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Sample records for two-element german noun

  1. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grad...

  2. Implicit vs. explicit learning in German noun plurals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ković Vanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades there has been a lot of debate about language learning and the opinion about the status of mental rule during the process of language learning is still divided between different researches. The present study examines learning morphology of German noun plurals based on rules, examples or on both, rules and examples. The results across these three experimental conditions suggest that the morphological patterns are learned more easily in the form of rules and thus, seem to be more easily captured by dual-route (which suggest that rules and exceptions are processed by two qualitatively different mechanisms than single route theories (which suggest a singe mechanism for processing both rules and exceptions. However, a closer examination of error patterns across the five rules (-e, -n, -er, Ø, -s revealed results confronting dual-route theories and suggest the existence of two rulemechanisms (-n and -s rather than one for learning regular inflection in German plural nouns. Moreover, the second rule (with plural ending -n was the easiest one to be learned, although it is the fifth rule (with plural ending -s which is considered as a default rule in German.

  3. nouns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linguists haven't yet found a universal definition for it, although a variety of descriptions have .... The most basic concept is that while masculine nouns may be applied to females as well as ...... Morphological classes and grammatical organisation. ... Structure et fonne des emprunts lexicaux francais dans la langue grecque.

  4. Similarities and Variation in Noun and Verb Acquisition: A Crosslinguistic Study of Children Learning German, Korean, and Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Lee, Hae-Wook; Pae, Soyeong

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on noun and verb processing during language acquisition, whereby the word production and the word comprehension of preschool children of different ages were investigated across three languages. Two hypotheses were put forward: first, given that languages differ with respect to the clarity of the noun-verb distinction and…

  5. Using the World-Wide Web to obtain large-scale word norms: 190,212 ratings on a set of 2,654 German nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahl, Olaf; Göritz, Anja S; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Rosenberg, Jessica

    2009-02-01

    This article presents a new database of 2,654 German nouns rated by a sample of 3,907 subjects on three psycholinguistic attributes: concreteness, valence, and arousal. As a new means of data collection in the field of psycholinguistic research, all ratings were obtained via the Internet, using a tailored Web application. Analysis of the obtained word norms showed good agreement with two existing norm sets. A cluster analysis revealed a plausible set of four classes of nouns: abstract concepts, aversive events, pleasant activities, and physical objects. In an additional application example, we demonstrate the usefulness of the database for creating parallel word lists whose elements match as closely as possible. The complete database is available for free from ftp://ftp.uni-duesseldorf.de/pub/psycho/lahl/WWN. Moreover, the Web application used for data collection is inherently capable of collecting word norms in any language and is going to be released for public use as well.

  6. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...

  7. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

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    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose and formalize a theory of the mass-count distinction in which the denotations of count nouns are built from non-overlapping generators, while the denotations of mass nouns are built from overlapping generators. Counting is counting of generators, and it will follow that counting is only correct on count denotations. I will show that the theory allows two kinds of mass nouns: mess mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping minimal generators, and neat mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping generators, where the overlap is not located in the minimal generators. Prototypical mass nouns like meat and mud are of the first kind. I will argue that mass nouns like furniture and kitchenware are of the second type. I will discuss several phenomena—all involving one way or the other explicitly or implicitly individual classifiers like stuks in Dutch—that show that both distinctions mass/count and mess/neat are linguistically robust. I will show in particular that nouns like kitchenware pattern in various ways like count nouns, and not like mess mass nouns, and that these ways naturally involve the neat structure of their denotation. I will also show that they are real mass nouns: they can involve measures in the way mess mass nouns can and count nouns cannot. I will discuss grinding interpretations of count nouns, here rebaptized fission interpretations, and argue that these interpretations differ in crucial ways from the interpretations of lexical mass nouns. The paper will end with a foundational problem raised by fission interpretations, and in the course of this, atomless interpretation domains will re-enter the scene through the back door.ReferencesBarner, D. & Snedeker, J. 2005. ‘Quantity judgements and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count’. Cognition 97: 41–66.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.06.009PMid:16139586Bunt, H. 1985. Mass Terms and Model Theoretic Semantics. Cambridge

  8. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (last section from 'Introduction' of The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar) The previous sections have shown that there are basically three proposals concerning the way NPs should be analysed in F(D)G: 1. the analysis according to “classical FG” (Dik 1997); 2. the analysis proposed in FDG...... treatment of noun phrases. Hengeveld takes the prototypical noun phrase as his point of departure, which he defines as an NP with a nominal head that denotes a concrete, first-order entity by lexical means and is used referentially rather than ascriptively. He then discusses examples of non-prototypical NPs...... earlier studies. The authors assume a process interpretation of the F(D)G model in which matters of form and order are interlaced. Their contribution is particularly concerned with agreement phenomena in the German noun phrase, which is noted for its morphological complexity. They show that their model...

  9. Prosody and Animacy in the Development of Noun Determiner Use: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Dominique; Korecky-Kröll, Katharina; Maillochon, Isabelle; van Dijk, Marijn; Laaha, Sabine; van Geert, Paul; Dressler, Wolfgang U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic (noun length) and lexical-semantic (animacy) influences on determiner use in the spontaneous speech of three children acquiring French, Austrian German and Dutch. In support of typological and language-specific hypotheses from the Germanic-Romance contrast, an advantage of monosyllabic nouns and of inanimate nouns…

  10. Prosody and Animacy in the Development of Noun Determiner Use: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Dominique; Korecky-Kröll, Katharina; Maillochon, Isabelle; van Dijk, Marijn; Laaha, Sabine; van Geert, Paul; Dressler, Wolfgang U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic (noun length) and lexical-semantic (animacy) influences on determiner use in the spontaneous speech of three children acquiring French, Austrian German and Dutch. In support of typological and language-specific hypotheses from the Germanic-Romance contrast, an advantage of monosyllabic nouns and of inanimate nouns…

  11. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  12. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  13. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  14. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  15. Recently learned foreign abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct cortical networks similar to the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri. Concrete nouns elicited larger responses in the angular gyri bilaterally and the left parahippocampal gyrus than abstract nouns. The cluster in the left angular gyrus showed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) with the left lingual gyrus. The left parahippocampal gyrus showed PPI with the posterior cingulate cortex. Similar regions have been previously found for concrete nouns in the native language. The results reveal similarities in the cortical representation of foreign language nouns with the representation of native language nouns that already occur after 5 days of vocabulary learning. Furthermore, we showed that verbal and enriched learning methods were equally suitable to teach foreign abstract and concrete nouns. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4398-4412, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contained research about the analysis of the text of Bahasa Indonesia speech with the Systemic Functional Linguistic approach (LFS. The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause. The research method used was qualitative research with the method of data analysis in the form of 60 clauses through the approach of LFS. The 60 clauses data were taken from the text of the speech of UNJ Rector, which was then analyzed into 100 phrases in the noun. According to the LFS method, it finds that the noun phrase is formed by elements of the noun classes. From the 100 noun phrases analyzed, there are 100 nouns that have different functions in each process. There are 86 nouns represent the material process, 5 nouns represent the relational process, 4 nouns represent the verbal process, 3 nouns represent mental processes, and 2 nouns represent the existential process. The study also finds that in the form of the lexicon, the same noun with the different distribution of its position will result in different functions in the representation process.

  17. Quantity and quality of trait-descriptive type nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Ostendorf, F

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we refute Henss' (1995) conclusion that the German language does not contain far more personality descriptive adjectives than type nouns. Since Henss' paper touches in passing some of the most sensitive aspects of the psycholexical approach, we address some of the tendencies in his pap

  18. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  19. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  20. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

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    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language. Keywords: English Language, Nouns, Count, Non-count, Syntactic Differences, Proper Nouns

  1. Lexical and Buffer Effects in Reading and in Writing Noun-Noun Compound Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Arcara, Giorgio; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Reading and writing Noun-Noun compound nouns was investigated in two Italian aphasic patients: one with phonological dyslexia and the other with phonological dysgraphia. The patients were required to read, write and repeat a list of Noun-Noun compounds and length-matched non-compound nouns. The dyslexic patient RF read compounds better than non-compounds, and his repetition was flawless for both categories. The dysgraphic patient DA wrote non-compounds better than compounds because of a deficit in keeping separate entries at the lemma level. Differential performance when processing compounds and non-compounds is the result of a deficit in different components within the mental lexicon architecture. PMID:22713388

  2. The Semantic Interpretation on Noun-Noun Modification by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-06

    man FRcM MARS Ordinals the THREE men Quantifiers EVERY man Participles the APPROACHING man the DEFEATED man In the field of Computational Linguistics, a...In these cases, the head noun is derived from an underlying verb (i.e. meet, traverse, study, detect, amplify and teach ). The modifying noun can

  3. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  4. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  5. Learning theories for noun-phrase sentiment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakis, S.; Klenner, M

    2011-01-01

    The work presented here is an approach to Sentiment Analy- sis from a rule-based, compositional perspective. The proposed approach is characterized by three major points: (a) rules are automatically learned from annotated corpora using Inductive Logic Programming and represented as Prolog sets of clauses, (b) the focus is on the noun-phrase (NP) level, and (c) learning is performed on deep-parsed structures. We describe the process of annotating a collection of some 3000 German NPs of medi...

  6. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih; Chandra Kurniawan Wiharja

    2017-01-01

    ...). The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause...

  7. Noun Preverbs in Complex Predicates

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    Marina Pantcheva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntax-based analysis of Persian complex predicates (a predicate consisting of a so called preverb and a light verb. I adopt the framework of the verbal First Phase Syntax developed by Ramchand (2008. I use complex predicates with the light verb zædæn `hit' to illustrate how this approach sheds light on some widely discussed issues in the literature. The problem I mainly focus on is the syntactic status of noun preverbs. In general, noun preverbs exhibit properties typically ascribed to direct objects (Samvelian 2001; 2004, while at the same time being distinct from real arguments of the verb (Megerdoomian 2006. I suggest that noun preverbs can occupy more than one position in the verbal phrase and show how this analysis captures their dual nature, as well as some other syntactic and semantic peculiarities.

  8. Statistical Analysis of English Noun Suffixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the origin of English noun suffixes,including Old English,Latin,French and Greek.A statistical analysis of some typical noun suffixes is followed in two corpora,which focuses on their frequency and distribution.

  9. The Inherent Capability of Nouns to Function as Locatives: A New Criterion for Identifying Chinese Nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jerome P.

    Two linguistic propositions provide the subject matter for this discussion. The first is that all nouns can serve as locatives. This is exemplified in the locative structure of Chinese nouns, mostly with the overt markers of locative suffixes, just as English nouns are used as such in the form of prepositional phrases, or as Japanese nouns are…

  10. The Arabic noun phrase : a minimalist approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Joost Merijn

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a model of the Arabic noun phrase from a minimalist perspective. It provides an analysis of many phenomena in the Arabic noun phrase, such as the construct state, adjectival agreement, definiteness inheritance, the formation of deverbal nouns and participles, etc.

  11. Miniriforma dell'ortografia tedesca (Mini-Reform of German Spelling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanini, Pietro

    1995-01-01

    This article reports that, after years of debate, representatives of German-speaking countries meeting in Vienna reached an agreement on measures to reform the spelling of the German language. Many linguists were disappointed that it was not decided to change the most unique characteristic of German spelling--the capitalization of German nouns.…

  12. Nomina sunt omina: on the inductive potential of nouns and adjectives in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Gresta, Sara; Bianchi, Mauro; Cadinu, Mara; Arcuri, Luciano

    2008-05-01

    Six studies (N = 491) investigated the inductive potential of nouns versus adjectives in person perception. In the first 5 studies, targets were either described by an adjective (e.g., Mark is homosexual) or by the corresponding noun (e.g., Mark is a homosexual) or by both (Study 3). The authors predicted and found that nouns, more so than adjectives, (a) facilitate descriptor-congruent inferences but inhibit incongruent inferences (Studies 1-3), (b) inhibit alternative classifications (Study 4), and (c) imply essentialism of congruent but not of incongruent preferences (Study 5). This was supported for different group memberships and inclinations (athletics, arts, religion, sexual preference, drinking behavior, etc.), languages (Italian and German), and response formats, suggesting that despite the surface similarity of nouns and adjectives, nouns have a more powerful impact on person perception. Study 6 investigated the inverse relationship, showing that more essentialist beliefs (in terms of a genetic predisposition rather than training) lead speakers to use more nouns and fewer adjectives. Possible extensions of G. R. Semin and K. Fiedler's (1988) linguistic category model and potential applications for language use in intergroup contexts are discussed.

  13. OVERGENERALIZATION IN SINGULAR/PLURAL NOUNS AND SUFFIXED NOUNS OF IELTS COURSE STUDENTS

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    Gharizi Matiini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the morphological overgeneralization of IELTS students. It focuses on the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns that are overgeneralized by those students. Three students are chosen as the participants of the study by collecting their writing exercises. Three writing texts are gathered taken from several weeks and materials. The writings are analyzed by sorting the nouns they produced and categorizing them according to the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. The results reveal that the students over extended the rules of singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. However, recovery occurs very varied in both singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. They tend to be better in mentioning singular/plural nouns, yet they are being selective and careful in writing suffixed nouns. In conclusion, even though the language learners can mark their overgeneralization, it is still difficult for them to recover their errors. It is recommended here that longitudinal study that has more time to examine students recovery from overgeneralization can be conducted for the further study to give more detail evidence in students’ overgeneralizations. Keywords: overgeneralization, singular/plural nouns, suffixed nouns

  14. A Study on Noun Suffixes: Accounting for the Vernacularisation of English in Late Medieval Medical Texts

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    Begoña Crespo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the study of the vernacularisation process in late Middle English by measuring up to what an extent concrete and abstract noun suffixes (in line with Dalton-Puffer 1996 attach to either Germanic or Romance bases in the medical texts extracted from the MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts corpus. The findings obtained have been further described according to text type or genre and to target audience/readership. The description of these suffixes in relation to all the parameters already mentioned has confirmed the predominance of abstract suffixes of Romance origin although Germanic abstract suffixes are also abundant. More hybrid formations have been found with Germanic noun suffixes than with Romance ones which might be indicative of their versatility towards vernacularisation.

  15. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the etymologically related words so and such (English); så and sådan (Danish); and so and solch (German). Similarities and differences that have to be accounted for cross-linguistically are i. position (pre- or post- indefinite article), ii. agreement morphology (in Danish and German...

  16. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  17. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  18. The Proto-Germanic n-stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroonen, Guus Jan

    The n-stems are an intriguing part of Proto-Germanic morphology. Unlike any other noun class, the n-stems have roots that are characterized by systematic consonant and vowel alternations across the different Germanic dialects. This monograph represents a diachronic investigation of this root...... variation. It traces back the Germanic n-stems to their Indo-European origin, and clarifies their formal characteristics by an interaction of sound law and analogy. This book therefore is not just an attempt to account for the typology of the Germanic n-stems, but also a case study of the impact that sound...

  19. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  20. Language, thought, and real nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy

    2009-06-01

    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online

  1. The Use of Teacher-Prepared Cards in the Teaching of German: Grammar and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Judy

    1989-01-01

    Discusses teacher-developed cards, for use in German foreign language classroom games, that help reinforce students' language skills in such areas as numbers, names, noun plurals, question and answer sequences, verbs, sports, interviews, and participles. (CB)

  2. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...... attested, with the exception of those stated to be nonexistent (or rare) by Greenberg's Universal 18. Some apparent counterexamples are examined in some detail and it is shown that they involve constituents that are not an integral part of the simple noun phrase....

  3. Separating the Chaff from the Oats: Evidence for a Conceptual Distinction between Count Noun and Mass Noun Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.; Trindel, Kelly A.; Imai, Mutsumi

    2004-01-01

    The English language makes a grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns. For example, count nouns but not mass nouns can be pluralized and can appear with the indefinite article. Some scholars dismiss the distinction as an arbitrary convention of language whereas others suggest that it is conceptually based. The present studies…

  4. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes.  The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  5. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  6. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns. Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  7. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  8. Noun-Phrase Indexing, Pronouns, and the "Definite Article."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Geoffrey

    Chomsky has suggested that certain lexical items, which he calls "referential items," should be given integer markers (or "indices") and that the noun-phrase deletion transformation which creates reflexive pronouns should be limited to cases where the noun-phrase to be deleted is fully identical to the antecedent noun-phrase,…

  9. Noun combination in interlanguage typology effects in complex determiner phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Bongartz, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    This study examines effects of L1 typology on the interlanguage of L2 learners of English. Czech learners use phrasal constructs (the song about love) significantly more often than Chinese learners, who prefer noun+noun compounds (the love song). Determiner properties and the process of noun incorporation systematically relate both options.

  10. THE SPECIFICITY OF CORRELATION CATEGORY REALIZATION IN THE MODERN GERMAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the German article in functional aspect taking into account the conception of the grammatical category of correlation / non-correlation, proposed by L.R. Zinder and T.V. Stroeva. The author describes the specificity of the correlation category realization with nouns of different semantic classes and explains the limitations of using article with definite classes of nouns. It is proved that the common nouns, realizing the five types of correlation, can be used with definite, indefinite and zero articles; abstract and material nouns, as a rule, correlate with the concept and are used with zero article, however, if their semantics is specified in the context, they pass into the class of common nouns, realizing the definite correlation and being used with definite article; proper names, correlating both with a concrete subject and a concept are used, as a rule, with zero or definite article; unique nouns correlate only with a single object and are used only with a definite article. The author reveals that if the abstract, material, unique and proper nouns are contextually specified in the context, they can be used with the indefinite article, which becomes the marker of nouns transposition from one semantic class to another, especially into the lexical and grammatical class of common nouns.

  11. An experimental study on the learning of arbitrary and non-arbitrary gender of pseudo Dutch nouns by nonnative and native speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekhnini, A.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article we addres the question of whether, and to what exetent, noun gender attribution in languages such as French, German and Dutch can be formulated in terms of- semantic morphonological rules- competing semantic and morphonological cues- arbitrary idiosyncratic featuresIn addressing this

  12. The Influence of Standard and Substandard Dutch on Gender Assignment in Second Language German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how standard and substandard varieties of first language (L1) Dutch affect grammatical gender assignments to nouns in second language (L2) German. While German distinguishes between masculine, feminine, and neuter gender, the masculine--feminine distinction has nearly disappeared in Standard Dutch. Many substandard Belgian…

  13. Bidirectional Synonym Ratings of 464 Noun Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Each of 464 noun pairs was rated for synonymy on a seven-point scale by college students to provide an extensive set of synonym pairs for use as stimuli in experiments, and to evaluate the effects of word encoding order on perceived synonymy. (SW)

  14. NPtool, a detector of English noun phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, A

    1995-01-01

    NPtool is a fast and accurate system for extracting noun phrases from English texts for the purposes of e.g. information retrieval, translation unit discovery, and corpus studies. After a general introduction, the system architecture is presented in outline. Then follows an examination of a recently written Constraint Syntax. An evaluation report concludes the paper.

  15. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers-the licit order in their L1-supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  16. Noun-Inspiring Theme in Poetic Translation-On Noun Translation Governed by Theme of Classical Chinese Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Liang; ZENG Li-sha

    2014-01-01

    The presence of poetic noun is very common in classical Chinese poetry. And the absence of preposition and conjunc-tion leading to noun juxtaposition is one of the poetic aesthetic features. At present, most researches of poetic translatio on n base individual impression and perception, fail to comprehend the nouns of source text in categorization, and critical analysis on the translated nouns is not interpretable and verifiable. This paper, taking a perspective of poetic theme relevance, categorizes the po-etic noun from the indicative, descriptive and symbolic dimensions, proposes a poetic translation strategy called“aesthetic repro-duction of poetic theme”, and proves its necessity and rationality.

