in contrast to current theories of tinnitus generation based on amplification of spontaneous activity. Hyperacusis and tinnitus might therefore be caused by different changes in neuronal processing in the central auditory system.

  11. Coherence and interlimb force control: Effects of visual gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2018-03-06

    Neural coupling across hemispheres and homologous muscles often appears during bimanual motor control. Force coupling in a specific frequency domain may indicate specific bimanual force coordination patterns. This study investigated coherence on pairs of bimanual isometric index finger force while manipulating visual gain and task asymmetry conditions. We used two visual gain conditions (low and high gain = 8 and 512 pixels/N), and created task asymmetry by manipulating coefficient ratios imposed on the left and right index finger forces (0.4:1.6; 1:1; 1.6:0.4, respectively). Unequal coefficient ratios required different contributions from each hand to the bimanual force task resulting in force asymmetry. Fourteen healthy young adults performed bimanual isometric force control at 20% of their maximal level of the summed force of both fingers. We quantified peak coherence and relative phase angle between hands at 0-4, 4-8, and 8-12 Hz, and estimated a signal-to-noise ratio of bimanual forces. The findings revealed higher peak coherence and relative phase angle at 0-4 Hz than at 4-8 and 8-12 Hz for both visual gain conditions. Further, peak coherence and relative phase angle values at 0-4 Hz were larger at the high gain than at the low gain. At the high gain, higher peak coherence at 0-4 Hz collapsed across task asymmetry conditions significantly predicted greater signal-to-noise ratio. These findings indicate that a greater level of visual information facilitates bimanual force coupling at a specific frequency range related to sensorimotor processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How common is substantial weight gain after pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Houlihan, Christine; Shub, Alexis; Churilov, Leonid; Pritchard, Natasha; Price, Sarah; Ekinci, Elif; Proietto, Joseph; Permezel, Michael

    2017-11-20

    Although population-based studies indicate that on average, women gain 1-2kg between pregnancies, women with obesity often attribute its development to childbearing. There is little contemporary data available regarding how commonly this occurs, particularly in women of different body mass index (BMI) categories. The aim of this study was to examine inter-pregnancy weight changes among women at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. This was a retrospective review of data from the Birthing Outcomes System electronic record of 19,617 women aged 20 years or older, who delivered at least two consecutive singleton infants at ≥37 weeks' gestation at Mercy Hospital for Women between December 1994 and December 2015. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between pregnancies and maternal BMI category in the first pregnancy, adjusting for covariates of maternal age, inter-pregnancy interval, and socioeconomic status. Gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between the first two pregnancies occurred in 7.5% of normal weight women, 10.5% of overweight women, and 13.4% of women with obesity. One in five women who were normal weight in their first pregnancy increased to overweight or obese BMI categories in their second pregnancy. Substantial weight gain in relation to pregnancy affects a considerable proportion of women. Since inter-pregnancy weight gain is associated with several complications in the next pregnancy and longer term, avoiding excessive weight gain during and between pregnancies may prevent adverse health consequences in mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Summary of Pressure Gain Combustion Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2018-01-01

    NASA has undertaken a systematic exploration of many different facets of pressure gain combustion over the last 25 years in an effort to exploit the inherent thermodynamic advantage of pressure gain combustion over the constant pressure combustion process used in most aerospace propulsion systems. Applications as varied as small-scale UAV's, rotorcraft, subsonic transports, hypersonics and launch vehicles have been considered. In addition to studying pressure gain combustor concepts such as wave rotors, pulse detonation engines, pulsejets, and rotating detonation engines, NASA has studied inlets, nozzles, ejectors and turbines which must also process unsteady flow in an integrated propulsion system. Other design considerations such as acoustic signature, combustor material life and heat transfer that are unique to pressure gain combustors have also been addressed in NASA research projects. In addition to a wide range of experimental studies, a number of computer codes, from 0-D up through 3-D, have been developed or modified to specifically address the analysis of unsteady flow fields. Loss models have also been developed and incorporated into these codes that improve the accuracy of performance predictions and decrease computational time. These codes have been validated numerous times across a broad range of operating conditions, and it has been found that once validated for one particular pressure gain combustion configuration, these codes are readily adaptable to the others. All in all, the documentation of this work has encompassed approximately 170 NASA technical reports, conference papers and journal articles to date. These publications are very briefly summarized herein, providing a single point of reference for all of NASA's pressure gain combustion research efforts. This documentation does not include the significant contributions made by NASA research staff to the programs of other agencies, universities, industrial partners and professional society

  15. Image-converter streak cameras with very high gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A new camera is described with slit scanning and very high photonic gain (G=5000). Development of the technology of tubes and microchannel plates has enabled integration of such an amplifying element in an image converter tube which does away with the couplings and the intermediary electron-photon-electron conversions of the classical converter systems having external amplification. It is thus possible to obtain equal or superior performance while retaining considerable gain for the camera, great compactness, great flexibility in use, and easy handling. (author)

  16. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  17. Weight Gain: A Possible Side Effect of All Antiretrovirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Menzaghi, Barbara; Orofino, Giancarlo; Passerini, Simone; Madeddu, Giordano; Martinelli, Canio Vito; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Squillace, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Bonfanti, Paolo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Quirino, T; Bonfanti, P; Ricci, E; Bellacosa, C; Maggi, P; Calza, L; Abeli, C; Menzaghi, B; Celesia, B M; Grosso, C; Stagno, A; Vichi, F; Mazzotta, F; Martinelli, C; Penco, G; Cassola, G; Di Biagio, A; Taramasso, L; Nicolini, L A; Dentone, C; Molteni, C; Palvarini, L; Scalzini, A; Carenzi, L; Rizzardini, G; Valsecchi, L; Cordier, L; Rusconi, S; Colombo, V; Galli, M; Franzetti, M; De Socio, G V; Mazzotta, E; Parruti, G; Madeddu, G; Bagella, P; S. Mura, M; Libertone, R; Antinori, A; Di Giambenedetto, S; Orofino, G; Guastavigna, M; Caramell, P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain and body mass index (BMI) increase are central issues in patients living with HIV who need to minimize the risk of metabolic disease. Information collected through the SCOLTA cohort revealed significant 1-year BMI increase in patients treated with dolutegravir (P = .004), raltegravir (P = .0004), elvitegravir (P = .004), darunavir (P = .0006), and rilpivirine (P = .029). BMI gain correlated with low baseline BMI (P = .002) and older age (P = .0007) in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stages A/B, with lower BMI (P = .005) and CD4+ T-cell count (P = .007) at enrollment in stage C. PMID:29255735

  18. Divisive gain modulation of motoneurons by inhibition optimizes muscular control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mikkel; Berg, Rune W.