  17. The proper name in the structure of the noun phrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pronińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Italian nominal groups containing proper nouns. The article discusses two syntagma types with elliptical structure noun + proper noun> as well as analogical structures where the common and proper nouns are joined by the preposition “di”. The classification and analysis of nominal groups have been carried out on the basis of the function of the proper noun in the syntagma. Two groups of syntagmas have been distinguished: one with the proper noun functioning as a superordinate constituent and one with the proper noun functioning as a modifier. In the former type (where the proper noun is a superordinate constituent, the common noun functions as a descriptive or restrictive appositive. The syntagmas, where the proper noun functions as a modifier, are of particularly diverse character. In such cases, the possibility to paraphrase them by means of the analysed structures constitutes an additional criterion. Consequently, three syntagma types have been distinguished as represented by the following examples: il progetto Leonardo (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version, *il progetto di Leonardo, il governo Monti (where the prepositional structure il governo di Monti may be used interchangeably and un quadro di Rubens (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version with the ellipsis of the preposition “di” *un quadro Rubens.

  18. When can a language have nouns and verbs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2003-01-01

    a necessary condition for a language before it can have a major, distinct class of nouns. Ultimately I will argue that a language can only have distinct classes of verbs, nouns, and adjectives if the basic meaning of lexical items somehow encodes the prototypical properties of temporal and spatial entities......Whereas in most languages nouns and verbs are distinct lexical categories, there are also languages like Samoan, in which such a distinction does not seem to serve any descriptive purpose in the grammar. This contribution is an attempt to discover what distinguishes languages in which nouns...... and verbs are separate word classes from languages without a rigid noun/verb distinction. I will argue that transitivity plays an essential role in the parts-of-speech systems of languages across the globe in that a language can only have distinct classes of nouns and verbs if a subgroup of the basic...

  19. Analysis of Japanese Compound Nouns using Collocational Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Y; Tanaka, H; Kobayasi, Yosiyuki; Takunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    1994-01-01

    Analyzing compound nouns is one of the crucial issues for natural language processing systems, in particular for those systems that aim at a wide coverage of domains. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze structures of Japanese compound nouns by using both word collocations statistics and a thesaurus. An experiment is conducted with 160,000 word collocations to analyze compound nouns of with an average length of 4.9 characters. The accuracy of this method is about 80%.

  20. Noun-Noun Compounds in Italian Sports Column as a Proof of Tendencies in Modern Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szemberska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounding is a fundamental process of word formation and its importance to our understanding of language is crucial. The study of compounds for the last few years has been at the centre of attention in such areas of linguistics as computational approaches, psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Linguists advanced hypotheses not only regarding the construction of compounds, but also where they fit into the model of grammar. The paper attempts to answer some basic questions pertaining to lexical creativity in nominal compounding in Italian sports column. These include the definition of the concept, the types of noun-noun compounds in Modern Italian and a brief comparison of these types.

  1. Generic noun phrases in mother-child conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A; Gelman, S A

    1998-02-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g. Tigers are fierce) are of interest for their semantic properties: they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free. The present study examines use of generic noun phrases by preschool children and their mothers. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while looking through a book of animal pictures. Each page depicted either a single instance of a particular category (e.g. one crab) or multiple instances of a particular category (e.g. many crabs). The results indicated a striking difference in how generics vs. non-generics were distributed, both in the speech of mothers and in the speech of preschool children. Whereas the form of non-generic noun phrases was closely linked to the structure of the page (i.e. singular noun phrases were used more often when a single instance was presented; plural noun phrases were used more often when multiple instances were presented), the form of generic noun phrases was independent of the information depicted (e.g. plural noun phrases were as frequent when only one instance was presented as when multiple instances were presented). We interpret the data as providing evidence that generic noun phrases differ in their semantics and conceptual organization from non-generic noun phrases, both in the input to young children and in children's own speech. Thus, this simple linguistic device may provide input to, and a reflection of, children's early developing notion of 'kinds'.

  2. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eDe Cat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1 had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2, and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e. incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit versus reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish. The EEG data, analysed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the reversed constituent order. Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers - the licit order in their L1- supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1.

  3. Language-Specific Noun Bias: Evidence from Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Lei; Dollaghan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Most evidence concerning cross-linguistic variation in noun bias, the preponderance of nouns in early expressive lexicons (Gentner, 1982), has come from comparisons of monolingual children acquiring different languages. Such designs are susceptible to a number of potential confounders, including group differences in developmental level and…

  4. Derivational Morphology of the Early Irish Verbal Noun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randall Clark

    2012-01-01

    As is well known, the Insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Breton and the now-extinct Manx and Cornish) utilize a class of verbal abstracts known as "verbal nouns" to perform the functions that are fulfilled in other Indo-European languages by infinitives and supines. Yet in many ways the Celtic verbal noun remains somewhat of an…

  5. Wolof Noun Classification: The Social Setting of Divergent Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Judith T.

    1978-01-01

    Ongoing change in Wolof noun classification is traced by comparing nineteenth-century linguistic evidence with modern sociolinguistic data. Upwardly mobile middle-aged men of high caste tend to reduce the noun class system, whereas other speakers tend to elaborate it. (Author/RM)

  6. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  7. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  8. Effects on Text Simplification: Evaluation of Splitting Up Noun Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Hogue, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To help increase health literacy, we are developing a text simplification tool that creates more accessible patient education materials. Tool development is guided by a data-driven feature analysis comparing simple and difficult text. In the present study, we focus on the common advice to split long noun phrases. Our previous corpus analysis showed that easier texts contained shorter noun phrases. Subsequently, we conducted a user study to measure the difficulty of sentences containing noun phrases of different lengths (2-gram, 3-gram, and 4-gram); noun phrases of different conditions (split or not); and, to simulate unknown terms, pseudowords (present or not). We gathered 35 evaluations for 30 sentences in each condition (3 × 2 × 2 conditions) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 12,600). We conducted a 3-way analysis of variance for perceived and actual difficulty. Splitting noun phrases had a positive effect on perceived difficulty but a negative effect on actual difficulty. The presence of pseudowords increased perceived and actual difficulty. Without pseudowords, longer noun phrases led to increased perceived and actual difficulty. A follow-up study using the phrases (N = 1,350) showed that measuring awkwardness may indicate when to split noun phrases. We conclude that splitting noun phrases benefits perceived difficulty but hurts actual difficulty when the phrasing becomes less natural.

  9. Nouns and Verbs: A Comparison of Definitional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation is a study of the definitional style of nouns and verbs in typically developing school-age children. A total of 30 children in upper-elementary grades provided verbal definitions for 10 common high-frequency nouns (e.g., apple, boat, baby) and 10 common high- frequency verbs (e.g., climb, sing, throw). All definitions…

  10. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  11. A Corpus-based Analysis of English Noun Suffixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief analysis of English suffixes. First, make a classification of the English noun suffixes etymologically; then, obtain the frequencies of each English noun suffixes in sub-corpus FR88 and WSJ88, and last draw a conclusion based on the statistics. That is from the word origins we can see its influences on English vocabulary.

  12. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  13. Verbs and nouns from a cross-linguistic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    It has often been claimed that all languages have major, distinct classes of verbs and nouns (see e.g. Robins 1967: 211; Schachter 1985: 6–7; Whaley 1997: 59). There is, however, growing evidence to suggest that the verb-noun distinction is scalar rather than discrete (Ross 1972, 1973), and that ...

  14. Deaf and hearing children's plural noun spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadmore, Helen L; Olson, Andrew C; Krott, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines deaf and hearing children's spelling of plural nouns. Severe literacy impairments are well documented in the deaf, which are believed to be a consequence of phonological awareness limitations. Fifty deaf (mean chronological age 13;10 years, mean reading age 7;5 years) and 50 reading-age-matched hearing children produced spellings of regular, semiregular, and irregular plural nouns in Experiment 1 and nonword plurals in Experiment 2. Deaf children performed reading-age appropriately on rule-based (regular and semiregular) plurals but were significantly less accurate at spelling irregular plurals. Spelling of plural nonwords and spelling error analyses revealed clear evidence for use of morphology. Deaf children used morphological generalization to a greater degree than their reading-age-matched hearing counterparts. Also, hearing children combined use of phonology and morphology to guide spelling, whereas deaf children appeared to use morphology without phonological mediation. Therefore, use of morphology in spelling can be independent of phonology and is available to the deaf despite limited experience with spoken language. Indeed, deaf children appear to be learning about morphology from the orthography. Education on more complex morphological generalization and exceptions may be highly beneficial not only for the deaf but also for other populations with phonological awareness limitations.

  15. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  16. The Syntax and Semantics of Purepecha Noun Phrases and the Mass/Count Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rojas Maldonado, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Purepecha (isolate, central Western Mexico) nouns can be assigned to one of three classes depending on their inherent number characteristics: count nouns denote atomic units, mass nouns denote plural entities and count-mass nouns (Doetjes 1997) denote sets that contain pluralities and atomic units as well. This tri-partite distinction guides the…

  17. THE GENDER OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have three kinds of gender: masculine, feminine and neuter.  In Albanian language we have this concept for gender: “Gjinia është një nga kategoritë gramatikore më karakteristikë për emrat në gjuhën shqipe. Nga natyra e saj, ajo dallohet nga kategoritë e tjera të emrit, nga numri, rasa dhe nga kategoritë e shquarsisë dhe të pashquarsisë, sepse i kundërvihet mashkullore-femërore dhe asnjanëse...”[1], it’s same and with English: “a grouping of nouns and pronouns into c...

  18. Expresiones locativas modificadoras de sustantivo (Locative Expressions Modifying Nouns).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonder, John P.

    1979-01-01

    Elaborates on and updates the article "Derived Noun Phrases in Spanish Containing Locatives" by John P. Wonder and Alberto Eraso Guerrero (1976). Gives a detailed description of the uses of "ser" and "haber" in the locative expression. (NCR)

  19. MORPHOPHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE C'LELA NOUN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M A ALIERO

    morphophonological processes such as vowel copying, metathesis, vowel lengthening, ... It is to be noted that in the C'lela writing system, noun prefixes are marked with the .... ordering of segments, mainly of sounds or syllables in a word.

  20. Brazilian Portuguese noun phrases: An optimality theoretic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberta Pires de Oliveira; Henriëtte de Swart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nominal system in Brazilian Portuguese (BrP), a challenge to cross-linguistic studies which rely on the generalization that a language that has indefinites should not have bare nouns...

  1. some remarks on nouns' participation in Bantu languages syntactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brilliant study. Evidence for this claim abounds in the studies of pioneering as .... structure, the noun alone contributes more than two-thirds of the entire burden ...... or referential universe fundamentally into human and non-human categories.

  2. The German Adverb: Function, Meaning and Form Considerations for the Language Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickisch, Craig W.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses common misconceptions about German adverbs. Explains that adverbs can also modify nouns, pronouns, and entire sentences, and that the adverb modifies by showing condition rather than characteristic. Adds "cause" and "negation" to the traditional adverbial categories of "time,""manner," and "place." (EKN)

  3. Learning Noun Phrase Anaphoricity in Coreference Resolution via Label Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Zhou; Fang Kong

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of noun phrase anaphoricity might be profitably exploited in coreference resolution to bypass the resolution of non-anaphoric noun phrases. However, it is surprising to notice that recent attempts to incorporate automatically acquired anaphoricity information into coreference resolution systems have been far from expectation. This paper proposes a global learning method in determining the anaphoricity of noun phrases via a label propagation algorithm to improve learning-based coreference resolution. In order to eliminate the huge computational burden in the label propagation algorithm, we employ the weighted support vectors as the critical instances to represent all the anaphoricity-labeled NP instances in the training texts. In addition, two kinds of kernels, i.e., the feature-based RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel and the convolution tree kernel with approximate matching, are explored to compute the anaphoricity similarity between two noun phrases. Experiments on the ACE2003 corpus demonstrate the great effectiveness of our method in anaphoricity determination of noun phrases and its application in learning-based coreference resolution.

  4. Nouns in early lexicons: evidence, explanations and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K; Hampson, J; Shaw, L K

    1993-02-01

    Many theories of grammatical and lexical acquisition assume that children learn predominantly nouns, and specifically names of objects, when they first begin to acquire words in the second year. We show that the noun bias in early vocabularies is far from universal, and that it rests only in part on the acquisition of object names. An analysis of vocabulary composition from 45 children at 1;8 indicates that more nouns are acquired than all other word classes, but that of the nouns acquired only about half are the names of basic level object classes (BLOCs). An examination of the use of nouns in mother-child discourse shows that non-object words referencing locations, actions and events, for example, are used in distinctive pragmatic and grammatical contexts which might enable a child to grasp the word's use and eventually its meaning. It is concluded that a theory of lexical acquisition in discourse context is required to explain word learning at all levels and for all word types. Implications for semantic bootstrapping theories are considered.

  5. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-05-30

    The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data.

  6. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from complex noun phrases using both corpus statistics and linguistic heuristics. Results of experiments show that indexing based on such extracted subcompounds improves both recall and precision in an information retrieval system. The noun-phrase analysis techniques are also potentially useful for book indexing and automatic thesaurus extraction.

  7. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  8. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    OpenAIRE

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be tru...

  9. Introduction (of 'The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar')

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Velasco, Daniel; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this volume analyse the noun phrase within the framework of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), the successor to Simon C. Dik’s Functional Grammar (FG). The Noun Phrase was the main conference theme of the 11th International Conference on Functional Grammar, which took place......, the most recent treatment of NPs by Dik in terms of “classical FG” was published (posthumously) in 1997, in the first volume of The Theory of Functional Grammar. Given the fact that FDG presents a strongly revised version of Dikkian FG with respect to rules, variables, representations and overall design...

  10. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  11. Le "est de Mars", la "est de Venus": Understanding and Learning French Noun Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the complicated issue of attribution of gender in French nouns. Firstly, it presents a range of views on how native speakers address noun gender allocation, plus some insight into why they are accurate with most, but by no means all, gender attributions. Secondly, the paper explains some of the inconsistencies in noun gender…

  12. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  13. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  14. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  15. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  16. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  17. Dutch female personal nouns, the (non-) existence of derivational paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the literature (Van Marle 1985, 1986) it has been argued that the formation of female personal nouns can only be properly understood if we assume that word-formation (just like inflection) is organized paradigmatically. In this paper I argue that an alternative analysis of these forms is possible

  18. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  19. Order in the noun phrase of the languages of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    according to which pre- or postnominal placement of (certain) noun modifiers is a function of the order of Object and Verb (Greenberg 1966; Hawkins 1983; Dryer 1988, 1992, this volume; Rijkhoff 1990a). Sections 5-7 compare the NP-internal ordering patterns as they occur in [i] the languages of Europe...

  20. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  1. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency. Keywords: Language proficiency, Collocation, Communicative Competence, academic year, Iranian EFL learners

  2. German Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Gia P; Leifeld, Ludger

    2016-10-01

    Because of its frequency, diverticular disease is a burden on health care systems. Only few formal guidelines covering all aspects of the disease exist. Here, some selected statements from the German guidelines are given. The guidelines include significant recommendations for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. Both diagnosis and management depend definitely on clear definitions of the situation of an individual patient. Therefore, a new classification is proposed that is based on earlier suggestions. An internationally established classification would not only enable better patient care but could also lead to studies with comparable results.

  3. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be truncated. In other words, since this head noun is governed by case marker in its null form to generate the postpositional phrase, the head noun can be encoded.  The second approach generates two different types of noun phrases in their structures: free structured and non-free structured noun phrases. Of them, the free structured noun phrase allows any syntactic transformations in their internal structure based on the senses of the case markers which denote a relation. That is to say, the null constituents in this type of noun phrases can be encoded to generate an extended alternative of the noun phrase and a relative clause.

  4. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  5. Can Colors, Voices, and Images Help Learners Acquire the Grammatical Gender of German Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira Santos, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of lexical items is arguably the most essential aspect of being able to communicate in a foreign language (Richards, 2000). Many studies have examined effective strategies for retaining the meaning of foreign words, but studies investigating the effectiveness of different methods for the retention of essential grammatical features of…

  6. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  7. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  8. Designing Statistical Language Learners Experiments on Noun Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, M

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to advance the exploration of the statistical language learning design space. In pursuit of that goal, the thesis makes two main theoretical contributions: (i) it identifies a new class of designs by specifying an architecture for natural language analysis in which probabilities are given to semantic forms rather than to more superficial linguistic elements; and (ii) it explores the development of a mathematical theory to predict the expected accuracy of statistical language learning systems in terms of the volume of data used to train them. The theoretical work is illustrated by applying statistical language learning designs to the analysis of noun compounds. Both syntactic and semantic analysis of noun compounds are attempted using the proposed architecture. Empirical comparisons demonstrate that the proposed syntactic model is significantly better than those previously suggested, approaching the performance of human judges on the same task, and that the proposed semantic model, t...

  9. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... expect the amount of correctly produced PL forms in the experimental data to be sensitive to the specific items selected. Furthermore, we will discuss how a multi-method approach can reveal interactions between different factors in the acquisition of morphology that in the past could not be revealed...

  10. Disambiguating Noun Groupings with Respect to WordNet Senses

    CERN Document Server

    Resnik, P

    1995-01-01

    Word groupings useful for language processing tasks are increasingly available, as thesauri appear on-line, and as distributional word clustering techniques improve. However, for many tasks, one is interested in relationships among word {\\em senses}, not words. This paper presents a method for automatic sense disambiguation of nouns appearing within sets of related nouns --- the kind of data one finds in on-line thesauri, or as the output of distributional clustering algorithms. Disambiguation is performed with respect to WordNet senses, which are fairly fine-grained; however, the method also permits the assignment of higher-level WordNet categories rather than sense labels. The method is illustrated primarily by example, though results of a more rigorous evaluation are also presented.

  11. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from ...

  12. Automatic Titling of Electronic Documents with Noun Phrase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Automatic titling (i.e. providing titles) is one of key domains of Web site accessibility. This paper provides an approach allowing the automatic titling of texts (e.g. emails, fora, etc.) relying on the morphosyntactic study of human written titles in a corpus of various texts. The method is developed in four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentences determination for titling, noun phrase extraction in the candidate sentences, and finally, selecting a particular...

  13. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  14. [Disturbances of word finding of compound nouns (nomina composita) in aphasics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, R

    1977-09-14

    The faulty use of compound nouns by aphasics is of practical and theoretical significance. Defects in the finding and using of compound nouns were investigated with respect to the following parameters: the importance of the frequency with which compounds and compound parts are used in normal speech, the influence of grammatical and psycholinguistic peculiarities on aphasic dysfunction, and the handling of compounds in individual aphasic syndromes. The distinctly poorer recall of compound nouns compared with simple nouns was found to be due mainly to their less frequent use in normal speech. In word-finding the grammatical unit of the compound noun was not very stable patholinguistically. If one part of the compound noun was commoner and more usual in normal speech than the other it was usually better recalled. However, some remarkable deviations from this were due to semantic functional value, vividness, morphologic peculiarities, and linguistic form. The wider meaning-range of the second part of the compound noun had no positive mnemonic effect, despite the propensity of the aphasic for the general. In naming tests the first part of the compound noun was preferred on average. Certain differences in the defective use of compound nouns were observed between the individual aphasic syndromes.

  15. APPOSITIONS IN GERMAN AND IN TURKISH

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    Umut BALCI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and German grammar books include word parts combined with secondary nouns. We call these, which exemplify the noun, as apposition. Turkish grammar books draw different conclusions from the term Apposition and it shows that it needs to be especially explicated. The apposition can be seen as resumption of same meaningful lexical units considered as a stylistic device providing a context-dependent credibility of expression, coherence, clarity, variation, adequacy and facility. We use many appositions consciously or unconsciously both in speaking and written language. When we compare the frequency of apposition usage with the relative clause, displaying the same function, apposition is surprisingly higher. According to statistical data, in every 100 sentences chosen from any text, there are about 30 appositions. Nevertheless, the apposition receives little attention especially in grammar teaching books, sometimes it even does not. Although it’s rare occurrence in the grammar books, we constantly encounter their syntactic, semantic and pragmatic dimensions in various types of texts. The reason why the Apposition in grammar teaching has received little discussionmight be a topic of other studies and we are not going to deal with this issue here. The purpose of this particular study is to reveal how much the Apposition is known as a grammatical category by our students and what can be done to increase the related awareness in this regard. Within the scope of this research study, the relative clauses present significance, as they are the most preferred and used ones among the Turkish learners who learn German as a foreign language. Due to their morphosyntactic structural difficulties, they are often memorized more than other forms of sentence. Moreover, they require more effort and in spoken form, they are economically impractical. However, it does not mean that theyarenotused or exaggerated in their usage because each mode of expression has

  16. Sound structure and input frequency impact on noun plural acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Christensen, René dePont; Basbøll, Hans

    2014-01-01

    (dictionary data, naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output, semi-naturalistic/semi-experimental data, experimental data and reported data). We define cross-linguistically three degrees of stem changes (NO CHANGE, PROSODIC CHANGE, PHONEMIC CHANGE), and we also define three degrees...... of productivity of plural markers (which combine stem change and suffix). Noun plurals emerge from an early age, typically around the second birthday, but the acquisition is still underway at the age of ten years. Plural acquisition is affected by frequency and morphophonological category. Danish children produce...