    2015-01-01

    unclear whether the motoneuron gain, i.e., the slope of the transformation between synaptic input and spiking output, is also modulated to reduce variability in force. To address this issue, we use turtle hindlimb scratching as a model for fine motor control, since this behavior involves precise limb...... movement to rub the location of somatic nuisance touch. We recorded intracellularly from motoneurons in a reduced preparation where the limbs were removed to increase mechanical stability and the motor nerve activity served as a surrogate for muscle force. We found that not only is the gain of motoneurons...

  19. High gain multigap avalanche detectors for Cerenkov ring imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, R.S.; Lavender, W.M.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Williams, S.H.

    1980-10-01

    We report on a continuing study of multigap parallel plate avalanche chambers, primarily as photoelectron detectors for use with Cerenkov ring imaging counters. By suitable control of the fields in successive gaps and by introducing screens to reduce photon feedback to the cathode the gain many be increased considerably. We have obtained gains in excess of 6 x 10/sup 7/ for photoelectrons with a good pulse height spectrum and expect to increase this further. We discuss the use of resistive anodes to give avalanche positions in two dimensions by charge division.

  20. Optimum gain and phase for stochastic cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, S. van der.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed analysis of optimum gain and phase adjustment in stochastic cooling systems reveals that the result is strongly influenced by the beam feedback effect and that for optimum performance the system phase should change appreciably across each Schottky band. It is shown that the performance is not greatly diminished if a constant phase is adopted instead. On the other hand, the effect of mixing between pick-up and kicker (which produces a phase change similar to the optimum one) is shown to be less perturbing than is usually assumed, provided that the absolute value of the gain is not too far from the optimum value. (orig.)

  1. Advanced automated gain adjustments for in-vivo ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Martins, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Automatic gain adjustments are necessary on the state-of-the-art ultrasound scanners to obtain optimal scan quality, while reducing the unnecessary user interactions with the scanner. However, when large anechoic regions exist in the scan plane, the sudden and drastic variation of attenuations in....... Wilcoxon signed-rank test was then applied to the ratings provided by radiologists. The average VAS score was highly positive 12.16 (p-value: 2.09 x 10-23) favoring the gain-adjusted scans with the proposed algorithm....

  2. Gas gain stability of MSGCs on borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.D. van den; Daum, C.; Eijk, B. van; Hartjes, F.G.; Udo, F.; Zhukov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The gas gain stability in Micro Strip Gas Counters fabricated on borosilicate glass has been investigated for operation at high radiation fluxes up to 10 5 Hz/mm 2 in a X-ray set-up. We discuss effects of short and long term irradiation on the gain for different voltage settings and strip metalisations. The application of a high drift field and a back plane on positive potential provides good high rate operation up to 10 4 Hz/mm 2 . Ageing is observed to be strongly dependent on the stirp metalisation; gold and nickel perform better than aluminium and copper. (orig.)

  3. Controlled mass pollination in loblolly pine to increase genetic gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.E. Bridgwater; D.L. Bramlett; T.D. Byram; W.J. Lowe

    1998-01-01

    Controlled mass pollination (CMP) is one way to increase genetic gains from traditional wind-pollinated seed orchards. Methodology is under development by several forestry companies in the southern USA. Costs of CMP depend on the efficient installation, pollination, and removal of inexpensive paper bags. Even in pilot-scale studies these costs seem reasonable. Net...

  4. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  5. Predicting Intelligibility Gains in Dysarthria through Automated Speech Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Annalise R.; Wisler, Alan A.; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Lansford, Kaitlin L.; Liss, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral speech modifications have variable effects on the intelligibility of speakers with dysarthria. In the companion article, a significant relationship was found between measures of speakers' baseline speech and their intelligibility gains following cues to speak louder and reduce rate (Fletcher, McAuliffe, Lansford, Sinex, &…

  6. Cleavings: Critical Losses in the Politics of Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Davidson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of Emily Dickinson's best known poems deal with the loss of sight, based on her own experiences with temporary blindness in the mid 1860s, but they are less about the absence of sight than about how she experiences the limits of consciousness: "I could not see to see." She probed the loss of sensation for what it could teach her about what is most familiar—and thus invisible. Using poems by Emily Dickinson and recent work in cultural and queer theory, this essay explores the fine line between "gain" and "loss" in disability studies. Using the author's experience of sudden hearing loss, "Cleavings" argues that recent claims for "deaf gain" have vaunted possibilities of cultural inclusiveness to the exclusion of affective realms of frustration, loss, and failure that are seldom acknowledged experiences of deaf and hard-of-hearing persons. While endorsing the general thrust of deaf gain and its implications for the larger context of disability, "Cleavings" argues for a more critical understanding of loss in the politics of gain.

  7. Determinants of Cattle Feeding Profit and Cost of Gain Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.

  8. Training feed-forward neural networks with gain constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman

    2000-04-01

    Inaccurate input-output gains (partial derivatives of outputs with respect to inputs) are common in neural network models when input variables are correlated or when data are incomplete or inaccurate. Accurate gains are essential for optimization, control, and other purposes. We develop and explore a method for training feedforward neural networks subject to inequality or equality-bound constraints on the gains of the learned mapping. Gain constraints are implemented as penalty terms added to the objective function, and training is done using gradient descent. Adaptive and robust procedures are devised for balancing the relative strengths of the various terms in the objective function, which is essential when the constraints are inconsistent with the data. The approach has the virtue that the model domain of validity can be extended via extrapolation training, which can dramatically improve generalization. The algorithm is demonstrated here on artificial and real-world problems with very good results and has been advantageously applied to dozens of models currently in commercial use.

  9. Gains of integrating sector-wise pollution regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the Orani-G Computable General Equilibrium model with an externality market. The externality market is modelled with a limited number of pollution permits that are traded between representative firms in different sectors. The model is applied to identify the gains of a common...... of introducing more coherent regulatory frameworks that include all polluters under the same regulatory system....

  10. Online technology for teaching and learning-gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2015-07-01

    This commentary describes recent developments in the use of online technologies, in particular social media and mobile devices, for teaching and learning and considers what has been gained and lost. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Possible THz gain in superlattices at a stable operation point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Allen, S. J.; Scott, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that semiconductor superlattices may provide gain at THz frequencies at an operation point which is stable against fluctuations at lower frequency. While an explicit experimental demonstration for the sample considered could not be achieved, the underlying principle of quantum resp...... response is quite general and may prove successful for differently designed superlattices....