  17. On unfamiliar Italian lexical blends from names and nouns

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    Silvia Cacchiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian has recently witnessed a steady increase in the use of unfamiliar lexical blends from names and nouns. While they serve an identificatory and descriptive function (in the sense of Anderson 2007, blends are created in extragrammatical morphology with careful attention to the semantic concepts encoded by the individual SWs, understanding blends from names and nouns depends on the decoder's direct or surrogate experience of the related reference. Significantly, blends are coined out of the need to be relevant (Sperber/Wilson 1990 and show various degrees of morphotactic and morphosemantic transparency (Thornton 1986; Dressler 1987, 1999, which makes them memorable (Lehrer 2003. In this paper we therefore address blends from names and nouns within the framework of the Naturalness Theory (Thornton 1986; Dressler et al. 1987; Dressler 1999. As will be seen, although blends are not created in rule-based grammars, some overall preferences and regularities can be observed for more core items (cf. Bat-El/Cohen, in press, within the framework of Optimality Theory under the principle of saliency (Dressler 1987. Focusing on their morphosyntactic transparency, we provide a typology of Italian unfamiliar blends from names and nouns functioning as naming units in order to delimit the category and reassess current typologies. While we allow for a continuum of morphotactic transparency within the prototypical category of extragrammatcial subtractive word-formations, we slightly adapt Ronneberger-Sibold (2006 and suggest we distinguish between blends on the one hand and the neighbouring category of clipped compounds on the other. Moving on to morphosemantic transparency and conceptual motivation, we use concepts from Cognitive Grammar, Cognitive Metaphor Theory and theories of Conceptual Blending (cf. Lakoff/Johnson 1980; Langacker 1987; Ruiz de Mendoza 1998, 2000; Kemmer 2003 to provide some preliminary remarks on specific subtypes, and blends from

  18. The head of Verb+Noun compounds in the Romance languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroten, J.D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Verb+Noun compounds in Spanish and the other Romance languages have well-known curious properties: (i) lack of nominalizing affix on the Verb; (ii) obligatory presence of the Noun, interpreted as the direct object of the Verb; (iii) interpretation as referring to persons or instruments able to perfo

  19. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  20. The Effect of Anaphoric References and Noun Phrase Organizers on Paragraph Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Anne Stevens

    1978-01-01

    According to a theory of textual cohesion, anaphoric references and noun phrase organizers may serve as cohesive ties linking separate sentences into unified paragraphs. This study revealed that only the noun phrase organizer condition was significant in promoting comprehension and indicated no difference in time scores by paragraph condition.…

  1. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  2. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  3. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  4. Learning Language from the Input: Why Innate Constraints Can't Explain Noun Compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Do the production and interpretation of patterns of plural forms in noun-noun compounds reveal the workings of innate constraints that govern morphological processing? The results of previous studies on compounding have been taken to support a number of important theoretical claims: first, that there are fundamental differences in the way that…

  5. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgonsuren, Tseden

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if…

  6. Nouns Referring to Tools and Natural Objects Differentially Modulate the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M.; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns--those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items…

  7. The Gender Puzzle: Toddlers' Use of Articles to Access Noun Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Falcon, Alberto; Alva-Canto, Elda A.

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical gender embedded in determiners, nouns and adjectives allows indirect and more rapid processing of the referents implied in sentences. However in a language such as Spanish, this useful information cannot be reliably retrieved from a single source of information. Instead, noun gender may be extracted either from phono-morphological,…

  8. The Dynamic Nature of Knowledge: Insights from a Dynamic Field Model of Children's Novel Noun Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K.; Schutte, Anne R.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the tie between knowledge and behavior in a noun generalization context. An experiment directly comparing noun generalizations of children at the same point in development in forced-choice and yes/no tasks reveals task-specific differences in the way children's knowledge of nominal categories is brought to bear in a moment. To…

  9. ‘PAIRED NOUN + VERB’ CONSTRUCTIONS IN SELKUP DIALECTS AND NORTHERN SAMOYED LANGUAGES (NGANASAN, ENETS AND NENETS DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdeeva, G.P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the ‘paired noun/verb’ constructions in Selkup dialects and Northern Samoyed languages (Nganasan, Enets and Nenets dialects. This paper presents the research and analysis results of constructions with nouns denoting paired items in Selkup dialects and Northern Samoyed languages, based on external comparison of agreement types and a paired noun number markers. The multi-level reconstruction permits to reveal the noun/verb agreement types for Proto-Samoyed level.

  10. Designing Statistical Language Learners: Experiments on Noun Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Mark

    1996-09-01

    The goal of this thesis is to advance the exploration of the statistical language learning design space. In pursuit of that goal, the thesis makes two main theoretical contributions: (i) it identifies a new class of designs by specifying an architecture for natural language analysis in which probabilities are given to semantic forms rather than to more superficial linguistic elements; and (ii) it explores the development of a mathematical theory to predict the expected accuracy of statistical language learning systems in terms of the volume of data used to train them. The theoretical work is illustrated by applying statistical language learning designs to the analysis of noun compounds. Both syntactic and semantic analysis of noun compounds are attempted using the proposed architecture. Empirical comparisons demonstrate that the proposed syntactic model is significantly better than those previously suggested, approaching the performance of human judges on the same task, and that the proposed semantic model, the first statistical approach to this problem, exhibits significantly better accuracy than the baseline strategy. These results suggest that the new class of designs identified is a promising one. The experiments also serve to highlight the need for a widely applicable theory of data requirements.

  11. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  12. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that ...

  13. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  14. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  15. ON THE LINGUISTIC STATUS OF THE GERMAN ARTICLE

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    Goryunova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the critical analysis of the present points of views about the lexical and grammatical essence of the German article. The author adduces the arguments for the inability of the most common opinion, pursuant to the German article is described as an analytical tool, which doesn't have its own lexical meaning. It is proved that the analyzed linguistic unit is an independent pronominal word, which forms a special lexical and grammatical class of deictic words with the demonstrative, possessive and indefinite pronouns. The German native speakers use this word class for the realization of the special semantic category of correlation. The gist of this category is that the same noun can be used for the nomination of different essences, such as an only possible object, a class of the similar objects, all members of the same class or subclass of objects or a concept. For all that, the choice of one or another article is regulated with the realized type of correlation. Grammatical characteristics of the German article, that is the distribution, form change and semantic function, identify it as an adjective, which holds a peripheral position in the field structure of this part of speech.

  16. Semantic development in textual contexts during the school years: noun scale analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit

    2006-11-01

    The paper examines the nominal lexicon in later language acquisition as a window on linguistic knowledge and usage across childhood and adolescence. The paper presents a psycholinguistically motivated and cognitively grounded analysis of the distribution of ten semantic noun categories (the Noun Scale) across development, modality, and genre. Eighty Hebrew-speaking children (9;0 to 10;0), adolescents (12;0 to 13;0 and 16;0 to 17;0), and a group of adult university graduate students participated in the study. Each produced four different texts: a spoken and written narrative and a spoken and written expository, yielding a total of 320 texts. All lexical noun tokens in each of the 320 texts were analysed to determine their score on the Noun Scale. Results indicate that nominal density, which underlies much of the syntactic architecture of texts, increases dramatically in adolescence, towards adulthood. The paper analyses the developmental patterns of each of the ten Noun Scale categories, showing that the nominal lexicon of schoolaged children is already very different from that of young children in having only a small amount of genuinely concrete nouns, and these too only in narrative texts. The quantitative analysis shows that nouns grow more categorical and abstract with age and schooling, especially in adolescence. Written expository texts are the preferred habitat of abstract, categorical nouns from early on. The systematic qualitative analysis of noun tokens in their textual context demonstrates how the nominal lexicon undergoes fundamental changes that are affected by linguistic, cognitive and social development, in interaction with text genre and modality.

  17. MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

    Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

  18. Morphological Analysis of Standard Yorùbá Nouns

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    Agbeyangi, A. O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational morphological analysis is an important step in the natural language processing and it has always been a challenge for computational linguistics because of its richness and complexity. This paper presents the development a morphological analyser that generates standard Yorùbá nouns by affixing Yorùbá vowels with monosyllabic verbs. Data were collected in conformity with the rules. Computational model was designed for the system based on the knowledge obtained using Finite State Automata (FSA technique and the system was implemented using python programming language.The results gathered from expert opinion shows that the system performs as expected owing to the size of the corpus used. Other areas noted for further study includes; morphology analyzer for other Yorùbá language part of speech (verb, preposition, etc

  19. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  20. Extracting Noun Phrases from Large-Scale Texts A Hybrid Approach and Its Automatic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Chen, Kuang-hua; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    1994-01-01

    To acquire noun phrases from running texts is useful for many applications, such as word grouping,terminology indexing, etc. The reported literatures adopt pure probabilistic approach, or pure rule-based noun phrases grammar to tackle this problem. In this paper, we apply a probabilistic chunker to deciding the implicit boundaries of constituents and utilize the linguistic knowledge to extract the noun phrases by a finite state mechanism. The test texts are SUSANNE Corpus and the results are evaluated by comparing the parse field of SUSANNE Corpus automatically. The results of this preliminary experiment are encouraging.

  1. The Onomastic Phraseological Units in the Works of I.V. Goethe (Compiled By Authors «German Onomastic Phraseological Dictionary»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana Napireli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the given work we’ve got interested in one of the branch of linguistics, onomastics, actually, onomastical phraseology. The research of the onomastical field concerns the proper nouns. This trend of linguistics is very actual in our modern words and attracts much attention. Although, the research of proper nouns comes from the ancient time. The aim of our study is to find those quotes from the works of the greatest representative of German classical literature I.V. Goethe, which possess the proper nouns that became the phraseological units and expressions. The work of I.V. Goethe seems to be very interesting from the point of onomastical phraseology. We’ve revealed 12 onomastical expression; 8 in “Phaust” and 4 in defferent writings.

  2. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  3. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  4. High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines

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    Matthew Peacock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.

  5. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  6. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing. Keywords: Language proficiency, Verb-noun collocation, Witten discourse, Iranian EFL learners

  7. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  8. Nouns before verbs in comprehension vs. production: the view from pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, B A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines pragmatic factors that bias English-speaking children to produce more of the nouns and fewer of the verbs that they know. If nouns are favoured for production, parents should elicit more nouns than verbs in child speech. If verb comprehension is favoured over verb production, parents should more often prompt children to produce an action than to produce a verb. Data from 44 parent-child (age 1;8) dyads in the New England directory of the CHILDES data base were analysed. Children produced more nouns than verbs but mothers produced more verbs than nouns. Speech act analyses indicate that mothers elicited noun production but rarely prompted children to produce verbs. Mothers more often prompted children to produce an action than to produce a verb, and verbs occurred most often in maternal speech acts used to elicit children's actions. Moreover, children comprehended many more verbs than they produced. These data suggest that production measures underestimate the frequency and significance of verb-learning in early lexical development.

  9. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  10. Distinguishable neural correlates of verbs and nouns: a MEG study on homonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigka, Styliani; Papadelis, Christos; Braun, Christoph; Miceli, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    The dissociability of nouns and verbs and of their morphosyntactic operations has been firmly established by lesion data. However, the hypothesis that they are processed by distinct neural substrates is inconsistently supported by neuroimaging studies. We tackled this issue in a silent reading experiment during MEG. Participants silently read noun/verb homonyms in minimal syntactic context: article-noun (NPs), pronoun-verb (VPs) (e.g., il ballo/i balli, the dance/the dances; io ballo/tu balli, I dance/you dance). Homonyms allow to rule out prelexical or postlexical nuisance factors-they are orthographically and phonologically identical, but serve different grammatical functions depending on context. Under these experimental conditions, different activity to nouns and verbs can be confidently attributed to representational/processing distinctions. At the sensor level, three components of event-related magnetic fields were observed for the function word and four for the content word, but Global Field Power (GFP) analysis only showed differences between VPs and NPs at several but very short time windows. By contrast, source level analysis based on Minimum Norm Estimates (MNE) yielded significantly greater activity for VPs in left frontal areas and in a left frontoparietal network at late time windows (380-397 and 393-409 ms). These results are fully consistent with lesion data, and show that verbs and nouns are processed differently in the brain. Frontal and parietal activation to verbs might correspond to morphosyntactic processes and to working memory recruitment (or thematic role assignment), respectively. Findings are consistent with the view that nouns and verbs and their morphosyntactic operations involve at least partially distinct neural substrates. However, they do not entirely rule out that nouns and verbs are processed in a shared neural substrate, and that differences result from greater complexity of verbal morphosyntax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Morpho-semantic properties of Serbian nouns: Animacy and gender pairs

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    Radanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether and how the cognitive system uses morphological markedness of animacy and gender pairs. In the Serbian language masculine nouns are marked for animacy (i.e., genitive-accusative syncretism, while for feminine nouns the animacy distinction is purely semantic. Thus, in Experiment 1 we used this natural, linguistic differentiation to test whether morphological markedness of animacy influences lexical processing. In the same experiment, we tested whether the cognitive system is sensitive to the fact that some animate nouns have a sibling in the other gender (e.g., dečak /”boy”/ - devojčica /”girl”/, while others do not have it (e.g., vojnik /”soldier”/ or žirafa /”giraffe”/. We labeled this indicator sibling presence. The analysis did not confirm the effect of animacy, neither between nor within genders. However, animate nouns with a sibling were processed faster than those without a sibling. Since the majority of sibling nouns are morphologically related (like konobar /”waiter”/ - konobarica /”waitress”/, while the rest are not (e.g., petao /”rooster”/ - kokoška /”hen”/, in Experiment 2 we tested whether morphological relatedness contributed to the effect of sibling presence. Results showed that this is not the case: morphologically related and unrelated masculine-feminine pairs of nouns (siblings were processed equally fast. Furthermore, an interaction between the target’s frequency and the frequency of its sibling was observed: nouns with a more frequent sibling benefited more from their own frequency than those with a less frequent sibling. We argue that sibling support is realized through semantic, not morphological relations. Taken together, our findings suggest that morphological markedness is not used in lexical processing, which is in line with an amorphous approach to lexical processing.

  12. Leveraging syntax to better capture the semantics of elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine; Rindflesch, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Full-text scientific articles are increasingly available, but capturing the meaning conveyed within an article automatically remains a bottleneck for semantic search and reasoning systems. In this paper we consider elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases that authors use to save space in an article. Systems that do not attend to coordination would incorrectly interpret "breast or lung cancer" as a body part (breast) and a disease (lung cancer) rather than two diseases. The algorithmic approach introduced in this paper uses a generate-and-test strategy where candidate expansions for forward, backward and complex ellipses are generated from syntactic dependencies. Dependencies are also used to create a dictionary of non-coordinated noun phrases that is used during the test phrase. Experiments on 21,280 full-text articles show that more than a million noun phrases were impacted by coordinated ellipses. The system achieves 73.07% precision, 75.38% recall, 74.23% F-score and 94.72% accuracy for new noun phrases in the development set. The precision was higher for backward (82.62 vs. 78.63) and forward expansions (64.82 vs. 60.17) and lower for complex expansions (63.41 vs. 72.59) in a test set. On average 10.79% of all noun phrases would be missed if coordination were not resolved, which corresponds to 48 new noun phrases per article in the journal Carcinogenesis, 52 new phrases per article in Diabetes, and 56 new phrases per article in Endocrinology. Results also show coordinated ellipses are more prevalent in abstracts (12.31% of all noun phrases) than in the body of an article (10.70%). To further test the generalizability of this approach the system (without modification) was used on two new collections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Two Element Laminar Flow Airfoil Optimized for Cruise. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  14. German-Chinese wedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-01

    German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)

  15. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  16. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses

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    Barbara FM Marino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the observation of graspable objects recruits the same motor representations involved in their actual manipulation. Recent evidence suggests that the presentation of nouns referring to graspable objects may exert similar effects. So far, however, it is not clear to what extent the modulation of the motor system during object observation overlaps with that related to noun processing. To address this issue, 2 behavioral experiments were carried out using a go-no go paradigm. Healthy participants were presented with photos and nouns of graspable and non-graspable natural objects. Also scrambled images and pseudowords obtained from the original stimuli were used. At a go-signal onset (150 ms after stimulus presentation participants had to press a key when the stimulus referred to a real object, using their right (Experiment 1 or left (Experiment 2 hand, and refrain from responding when a scrambled image or a pseudoword was presented. Slower responses were found for both photos and nouns of graspable objects as compared to non-graspable objects, independent of the responding hand. These findings suggest that processing seen graspable objects and written nouns referring to graspable objects similarly modulates the motor system.

  17. L1 effects on the processing of inflected nouns in L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Marja; Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Niemi, Jussi; Laine, Matti

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of L1 on the recognition of L2 Swedish inflected nouns. Two groups of late L2 learners with typologically very different native languages, Hungarian (agglutinative) and Chinese (isolating), participated in a visual lexical decision experiment. The target words were matched inflected vs. monomorphemic nouns from three frequency levels. The Hungarian group showed a morphological processing cost (longer reaction times for the inflected words) for low and medium frequency words but not for high frequency words, suggesting morphological decomposition of low and medium frequency Swedish inflected nouns. In contrast, for the Chinese group the reaction times of the inflected vs. monomorphemic words were similar at all frequency levels, indicating full-form processing of all the inflected nouns. This cross-language difference suggests that L1 can exert an effect on the morphological processing in L2. The application of full-form processing for the Swedish inflected nouns in the Chinese group might reflect strategy transfer from their isolating native language to Swedish.

  18. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  19. On diversity performance of two-element coupling element based antenna structure for mobile terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Toivanen, Juha; Laitinen, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    fading. The main challenge of antenna diversity in practical application is the integration of multiple antennas on a small ground plane. Two-element antenna structure based on coupling element antenna concept for diversity application has been studied in previous work and it has shown to be feasible......In wireless communication systems, multipath interference has a significant impact on system design and performance. Fast fading is caused by the coherent summation of one or more echoes from many reflection points reaching the receive antenna. Antenna diversity can be used to mitigate multipath...... for low frequency diversity application with stable and low envelope correlation across wide frequency range. The studied structure has been tuned to be operating at 1600 MHz for measurement evaluation purpose. This paper presents an analysis of diversity performance of the structure in terms...

  20. Determination of referential property and number of nouns in Japanese sentences for machine translation into English

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, M; Murata, Masaki; Nagao, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    When translating Japanese nouns into English, we face the problem of articles and numbers which the Japanese language does not have, but which are necessary for the English composition. To solve this difficult problem we classified the referential property and the number of nouns into three types respectively. This paper shows that the referential property and the number of nouns in a sentence can be estimated fairly reliably by the words in the sentence. Many rules for the estimation were written in forms similar to rewriting rules in expert systems. We obtained the correct recognition scores of 85.5\\% and 89.0\\% in the estimation of the referential property and the number respectively for the sentences which were used for the construction of our rules. We tested these rules for some other texts, and obtained the scores of 68.9\\% and 85.6\\% respectively.

  1. Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan N Yee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize common basic level categories from sparse structural shape representations of object shape emerges between the ages of 18 and 24 months, is related to noun vocabulary size, and is lacking in children with language delay. Other research shows that in artificial noun learning tasks, during this same developmental period, young children systematically generalize object names by shape, that this shape bias predicts future noun learning, and is lacking in children with language delay. The two experiments examine the developmental relation between visual object recognition and the shape bias for the first time. The results show that developmental changes in visual object recognition systematically preceded the emergence of the shape bias. The results suggest a developmental pathway in which early changes in visual object recognition that are themselves linked to category learning enable the discovery of higher-order regularities in category structure and thus the shape bias in novel noun learning tasks. The proposed developmental pathway has implications for understanding the role of specific experience in the development of both visual object recognition and the shape bias in early noun learning.