  12. Steps toward Gaining Knowledge of World Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents steps toward gaining knowledge of world music pedagogy for K-12 general music educators. The majority of the article details steps that invite engagement within everyday contexts with accessible resources within local and online communities. The steps demonstrate ways general music teachers can diversify and self-direct their…

  13. Hydrolytic gain during hydrolysis reactions : implications and correction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, L.M.; Tramper, J.

    1999-01-01

    Some of the structural parameters of starch (e.g. % beta- or gluco-hydrolysis) were influenced by the increase in mass during the hydrolysis reactions (hydrolytic gain). Procedures were derived to correct this apparent % of hydrolysis to actual % of hydrolysis. These analytically derived equations

  14. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  15. Gain stabilization circuit of measuring devices with photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, J.; Sabol, J.

    1974-01-01

    A circuit is designed for the stabilization of the gain of measuring devices with photomultipliers, suitable especially for the stabilization of scintillation detection systems, in which the correction signal is applied to the photomultiplier grid placed between the photocathode and the first dynode. (J.K.)

  16. Maternal Gestational and Postdelivery Weight Gain and Child Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  17. Maternal gestational and postdelivery weight gain and child weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  18. Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....

  19. Has the tradeoff between productivity gains and job growth disappeared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPolicymakers’ efforts to boost trend output growth may be hampered by the presence of a tradeoff between productivity gains and job creation. This paper presents empirical evidence that the negative relationship between productivity growth and employment growth that prevailed in the

  20. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  1. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations across gradients in site and stand conditions. ... The control plot may typically be a permanent plot of an inventory network, providing representative information for a company's decisionmaking. The paired twin-plot receives intensive management ...

  2. Decomposition of potential efficiency gains from hospital mergers in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flokou, Angeliki; Aletras, Vassilis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2017-12-01

    This paper evaluates the technical efficiency of 71 Greek public hospitals and examines potential efficiency gains from 13 candidate mergers among them. Efficiency assessments are performed using bootstrapped Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) whilst merger analysis is conducted by applying the Bogetoft and Wang methodology which allows the overall potential merger gains to be decomposed into three main components of inefficiency, namely technical (or learning), scope (or harmony) and scale (or size) effects. Thus, the analysis provides important insights not only on the magnitude of the potential total efficiency gains but also on their sources. The overall analysis is conducted in the context of a complete methodological framework where methods for outlier detection, returns to scale identification, and bias corrections for DEA estimations are also applied. Mergers are analyzed under the assumptions of constant, variable and non-decreasing returns to scale in an input oriented DEA model with three inputs and three outputs. The main finding of the study indicates that almost all mergers show substantial potential room for efficiency improvement, which is mainly attributed to the pre-merger technical inefficiencies of the individual hospitals and therefore it might be possible to be achieved without the need of implementing full-scale mergers. The same -though, at a lower extent- applies to the harmony effect whilst the size effect shows marginal or even negative gains.

  3. Gains Based Remedies: the misguided search for a doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stafford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ADVANCE ACCESSIn this article Tom Stafford (Paralegal at Clyde & Co LLP examines the phenomenon of “Gains Based Remedies”. These are awards that, unlike classical damage awards which are calculated by reference to the loss suffered by the claimant, correlate to the gain made by the defendant. A couple of common examples include an account of profits for breach of trust claims, or the “disgorgement” damages that were awarded in AG v Blake. These awards are however available for a spectrum of varied wrongs. Their seeming lack of unity has often baffled commentators who have tried to search for an underpinning doctrine. One particularly renowned commentary is that of Professor Edelman’s, who suggests that these wrongs can be understood by being broken down into one of two categories: awards which seek to deter wrongdoing, and awards which reverse a wrongful transfer of value. The purpose of this article is to discuss the flaws of this view of the law, and to suggest that in fact, any search for a doctrinal underpinning to Gains Based Remedies is misguided. The cases in which these awards are granted have only one feature common to all: the claimant’s loss is, for whatever reason, difficult or impossible to assess. For that reason, the courts use the only other measure of the wrong available: the defendant’s gain.

  4. Liquid scintillation counting system with automatic gain correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic liquid scintillation counting apparatus is described including a scintillating medium in the elevator ram of the sample changing apparatus. An appropriate source of radiation, which may be the external source for standardizing samples, produces reference scintillations in the scintillating medium which may be used for correction of the gain of the counting system

  5. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other...

  6. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  7. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  8. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  9. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  10. Gas gain characteristics of parallel plate avalanche counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kanno, Ikuo; Kimura, Itsuro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakagome, Y

    1996-07-01

    In the conventional gas gain theory, the Townsend primary ionization coefficient is expressed as a function of S, which is the ratio of the electric field strength (E) to the gas density (N). In this paper, an experimental form of {alpha} is derived from the data and is compared with the formula so far. (J.P.N.)

  11. Ship Benchmark Shaft and Engine Gain FDI Using Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    threshold value. In the paper a method for determining this threshold based on the neural network model is proposed, which can be used for a design strategy to handle residual sensitivity to input variations. The proposed method is used for successful FDI of a diesel engine gain fault in a ship propulsion...

  12. Ultra-high gain diffusion-driven organic transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabrizio; Colalongo, Luigi; Raiteri, Daniele; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklós; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Emerging large-area technologies based on organic transistors are enabling the fabrication of low-cost flexible circuits, smart sensors and biomedical devices. High-gain transistors are essential for the development of large-scale circuit integration, high-sensitivity sensors and signal amplification in sensing systems. Unfortunately, organic field-effect transistors show limited gain, usually of the order of tens, because of the large contact resistance and channel-length modulation. Here we show a new organic field-effect transistor architecture with a gain larger than 700. This is the highest gain ever reported for organic field-effect transistors. In the proposed organic field-effect transistor, the charge injection and extraction at the metal–semiconductor contacts are driven by the charge diffusion. The ideal conditions of ohmic contacts with negligible contact resistance and flat current saturation are demonstrated. The approach is general and can be extended to any thin-film technology opening unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance flexible electronics. PMID:26829567

  13. Gain Scheduling Control based on Closed-Loop System Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    the first and a second operating point is identified in closed-loop using system identification methods with open-loop properties. Next, a linear controller is designed for this linearised model, and gain scheduling control can subsequently be achieved by interpolating between each controller...

  14. the attrition of democratic gains in africa: an appraisal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper uses historical trajectory to demonstrate how patronage, ethnicity, electoral authoritarianism and extension of presidential term limit erodes democratic gains in Africa. The paper concludes that in order for democracy to flourish in Africa, the structural factors need to be addressed. Key Words: Democracy, Term ...