  2. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  3. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing......), (ii) the special relationship between localizing and discourse-referential modifiers (section 5), and (iii) semantic and morpho-syntactic parallels between modifier categories in the noun phrase and the clause (section 6). In addition this sample-based typological study shows (contra Hawkins...

  4. German for physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  5. Dirty German everyday slang

    CERN Document Server

    Chaffey, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    GET D!RTYNext time you're traveling or just chattin' in German with your friends, drop the textbook formality and bust out with expressions they never teach you in school, including:•Cool slang•Funny insults•Explicit sex terms•Raw swear wordsDirty German teaches the casual expressions heard every day on the streets of Germany:•What's up?Wie geht's?•I'm smashed.Ich bin total angeschickert.•Fuckin' Munich fans.Scheiß München Fans.•That shit reeks.Das riecht aber ü

  6. Theoretical study of two-element array of equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna on ferrite substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Verma; K R Soni

    2005-09-01

    The radiation characteristics of a two-element array of equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna on a ferrite substrate are studied theoretically by considering the presence of bias magnetic field in the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves. It is found that the natural modes of propagation in the direction of magnetic field are left- and right-circularly polarized waves and these modes have different propagation constants. In loss-less isotropic warm plasma, this array antenna geometry excites both electromagnetic (EM) and electroacoustic plasma (P) waves in addition to a nonradiating surface wave. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the EM- and P-waves can be decoupled into two independent modes, the electroacoustic mode is longitudinal while the electromagnetic mode is transverse. The far-zone EM-mode and P-mode radiation fields are derived using vector wave function techniques and pattern multiplication approaches. The results are obtained in both plasma medium and free space. Some important antenna parameters such as radiation conductance, directivity and quality factor are plotted for different values of plasma-to-source frequency.

  7. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using two- element ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joohyun; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    This work details noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform estimation based on an arterial vessel cross-sectional area measurement combined with an elasticity measurement of the vessel, represented by pulse wave velocity (PWV), using a two-element ultrasound system. The overall ABP waveform estimation is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup mimicking the heart and an arterial vessel segment with two single element transducers, assuming a constant hemodynamic system. The estimation of local PWV using the flow-area method produces unbiased elasticity estimation of the tube in a pressure waveform comparison. The measured PWV using 16 cardiac cycles of data is 8.47 + 0.63 m/s with an associated scaling error of -1.56 + 14.0% in a direct pressure waveform comparison, showing negligible bias error on average. The distension waveform obtained from a complex cross-correlation model estimator (C3M) reliably traces small pressure changes reflected by the diameter change. The excellent agreement of an estimated pressure waveform to the reference pressure waveform suggests the promising potential of a readily available, inexpensive, and portable ABP waveform monitoring device.

  8. Giving German universities a boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffs, Annette

    2006-08-25

    Although well respected, German universities are no longer considered world class. Efforts to rejuvenate the German university system include a competition to confer elite status on the country's ten leading universities.

  9. The Effect of Input on Children's Cross-Categorical Use of Polysemous Noun-Verb Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippeveld, Marie; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    Using an observational task followed by an experimental task with an Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm, we examined the effect of input on children's acquisition of class extension rules by investigating the relationship between the amount of polysemous noun-verb pairs in French-speaking 2-year-olds' input and both their spontaneous…

  10. A Corpus-based Analysis of Noun-verb Collocation of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    Corpus-based analysis is adopted to study the acceptable noun-verb collocation of the word knowledge. Verbs like ac-quire, have etc. are found to be frequently collocate with knowledge, and the Chinese students’favorite patterns like learn knowledge, enlarge knowledge are not acceptable. The finding may encourage teachers to consider about the pedagogical value of corpus while teaching languages.

  11. The Effect of Corpus-Based Activities on Verb-Noun Collocations in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2015-01-01

    This current study sought to reveal the impacts of corpus-based activities on verb-noun collocation learning in EFL classes. This study was carried out on two groups--experimental and control groups- each of which consists of 15 students. The students were preparatory class students at School of Foreign Languages, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University.…

  12. Effects of Emotional and Sensorimotor Knowledge in Semantic Processing of Concrete and Abstract Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ian Newcombe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is much empirical evidence that words’ relative imageability and body-object interaction (BOI facilitate lexical processing for concrete nouns (e.g., Bennett, Burnett, Siakaluk, & Pexman, 2011. These findings are consistent with a grounded cognition framework (e.g., Barsalou, 2008, in which sensorimotor knowledge is integral to lexical processing. In the present study, we examined whether lexical processing is also sensitive to the dimension of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience, which is also derived from a grounded cognition framework. We examined the effects of emotional experience, imageability, and BOI in semantic categorization for concrete and abstract nouns. Our results indicate that for concrete nouns, emotional experience was associated with less accurate categorization, whereas imageability and BOI were associated with faster and more accurate categorization. For abstract nouns, emotional experience was associated with faster and more accurate categorization, whereas BOI was associated with slower and less accurate categorization. This pattern of results was observed even with many other lexical and semantic dimensions statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with Vigliocco, Meteyard, Andrews, and Kousta’s (2009 theory of semantic representation, which states that emotional knowledge underlies meanings for abstract concepts, whereas sensorimotor knowledge underlies meanings for concrete concepts.

  13. Auditory Word Recognition of Nouns and Verbs in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Nouns are fundamentally different from verbs semantically and syntactically, since verbs can specify one, two, or three nominal arguments. In this study, 25 children with Specific Language Impairment (age 5;3-8;2 years) and 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment of spoken language comprehension…

  14. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  15. Is the Expressive Vocabulary of Young Cantonese Speakers Noun or Verb Dominated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Chan, Carol; Li, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous utterances produced by 492 Cantonese-speaking children aged 36-60 months in 30-minute toy play contexts were collected. The incidence and percentage of different lexical classes, the ratio of noun and verb types and tokens were calculated. A statistically significant predominance of verb usage was found in the expressive utterances…

  16. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  17. On Revising Noun Compounds: Four Tests. CDC Technical Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, David S.; Steinberg, Erwin R.

    Many influential style guides endorse the stylistic prescription that writers, particularly technical writers, should revise noun compounds into phrasal or clausal paraphrases. While the prescription is well-intentioned, it fails to take into account that a reader's comprehension of compounds, whether long or short, is a complex process dependent…

  18. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  19. Knowledge Embedded in Process: The Self-Organization of Skilled Noun Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colunga, Eliana; Smith, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    Young children's skilled generalization of newly learned nouns to new instances has become the battleground for two very different approaches to cognition. This debate is a proxy for a larger dispute in cognitive science and cognitive development: cognition as rule-like amodal propositions, on the one hand, or as embodied, modal, and dynamic…

  20. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Vasić, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  1. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  2. Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; van der Pompe, G.; Baas, D; Mulder, L.J.M.; Den Boer, J.A.; Meijman, T.F.; Korf, J

    The present study investigated the acute effects of cortisol administration in normal healthy male volunteers on immediate free recall and recognition of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral nouns using a between-subjects double-blind design. Two hours after cortisol (10 mg) or placebo administration,

  3. Learning How to License Null Noun-Class Prefixes in Sesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2009-01-01

    Noun-class prefixes are obligatory in most Bantu languages. However, the Sotho languages (Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi) permit a subset of prefixes to be realized as null at the intersection of "unmarked" phonological, syntactic, and discourse conditions. This raises the question of how and when the licensing of null prefixes is learned. Using…

  4. Class 1 deverbal and non-deverbal nouns in Shona: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    This research contributes towards the description and analysis of Shona nominal morphology ... are either agents or patients of verbal action. ... For the deverbal nouns that fall into class 1, their morphological behaviour and distribution is ..... SG-buy-CAUS-NON .... Based on the differences in hiatus resolution strategies.

  5. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  6. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  7. Teaching German with TPRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  8. The fox and the cabra: an ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-04-04

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset - a LAN - followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position when code switching, or if the cost of switching overrides these lexico-semantic and sentence context factors. Adult bilinguals read short stories in English containing 8 target words. Targets were nouns or verbs, occurred early or late in a story and were presented alternately in English (non-switch) or Spanish (switch) across different story versions. Overall, switched words elicited larger LAN and LPC amplitude than non-switched words. The N400 amplitude was larger for nouns than verbs, more focal for switches than non-switches, and for early than late nouns but not for early than late verbs. Moreover, an early LPC effect was observed only for switched nouns, but not verbs. Together, this indicates that referential elements (nouns) may be harder to process and integrate than relational elements (verbs) in discourse, and when switched, nouns incur higher integration cost. Word position did not modulate the code switching effects, implying that switching between languages may invoke discourse independent processes.

  9. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  10. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Kunene Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012. The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC, noun production (NP, predicate comprehension (PC, and predicate production (PP. Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1 test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2 test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3 present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  11. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Ahmed, Saaliha

    2016-07-28

    This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG) developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012). The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC), noun production (NP), predicate comprehension (PC), and predicate production (PP). Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1) test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2) test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3) present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  12. Extraction of V-N-Collocations from Text Corpora A Feasibility Study for German

    CERN Document Server

    Breidt, E

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of a statistical approach suggested by Church et al. (1991) is evaluated for the extraction of verb-noun (V-N) collocations from German text corpora. Some problematic issues of that method arising from properties of the German language are discussed and various modifications of the method are considered that might improve extraction results for German. The precision and recall of all variant methods is evaluated for V-N collocations containing support verbs, and the consequences for further work on the extraction of collocations from German corpora are discussed. With a sufficiently large corpus (>= 6 mio. word-tokens), the average error rate of wrong extractions can be reduced to 2.2% (97.8% precision) with the most restrictive method, however with a loss in data of almost 50% compared to a less restrictive method with still 87.6% precision. Depending on the goal to be achieved, emphasis can be put on a high recall for lexicographic purposes or on high precision for automatic lexical acquisiti...

  13. Rated age-of-acquisition norms for over 3,200 German words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Julia M H; Davies, Robert; Connelly, Vincent

    2016-03-04

    Words that have been learned early in life are responded to faster than words that have been acquired later. Subjective ratings of acquisition ages have been successfully employed to study the effect of age of acquisition (AoA). Although a large number of norms exist in many languages, fewer are available for German. Therefore, subjective AoA ratings for 3,259 German words were collected online, including 2,363 nouns and 473 verbs. These words were presented in lists of 140 words, and participants rated the age in years at which they had first learned each word. A split-half correlation testified to a high internal reliability. There were also high correlations with rated AoA values for subsets of the items that had been collected in previous studies, in both German and English. Age and gender were found to influence the ratings very weakly, in that older and male participants tended to give slightly higher age ratings. Education, multilingualism, and frequent usage of languages other than German did not exert an influence on the rating values. These new ratings will extend the currently existing norms available for language and reading research across languages and will provide researchers with a wider choice of word stimuli. The ratings are available expressed in two measurements: age in years, and AoA rated on a 7-point Likert scale.

  14. German cancer statistics 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background For years the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) has been annually pooling and reviewing the data from the German population-based cancer registries and evaluating them together with the cause-of-death statistics provided by the statistical offices. Traditionally, the RKI periodically estimates the number of new cancer cases in Germany on the basis of the available data from the regional cancer registries in which registration is complete; this figure, in turn, forms the basis fo...

  15. An image is worth a thousand words: why nouns tend to dominate verbs in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g., Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek, & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage nouns have is not a function of grammatical form class but rather related to a word's imageability. Here, word imageability ratings and form class (nouns and verbs) were correlated with age of acquisition according to the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) (Fenson et al., 1994). CDI age of acquisition was negatively correlated with words' imageability ratings. Further, a word's imageability contributes to the variance of the word's age of acquisition above and beyond form class, suggesting that at the beginning of word learning, imageability might be a driving factor.

  16. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    53 msec longer than single noun (1W) production. Waveform amplitude and topographic analyses carried out on stimulus- and response-aligned ERPs indicated that the two conditions differed in a late time-window, with a topographic pattern for 2W lasting from 300 to 480 msec after picture presentation......The present study builds upon findings from event-related potential (ERP) studies of single word production in order to shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the production of dual-word adjective-noun phrases (NPs). In a first experiment, we tested for potential differences elicited by visual...... stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...

  17. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Luna

    2005-01-01

    This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land by Karel Schoeman...

  18. Imageability of Norwegian nouns, verbs and adjectives in a cross-linguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an inverse relation between frequency and imageability. A more surprising finding is the low imageability of low-frequency verbs. Also, imageability ratings increase systematically and significantly with informant age, reminding us that conceptual learning continues and changes throughout life. This has consequences for our expectations of different linguistic skills in a life span perspective. These findings have an obvious clinical relevance both for choice of items in test construction, for evaluation of performance in clinical groups and for development of therapy material.

  19. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has...... no naturally occurring true quantifiers, suggesting that noun phrases in Hueyapan Nahuatl are adjuncts rather than actual arguments. These findings are contrasted with those of an earlier study by Jeffrey MacSwan, who concludes that Nahuatl syntax has relatively fixed subject-verb-object word order....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  20. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  1. Challenges in Translation of Proper Nouns: A Case Study in Persian Translation of George Orwell’s Animal Farm

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    Mojtaba Askari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the important problems in translation field will be Translation of Proper Nouns. This is an arduous task in Translation Studies to convey the main essence of the nouns amongst cultures. This is somehow due to the fact that every culture has its own system of rendering of proper nouns. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards & Schmidt, 2002, p.429 defines the proper name as "a name which is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns have disparate allusions such as age, sex, specific connotations, and geographical regions. This study scrutinized two major translations of Animal Farm of George Orwell. The first rendering is pertained to Amirshahi (2010 and the second one Firuzbakht (1988. Finally, this study seeks to investigate the translation procedures of proper nouns in accordance with Newmark and Vermeer’s (Skopos theories of translation. This study shows that Newmark mostly peruses proper noun artificially to saturate the taste of the reader. While, Vermeer sets up the mutual agreement between the reader as the client and the translator in this process.

  2. The Effect of Caretakers’ Frequency and Positional Saliency on Noun Bias in Persian Children: A Study on Child Language Development

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    Hassan Soleimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noun bias in children’s early vocabulary development is a long-held belief. The present study intended to examine the correlation between the input features like frequency and positional saliency in infant-directed speech and the noun bias characteristic of infants in their early child lexical development. To this purpose, the utterances of ten Persian children aged 1;4 and their caretakers at a kindergarten in Isfahan, Iran, were transcribed for twelve sessions. Persian language with its SOV order that gives much importance to verbs compared to nouns can make noun bias hypothesis of infants unstable. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between the frequency of nouns and verbs in Persian caretakers’ utterances and the lexical development of children on age of 1;4. The transcriptions also identified a significant noun bias in the utterances of Persian children. Therefore, the lexical items in adult utterances can predict the initial lexical repertoire of infants. It can be inferred that nurture and the utterances heard by children might play a significant role in child vocabulary development.   

  3. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

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    Violaine eMichel Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favour a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-noun phrases may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal. Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers´ production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initialising participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-noun phrases: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  4. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  5. Automatic extraction of syntactic patterns for dependency parsing in noun phrase chunks

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    Mihaela Colhon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a method for automatic extraction of syntactic patterns that are used to develop a dependency parsing method. The patterns have been extracted from a corpus automatically annotated for tokens, sentences’ borders, parts of speech and noun phrases, and manually annotated for dependency relations between words. The evaluation shows promising results in the case of an order-free language.

  6. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of noun and verb differences in ventral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests a probabilistic relationship exists between the phonological/orthographic form of a word and its lexical-syntactic category (specifically nouns vs. verbs) such that syntactic prediction may elicit form-based estimates in sensory cortex. We tested this hypothesis by conducting multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data from early visual cortex (EVC), left ventral temporal (VT) cortex, and a subregion of the latter - the left mid fusiform gyrus (mid FG), sometimes called the "visual word form area." Crucially, we examined only those volumes sampled when subjects were predicting, but not viewing, nouns and verbs. This allowed us to investigate prediction effects in visual areas without any bottom-up orthographic input. We found that voxels in VT and mid FG, but not in EVC, were able to classify noun-predictive trials vs. verb-predictive trials in sentence contexts, suggesting that sentence-level predictions are sufficient to generate word form-based estimates in visual areas.

  7. Learning language from the input: why innate constraints can't explain noun compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody

    2011-02-01

    Do the production and interpretation of patterns of plural forms in noun-noun compounds reveal the workings of innate constraints that govern morphological processing? The results of previous studies on compounding have been taken to support a number of important theoretical claims: first, that there are fundamental differences in the way that children and adults learn and process regular and irregular plurals, second, that these differences reflect formal constraints that govern the way the way regular and irregular plurals are processed in language, and third, that these constraints are unlikely to be the product of learning. In a series of seven experiments, we critically assess the evidence that is cited in support of these arguments. The results of our experiments provide little support for the idea that substantively different factors govern the patterns of acquisition, production and interpretation patterns of regular and irregular plural forms in compounds. Once frequency differences between regular and irregular plurals are accounted for, we find no evidence of any qualitative difference in the patterns of interpretation and production of regular and irregular plural nouns in compounds, in either adults or children. Accordingly, we suggest that the pattern of acquisition of both regular and irregular plurals in compounds is consistent with a simple account, in which children learn the conventions that govern plural compounding using evidence that is readily available in the distribution patterns of adult speech. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design Analysis Rules to Identify Proper Noun from Bengali Sentence for Universal Networking language

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    Md. Syeful Islam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days hundreds of millions of people of almost all levels of education and attitudes from different country communicate with each other for different purposes and perform their jobs on internet or other communication medium using various languages. Not all people know all language; therefore it is very difficult to communicate or works on various languages. In this situation the computer scientist introduce various inter language translation program (Machine translation. UNL is such kind of inter language translation program. One of the major problem of UNL is identified a name from a sentence, which is relatively simple in English language, because such entities start with a capital letter. In Bangla we do not have concept of small or capital letters. Thus we find difficulties in understanding whether a word is a proper noun or not. Here we have proposed analysis rules to identify proper noun from a sentence and established post converter which translate the name entity from Bangla to UNL. The goal is to make possible Bangla sentence conversion to UNL and vice versa. UNL system prove that the theoretical analysis of our proposed system able to identify proper noun from Bangla sentence and produce relative Universal word for UNL.

  9. LACUNAR CONSTRUCTIONS “NOUN+ARTICLE” IN PUBLICIST-ORAL SPEECH OF ENGLISH AND GREEK

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    Fomenko L. N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some interesting facts of Modern English and Greek Grammar and pay our attention to extension of constructions “noun + article” without article in publicist-oral speech, where it should be. Our observations show some phenomena of evolution of system “noun + article”. This article is due to some cases of using articles, which we can’t often find in traditional native and foreign normal grammars. In English Grammar the ellipsis of article meets stylistic and syntax’s requirements. But there isn’t such limitation in Greek Grammar, that’s why on the one hand, we qualify the ellipsis of article as a realization of category determinacyindeterminacy, and on the other hand, we can see the generalization of the meaning of article. Illustrative materials are newspapers’ articles of classical British dialectical English and Dimotiki (oral New Greek.There are not only main rules of articles in periodical and oral speech, but also the meaning of nouns, which we can understand from surrounding context and geographical position, also as a style of periodical publications

  10. Is the adjective distinct from the noun as a grammatical category in biblical Hebrew?

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    Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The adjective is a beleaguered category in biblical Hebrew grammar with many grammars of biblical Hebrew denying that the adjective is a category distinct from substantives. Within a variety of linguistic theories, the status of the adjective as a grammatical category is also debated. Cross-linguistically adjectives exhibit extraordinary variety: in some languages showing similarities to nouns, in others to verbs and in still others to both nouns and verbs. The debate concerning the status of the adjective is mirrored by the broader debate within contemporary linguistics concerning how the issue of grammatical categorisation ought to be approached. In this article, we re-examine the question of whether or not the adjective is a distinct grammatical category from the noun in biblical Hebrew. We approach the question of the status of the adjective as a grammatical category from two perspectives: morphology and syntax.

  11. Semantic markup of nouns and adjectives for the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language

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    Bajlak Ch. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the progress of semantic markup of the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language (ECTTL, which is another stage of adding Tuvan texts to the database and marking up the corpus. ECTTL is a collaborative project by researchers from Tuvan State University (Research and Education Center of Turkic Studies and Department of Information Technologies. Semantic markup of Tuvan lexis will come as a search engine and reference system which will help users find text snippets containing words with desired meanings in ECTTL. The first stage of this process is setting up databases of basic lexemes of Tuvan language. All meaningful lexemes were classified into the following semantic groups: humans, animals, objects, natural objects and phenomena, and abstract concepts. All Tuvan object nouns, as well as both descriptive and relative adjectives, were assigned to one of these lexico-semantic classes. Each class, sub-class and descriptor is tagged in Tuvan, Russian and English; these tags, in turn, will help automatize searching. The databases of meaningful lexemes of Tuvan language will also outline their lexical combinations. The automatized system will contain information on semantic combinations of adjectives with nouns, adverbs with verbs, nouns with verbs, as well as on the combinations which are semantically incompatible.

  12. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  13. Clusters propel German universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The annual publication of a list of the world's top universities by the Times Higher Education newspaper must make grim reading for researchers in Germany. The list, drawn up in partnership with education provider Quacquarelli Symonds, last year included only three German universities in the top 100 - Heidelberg in 57th spot, followed by the Technical University (TU) in Munich (78th) and the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), also in Munich, coming in a lowly 93rd. The US in contrast, has 37 of the top 100 universities, while the UK boasts 17.

  14. The German Humpback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We......Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...

  15. Prosodic constraints on inflected words: an area of difficulty for German-speaking children with specific language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Renner, Lena; Domahs, Ulrike

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that morphosyntactic difficulties may result from prosodic problems. We therefore address the interface between inflectional morphology and prosody in typically developing children (TD) and children with SLI by testing whether these groups are sensitive to prosodic constraints that guide plural formation in German. A plural elicitation task was designed consisting of 60 words and 20 pseudowords. The performance of 14 German-speaking children with SLI (mean age 7.5) was compared to age-matched controls and to younger children matched for productive vocabulary. TD children performed significantly better than children with SLI. Error analyses revealed that children with SLI produced more forms that did not meet the optimal shape of a noun plural. Beyond the fact that children with SLI have deficits in plural marking, the findings suggest that they also show reduced sensitivity to prosodic requirements. In other words, the prosodic structure of inflected words seems to be vulnerable in children with SLI.

  16. Germanic-Slavic Hybrid Names in the East German Toponymy

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    Karlheinz Hengst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the toponymy of the Eastern part of modern Germany where Slavic and Germanic tribes were in contact during several centuries: in the 7th century the Slavs ousted Germanic tribes from this territory; then, since the early 10th century, the area started being repopulated by the Germans, which led to a Slavic-Germanic bilingualism (by the 13th century the domination of the Germanic population became evident. The author argues that these ethnic and linguistic contacts are reflected in the borrowing of geographic names and terms, as well as in Germanic-Slavic “hybrid” place names that the author proposes to call hybridonyms. The Slavs readily borrowed Old Germanic (“Pre-German” toponyms, the hybridonyms bearing traces of the late Proto-Slavic language. The author thoroughly analyzes a number of hybrid place names (Borgishain, Jenz, Leipzig, Jenzig reducing them to one toponymic type consisting of a Germanic stem and Slavic suffixes. A large part of the paper discusses the terms hybrid and hybridization as applied to place names and seeks to theoretically substantiate the term hybridonym.

  17. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

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    Dr. Reza Nilipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairment in naming actions (Producing verbs is reported in non-fluent aphasic patients, with lesions involving left frontal lobe, whereas a selective in naming objects (Producing nouns has been observed in amnesic patients, with lesions involving the temporal lobe and the temporal lobe and the posterior association aresas. This research is a theoretical and fundamental based on descriptive and analytical method. The aphasic data in this research were obtained by assessing each patient's aphasic symptoms using a standard Persian aphasia test (Paradis, Nilipoure, Paribakht, 1989 as well as post-test analysis of each patient' connected descriptive speech. The subjects were selected form among aphasics who referred to speech therapy centers in Tehran during a pe5iod of one year since autumn 1999. The subjects selected in the study were a homogenous group with left hemisphere lesions due to CVA. They were educated adult right handed. Speakers of Persian without any risk factor such as nicotine, alcohol or any addiction and diabetes with no gross depression or anxiety problems or face and oral paralysis and hemiaopsia. The subjects in this study comprised to adults ranging between 33 and 76 years of age. The results indicated that there are significant correlation between: 1 The production of nouns and left hemisphere lesion. 2 The production of verbs and left hemisphere lesion. 3 Brain lesion and language deficits. 4 The site of lesion and language abilities

  18. Parallel readout of two-element CdZnTe detectors with real-time digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Zhubin; Wang Linjun; Qin Kaifeng; Min Jiahua; Zhang Jijun; Liang Xiaoyan; Huang Jian; Tang Ke; Xia Yiben, E-mail: ljwang@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Readout electronics, especially digital electronics, for two-element CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in parallel are developed. The preliminary results show the detection efficiency of the two-element CZT detectors in parallel with analog electronics is as many as 1.8 and 2.1 times the single ones, and the energy resolution (FWHM) is limited by that of the single one by the means of analog electronics. However, the digital method for signal processing will be sufficiently better by contrast with an analog method especially in energy resolution. The energy resolution by the means of digital electronics can be improved by about 26.67%, compared to that only with analog electronics, while their detection efficiency is almost the same. The cause for this difference is also discussed. (semiconductor devices)

  19. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Parallel readout of two-element CdZnTe detectors with real-time digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubin, Shi; Linjun, Wang; Kaifeng, Qin; Jiahua, Min; Jijun, Zhang; Xiaoyan, Liang; Jian, Huang; Ke, Tang; Yiben, Xia

    2010-12-01

    Readout electronics, especially digital electronics, for two-element CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in parallel are developed. The preliminary results show the detection efficiency of the two-element CZT detectors in parallel with analog electronics is as many as 1.8 and 2.1 times the single ones, and the energy resolution (FWHM) is limited by that of the single one by the means of analog electronics. However, the digital method for signal processing will be sufficiently better by contrast with an analog method especially in energy resolution. The energy resolution by the means of digital electronics can be improved by about 26.67%, compared to that only with analog electronics, while their detection efficiency is almost the same. The cause for this difference is also discussed.

  20. Clustering the lexicon in the brain: a meta-analysis of the neurofunctional evidence on noun and verb processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Davide; Berlingeri, Manuela; Cattinelli, Isabella; Borghese, Nunzio A.; Luzzatti, Claudio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs are functionally independent linguistic entities, it is less clear whether their processing recruits different brain areas. This issue is particularly relevant for those theories of lexical semantics (and, more in general, of cognition) that suggest the embodiment of abstract concepts, i.e., based strongly on perceptual and motoric representations. This paper presents a formal meta-analysis of the neuroimaging evidence on noun and verb processing in order to address this dichotomy more effectively at the anatomical level. We used a hierarchical clustering algorithm that grouped fMRI/PET activation peaks solely on the basis of spatial proximity. Cluster specificity for grammatical class was then tested on the basis of the noun-verb distribution of the activation peaks included in each cluster. Thirty-two clusters were identified: three were associated with nouns across different tasks (in the right inferior temporal gyrus, the left angular gyrus, and the left inferior parietal gyrus); one with verbs across different tasks (in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus); and three showed verb specificity in some tasks and noun specificity in others (in the left and right inferior frontal gyrus and the left insula). These results do not support the popular tenets that verb processing is predominantly based in the left frontal cortex and noun processing relies specifically on temporal regions; nor do they support the idea that verb lexical-semantic representations are heavily based on embodied motoric information. Our findings suggest instead that the cerebral circuits deputed to noun and verb processing lie in close spatial proximity in a wide network including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. The data also indicate a predominant—but not exclusive—left lateralization of the network. PMID:23825451

  1. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian.......Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...

  2. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century.

  3. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  4. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  5. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  6. Are Nouns Learned Before Verbs? Infants Provide Insight into a Longstanding Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra; Fu, Xiaolan; Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin; Geraghty, Kathleen; Song, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-01

    For decades, a spirited debate has existed over whether infants' remarkable capacity to learn words is shaped primarily by universal features of human language or by specific featuers of the particulare native language they are acquiring. A strong focus for this debate has been a well-documented difference in early word learning: Infants' success in learning verbs lags behind their success in learning nouns.. In this review, we articulate both sides of the debate and summarize new cross-linguistic evidence from infants that underscores the role of universal features and begins to clarify the impact of distinctly different languages on early language and conceptual development.

  7. Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition The paper describes a system of lexico-semantic relations proposed for the nominal part of plWordNet 2.0 – the largest Polish wordnet. We briefly introduce a wordnet as a large electronic thesaurus. We discuss sixteen nominal relations together with many sub-types proposed for plWordNet 2.0. Each relation is based on linguistic intuition and supported by a set of tests which facilitate its identification. There are two main groups: pure lexico-semantic relations and semantic-derivational relations.

  8. Children's acquisition of nouns and verbs in Italian: contrasting the roles of frequency and positional salience in maternal language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this issue in a sample of twenty-six mother-child dyads whose spontaneous conversations were recorded, transcribed, and coded at 1;4 and 1;8. The percentages of nouns occurring in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4 predicted children's production of noun types at 1;8. For verbs, children's growth rates were positively predicted by the percentages of input verbs occurring in utterance-initial position, but negatively predicted by the percentages of verbs located in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4. These findings clearly illustrate that the effects of positional salience vary across lexical categories.

  9. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  10. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  11. Early lexical development in German: a study on vocabulary growth and vocabulary composition during the second and third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Hofmeister, Christoph

    2002-11-01

    This paper focuses on aspects of early lexical acquisition in German. There have been conflicting results in the literature concerning both the pattern of vocabulary growth and the composition of the early lexicon. Our study describes the development of various categories of words and questions the preponderance of nouns in spontaneous speech. 32 children were studied longitudinally through recordings made at age 1;1, 1;3, 1;9 and 3;0. The following properties of the data were investigated: vocabulary size in relation to age, frequency of word use, and distribution of word categories. The results show that use of both types and tokens increases with time. A trend analysis indicates an exponential increase in vocabulary production in the second year, followed by a further expansion. This vocabulary spurt-like pattern can be observed in the use of word types and tokens. The findings in regard to vocabulary composition illustrate the dynamics present in the development of word categories. In the beginning, children use mostly relational words, personal-social words and some onomatopoeic terms. These categories are gradually complemented with nouns, verbs, function words and other words so that we see a balanced lexicon by 3;0. Trend analyses clarify characteristic developmental patterns in regard to certain word categories. Our spontaneous speech data does not support a strong noun-bias hypothesis.

  12. Remembering more nouns than verbs in lists of foreign-language words as an indicator of syntactic phonetic symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayr, A; Gözütok, M; Gust, J

    2001-12-01

    In lists with words from languages not known to the subjects (students of the University of Essen, Germany, and in one experiment Polish teachers in North Poland), nouns were remembered more often than verbs, and the effect was not dependent on the length of the words. The effect was clearer with languages with a strong (Swahili) or medium (Hungarian, Turkish) tendency to marcation and less with languages with a tendency for weak marcation (Japanese). We interpreted this effect as influenced by syntactic phonetic symbolism, assuming there is a phonologic and prosodic difference between nouns and verbs.

  13. Towards the study of color naming in Portuguese: structure and meaning of constructed nouns and adjectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Correia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Color naming is a central study subject in Lexicology, although its systematic morphological description in Portuguese is still lacking. In this study we describe the morphological and semantic aspects of complex nouns and adjectives constructed on the basis of the basic color terms from the Portuguese language. We focus on a description of the internal structure of these complex words, as well as on aspects concerning the productivity of the morphological processes, and attempt to associate those aspects with the referential capacities of the studied words. Lexicographical data were used, collected from the Vocabulário Ortográfico do Português, and the theoretical framework of this research is SILEX’s constructional model of Morphology. We verified that suffixation is the most productive process, followed by composition. Prefixation is rather unproductive. There are differences in the way that derived nouns and adjectives, on the one hand, and compounds, on the other, may name color tones and degrees of saturation. Derived words give rise to the naming of tones in a very imprecise manner, while compounds are much more effective and precise in the way they may name them, and composition is the most efficient resource available to denote degrees of brightness.

  14. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

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    Juliet Obhajajie Inegbedion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the 78,555 registered students in all the 61 Study Centres of the University at the time of the study formed the population; out of which 3,060 students were sampled. The questionnaire instrument is the Institutional Internal QA Tools and Instrument developed by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE as a regulatory mechanism. The data collected were analyzed using simple statistics. The result showed that 66% of the students confirmed that NOUN has published clear policies on the admission and registration of students. About 29.1% of the students were not satisfied with the transparency of the admission process. In conclusion, the study revealed high quality of access and some deficiencies in website and Internet connectivity.

  15. LEXICAL AND DERIVATIONAL PECULIARITIES OF NOUNS WITH FINAL -K(A IN ZAVOLZHSKY DIALECT

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    Shatskaya Marina Fedorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the article go in line with a current linguistic problem – dialectal mapping of the territory of Volgograd region. The language material that constitutes the empirical base of the research was collected during dialectological expeditions in Staropoltavsky district of Volgograd region (the village of Belokamenka, Krasny Yar, Cherebaevo, these dialects are considered to be in the group named zavolzhsky. The identity of the afore mentioned group of dialects is manifested not only on the phonetic and grammar levels, but also in word-formation and lexical peculiarities, the latter two were studied as formal structures of dialectal nouns that belong to various lexico-semantic groups. The following results of the research are generalized in the article: word-building characteristics of the derived words, their derivational base and formants, morphonological processes as occurring during formation of a new nomination (category; every derivational morpheme is characterized with respect to its regularity; cases of semantic derivation are presented. The analysis of non-derivative nouns resulted in their allocation to certain groups of phonetic, morphological or semantic dialectisms. Interpretation of complex cases associated with possible ambiguous interpretations of the processes that contributed to the emergency of a particular unit in the lexical system of the dialect are explained.

  16. Punjabi to Hindi Transliteration System for Proper Nouns Using Hybrid Approach

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    Er.Sahil Malhan ,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The language is an effective medium for the communication that conveys the ideas and expression of the human mind. There are more than 5000 languages in the world for the communication. To know all these languages is not a solution for problems due to the language barrier in communication. In this multilingual world with the huge amount of information exchanged between various regions and in different languages in digitized format, it has become necessary to find an automated process to convert from one language to another. Natural Language Processing (NLP is one of the hot areas of research that explores how computers can be utilizing to understand and manipulate natural language text or speech. In the Proposed system a Hybrid approach to transliterate the proper nouns from Punjabi to Hindi is developed. Hybrid approach in the proposed system is a combination of Direct Mapping, Rule based approach and Statistical Machine Translation approach (SMT. Proposed system is tested on various proper nouns from different domains and accuracy of the proposed system is very good.

  17. Study of Nouns on the Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum(Vol IX)%《上博简(九)》名词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晨

    2014-01-01

    By making an exhaustive study on the nouns of The Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum (Vol IX), all the nouns are classified into normal nouns, proper nouns, nouns for time, nouns of orientation. Meanwhile, an intensive study of the nouns are conducted from grammatical function, multifunction, and flexible application. In the Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum (Vol IX), the proportion of the normal nouns is the most;the monosyllable nouns are more than polysyllabic nouns;few flexible use of the nouns, most of which is changing nouns into verbs.%对《上博简(九)》中的名词进行了穷进性的整理与研究,将全简的名词分为普通名词、专有名词、时间名词、方位名词四类。并从语法功能、兼类、活用等方面对简中的名词进行了更深入的探讨。发现《上博简(九)》中的名词中普通名词的比重最大;单音节名词比重大于多音节名词;名词的活用现象还比较少且多活用为动词。

  18. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  19. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  20. Caregiver Input in English and Korean: Use of Nouns and Verbs in Book-Reading and Toy-Play Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja

    2000-01-01

    Investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their children in two contexts: Book-reading and toy-play. Data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across…

  1. Caregiver input in English and Korean: use of nouns and verbs in book-reading and toy-play contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S

    2000-02-01

    This study investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their one-and-a-half-year-old children in two contexts: book-reading and toy-play. Overall, English-speaking mothers use more nouns than verbs, and focus more on objects than on actions. In contrast, Korean-speaking mothers provide a balanced treatment of nouns and verbs, and focus on objects and actions to a similar degree. A significant context effect indicates that whereas English-speaking mothers emphasize nouns in both contexts, Korean-speaking mothers do so only in the Books context. In the Toys context, they provide more verbs and focus more on actions. These data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across different contexts provide a richer and more accurate account of the variability that can occur across languages and cultures.

  2. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI. PMID:25995529

  3. Error-Driven Pruning of Treebank Grammars for Base Noun Phrase Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cardie, C; Cardie, Claire; Pierce, David

    1998-01-01

    Finding simple, non-recursive, base noun phrases is an important subtask for many natural language processing applications. While previous empirical methods for base NP identification have been rather complex, this paper instead proposes a very simple algorithm that is tailored to the relative simplicity of the task. In particular, we present a corpus-based approach for finding base NPs by matching part-of-speech tag sequences. The training phase of the algorithm is based on two successful techniques: first the base NP grammar is read from a ``treebank'' corpus; then the grammar is improved by selecting rules with high ``benefit'' scores. Using this simple algorithm with a naive heuristic for matching rules, we achieve surprising accuracy in an evaluation on the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal.

  4. Early acquisition of gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase: starting small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed presents some variations in relation to classical studies. The aim was to obtain a large corpus of NP data which would allow different types of analysis of the children's productions to be carried out. Intra-individual variability in early NP types was analyzed and measured, and an elicitation task for adjectives was used. Results show that the acquisition of NP and gender agreement is a complex process which advances as the children gradually integrate different pieces of evidence: phonological, distributional and functional. The reduction of variability as the grammatical process advances is a key feature for its explanation.

  5. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  6. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

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    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  7. The emotion potential of simple sentences: additive or interactive effects of nouns and adjectives?

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    Jana eLüdtke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of studies on affective processes in reading focus on single words. The most robust finding is a processing advantage for positively valenced words, which has been replicated in the rare studies investigating effects of affective features of words during sentence or story comprehension. Here we were interested in how the different valences of words in a sentence influence its processing and supralexical affective evaluation. Using a sentence verification task we investigated how comprehension of simple declarative sentences containing a noun and an adjective depends on the valences of both words. The results are in line with the assumed general processing advantage for positive words. We also observed a clear interaction effect, as can be expected from the affective priming literature: sentences with emotionally congruent words (e.g., The grandpa is clever were verified faster than sentences containing emotionally incongruent words (e.g., The grandpa is lonely. The priming effect was most prominent for sentences with positive words suggesting that both, early processing as well as later meaning integration and situation model construction, is modulated by affective processing. In a second rating task we investigated how the emotion potential of supralexical units depends on word valence. The simplest hypothesis predicts that the supralexical affective structure is a linear combination of the valences of the nouns and adjectives (Bestgen, 1994. Overall, our results do not support this: The observed clear interaction effect on ratings indicate that especially negative adjectives dominated supralexical evaluation, i.e. a sort of negativity bias in sentence evaluation. Future models of sentence processing thus should take interactive affective effects into account.

  8. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  9. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  10. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  11. Das deutsche Adverbialsystem (The German Adverbial System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droescher, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the surface structure of German adverbs proceeding from the standpoint of dependence-valence grammar. On the basis of their meaning, adverbs are classified as modal, temporal and locational. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  13. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    (and why this single prefix-like part may NOT be a particle), - why immobile verbs even include verbs with two prefix-like parts, where each of these are separable particles (as in, e.g., German voranmelden ‘preregister'), - why there is such a great amount of speaker variation as to which verbs...