  15. Unfair allocation of gains under equal price in cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Calvi, R.; Merminod, N.

    2005-01-01

    Cooperative purchasing is becoming more and more common practice. However, many cooperative initiatives end prematurely or do not flourish. Important reasons indi-cated for these problems are directly or indirectly related to the unfair allocation of gains. The purpose of this paper is to analyse

  16. Weight Gain and its Correlates among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Kim, RN, PhD, OCN

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Younger women, women who were obese at diagnosis, women with more than 36 months since diagnosis, or women who showed lower diet quality should be considered at high-risk for weight gain. Findings from our study suggest that optimal weight management strategies should be developed using ethnically- or culturally-appropriate approaches.

  17. Health Literacy Predicts Cardiac Knowledge Gains in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Colleen C.; Rawson, Katherine; Hughes, Joel W.; Waechter, Donna; Rosneck, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health literacy is increasingly recognised as a potentially important patient characteristic related to patient education efforts. We evaluated whether health literacy would predict gains in knowledge after completion of patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. Method: This was a re-post observational analysis study design based on…

  18. Floating Solar Photovoltaics Gaining Ground | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov (United States)

    flotovoltaics (a trademarked term) or floating solar, represent an emerging application in which PV panels are , including efficiency gains (due to water cooling the panels), reductions in unwanted algae growth, slower 994 panels floating on 130 foam-filled pontoons atop the winery's irrigation pond and an additional

  19. Material gain: bednets treated with insecticides improve the lives of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    ... 700 mosquito nets each day, marketed under brand names such as "Health Net" and ... Material gain: bednets treated with insecticides improve the lives of Tanzanians. July 15, 2011. Image ... The kit is one of the key elements of PSI's Social Marketing of ... The national strategy will work to change this by involving the full ...

  20. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic gains for growth traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic gains for growth traits of two Eucalyptus ... In South Africa, Eucalyptus urophylla is an important species due to its ... as hybrid parents to cross with E. grandis was 59.8% over the population mean.

  1. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  2. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  3. RESEARCH NOTE POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR BREEDS OF STEERS ON DIFFERENT. NUTRITIONAL LEVELS. H.P. Eloff and C.J.F. Liidemann. Mara Research Station, Msa 0922. Receipt of MS. 4.8.1977. In South Africa there are 2O breeds of cattle which are mainly kept for the purpose of beef production (van. Marle ...

  4. Dependence of gain and phase-shift on crystal parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The steady-state amplification of light beam during two-wave mixing in photorefractive materials has been analysed in the strong nonlinear regime. The oscillation conditions for unidirectional ring resonator have been studied. The signal beam can be amplified in the presence of material absorption, provided the gain due to ...

  5. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Body Weight Gain of White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...

  6. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  7. Dietary intake and weight gain of pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth-weight remains an indicator for survivalof infants and a summary of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Low birth-weight is prevalent in developing countries and contributes to infant mortality. Weight gain during pregnancy is a good predictor of birth-weight and window of opportunity to reduce LBW rates ...

  8. Weight gain in patients after therapy for hyperthyroidism | Brunova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of obesity following therapy for hyperthyroidism and to assess the contributing factors associated with an undesirable weight gain. Design. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical records for 160 hyperthyroid patients attending an endocrine clinic in Bloemfontein (1994 ...

  9. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  10. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  11. Patterns of gestational weight gain and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the increasing global importance of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its impact on birthweight, little is known about the patterns of GWG in African populations. Objectives: To determine the pattern of GWG and its association with birthweight in Nigeria. Methods: It was a longitudinal study of 200 ...

  12. Maternal weight gain in second and third trimesters and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study was carried out to determine the relationship between weight gain in the second and third trimesters with the corresponding birth weights in Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 270 pregnant women who gave birth to singleton deliveries and their consecutive newborns were randomly selected from among ...

  13. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  14. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  15. INFLUENCE OF MASS GAIN DURING GESTATION ON MILK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Afr. J. Anim ScL 4, 7l-74(1974). INFLUENCE OF MASS GAIN DURING GESTATION ON MILK PRODUCTION OF EWES. P. le Roux. Iubtopos Resarch Station, hivate Bag K 5137. Buhtttyo. Receipt of MS. 2.8.73. OPffiMMING; INVLOED VAN MASSATOENAUE GEDUREI{DE DRAGTIGHEID OP MELKPRODUKSIE vAN ...

  16. Gain Scheduling of Observer-Based Controllers with Integral Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

     This paper presents a method for continuous gain scheduling of  observer-based controllers with integral action. Given two stabilising controllers for a given system, explicit state space formulae are presented, allowing to change gradually from one  controller to the other while preserving...

  17. Gain measurements in CO2 CW low pressure lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, N.A.S.; Chanes Junior, J.B.; Jayaram, K.

    1983-01-01

    A series of gain measurements in low pressure CO 2 CW laser were performed in order to study the behaviour of a CO 2 laser ampliflier as a function of pressure and discharge current. A theoretical model, based on rate equations is also presented to describe the laser behaviour and the experimental procedure adopted. (C.L.B.) [pt

  18. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S; Mihalik, M [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  19. Predicting the gain from deliquification measures for European wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Boer, J.P. de; Schiferli, W.

    2014-01-01

    Various Dutch operators have identified a need for increased application of deliquification measures in their North Sea wells. To help meet this need a Joint Industry Project (JIP) was set up to identify knowledge and experience gained in the United States on gas well deliquification and transfer

  20. Informant Agreement in Treatment Gains for Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined multiple informant agreement in reports of treatment gains in a sample of children (M age = 10.27) treated for social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Mothers and fathers agreed on their child's improvement, and parents and children also generally agreed on the child's improvement.…

  1. Patterns of Gestational Weight Gain and Its Association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... second trimester had positive correlation with birthweight (r = 0.164, P = 0.02). Obese women gained .... barefooted and wearing light clothing to the nearest 0.5 kg. ..... the other hand, the mean GWG by underweight women.

  2. Gains and losses of exclusivity in grocery retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Gijsbrechts, E.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    Conventional wisdom dictates that convenience goods should be distributed as intensively as possible. Still, exclusivity arrangements are rapidly gaining way in grocery retailing. We discuss the possible performance outcomes of exclusivity deals, and propose a unified framework (i) to quantify the

  3. Maternal and fetal genetic contribution to gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrington, N M; Richmond, R; Fenstra, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical recommendations to limit gestational weight gain (GWG) imply high GWG is causally related to adverse outcomes in mother or offspring, but GWG is the sum of several inter-related complex phenotypes (maternal fat deposition and vascular expansion, placenta, amniotic fluid and f...