  14. Design and Analysis of Printed Yagi-Uda Antenna and Two-Element Array for WLAN Applications

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    Cai Run-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A printed director antenna with compact structure is proposed. The antenna is fed by a balanced microstrip-slotline and makes good use of space to reduce feeding network area and the size of antenna. According to the simulation results of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO software, broadband characteristics and directional radiation properties of the antenna are explained. The operating bandwidth is 1.8 GHz–3.5 GHz with reflection coefficient less than −10 dB. Antenna gain in band can achieve 4.5–6.8 dBi, and the overall size of antenna is smaller than 0.34λ0×0.58λ0. Then the antenna is developed to a two-element antenna array, working frequency and relative bandwidth of which are 2.15–2.87 GHz and 28.7%, respectively. Compared with antenna unit, the gain of the antenna array has increased by 2 dB. Thus the proposed antenna has characteristics of compact structure, relatively small size, and wideband, and it can be widely used in PCS/UMTS/WLAN/ WiMAX fields.

  15. Reflexive choice in Dutch and German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Hoeks, John C. J.; Spenader, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Standard Dutch and German have two reflexive forms: a weak form ('zich' in Dutch and 'sich' in German) and a strong form ('zichzelf' in Dutch and 'sich selbst' in German). The choice between the two reflexive forms in Dutch has been explained by the selectional restrictions of the verb, distinguishi

  16. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  17. Are Chinese and German children taxonomic, thematic or shape biased?: Influence of classifiers and cultural contexts

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    Mutsumi eImai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of classifiers on young children’s conceptual structures. For this purpose we studied Mandarin Chinese- and German-speaking three- and five-year-olds on non-lexical classification, novel-noun label extension and inductive inference of novel properties. Some effect of the classifier system was found in Chinese children, but this effect was observed only in a non-lexical categorization task. In the label extension and property generalization tasks, children of the two language groups show strikingly similar behavior. The implications of the results for theories of the relation between language and thought as well as cultural influence on thought are discussed.

  18. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois......, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, English.Here we will only consider the languages that are currently spoken in geographical Europe. Thus Afrikaans, which is spoken in South Africa, and the extinct languages Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian, and Runic will not be taken into account (but see e.g. König & van der...

  19. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  20. What's the difference between 'toilet paper' and 'paper toilet'? French-English bilingual children's crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2002-11-01

    Bilingual acquisition can shed light on the cues children used in acquiring language. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether frequency, ambiguity or language dominance could explain crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns. Crosslinguistic transfer would appear in the form of compound reversals. 25 monolingual English children between the ages of three and four years and 25 age-matched French-English bilingual children were asked to create and indicate their understanding of novel compound nouns. In production, the bilingual children reversed compounds in English more often than the monolingual children but equally often in French and English. In comprehension, there were no differences between groups. These results cannot be explained by any previous explanation of transfer. Implications for the theory of language acquisition are discussed.

  1. Establishing generalized, productive verb-noun phrase usage in a manual language system with moderately handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, G R; Brenn-White, B; Lentz, A; Hodur, P; Egger, D; Frankoff, D

    1982-02-01

    Strategies for producing generalized language skills continue to be of considerable interest to those working with severely language-delayed children. Research on generalized instruction-following suggested that strategies employing linguistic elements (verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.) arranged in systematic combination matrices were successful in producing generalized and novel responses among handicapped children. The efficacy of a training matrix in the development of expressive verb-noun phrase usage was demonstrated. Two of the three students showed considerable gains in trained responses as well as predicted, novel responses, while a third who had much less training, showed some gains. Increases were also found in the overall development of expressive language tests. This approach is discussed in relation to other experimental approaches to language development.

  2. The fox and the cabra: An ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset – a LAN – followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position...

  3. Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a FMRI study of verb generation to heard nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Diamond, J B; Raichle, M E

    2002-12-01

    Literacy for blind people requires learning Braille. Along with others, we have shown that reading Braille activates visual cortex. This includes striate cortex (V1), i.e., banks of calcarine sulcus, and several higher visual areas in lingual, fusiform, cuneus, lateral occipital, inferior temporal, and middle temporal gyri. The spatial extent and magnitude of magnetic resonance (MR) signals in visual cortex is greatest for those who became blind early in life. Individuals who lost sight as adults, and subsequently learned Braille, still exhibited activity in some of the same visual cortex regions, especially V1. These findings suggest these visual cortex regions become adapted to processing tactile information and that this cross-modal neural change might support Braille literacy. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that these regions directly respond to linguistic aspects of a task. Accordingly, language task performance by blind persons should activate the same visual cortex regions regardless of input modality. Specifically, visual cortex activity in blind people ought to arise during a language task involving heard words. Eight early blind, six late blind, and eight sighted subjects were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during covert generation of verbs to heard nouns. The control task was passive listening to indecipherable sounds (reverse words) matched to the nouns in sound intensity, duration, and spectral content. Functional responses were analyzed at the level of individual subjects using methods based on the general linear model and at the group level, using voxel based ANOVA and t-test analyses. Blind and sighted subjects showed comparable activation of language areas in left inferior frontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and left posterior superior temporal gyri. The main distinction was bilateral, left dominant activation of the same visual cortex regions previously noted with Braille reading in all blind subjects. The

  4. Facility management in German hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services.

  5. Interpretation of compound nouns by adolescents with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of phenotypic overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Nick G; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate (i) whether adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism plus Language Impairment (ALI) experience word-formation difficulties, and (ii) whether these two groups present with a similar language phenotype. The study investigated four groups using a 2 (language status) ×2 (autism status) design; adolescents with SLI (n = 14), ALI (n = 16), Autism Language-Typical (ALT; n = 14), and language matched controls (n = 17), with all groups presenting with typical non-verbal skills. Mean age was 14;10. Comprehension of conventional Noun-Noun lexical compounds (e.g., snowman), synthetic compounds (SCs, e.g., cat chaser), and novel root compounds (RCs, e.g., sheep socks), was assessed using a forced-choice picture selection task. The SLI and ALI participants frequently mis-parsed the SCs, interpreting the first noun as the agent. Those with poorer vocabularies and non-word repetition had greater difficulties. Reaction time (RT) profiles were flatter in the ASD groups, with similar RTs across different compounds. Language difficulties in the SLI and ALI groups extend to word-formation processes; for example, comprehension of SCs. This may reflect difficulties making analogies with stored lexical items. Overall the results support the hypothesis of a phenotypic overlap between SLI and ALI.

  6. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    briefly discusses an example of a jack-of-all-trades in Dutch (adnominal PPs with van ‘of’; see Rijkhoff 2009b for a more detailed treatment), then focuses on a one-trick-pony in Danish, the adjective stakkels ‘poor’  (as in Stakkels pige! ‘Poor girl!’), and compares it with its translational counterpart...

  7. 德语与俄语名词的性、数、格比较%Comparison of Gender, Number and Case in German and Russian Nouns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣

    2010-01-01

    德语和俄语的名词都有性、数、格的变化,这对中国广大学习者,尤其初学者可谓是一大难点.对其构成和用法进行比较,理清异同,并用表格加以表达,对学习者会有一定的帮助.

  8. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  9. Variable types for meaning assembly: a logical syntax for generic noun phrases introduced by most

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to compute the meanings associated with sentences with generic noun phrases corresponding to the generalized quantifier most. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can thereafter be interpreted in your favourite models. To do so, we depart significantly from the dominant Fregean view with a single untyped universe. Indeed, our proposal adopts type theory with some hints from Hilbert \\epsilon-calculus (Hilbert, 1922; Avigad and Zach, 2008) and from medieval philosophy, see e.g. de Libera (1993, 1996). Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with ongoing work in lexical semantics (Asher 2011; Bassac et al. 2010; Moot, Pr\\'evot and Retor\\'e 2011). Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class, or a generic element of this class, which is not uttered but provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, ...

  10. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COMPOUND NOUN AND SEMI-COMPOUND NOUN IN TURKEY TURKISH TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİNDE BİRLEŞİK İSİM VE YARI-BİRLEŞİK İSİM ÜZERİNE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR İNCELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Compound nouns are nouns that are formed by two different words that come together by coalescing and taking a fixed form, gaining another meaning from their own. In this study, the semi-compound noun term is proposed for the phrases that are not fixed. After that, the semi-compound nouns are examined in terms of their structure. Then, how phrases establish the semi-compound nouns, passing to word level than phrases level, only by nominalisation, without having a fixed form is determined. After these examinations and identifications, the suffixes and postpositions that the semi-compound nouns have are emphasized. In the conclusion, by adding semi-compound nouns to the classification such as simple, derived and compound nouns a deficiency term and issue is put forward (simple noun, derived noun; compound noun, semi-compound noun. Birleşik isimler, iki farklı sözcüğün bir araya gelerek kendi anlamlarından farklı bir anlam oluşturacak biçimde kaynaşıp kalıplaşmasıyla oluşan isimlerdir. Bu çalışmada birleşik isim dışında kalan, kalıplaşmamış öbek yapıdaki isimler için yarı-birleşik isim terimi önerilmiştir. Daha sonra yarı-birleşik isimler, yapıları bakımından incelenmiş. Sözcük öbeklerinin, öbek düzleminden sözcük düzlemine geçerken, kalıplaşmadan, sadece isimleşerek yarı-birleşik isimleri nasıl kurduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu inceleme ve belirlemelerden sonra yarı-birleşik isimlerin aldıkları ek ve edatlar üzerinde durulmuştur. Sonuçta basit, türemiş ve birleşik isimler şeklindeki sınıflamaya yarı-birleşik isimler de eklenerek eksik kalmış bir terim ve konu ortaya konulmuştur (basit isim, türemiş isim; birleşik isim, yarı-birleşik isim.

  12. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  13. Improving automatic prediction of German lexical stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Petra

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches have regarded German stress to be predictable by localizing the initial stem syllable. Later, Metrical Phonology localized German stress close to the right edge of the stem, depending on the syllable weight. It will be shown that an algorithm based on a polytomous scale of syllable weight rather than a dichotomous one (heavy - light) is well able to predict German lexical stress. However, within the word class of proper names the algorithm fails....

  14. Gyama Bugibugi (German gunpowder) : a history of German presence in Nawuriland, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntewusu, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses general political and economic issues in Nawuriland during and after German colonialism. The paper argues that the legacies of German colonialism are still largely seen and felt in Nawuriland especially in plantation projects, land and chieftaincy.

  15. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    . Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit....... Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....

  16. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  17. The German presence in the western grassfields 1891-1913 : a German colonial account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkwi, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    This book concerns the early years of German colonial rule in Cameroon. It focuses on the North-Western Province. When Cameroon was declared a German protectorate in 1884 a systematic effort was made to penetrate the hinterlands and to impose German rule. The gradual penetration was closely monitore

  18. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  19. Was East German Education a Victim of West German "Colonisation" after Unification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that during German unification reform structures and ideas were not forced on the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Notes that a divided secondary school structure replaced the GDR unified school, but that was by request. Reveals that the East German's well-developed, pre-school education and childcare system was copied by West Germany.…

  20. Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Viktor

    2004-08-01

    Ludolph Brauer (1865-1951) played an influential role in the history of aviation medicine in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles had put a stop to the development of German aviation and associated medical activities at the end of World War I. Brauer deserves credit for restarting civilian aviation medicine in Germany in the 1920s, paving the way for it to flourish in the 1930s. As Medical Director of the Hamburg-Eppendorf General Hospital, Brauer established the first German Institute of Aviation Medicine (GIAM) in 1927 in affiliation with the Tuberculosis Research Institute with its two large pneumatic chambers. The GIAM was active in altitude research and the selection of pilots, as well as educating medical students in aviation medicine, training Aviation Medical Examiners, and exploring clinical applications of hypobaric and climatic therapy. Brauer was forced to retire in 1934 for political reasons as the GIAM came under the influence of the military; in 1939 it was made part of the Aeromedical Research Institute of the "Reichsluftfahrt" Ministry. Brauer was a co-editor of the journal Luftfahrtmedizin in the 1930s and 1940s. He died in Munich on November 25th, 1951.

  1. Semantic memory: Nouns and action verbs in cognitively unimpaired individuals and frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the instruments to evaluate semantic memory, the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT and the Kissing and Dancing (KDT tests are widely used but none have a performance referential for cognitively normal and impaired Brazilian populations. Objective: [A] To study these two tests in a sample of young healthy Brazilian individuals living in São Paulo; [B] To apply the results to the evaluation of two cases diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Methods: We evaluated 50 normal participants (41 females and 9 males aged between 20-63 years, with schooling level of 14-20 years. In addition, two individuals diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration were examined, one with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and the other with semantic dementia. Results: On the two tests, no effects of age, gender and schooling on the performance of normal individuals were observed. According to the performance of the sample of controls, scores below 46 points on the PPT and below 47 on the KDT are suggestive of deficits in semantic memory. The analyses of both cases indicated double dissociation in establishing associations between nouns and action verbs. Although the two patients had low scores on both tests, the patient with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia performed better on the PPT compared to the KDT, while the patient with semantic dementia showed the reverse, performing better on the KDT. Conclusion: The PPT and KDT are suitable tests for use in the Brazilian population, with minimal need for adjustments. They are applicable tools both for cognitive assessment and research in semantic memory. In the present study, we obtained representative values of performance for cognitively unimpaired individuals and demonstrated the utility of these instruments for cognitive assessment of patients with FTLD.

  2. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  3. 汉语中的“名词串”句子研究%Study of "Noun String Sentences" in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶书琼

    2012-01-01

    汉语中存在着一类特殊的句式现象———"名词串"句子:句中没有动词性成分,而且完全由名词或名词性成分构成。通过简约性分析、认知分析和语境依赖性分析等三个方面的研究,并依据简约性原则、认知理论和语境理论论证其在语义解读上的可行性,继而通过观察、分析和比较,认为"名词串"句子在理解上最重要的依据是"语境(context)"。%In Chinese language exists a special sentence pattern——"noun string sentence": the sentences are composed of noun or noun phrases without verbs.The study explains noun string sentences from three aspects: parsimony principle analysis,cognitive analysis and context-dependent analysis.According to the parsimony principle,the cognitive theory and the context theory,the article demonstrates its feasibility in semantic interpretation,followed by an analysis and comparison of observation and suggests that the understanding of noun string sentences primarily depend on context.

  4. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  5. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    and with the Soviet Union, SPD Chancellor i Brandt sought to engage in dialogue with the east, by a;cepting the legitimacy of the German Democratic...the changing circumstances was the German People’s Union (DVM). Founded by Dr. Gerhard Frey in 1971, the original DVU remained a non-party organization

  6. The Role of German in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  7. 'German Angst' vs 'Danish Easy Going'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    national lines. Whereas insecurity and its related fear and anxiety played a huge role in the German interviews (‘German Angst’), the Danish freelancers attached less importance to the topic of insecurity and showed almost no sign of related anxiety (‘Danish Easy-going’). Some reasons for this can be found...

  8. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation ... The German occupation of France in May 1940 provided the BdU with an ...... trawlers had to protect an average of 38 convoys which operated in South ...

  9. The German Passive: Analysis and Teaching Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes an analysis of German passive based upon internal structure rather than translation conventions from Latin and Greek. Claims that this approach leads to a description of the perfect participle as an adjectival complement, which eliminates the classification of a passive voice for German and simplifies the learning task. (MES)

  10. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  11. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  12. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  13. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  14. Bloomfield as a Teacher of Elementary German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Helga

    This paper describes Leondard Bloomfield's contributions to the description and instruction of German. Bloomfield's approach is reflected in this textbook "First German Book" which appeared in 1923 and was revised in 1928. The organization and structure of the text are described here in detail, and the differences between the first and…

  15. THE NONSTATIONARITY OF GERMAN AGGREGATE OUTPUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZELHORST, D; DEHAAN, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the stationarity of German per capita output for the period 1870-1989 is examined, using both a parametric and a non-parametric approach. The standard unit root tests and the scaled variogram suggest that German output is not stationary. Following the approach suggested by Perron (1989

  16. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  17. The Translation of Loans: Anglicisms in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Katharina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the existence of anglicisms in German as a problem for the practice and teaching of translation, in which attention must be paid to the status of loans in the German linguistic and social system. Offers an approach to the translation of transparent anglicisms and proposes a method of translation. (SR)

  18. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  19. A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis of Noun of Human Foot%人体器官名词“足”的认知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      在特定的语境下,名词通常会发生词类转变并产生意义转变。试图运用认知语言学的突显理论,对古汉语中人体器官名词“足”在动化及意义转变方面进行认知分析,为“足”字的准确理解和正确运用提供认知依据。%Nouns usually produce conversion and generate meaning shift in specific contexts. This paper attempts to apply the theory of cognitive prominence to analyze the noun of human foot and finds that it generates verbalization and meaning shift in ancient Chinese texts so that the paper can shed light on the proper use of this noun.

  20. German Lieder: Songs for Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apel, Andrea M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available My research identifies German Lieder composed specifically for female singers. Female-specific songs were determined through textual analysis of the solo works from four influential composers of this era, Franz Schubert (1797-1828, and Hugo Wolf (1860-1903. Research methods include existing data, biographical studies, sociological studies, and performance practice. Also, personal study and performance through a public solo recital of female-specific works gave me an opportunity to sing Frauenliebe und-leben by Robert Schumann, Rat einer Alten by Hugo Wolf, Madchenlied by Johannes Brahms, and Gretchen am Spinnrade by Franz Schubert for the first time. These works are discussed in detail. For further reference, an appendix is provided of female-specific lieder from the selected composers, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and Wolf.

  1. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  2. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  3. Training of gender assignment with Turkish children acquiring German as a second language: Psycholinguistic underpinnings and results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Glaser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkish children acquiring German as a second language often show serious difficulties with the assignment of nouns to their grammatical gender (masculine, feminine or neuter, a linguistic category which is completely absent in Turkish. Because in gender marking languages like German, this category might serve as an important clue for lexical retrieval and for the analysis of phrase-, sentenceand text-structure, a deficit of gender assignment skills might constitute an essential obstacle to an improvement of a broad range of other language processing skills. However, empirically evaluated and psycho-linguistically substantiated educational methods stimulating and supporting the development of the gender processing system are largely missing in German speaking countries. In the present paper it is aimed to make first steps towards such an evidence- and theory-based educational methodology. At first, recent theories and empirical findings concerning gender processing and gender acquisition are outlined. Thereafter, two different training methods derived from these theoretical considerations are described as well as the impact of the two approaches on the gender assignment skills of eight Turkish children whose age ranged between 6,9 and 11,1 years. Most of the children profited from one or both of the training methods. However, even though the children were selected to build a largely homogeneous sample, the outcome of the training clearly differed from case to case. Consequences for further investigations on gender assignment skills at the interface between special educational and psycholinguistic research are discussed.

  4. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  5. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security", while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream". All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  6. Študentje, škratje and nadškofje. Ending -je in nominative plural in nouns of the first masculine declension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Arhar Holdt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the phenomena found in conjugation and declension in the Slovene language are alternative inflectional forms. This paper focuses on one such example: certain Slovene masculine nouns in the first declension can be used in nominative plural with two different endings (e.g. študenti or študentje; in English students. While nowadays the majority of these noun forms typically end in -i, the ending -je remains the neutral choice for a small group of nouns. The beginnings of the described variation go back to the 16th century when the standardisation of Slovene took place. However, from the synchronic point of view, it is not entirely clear what determines the choice between the two endings in each case. Language users, motivated to use the ending that is most “suitable” or “correct”, seek guidance in language resources available to them, and sometimes supplement the available information with their own instinct-based “rules”. Namely, the information that one can currently obtain from Slovene reference books contains some inconsistencies – whereas the grammatical description of the problem appears to be rather vague, the prescriptive orthographic dictionary seems to be all the more decisive. This paper introduces new, corpus-based data related to the presented problem. It presents the findings of an analysis that is based on the Gigafida text corpus and is exploring three principal questions: (I which nouns are used with alternative endings -i and -je in contemporary written Slovene, (II what is the distribution of these endings for each specific noun, and (III do the identified nouns reflect any general tendencies about the usage of the endings. The paper concludes with an attempt to bridge the gap between the existing view of the described variation and the new corpus-based findings.