  4. Net gains with Somos@Telecentros | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... In this slum area, street children use the Internet to learn to read and write, as well as for multimedia, music, and other digital work. ... in number and substance as the telecentres movement gains momentum. ... We need to continue to develop relationships to be effective as a network within global forums ...

  5. Enhancing genetic gain in the era of molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Li, Ping; Zou, Cheng; Lu, Yanli; Xie, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Xuecai; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Olsen, Michael S

    2017-05-17

    As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields. Factors affecting genetic gain include genetic variation available in breeding materials, heritability for traits of interest, selection intensity, and the time required to complete a breeding cycle. Genetic gain can be improved through enhancing the potential and closing the gaps, which has been evolving and complemented with modern breeding techniques and platforms, mainly driven by molecular and genomic tools, combined with improved agronomic practice. Several key strategies are reviewed in this article. Favorable genetic variation can be unlocked and created through molecular and genomic approaches including mutation, gene mapping and discovery, and transgene and genome editing. Estimation of heritability can be improved by refining field experiments through well-controlled and precisely assayed environmental factors or envirotyping, particularly for understanding and controlling spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Selection intensity can be significantly heightened through improvements in the scale and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. The breeding cycle time can be shortened by accelerating breeding procedures through integrated breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploid development. All the strategies can be integrated with other widely used conventional approaches in breeding programs to enhance genetic gain. More transdisciplinary

  6. Associations of neighbourhood walkability indices with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2018-04-03

    Inconsistent associations of neighbourhood walkability with adults' body weight have been reported. Most studies examining the relationships of walkability and adiposity are cross-sectional in design. We examined the longitudinal relationships of two walkability indices - conventional walkability and space syntax walkability, and their individual components, with weight change among adults over four years. Data were from the Physical Activity in Localities and Community study in Adelaide, Australia. In 2003-2004, 2650 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) returned baseline questionnaires; in 2007-2008, the follow-up survey was completed by 1098. Participants reported their weight at baseline and at follow-up. Neighbourhood walkability indices were calculated using geographic information systems and space syntax software. Linear marginal models using generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors were fitted to examine associations of the two walkability indices and their individual components with the weight at follow-up, adjusting for baseline weight, socio-demographic variables, and spatial clustering at the level of CCD. The overall mean weight gain over four years was 1.5 kg. The two walkability indices were closely correlated (r = 0.76, p walkability indices and weight change. Among walkability components, there was a marginally significant negative association between space syntax measure of street integration and weight change: one standard deviation increment in street integration was associated with 0.31 kg less weight gain (p = 0.09). Using a prospective study design and a novel space-syntax based measure of walkability, we were not able to identify relationships between neighbourhood walkability with weight gain. This is consistent with other inconclusive findings on the built environment and obesity. Research on the built environment and adults' weight gain may need to consider not just local environments but

  7. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does basal metabolic rate predict weight gain?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthanont, Pimjai; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have indicated that a low basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an independent predictor of future weight gain, but low rates of follow-up and highly select populations may limit the ability to generalize the results. Objective: We assessed whether adults with a low BMR gain more weight than do adults with a high BMR who are living in a typical Western environment. Design: We extracted BMR, body-composition, demographic, and laboratory data from electronic databases of 757 volunteers who were participating in our research protocols at the Mayo Clinic between 1995 and 2012. Research study volunteers were always weight stable, had no acute illnesses and no confounding medication use, and were nonsmokers. The top and bottom 15th percentiles of BMR, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, age, and sex, were identified. Follow-up electronic medical record system data were available for 163 subjects, which allowed us to determine their subsequent weight changes for ≥3 y (mean: ∼9.7 y). Results: By definition, the BMR was different in the high-BMR group (2001 ± 317 kcal/d; n = 86) than in the low-BMR group (1510 ± 222 kcal/d; n = 77), but they were comparable with respect to age, body mass index, FFM, and fat mass. Rates of weight gain were not greater in the bottom BMR group (0.3 ± 1.0 kg/y) than in the top BMR group (0.5 ± 1.5 kg/y) (P = 0.17). Conclusion: Adults with low BMRs did not gain more weight than did adults with high BMRs, implying that habitual differences in food intake or activity counterbalance variations in BMR as a risk factor for weight gain in a typical Western population. PMID:27581474

  9. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  10. Polygenic Risk, Appetite Traits, and Weight Gain in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children’s weight gain. OBJECTIVE To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4–8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2%attendance; 82.0%consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained

  11. Mode control in a high-gain relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Ju, Bing-Quan; Su, Chang; Wu, Yang

    2010-05-01

    Middle cavities between the input and output cavity can be used to decrease the required input RF power for the relativistic klystron amplifier. Meanwhile higher modes, which affect the working mode, are also easy to excite in a device with more middle cavities. In order for the positive feedback process for higher modes to be excited, a special measure is taken to increase the threshold current for such modes. Higher modes' excitation will be avoided when the threshold current is significantly larger than the beam current. So a high-gain S-band relativistic klystron amplifier is designed for the beam of current 5 kA and beam voltage 600 kV. Particle in cell simulations show that the gain is 1.6 × 105 with the input RF power of 6.8 kW, and that the output RF power reaches 1.1 GW.

  12. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  13. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  14. Gain Scheduling of PID Controller Based on Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to utilize fuzzy rules and reasoning to determine the controller parameters and the PID controller generates the control signal. The objective of this study is to simulate the proposed scheme on various processes and arrive at results providing better response of the system when compared with best industrial auto-tuning technique: Ziegler-Nichols. The proposed scheme is based upon the Ultimate Gain (Ku and the Period (Tu of the system. The error and rate of change in error gains are tuned manually to get the desired response using LabVIEW. This can also be done with various optimization techniques. A thumb rule for choosing the ranges for Kc, Kd and Ki has been obtained experimentally.

  15. A Gain-Scheduling PI Control Based on Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Tronci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a gain-scheduling design technique that relies upon neural models to approximate plant behaviour. The controller design is based on generic model control (GMC formalisms and linearization of the neural model of the process. As a result, a PI controller action is obtained, where the gain depends on the state of the system and is adapted instantaneously on-line. The algorithm is tested on a nonisothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, considering both single-input single-output (SISO and multi-input multi-output (MIMO control problems. Simulation results show that the proposed controller provides satisfactory performance during set-point changes and disturbance rejection.

  16. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields

  17. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  18. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  19. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...... for simple and accurate methods to determine and compare the energy performance of different window products. When choosing windows for new buildings or retrofitting a calculation tool that in a simple way determines the net energy gain from the specific windows in the actual building will ease the selection...... of the best window solution. Such a tool combined with a database with window products can make calculations of the heat loss or energy demand corresponding to the requirements in the new building code easier and more correct. In the paper, methods to determine energy performance data and the net energy gain...

  20. Using Multilayered Substrate Integrated Waveguide to Design Microwave Gain Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and experiment of a novel microwave gain equalizer based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technique. The proposed equalizer is formed by an SIW loaded by SIW resonators, which has very compact structure and can compensate for gain slope of microwave systems. Equivalent circuit analysis is given about the proposed structure for a better insight into the structure’s response. A Ku-Band equalizer with four SIW resonators is simulated and fabricated with a multilayer printed circuit board process. The measured results show good performance and agreement with the simulated results; an attenuation slope of −4.5 dB over 12.5–13.5 GHz is reached with a size reduction of 76%.

  1. Adaptive ILC with an adaptive iterative learnign gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Muhammad, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an adaptive ILC (Iterative Learning Controller) with an iterative learning gain. The basic idea behind ILC is that the information obtained from one trial can be used to improve the control input for the next trial. This proposed scheme extends the idea further and suggests that the information obtained from one trial could also be used to improve control algorithm parameters (gain matrices). The scheme converges faster than the conventional ILC. This convergence and hence number of iterations has always been an issue with ILC. This scheme because of its simple mathematical structure can easily be implemented with lower memory and simpler hardware as opposed to other such adaptive schemes which are computationally expensive. (author)

  2. The Gain of Performance of Optical WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bahleda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the blocking probability and performance of single-fiber and multifiber optical networks with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM. We extend the well-known analytical blocking probability model by Barry and Humblet to the general model, which is proposed for both single-fiber and multifiber network paths with any kind of wavelength conversion (no, limited, or full wavelength conversion and for uniform and nonuniform link loads. We investigate the effect of the link load, wavelength conversion degree, and the number of wavelengths, fibers, and hops on blocking probability. We also extend the definition of the gain of wavelength conversion by Barry and Humblet to the gain of performance, which is fully general. Thanks to this definition and implementation of our model, we compare different WDM node architectures and present interesting results.

  3. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.

    2013-01-01

    pulse energy is 20 μJ in a duration of 135 ns at 7 kHz. The bandwidth increases for a higher pump pulse energy and repetition rate, and this sets the limit of the output pulse energy. A single power amplifier is added to raise the peak power to the kW-level and the pulse energy to 230 μJ while keeping......Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...

  4. A low power automatic gain control loop for a receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guofeng; Geng Zhiqing; Wu Nanjian, E-mail: nanjian@red.semi.ac.c [State Key Laboratory for Super lattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This paper proposes a new structure to lower the power consumption of a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and keep the linearity of the VGA unchanged. The structure is used in a high rate amplitude-shift keying (ASK) based IF-stage. It includes an automatic gain control (AGC) loop and ASK demodulator. The AGC mainly consists of six-stage VGAs. The IF-stage is realized in 0.18 {mu}m CMOS technology. The measurement results show that the power consumption of the whole system is very low. The system consumes 730 {mu}A while operating at 1.8 V. The minimum ASK signal the system could detect is 0.7 mV (peak to peak amplitude). (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Fractal Based Triple Band High Gain Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Ganga Prasad; Sarun, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    A novel triple-band microstrip fed planar monopole antenna is proposed and investigated. A fractal antenna is created by iterating a narrow pulse (NP) generator model at upper side of modified ground plane, which has a rhombic patch, for enhancing the bandwidth and gain. Three iterations are carried out to study the effects of fractal geometry on the antenna performance. The proposed antenna can operate over three frequency ranges viz, 3.34-4.8 GHz, 5.5-10.6 GHz and 13-14.96 GHz suitable for WLAN 5.2/5.8 GHz, WiMAX 3.5/5.5 GHz and X band applications respectively. Simulated and measured results are in good agreements with each others. Results show that antenna provides wide/ultra wide bandwidths, monopole like radiation patterns and very high antenna gains over the operating frequency bands.

  6. Dependence of therapeutic gain factor on stage of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, J.; Solomon, J.G.R.; Koteshwer Rao, K.; Supe, S.S.; Prasad, G.N.S.

    1998-01-01

    To achieve therapeutic gain, unconventional dose per fraction has been employed in radiotherapy, in addition to the conventional dose per fraction of 2 Gy. Dose fractionation factor (DFF) and therapeutic gain factor (TGF) have been utilised to test the efficiency of such unconventional fractionation schedules. In this study, isoeffective dose for 100% tumour regression and mucosal and skin reactions were estimated. CRE, TDF and ERD values for tumour and normal tissue reactions were evaluated. DEF and TGF values have been determined on the basis of dose, CRE, TDF and ERD, in order to understand the influence of these bioeffect models and stage of cancer on TGF associated with differing fractionation schedules. There was a noticeable difference in TGF values determined on the basis of four criteria, which is in agreement with radiobiological phenomenon, that tissues with different α/β values differ in their responsiveness. (author)

  7. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  8. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. L.; Billing, M.; Meller, R.; Palmer, M.; Rendina, M.; Rider, N.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.; Strohman, C.

    2010-09-01

    Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs) consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ˜0.1%.

  9. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compat...

  10. Approach to interior design for passive direct gain solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachadorian, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    In response to requests from buyers and builders of direct gain passive solar homes interior design criteria either specific to, or emphasized by, passive solar buildings are investigated. Problems of high sunlight penetration, secondary illumination, material selection, sound control and psychology are approached. Material deterioration, fading, glare, noise, and a sense of spacial confinement can be minimized, contributing to the appeal and saleability of passive solar homes.

  11. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Vos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.

  12. Disguising Rotational Gain for Redirected Walking in Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Anders Glud; Elbaek, Jacob; Mortensen, Mathias Helmuth

    2016-01-01

    In virtual reality environments that allow users to walk freely, the area of the virtual environment (VE) is constrained to the size of the tracking area. By using redirection techniques, this problem can be partially circumvented; one of the techniques involves rotating the user more or less...... in the virtual world than in the physical world; this technique is referred to as rotational gain. This paper seeks to further investigate this area, examining the effect of visual density in the VE....

  13. Technical Analysis in Foreign Exchange - The Workhorse Gains Further Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrig, Thomas; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    This work extends earlier survey studies on the use of technical analysis by considering flow analysis as a third form of information production. Moreover the survey covers FX dealers and also the rising fund managers. Technical analysis has gained importance over time and is now the most equally spread kind of analysis. It has by far the greatest importance in FX dealing and is second in fund management. Charts are used for shorter-term forecasting horizons while flows dominate at the shorte...