  7. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  8. The Differences between Thai and Indonesian Undergraduates in Pronouncing Plural Nouns and Third Singular Present Verbs due to Progressive Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofa Zakiyatul Muna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation is an important aspect in learning English and it is varied in different area. There are several types of dialect differences in speaking English and geographical dialect is one of them. In pronouncing plural verbs and third singular present verbs in English, the differences are happened. This research investigates the differences between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs with s/es ending. The aim of this research are to find out the differences and similarities between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs and the factors that influence it. The design of this research is case study by investigating Thai and Indonesian undergraduates of IAIN Salatiga in several period of time. Data is collected through documentation and interview. Documentation is conducted by recording respondents’ pronunciation. The recording is analyzed and combined with interview report to answer research problems. From the analysis, it is found that the differences and similarities of Thai and Indonesian undergraduates are substitution and omission of s/es suffix pronunciation. It is influenced by the geographic dialects and the existence of consonants in native language.

  9. Research Notes ~ Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN’s basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and second, by assessing HIV/AIDS strategies and policy framework the University has put in place. An interpretative epistemological stance was used for this study, and a qualitative research involving focus group discussion (FGD and analysis of secondary data was carried out. Results showed that NOUN has identified the impact the epidemic has on the university, although it has yet to institutionalize an HIV/AIDS policy. NOUN’s Draft Service Charter, however, has identified the fight against HIV/AIDS as a core mandate of the University, and the introduction of HIV/AIDS certification programs can be viewed as proactive policies in response to the epidemic. Results of this study are discussed in terms of their relevance to future research and the impact such policy frameworks may have on combating the epidemic, both within the University and the wider community.

  10. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  11. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    easier since German intonation is currently annotated according to different models. To this end, we aim to provide guidelines that are easy to learn. The guidelines were evaluated running an inter-annotator reliability study on three different speech styles (read speech, monologue and dialogue......This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  12. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  13. Positional Expletives in Danish, German, and Yiddish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Stefan; Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with expletives that are inserted into clauses for structural reasons. We will focus on the Germanic languages Danish, German, and Yiddish. In Danish and Yiddish expletives are inserted in preverbal position in certain wh clauses: For Danish such an insertion is necessary when...... to the embedded wh clauses, declarative V2 clauses also allow the insertion of an expletive. In Danish the expletive fills the subject position and is not necessarily fronted. In German and Yiddish the expletive has to occur in fronted position. In contrast to Danish and Yiddish, German does not insert expletives...... in wh clauses. They are inserted only into declarative V2 clauses in order to fulfill the V2 requirement without having to front another constituent. In this paper we try to provide an account that captures the comonnalities between the three languages while being able to account for the differences....

  14. Interdisciplinary German-Language Cultural-Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Meriam M.

    1974-01-01

    The suggested themes, activities and projects presented here evolved from the interdisciplinary advanced German-language-mini-courses at Ridgefield (Connecticut) High School. Many of the activities can be adapted for use at earlier levels. (PP)

  15. The Old Vilnius University Observatory (in German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulaitytė, S.

    The history of the Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory in 1753--1882 is described (in German). The observatory is one of the oldest astronomical institutions in Europe. In 2003 its 250th anniversary was celebrated.

  16. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  17. A German format for pupils’ training

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Every year CERN welcomes thousands of pupils from schools worldwide for a half-day visit to the Laboratory. However, since 2011 about ten selected students from Germany have been given the opportunity to experience CERN in much greater depth. They are fully sponsored by the German Ministry of Education and supported by an organising structure at TU Dresden - the Dresden University of Technology - led by Michael Kobel. It’s an investment that's paying off in Germany.   The German teachers who participated in the “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” project, at CERN last week. “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” is a project that involves 23 German universities, the DESY Laboratory, several schools and, of course, CERN. Launched in 2010 with a contribution from the German Ministry for Science and Research of about 1 million euros over three years, the project has so far involved over 4,000 students and 500 teachers. “Thanks to this project, both pupils...

  18. The German SAVE survey: documentation and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe methodological details of the German SAVE survey and to provide users of SAVE with all necessary information for working with the publicly available SAVE dataset.

  19. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  20. A German Perspective on Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  1. Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2017-04-27

    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  3. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    supporters , but it also undermined the viability of the East German regime and destroyed whatever legitimacy it might have had. 2 1 Thus, just as...continued Soviet military presence in Germany and the creation of a viable Communist East German state. Accordingly, Zhdanov and his supporters were against...socialist state, to recommend to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany to abandon the slogan of the struggle to build socialism . The Central Committee

  4. "I Saw the Madre": Evaluating Predictions about Codeswitched Determiner-Noun Sequences Using Spanish-English and Welsh-English Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jon Russell; Deuchar, Margaret; Couto, M. Carmen Parafita; Quintanilla, Monica Moro

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on intrasentential codeswitching has noted that switches between determiners and their noun complements are frequent in both Spanish-English and Welsh-English data. Two major recent theories of codeswitching, the Matrix Language Frame model and a Minimalist Program approach, make potentially competing predictions regarding the source…

  5. Children's Acquisition of Nouns and Verbs in Italian: Contrasting the Roles of Frequency and Positional Salience in Maternal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this…

  6. The use of nouns and verbs by Japanese children and their caregivers in book-reading and toy-playing contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko; Dale, Philip S; Yamashita, Yukie; Murase, Toshiki; Mahieu, Aki

    2006-02-01

    Japanese provides a valuable contrast for crosslinguistic studies of noun and verb dominance in early child language, and the effect of input on the early lexicon. In this study, 31 Japanese children between 1;0 and 2;0 and their caregivers were recorded in two contexts: joint bookreading and play with toys. Context had the largest effect, as nouns were much more frequent in the book context. Noun dominance was constant across development in the book context, but in the toy context there was a shift away as children developed from single words through the presyntactic stage to the syntactic stage. Caregiver language was verb dominant in a number of respects across development in the toy context, and thus was not closely related to child lexical balance. We conclude that in early lexical development, all children have a conceptual disposition to learn nouns. With vocabulary growth and the emergence of grammar, the proportion of verbs increases substantially, and at this stage properties of the input language may influence development.

  7. Language Use in a "One Parent-One Language" Mandarin-English Bilingual Family: Noun versus Verb Use and Language Mixing Compared to Maternal Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Winsler, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Via naturalistic observations, parent interview, and direct assessments, we examined language proficiency, language use, and differentiation of a 3-year, 4-month-old bilingual child exposed to Mandarin and English via the "one parent-one language" principle. Although noun versus verb dominance has been explored across verb-based…

  8. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  9. Innovation in German Political Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Лисецька, Наталія Григорівна; Lysetska, N. G.; Хайдемейєр, Віра Павлівна; Heidemeyer, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    У статті висвітлено мовні інновації сучасної німецької мови, які є засобами поповнення політичного дискурсу. Розкрито суть поняття "неологізм", виокремлено корпус неологізмів основних концептуальних рядів, проаналізовано їх специфіку та інтерконцептуальні зв’язки. The article studies the language innovations of Modern German which are the means of enriching the political discourse. The notion "neologism" is explained as well as the main conceptual rows are singled out and analyzed their speci...

  10. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on.

  11. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  12. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  13. Using noun phrases for navigating biomedical literature on Pubmed: how many updates are we losing track of?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The "related citations" on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed "related citations." We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper--many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

  14. East German media in transition after reunification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. von Harpe

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issue of how the “post-socialist" civil society of the former GDR can be reconstructed to reduce dependence of the media on the state and on future private ownership, thereby maximising freedom of communication. The media had a powerful impact on the transitional phase following reunification. Before 1989 West German television and radio stations were "windows to the West". After reunification East Germans preferred to have their own newspapers, to watch their own television programmes or to listen to their own radio programmes. There has been some criticism about the quality of the media, but the majority of the contemporary audience is satisfied now. To meet the expectations of their audience the journalists themselves have learned to devote special attention to East German problems. One problem of concern is media concentration. Privatisation entails the danger that monopolising trends in mass media, especially in newspaper publishing, will continue in the new East German Lánder. Deregulation and quality programming offer an opportunity for a major breakthrough and new forms of media organisation and management. The period of acclimatisation following the reunification has, however, been too short for the mass media. Nevertheless, owing to specific characteristics of reunification, the transition East Germans have had to make has been largely successful.

  15. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  16. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  17. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  18. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  19. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural...... productions of such 'intonation questions', two perception experiments were run. Experiment 1 is based on a gating paradigm, which was applied to naturally produced questions and statements. Experiment 11 includes two indirect-identification tasks. Resynthesized stimuli were judged in relation to two context...

  20. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  1. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  2. Testing the Lexical Competence of German in Slovak-German and German(Austrian-Czech/Slovak Adolescent Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallay Jozef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper builds on our previous work in the field of bilingual education and/ or the process of natural bilingualisation of Slovak-German bilinguals in Slovak educational diasporas (educational islands in Austria. Starting point of psycholinguistic testing based on classic American Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test ( PPVT -III in its revised and German version presented in this paper is the thesis of initial lagging behind of linguistic (lexical, grammatical competence level of language L2 of bilingual children from preschool age in relation to various sociolinguistic variables, which, however, with age may, under certain favourable conditions nearly equal competence of monolinguals and in the area of reception of language even exceed it. For testing the reception levels of German mental lexicon we used two approximately equally large groups of respondents in a bilingual secondary grammar school in Bratislava and Vienna. The hypothesis of our research was that bilingual Austrian-Czech/Slovak bilinguals from Austria would achieve significantly better results than the Slovak-German bilinguals from Slovakia. The test results, however, surprisingly disproved our hypothesis and want to contribute to the debate on setting minimum standards of language competence of bilinguals as well as on optimisation of conditions of bilingual or monolingual education of not only Slovaks abroad.

  3. 77 FR 62137 - German-American Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... A Proclamation United by dreams of freedom, opportunity, and better lives for their families... German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of German Americans and...

  4. The perception of the fehmarnbelt connection among german stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann

    This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL....

  5. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  6. The Great War: Ethnic Conflict for Chicago's German-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Liesl K.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the struggles of German-Americans in Chicago, Illinois during World War I. Contends these German-Americans met conflict, hostility, and pressure to compromise and reevaluate their place in Chicago as a result of the war. (BSR)

  7. LINGUISTIC REPRESENTATION OF EVALUATION IN GERMAN-LANGUAGE NETWORK FILM REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aleksandrovna TRUBCHENINOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with linguistic means of evaluation representation in German-language network film review and determines their role in the implementation of the intentional attitude of the text. Film review, being a product of analytical and synthetic processing of a film text, attracts attention of the audience to cinema novelties, helps to form an opinion on the works of cinema art. The pragmatic orientation of this type of media-text is mainly determined by its evaluative component. Evaluation units are presented in all structural and semantic components of film review, they are included in the summary of a film content and form a part of reasoning with its argumentation. Evaluations are the result of re-evaluation as to a film in terms of its compliance with the reviewer’s own scale of values, as well as the standards generally accepted in the given sphere – a set of some or other characteristics. General evaluations qualify a film based on the totality of its properties and, as a rule, they are deduced from partial evaluations. The latter focus on the most significant aspects of a film: the work of the director and the cast of characters, set-dressing for shooting. Evaluations are made actual by means of adjectives, adverbs, compound nouns, case names, as well as wordcombinations and entire utterances. Evaluative predicates are characterized by intensification that is expressed in the semantics of the words and is denoted by affixes and certain lexical units. Metaphors also contribute to strengthening the evaluativity of the text. 

  8. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  9. Recent Developments in German Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Manjon, M.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We contrast the features of the German corporate governance system with those of other systems and discuss the recent regulatory initiatives.For example, the rules on insider trading and anti-trust have been strengthened.The Restructuring Act has been revised to prevent minority shareholders from st

  10. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  11. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  12. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  13. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  14. How to Find Out in: German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  15. German Folk Dances: An Innovative Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Almute

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the incorporation of folk dances into the German curriculum on all instructional levels, from kindergarten to college. Learning and performing folk dances provides students not only with cultural information about foreign countries but also with specific structural features of the foreign language. The teacher can select…

  16. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  17. The Teaching of German: Problems and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Eberhard, Ed.; And Others

    Some 200 journal articles and other writings, selected from foreign language materials and publications from the 1950's and 1960's, are presented in this anthology. It is suggested that two-thirds of the items are relevant to all language instruction and that the remainder are of specific interest to teachers of German. Five major sections…

  18. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children identified? (3)…

  19. Recent Developments in German Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Manjon, M.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We contrast the features of the German corporate governance system with those of other systems and discuss the recent regulatory initiatives.For example, the rules on insider trading and anti-trust have been strengthened.The Restructuring Act has been revised to prevent minority shareholders from

  20. Radical Reform of German Higher Education Imminent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Predictions are made, based on emerging policy and evidence of trends, about likely changes in the German higher education system including changes in funding sources, scope, and timing; faculty incentives to increase workload; changes in program length and graduates' salary levels; promotion of teaching as an occupation; increased labor market…

  1. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  2. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    . Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...

  3. Suicidal ideation in German primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Lowe, B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine suicidal ideation in a sample of German primary care patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 1455 primary care patients who visited 1 of 41 general practitioners (GPs) working at 19 different sites. Suicidal ideation and psychopathology were assesse

  4. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  5. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  6. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  7. How to Find Out in: German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  8. 75 FR 62453 - German-American Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... October 6, 2010, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8580 of October 6, 2010 German-American Day, 2010 By the President of the... shores in search of freedom, opportunity, and the chance at a better life. The German men and women...

  9. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  10. The Herero genocide : German unity, settlers, soldiers, and ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Bechhaus-Gerst, M.; Klein-Arendt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1904 and 1908 imperial German troops committed genocide in German South West Africa, present-day Namibia. African survivors of the war were cruelly treated, placed in camps and put to work as forced labourers. This paper addresses the question of why German soldiers and settlers committed th

  11. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: A multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination-the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)-have been characterized as "semantic hubs" due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in "feature-based" combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts' features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects' ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These findings

  12. Turkey and Turks in the German media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Mora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the prejudices, which have emerged in the historical process, are engraved in the social memory of the nations; conveyed from the past to the future in language, art, literature, history and many other fields; and reproduced via media especially in the periods of crisis.Firstly, Turkish-German relations must be examined in the historical process in order to understand how Turkey and Turks are represented in the German media. Accordingly, Turkish-German relations are also important in terms of drawing a general framework on how the West, which has been preserving its topicality for centuries, sees Turkey.How the subjects and groups are represented in the media texts and what kind of an image are formed in relation with them reveals the social memory of the countries in which the media texts are produced.The prejudices which have emerged in the social memory of the German people in the historical process have an effect in forming the negative image of Turks by being reproduced via active media especially in the periods of crisis. A negative image of Turks is brought forward with the concepts such as human rights violations, fundamentalism, oppression against the women and the minorities, Kurdish-Turkish discrimination and Alawi-Sunni discrimination.German media uses as evidence and tries to emphasize their justness on the publications, photographs and images that take place in the Turkish media in terms of especially the concepts mentioned above.Media texts are dialogues which are formed between the target audience and the narrator who reflects the opinions of the authority elites that are the sources of news. For that reason, representation forms of Turkey and Turks will be associated with the historical prejudices and analyzed with the critical discourse analysis approach in the scope of this study.

  13. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  14. On the Spelling of the Plural of Nouns%名词复数拼法问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹向东

    2012-01-01

    根据词汇学基础理论,英语词汇中名词复数的拼法由于历史原因以及拼读体系与拼写体系的差异,使得名词复数形式的拼读与拼写不尽相同,这给学习名词单复数形式转换带来了一定的困难。本文拟介绍一些可以借鉴的常见复数拼法规则,以便有助于大家学习与实践。%According to the basic theory of vocabulary,the plural of nouns in English vocabulary distinguishes for sake of historical reasons,which makes it difficult for the learning of the transformation from singular form to plural form.This paper introduces some rules that can be referred to,aiming to help English learners' learning and practice.

  15. Be concrete to be comprehended: consistent imageability effects in semantic dementia for nouns, verbs, synonyms and associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy W; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-05-01

    There are two contrasting views on the nature of comprehension impairment in semantic dementia: (a) that it stems from degradation of a pan-modal "hub" that represents core conceptual knowledge or (b) that it results from degradation of modality-specific visual feature knowledge. These theories make divergent predictions regarding comprehension of concrete versus abstract words in the disorder. The visual hypothesis predicts that concrete words should be particularly impaired because they depend heavily on visual information. In contrast, the pan-modal hub hypothesis holds that all types of knowledge are affected but predicts less severe impairment of concrete words because they have richer and more detailed semantic representations than abstract words. We investigated concreteness effects in the comprehension of six SD patients. Across nouns, verbs, synonymous and associative relationships, a clear and consistent pattern emerged: concrete words were always comprehended more successfully than abstract words. These findings extend those of previous studies and suggest that conceptual impairment in SD is not confined to concepts that rely on visual information. Instead, all types of knowledge are affected by the progressive deterioration of modality-invariant representations (required for coherent pan-modal concepts). Concrete words succumb less quickly by virtue of their richer and more detailed semantic representations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  17. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  18. The many possibilities of debating German heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nike van Dam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the volume Debating German Heritage, a special issue of the journal Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi. This issue focuses heritage and art historical knowledge production in relation to nationalism, containing an introduction and six essays on a variety of subjects related to this main theme. The essays each approach heritage practices in the nineteenth century from different a perspective, ranging from canon formation to heritage preservation efforts at theatres of war. This review takes a closer look at each of the essays and studies the main contribution of the volume to the field of art history and heritage scholarship. Overall, this special issue offers interesting insights in the relationship between the dynamics of heritage preservation, art historical scholarship and nationalism from the point of view of Eastern and Central European scholarship with a ‘German connection’. In all, the essays are invariably well researched, often innovative in their approach and pleasant to read.

  19. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  20. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  1. The German Reunification Issue: A Soviet Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Soviet Union is economic. The psychological reason -- West Germany does a special human trade in trying to save fellow Germans from isola- tion behind...in Poland not only compromised Comunism , it also caused ominous cracks in the Soviet bloc. Though Russia has managed to retain the strongest position...forced to make concessions has a fatal psychological flaw. It is true that nations sometimea sacrifice some prestige to avoid war. The Soviets did exactly

  2. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  3. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    evidence of crystallisation after thermal cycling, and is of a low enough loss to realize a fiber laser. The glass stability is demonstrated by...2low-loss fiber can be realized . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Germanate fiber Laser, Fiber Laser, Structured Fiber 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...the profile of bare fibres and the loss value at 630 matches with the spot loss measurement done by Naveed. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  4. The German Army and NATO Strategy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    important topics: * The source and nature of the threat. The enemy had been Ger- man militarism and Hitler . Communism was in the background, but there had... Gibraltar , reaching the area in approximately 210 days.)4 A four-phase campaign was planned, keyed to available capabil- ities and the time needed to...specific means to avoid "blind military obedi- ence," a requirement of the Reichswehr under Hitler . 18 The German experts wanted a mobile defense strategy

  5. Adaptive Reorganization of German Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of major uprisings in Rwanda in 1994, rebels took eleven German hostages. Despite the existence of GSG9 and specially-trained military units like... Congo in 2006, operations in Syria or Libya and a hostage rescue operation somewhere else. 38. Ibid...Special Operations Forces (the Army’s KSK) were founded in 1996 after the events in Rwanda 1994. In 2005, Navy’s Kampfschwimmer also achieved the

  6. The reputation of the German School Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbinati, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor’s thesis is to analyse the reputation of the German School Helsinki among parents, alumni and teachers. The theoretical part covers the definitions of identity, image and reputation from a general viewpoint and offers some details applied to educational institutions. On top of that, what customer satisfaction means from the viewpoint of a school is examined. The emphasis is put on parents and teachers. In the empirical part both quantitative and qualitat...

  7. Explosive Target balances of the German Bundesbank

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Using the recursive unit root test by Phillips et al. (2011) we show that the Target balances of the German Bundesbank have been explosive from the beginning of 2009 to the beginning of 2013. By implementing a full-allotment policy and reducing the required minimum quality of collaterals in October 2008, the European Central Bank (ECB) refinanced credits in the GIIPS countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) to a large extent. Private capital flowed out of the GIIPS countries, an...