  14. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  15. Design issues for a laboratory high gain fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In an inertial fusion laboratory high gain facility, experiments will be carried out with up to 1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. The experiment area of such a facility will include many systems and structures that will have to operate successfully in the difficult environment created by the sudden large energy release. This paper estimates many of the nuclear effects that will occur, discusses the implied design issues and suggests possible solutions so that a useful experimental facility can be built. 4 figs

  16. Measurement and prediction of voice support and room gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka

    2012-01-01

    and good acoustical quality lies in the range between 14 and 9 dB, whereas the room gain is in the range between 0.2 and 0.5 dB. The prediction model for voice support describes the measurements in the classrooms with a coefficient of determination of 0.84 and a standard deviation of 1.2 dB....

  17. Gain recovery dynamics and limitations in quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2001-01-01

    gain recovery in a quantum dot amplifier, and it is thus not yet clear what the limiting processes for the device response are. We present the results of a comprehensive theoretical model, which agrees well with the experimental results, and indicates the importance of slow recovery of higher energy...... levels. The model used is of the rate-equation type with three energy levels: ground state (GS) and excited state (ES) dot levels and a wetting layer...

  18. Happiness matters: productivity gains from subjetive well-being

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the link between people's subjective well-being, defined as life satisfaction, and productivity in the framework of efficiency analysis. We adopt Data Envelopment Analysis to compute productive efficiency indices using European Social Survey and AMECO data for 20 European countries. While accounting for reverse causality, we find significant efficiency gains when subjective well-being is an input to production. This supports the view that promoting subjective well-being r...

  19. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  20. Assessment of physical activity among pregnant women in context of weight gain in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Mączka

    2017-06-01

    Optimal physical activity from walking is associated with lower body weight gains compared to stimulated physical activity of Pilates, which is not associated with weight gain. The more a women walk, the less weight gain they have.

  1. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  2. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. J.; Batignani, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-10-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ˜7.77×10 4/s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device.

  3. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.J.; Batignani, G.; Guerra, A.D.A. Del; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ∼7.77x10 4 /s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device

  4. Noise Induces Biased Estimation of the Correction Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooeun Ahn

    Full Text Available The detection of an error in the motor output and the correction in the next movement are critical components of any form of motor learning. Accordingly, a variety of iterative learning models have assumed that a fraction of the error is adjusted in the next trial. This critical fraction, the correction gain, learning rate, or feedback gain, has been frequently estimated via least-square regression of the obtained data set. Such data contain not only the inevitable noise from motor execution, but also noise from measurement. It is generally assumed that this noise averages out with large data sets and does not affect the parameter estimation. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that in the presence of noise the conventional estimate of the correction gain has a significant bias, even with the simplest model. Furthermore, this bias does not decrease with increasing length of the data set. This study reveals this limitation of current system identification methods and proposes a new method that overcomes this limitation. We derive an analytical form of the bias from a simple regression method (Yule-Walker and develop an improved identification method. This bias is discussed as one of other examples for how the dynamics of noise can introduce significant distortions in data analysis.

  5. Improving Genetic Gain with Genomic Selection in Autotetraploid Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony T. Slater

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato ( L. breeders consider a large number of traits during cultivar development and progress in conventional breeding can be slow. There is accumulating evidence that some of these traits, such as yield, are affected by a large number of genes with small individual effects. Recently, significant efforts have been applied to the development of genomic resources to improve potato breeding, culminating in a draft genome sequence and the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The availability of these genome-wide SNPs is a prerequisite for implementing genomic selection for improvement of polygenic traits such as yield. In this review, we investigate opportunities for the application of genomic selection to potato, including novel breeding program designs. We have considered a number of factors that will influence this process, including the autotetraploid and heterozygous genetic nature of potato, the rate of decay of linkage disequilibrium, the number of required markers, the design of a reference population, and trait heritability. Based on estimates of the effective population size derived from a potato breeding program, we have calculated the expected accuracy of genomic selection for four key traits of varying heritability and propose that it will be reasonably accurate. We compared the expected genetic gain from genomic selection with the expected gain from phenotypic and pedigree selection, and found that genetic gain can be substantially improved by using genomic selection.

  6. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P care. Group prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  7. Adaptive Gain Scheduled Semiactive Vibration Control Using a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive gain scheduled semiactive control method using an artificial neural network for structural systems subject to earthquake disturbance. In order to design a semiactive control system with high control performance against earthquakes with different time and/or frequency properties, multiple semiactive control laws with high performance for each of multiple earthquake disturbances are scheduled with an adaptive manner. Each semiactive control law to be scheduled is designed based on the output emulation approach that has been proposed by the authors. As the adaptive gain scheduling mechanism, we introduce an artificial neural network (ANN. Input signals of the ANN are the measured earthquake disturbance itself, for example, the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. The output of the ANN is the parameter for the scheduling of multiple semiactive control laws each of which has been optimized for a single disturbance. Parameters such as weight and bias in the ANN are optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed design method is applied to semiactive control design of a base-isolated building with a semiactive damper. With simulation study, the proposed adaptive gain scheduling method realizes control performance exceeding single semiactive control optimizing the average of the control performance subject to various earthquake disturbances.

  8. Age differences in gain- and loss-motivated attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan S; Biel, Anna Lena; Dyson, Benjamin J; Spaniol, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive gain theory (Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that the phasic release of norepinephrine (NE) to cortical areas reflects changes in the utility of ongoing tasks. In the context of aging, this theory raises interesting questions, given that the motivations of older adults differ from those of younger adults. According to socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), aging is associated with greater emphasis on emotion-regulation goals, leading older adults to prioritize positive over negative information. This suggests that the phasic release of NE in response to threatening stimuli may be diminished in older adults. In the present study, younger adults (aged 18-34years) and older adults (60-82years) completed the Attention Network Test (ANT), modified to include an incentive manipulation. A behavioral index of attentional alerting served as a marker of phasic arousal. For younger adults, this marker correlated with the effect of both gain and loss incentives on performance. For older adults, in contrast, the correlation between phasic arousal and incentive sensitivity held for gain incentives only. These findings suggest that the enlistment of phasic NE activity may be specific to approach-oriented motivation in older adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Substantial weight gain during adulthood: the road to bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Sandberg, Keisha R; Miller, Wendy M; Odom, Jacqueline S; Sloan, Kevin C; de Jong, Adam T; Nori, Katherine E; Irving, Sarah D; Krause, Kevin R; Franklin, Barry A

    2005-01-01

    We sought to examine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years with the degree and rate of rise in body weight during adulthood among the morbidly obese. We evaluated 196 patients with a standard medical history form and a structured interview with questions regarding weight at age 18 years. The study included 40 (20.4%) men and 156 (79.6%) women. The mean BMI was 50.2+/-8.0 kg/m2, range 37.0-80.0 kg/m2. Based on self-reported weight, 133 (67.9%) were overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) and 68 (34.7%) were obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m2) at age 18 years. The distribution of cumulative weight gain was normal with a mean of 60.8+/-23.7 kg. There was a positive relationship (r=0.36, pweight gain were BMI at age 18 years (pweight gains during adult life, resulting in morbid obesity and high rates of obesity-related comorbidities.

  10. Shock ignition targets: gain and robustness vs ignition threshold factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, Stefano; Antonelli, Luca; Schiavi, Angelo; Picone, Silvia; Volponi, Gian Marco; Marocchino, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Shock ignition is a laser direct-drive inertial confinement fusion scheme, in which the stages of compression and hot spot formation are partly separated. The hot spot is created at the end of the implosion by a converging shock driven by a final ``spike'' of the laser pulse. Several shock-ignition target concepts have been proposed and relevant gain curves computed (see, e.g.). Here, we consider both pure-DT targets and more facility-relevant targets with plastic ablator. The investigation is conducted with 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations. We determine ignition threshold factors ITF's (and their dependence on laser pulse parameters) by means of 1D simulations. 2D simulations indicate that robustness to long-scale perturbations increases with ITF. Gain curves (gain vs laser energy), for different ITF's, are generated using 1D simulations. Work partially supported by Sapienza Project C26A15YTMA, Sapienza 2016 (n. 257584), Eurofusion Project AWP17-ENR-IFE-CEA-01.

  11. High-Gain Shock Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K.; Bailey, D.; Lambert, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Blackfield, D.; Comley, A.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.; Craxton, R. S.; Betti, R.; McKenty, P.; Anderson, K.; Theobald, W.; Schmitt, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-11-01

    Shock ignition offers the possibility for a near-term test of high-gain ICF on the NIF at less than 1MJ drive energy and with day-1 laser hardware. We will summarize the status of target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the R&D program to be performed in order to test the potential of a shock-ignited target on NIF. In shock ignition, compressed fuel is separately ignited by a late-time laser-driven shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, simulations indicate that fusion energy gains of 60 may be achievable at laser energies around 0.5MJ. Like fast ignition, shock ignition offers high gain but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and focusing requirements. Conventional symmetry and stability constraints apply, thus a key immediate step towards attempting shock ignition on NIF is to demonstrate adequacy of low-mode uniformity and shock symmetry under polar drive

  12. Gain of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Andrews

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A formula is derived for the small-signal gain of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. The theory describes the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, and assumes that the electron beam interacts with an evanescent mode traveling along the surface of a periodic waveguide with a rectangular profile. The phase velocity of the evanescent wave is synchronous with the electron velocity, but the group velocity is actually negative. The electron beam amplifies the evanescent wave, which does not itself radiate. According to this picture, the radiation observed emanating from the grating is Smith-Purcell radiation enhanced by the bunching of the electrons due to the interaction with the evanescent mode. There will also be radiation from the part of the evanescent mode that is outcoupled from the ends of the grating. This radiation appears at a lower frequency than the Smith-Purcell radiation. The new results explain both the gain and the radiation observed in the experiments of Urata and Walsh, and the cube-root current dependence of the gain inferred by Bakhtyari, Walsh, and Brownell.

  13. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining the propo......A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...... solely. We show, based on PRIMES model, that a full CO2 emission trading system between Annex B countries suggest overall cost savings in the order of 40 % compared to a situation with no trading at all between Member States. A tradable CO2 permit scheme with comprehensive coverage of emissions within...

  14. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  15. Preoperative weight gain might increase risk of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative

  16. Body image and gestational weight gain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Australian adult women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and, when pregnant, the majority gain excessive weight; this is also the case in the United States and other developed nations. High gestational weight gain (GWG) is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight/obesity postbirth and is also associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Understanding factors that contribute to excessive GWG is vital in combating obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine whether body image attitudes (eg, feeling fat, attractive, or strong and fit, and salience of weight and shape) predict GWG. Pregnant women, recruited through advertisements on pregnancy online forums and parenting magazines, completed questionnaires assessing body image, demographic variables, and GWG. The Body Attitudes Questionnaire assessed body image in early-to-middle, middle, and late pregnancy (mean of 16.8, 24.7, and 33.0 weeks' gestation, respectively). Total GWG was calculated by subtracting self-reported pre pregnancy weight from self-reported weight at 36.8 weeks' gestation. A total of 150 pregnant women responded to the study's advertisements, and 72% (n = 108) took part. After controlling for pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), lower attractiveness in early-to-middle pregnancy was associated with higher GWG. In late pregnancy, women who had the lowest feelings of fatness had greater GWG. Body image attitudes earlier in pregnancy did not predict whether GWG recommendations were exceeded. Women of higher BMI were more likely to gain excessive weight. The findings suggest that the type and timing of pregnancy, body attitudes, and the time of pregnancy when they are noted, predict GWG. However, more research in the area is needed, including assessment of the relationship between body image concerns, GWG, and other psychosocial factors. We recommend that midwives monitor body image concerns in pregnancy to help address factors affecting GWG in at

  17. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  18. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks’ diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks, policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States.

  19. A digital gain stabilizer for large volume organic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunsfurth, J.; Geske, K.

    1976-01-01

    A digital gain stabilizer is described, optimized for use with photomultipliers mounted on large volume organic scintillators, or other radiation detectors, which exhibit no prominent peaks in their amplitude spectra. As applications of this kind usually involve many phototubes or detectors, circuit simplicity, production reproduceability, and the possibility of computer controlled operation were major design criteria. Two versions were built, the first one using standard TTL-SSI and MSI circuitry, the second one - to reduce power requirements - using a mixture of TTL- and CMOS-LSI circuits. (Auth.)

  20. High-gain capsule design for the HIDIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honrubia, J.J.; Cerrada, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A high-gain capsule has been designed for the HIDIF project. The goal has been to relax the accelerator requirements by using a radiation pulse with lower peak temperature (220 eV) than previous designs (260 eV). The ablator material is beryllium doped with a very low concentration (0.2 atom %) of copper. The capsule absorbs 1.3 MJ and yields, approximately, 450 MJ in I-D simulations. The effect of the opacity of the ablator on capsule performance has been studied in detail. (authors)