  8. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  9. Interaction of oxygen vacancies in yttrium germanates

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Forming a good Ge/dielectric interface is important to improve the electron mobility of a Ge metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. A thin yttrium germanate capping layer can improve the properties of the Ge/GeO 2 system. We employ electronic structure calculations to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies in yttrium-doped GeO 2 and the yttrium germanates Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5. The calculated densities of states indicate that dangling bonds from oxygen vacancies introduce in-gap states, but the system remains insulating. However, yttrium-doped GeO 2 becomes metallic under oxygen deficiency. Y-doped GeO 2, Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5 are calculated to be oxygen substoichiometric under low Fermi energy conditions. The use of yttrium germanates is proposed as a way to effectively passivate the Ge/dielectric interface. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  10. [Propagating outsider methods at German universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, G M

    1993-06-01

    According to the general-even legal-opinion and as I see it myself, the work at universities has to be carried out scientifically. Nevertheless, in the field of medicine it appears that at some German universities scientifically not generally acknowledged methods (outsider methods) are propagated uncritically. The violation of rules of scientific working methods, which obviously does not happen by chance, but rather systematically, can be proved in a number of publications. However, this can neither lead to the conclusion that German medical faculties do not work scientifically in principle, nor should it be regarded as a demand to stop the research into controversial methods of the scientifically not generally acknowledged medicine. In the face of the great number of scientifically not generally acknowledged methods as well as the limited funds and restricted research capacities at German universities, it would be sensible to continue the research only into unconventional methods which base on a plausible theory of effectiveness and where due to the results up to now a certain success can be expected.

  11. Frequency-modulated second elements of two-element alarm calls do not enhance discrimination of callers in three Eurasian ground squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irena SCHNEIDEROV(A)

    2012-01-01

    Alarm calls of the European Spermophilus citellus (EGS),Taurus S.taurensis (TGS) and Anatolian S.xanthoprymnus (AGS) ground squirrels share the same basic structure.They are tonal sounds consisting primarily of two different elements.The first element,often produced without the second element,has limited frequency modulation,while the second element is more frequency modulated.The present study examined whether this frequency-modulated element enhances the individual distinctiveness of calls,allowing calls to be ascribed with greater confidence to individual callers of the three species.Cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA) based on five acoustic parameters of the first element successfully classified calls to correct individuals (EGS:90%,TGS:98%,AGS:96%).Cross-validated DFA based on five acoustic parameters of the second element was also successful in classifications (EGS:88%,TGS:86%,AGS:96%),though discrimination of callers based on parameters of the second versus first element was the same for the AGS,lower for the EGS and significantly lower for the TGS.Cross-validated DFA based on five acoustic parameters of two-element calls also successfully classified calls to correct individuals (EGS:93%,TGS:98%,AGS:97%),though did not improve the extent to which calls could be classified to individuals beyond that based on the first element alone.Thus,the second element does not enhance the individual distinctiveness of calls,but may convey other information such as the location of the caller.

  12. Learning from the Germans? History and Memory in German and European Discourses of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beattie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory appear to be increasingly important to discussions of European values and identity, as exemplified by references to ‘bitter experiences’ and ‘divided pasts’ in the draft EU constitution. The article takes recent suggestions that Europe could learn from German experiences of confronting multiple difficult pasts as its starting point, and considers critically what lessons those German experiences might in fact hold for ‘Europe’. It explores similarities and differences in the two integration contexts and their dominant approaches to, and assumptions about history and public memory. Specifically, it considers debates about the east-west division of the Cold War and about the place of communism and nazism in public memory. Contrary to common assumptions, the article argues that German experiences are not necessarily worth of European emulation.

  13. Valence, arousal, familiarity, concreteness, and imageability ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns in Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S

    2017-01-01

    Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive psychology experiments, for example, in recognition memory studies. In these experiments, it is often desirable to control for the words' psycholinguistic properties because differences in such properties across experimental conditions might introduce undesirable confounds. In order to avoid confounds, studies typically check to see if various affective and lexico-semantic properties are matched across experimental conditions, and so databases that contain values for these properties are needed. While word ratings for these variables exist in English and other European languages, ratings for Chinese words are not comprehensive. In particular, while ratings for single characters exist, ratings for two-character words-which often have different meanings than their constituent characters, are scarce. In this study, ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns were obtained from Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. Affective variables, including valence and arousal, and lexico-semantic variables, including familiarity, concreteness, and imageability, were rated in the study. The words were selected from a film subtitle database containing word frequency information that could be extracted and listed alongside the resulting ratings. Overall, the subjective ratings showed good reliability across all rated dimensions, as well as good reliability within and between the different groups of participants who each rated a subset of the words. Moreover, several well-established relationships between the variables found consistently in other languages were also observed in this study, demonstrating that the ratings are valid. The resulting word database can be used in studies where control for the above psycholinguistic variables is critical to the research design.

  14. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  15. A German colony in Jutland: the evidence of Christian names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In 1760, invited by king Frederik V, immigrants came to Denmark from the southern parts of Germany. Uninhabited moorlands in Jutland needed to be cultivated and the German immigrants were offered a number of inducements to settle in Viborg County. Many of the German immigrants settled in a single...... parish, Frederik’s Parish. Here the German language was used for services in the parish church until 1856. Thereafter German and Danish services alternated, and from 1870 the church language was solely Danish. This investigation shows that in 1801, after about 40 years in Denmark, the immigrants...... Denmark lost the war in 1848-50 against the German States, and Danish nationalism had arisen throughout the country. For this reason the descendants of the German immigrants had a need culturally or politically to show their Danish identity through the names about 20 years before the language...

  16. [Recommendations on classification of German pain treatment services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatowski, R; Maier, C; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Thomm, M; Nilges, P; Kayser, H; Casser, R

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the German chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommendations for German pain treatment services have been developed for the first time. The criteria were based on the IASP recommendations but adapted to the specific German situation. According to the structure and process criteria four different levels of pain treatment services can be distinguished. The aim of the recommendations is to serve as a guide for future development and implementation of pain therapy and quality assurance.

  17. German Market Analysis: Tourist Behavior Research: case Rock and Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Koppalova, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The research problem of this thesis was to identify a potential tourist market segment in Germany for the Finnish company Rock and Lake which provides accommodation and activities. The main objectives of this work were to identify the current trends of a German travel market in selecting vacation destinations, study the attitude of German tourists towards different types of vacations and holiday parameters, analyze German tourist market segmentation and analyze “Rock and Lake’...

  18. On German-Croatian and Italian-Croatian Language Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Glovacki-Bernardi, Zrinjka; Jernej, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Croatia has always been a multilingual environment. The influence of German and Italian was empowered through direct political influence. During the second part of the 18th and in the 19th century native speakers of German and Italian used Croatian as a second language carrying out their duties at work. This bilingualism can tentatively be referred to as bureaucratic bilingualism. Native Croatian speakers used Italian and German as a second language in certain social areas. Suc...

  19. German stock market behavior and the IFO business climate index

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the driving force for German stock market behavior - stock market confidence. By using monthly new VDAX closing prices and a copula-based Markov approach, a proxy for German stock market confidence is derived. It can be shown that confidence responds to expected output changes in terms of differences of the IFO business climate index and to US confidence changes. Furthermore,German stock market behavior seems to be sticky in comparison to the United States and...

  20. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  1. Short Takes: Intelligence-Service Psychology: A German Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Helmut Müller-Enbergs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, four German volumes in the series "Intelligence-Service Psychology" (Nachrichtendienstpsychologie have been published. These volumes generated interest in both the German and non-German speaking communities. It was therefore decided to translate some of the basic articles of the series into English (Litzcke, Müller-Enbergs & Ungerer, 2008, making them accessible to a wider range of readers. This article contains abbreviated versions of the articles in the book.

  2. Colombian-German entrepreneurial and scientific cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettel, Eberhard [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (FEE), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    German and Colombian strategic objectives, strengths and needs suit for a long-lasting cooperation ot mutual advantage in the fields of renewable energy resources (RES), energy efficiency biodiversity, biofuels: Colombia as a country rich of fossil primary energy carriers strives to substitute them by its abundant RES for the supply of electricity, heat (cold) and fuels, set them free for exporting to gain financial revenues for a self-determined technological development. Despite of its for a developing country relatively high technological level an indigenous industry of renewable energy hardly does not exist. Favourable interfaces in many regard prevail too in the energy related science, among others in biotechnology and the brand-new branch of urban agriculture. German middle-class enterprises and scientific institutes dispose of exactly suitable necessary technologies, engineering kow-how of their application and are increasingly obliged to look for foreign markets just in this segment. Joint research, development and implementation, including adapting high technologies to Colombian conditions is welcome to develop advanced knowledge and new applications. By growing cooperation of Latin American countries the chances for joint venturing with Colombian partners in the this market increase. FEE Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (Society for the Promotion of Renewable Energy) as a national network for innovations of enterprises, research institutes and experts has established a strong plexus to market relevant partners in Colombia since 2005, ready for manifold use by German partners in the branches of RES, energy efficiency and biofuels. FEE had been integrated into two Centres of Excellence recognized by the Colombian Research Council COLCIENCIAS. Powerful enterprises and associations signed official Letters of Interest. In first joint projects confidence was created, expertise proved and a reliable basement founded for entrepreneural business

  3. The North German Conductivity Anomaly revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, A.; Houpt, L.; Brasse, H.; Hoffmann, N.

    2011-10-01

    The North German Conductivity Anomaly was detected already in the early years of electromagnetic deep sounding. It refers to the reversal of induction arrows (as a graphical representation of the tipper transfer function, the ratio of vertical to horizontal magnetic field variations) at the northern and southern margins of the North German Basin. In spite of the many experiments carried out so far, its origin has remained ambiguous; explanations encompass a deep-crustal or even mantle source as well as the simple response to deepening of sedimentary sequences in the centre of the basin. Here, we report on modelling of new long-period magnetotelluric data collected along two profiles in NE Germany and S Sweden, with one transect crossing the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone as the main boundary between Precambrian Baltica and the Palaeozoic belts of central Europe. With the exception of a few sites probably influenced by 3-D salt domes, the data allow a 2-D analysis. Resolution is reduced for large depths due to a well-conducting, saline aquifer, extending across the entire basin. The main result is that the reversal of induction arrows can largely be explained by the resistivity contrast between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin fill. Beneath Rügen island, a southward dipping conductor is interpreted to reflect an alum shale layer in Middle Cambrian-Lower Ordovician sediments. Beneath the southern basin, a moderately conductive upper mantle is modelled (although not very well resolved) which may reflect the thinning of the lithosphere as implied by seismic tomography. As the main anomalously inductive effect is primarily explained by the basin edges and numerous other anomalies exist inside the basin, we suggest not using the term 'North German Conductivity Anomaly' any longer.

  4. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  5. Symbolism in Franco-German Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Delori, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    International audience; On September 4th, 2013, French President François Hollande and German President Joachim Gauck visited Oradour-sur-Glane, a French martyr village of the Second World War whose population was massacred by an SS division during the Liberation. During the ceremony, the two heads of state stood together in silent commemoration, holding each other’s hand. By so doing, they reproduced a symbolic gesture which had resonated strongly in 1984, that of President François Mitterra...

  6. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  7. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  8. Fifth French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 2-yearly French-German Conferences on Optimization review the state-of-the-art and the trends in the field. The proceedings of the Fifth Conference include papers on projective methods in linear programming (special session at the conference), nonsmooth optimization, two-level optimization, multiobjective optimization, partial inverse method, variational convergence, Newton type algorithms and flows and on practical applications of optimization. A. Ioffe and J.-Ph. Vial have contributed survey papers on, respectively second order optimality conditions and projective methods in linear programming.

  9. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  10. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur.

  11. Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    1989-07-01

    The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

  12. Visit at the German firm ACCEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The German firm ACCEL Instruments was entrusted both with the construction of the LHC quadrupole magnets themselves, and with their assembly into the cold masses together with various combinations of corrector magnets produced by other European manufacturers. ACCEL Instruments adapted two huge, almost abandoned industry halls to create a brand-new dedicated factory, with all the necessary tooling installed. From mid-2001, engineers and technicians from CERN and CEA-Saclay ensured the technology transfer and the technical follow-up of the fabrication.

  13. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  14. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  15. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  16. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: I German Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Togo during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of the First World War in the German colonies Kamerun, Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA) and Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East AFrica (GEA), see the ASC working papers 117, 118 and 119.

  17. Islamophobia? The German Discussion about Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bötticher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamophobia is a term which is relatively new in the world of social science; it is a neologism. Kofi Annan has warned about it but there is not a clear, undoubted concept to it yet – and it is questionable if there ever will be, especially if one looks into the German controversy about the term. The German discussion is not unique though, and must fall into the pattern of wider, European discussion about the Islamic minority. Prominent figures of Islamic hatred in Europe are for instance Oriana Fallaci and Brigitte Bardot. Against them, there stands a more liberal community that does not want to follow the language of violence and hatred. Two different standpoints are the main poles of discussion. One group wants to use Islamophobia as a concept, the other group opposes the term. In between, there is the scientific concept of Islamophobia that is threatened to be pulverized before it is even fully conceptualized. In the middle position there are also intellectuals known as Islamic reformers who argue that Islamophobia should be replaced by the term Islam-critique.

  18. German Neurology and the 'Third Reich'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Fangerau, Heiner; Karenberg, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of research into the role of German neurology during National Socialism (NS) on the basis of extensive secondary literature and key original sources. As early as 1933, many neurologists and neuroscientists who had been branded as 'non-Aryan' and/or politically persecuted had to leave Germany, were driven to suicide or killed in concentration camps. Two years later, the regulatory merger with the Psychiatrists' Association caused the cautious attempts of the institutionally hampered discipline for autonomy to end in complete failure. At the same time, the implementation of racial-hygienic and eugenic paradigms led to a wider definition of 'hereditary epilepsy' and an increase in sterilizations of patients suffering from epilepsy. Neurological research institutions, such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin-Buch, became involved in the 'euthanasia' program between 1939 and 1945, insofar as they dissected the brains of murdered patients under the guise of 'accompanying research' and, in this way, produced neurological findings. Key Messages: The Nazi state and German neurology provided each other with 'resources' at many levels. After 1945, the professional community showed very little interest in this legacy of neurology in the NS. It was only several generations later that the subject could be approached in an unbiased manner, allowing for comprehensive research projects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. German coal industry faces truth and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson-Smith, N.

    1997-01-01

    The last two years have been ones of momentous change for the German hard coal industry. Up to the end of 1995, the industry operated within the context of politically-based sales regulations. But with a substantial reduction in subsidies after the introduction of the Article Act from January 1, 1996. German hard coal now is in direct competition with imported coal in the power generation sector. The full world market price and dollar exchange rate risks are borne by the mining companies. In an already tight economic environment, the mining companies must now adjust to the new conditions while Germany`s port sector prepares to handle the resulting increase in coal imports. Such increases will be a welcome relief for the ports, however, since most are struggling with decreases in primary bulk traffics with little prospect of a swift upturn. The situation at ports in Hamburg, on the River Weser, at Rostock and in Duisburg is described, together with port development plans. 3 figs.

  20. Structural problems in the German hospital system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukemeyer, M G

    2004-09-01

    The German health care system has been based on the Hospital Financing Act, which the German government introduced in 1972. According to that, the federal states plan hospitals and make investments. The health insurance funds finance the operating costs. But now the Hospital Financing Act is obsolete, because both the health insurance funds and the federal states are in financial trouble and try to avoid the costs, which are nevertheless rising. In order to freeze costs, the legislators have introduced a new remuneration system, called DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups), which will be mandatory from 2007 onwards. In this system, the treatment provided will be coded and remunerated on the basis of the primary diagnosis. Periods of hospitalisation and different remuneration systems will no longer be relevant. Transparency and quality will thus be promoted, and the upshot will be more competition among the hospitals. Hospitals that cannot meet quality standards will lose patients and will ultimately have to close. Other participants in the health care system, such as, for example, nursing staff, physicians, pharmacies, rehabilitaion centres and patients, will also be concerned in many ways. The consequences of the DRGs for the health care system, its future development and possible alternatives are discussed in this article.

  1. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ∼ε/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (Pω), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in Pω, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and Pω differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in Pω of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels.

  2. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  3. Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of German modal particles based on corpora representing Spoken German. The concept of spoken language is discussed with regard to the corpora analyzed and narrowed down in relation to the use of modal particles. In addition, a collection of telephone conversations was scanned into a computer readable file and analyzed using…

  4. Dual Language Learning / Duale Spracherlernung. Learning German through English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fee-Alexandra Haase

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the impact of English in the learning process of the German language exemplified with the example of the second language acquisition process of the German language in the programs of German in the Department of Foreign Languages of the University of Nizwa in Oman. This study focuses on the distinct features of students in Oman learning German as a second language in an institution of higher education in Oman. The contrastive rhetoric of a German – Oman Arabic language contact situation is challenging and a unique field of research, which allows us to study the process of foreign language learning (L2 and the implementation of the culture of the native language L1 (Arabic. The reflection of the L1 culture, the Arab Oman culture, in the language learning process of the L2 language (German will be described, analyzed and discussed aiming the improvement of the L2 learning process. This article investigates into the process of learning German in an Arabic country of native speakers of Arabic from the perspective of the cultural differences of both cultures in terms of their linguistic prepositions.Received: 17/09/2013 / Accepted: 23/11/2013How to reference this articleHaase, F-A. (2014. Dual Language Learning / Duale Spracherlernung. Learning German through English. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 197-216. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.010

  5. German Machine Building: A New Benchmark before World War I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The figure most commonly used as benchmark for the output of machinery before WW I is based on an estimate by the Association of German Machinery Producers (VDMA). It estimated that all German firms in total had sold machines worth 2800 million Marks in 1913.Using a recently detected detailed report

  6. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  7. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  8. German-Dutch Comparison of Factors of Psycholexically Derived Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele; Renner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Two psycholexically based taxonomies of values found in Dutch and in German are compared, and a joint structure is presented. The datasets consisted of self- and other-ratings of 634 participants on 641 Dutch value descriptors and of self- ratings of 456 participants on 496 German value descriptors.

  9. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  10. Black German identities : validating the multidimensional inventory of black identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wandert, T.; Ochsmann, R.; Brug, P.; Chybicka, A.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of a German version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI) in a sample of 170 Black Germans. The internal consistencies of all subscales are at least moderate. The factorial structure of the MIBI, as assessed by principal component

  11. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  12. German financial media's responsiveness to Deutsche Bank's cultural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.

    2015-01-01

    Based on first-order and second-order agenda building theory, this study analyzes the responsiveness of German financial media to frames of the "cultural change" proclaimed in the banking industry, exemplified by Deutsche Bank. Findings suggest a difference between the two major German financial med

  13. The Effects of Lecture Diversity on Germane Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of MOOCs is the way students interact with video lectures. Instruction provided through video lectures should focus on ways to increase germane cognitive load, which directly contributes to learning. One approach that may lead to an increase of germane load may be to use video lectures with diverse forms of media, including…

  14. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  15. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  16. German-Dutch Comparison of Factors of Psycholexically Derived Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele; Renner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Two psycholexically based taxonomies of values found in Dutch and in German are compared, and a joint structure is presented. The datasets consisted of self- and other-ratings of 634 participants on 641 Dutch value descriptors and of self- ratings of 456 participants on 496 German value descriptors.

  17. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 10, German: 7535.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. The content of the course, based on Units 21 and 22 of "A-LM German: Level 2" and "Reading for Meaning," requires mastery of selected…

  18. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 5, German: 7534.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students plan an imaginary shopping trip and visit to the city. Practice in asking directions and discussion of such German customs as a skiing trip and the…

  19. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  20. Business Interests and the Development of the German Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the core of the model of the ‘Bismarckian welfare state’, for which Germany became the prototype. After giving a brief overview of the main characteristics of the German welfare state and its historical origins, the chapter analyses the attitudes of German employers towards the adoption of these four...

  1. The Role of Gene DCDC2 in German Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcke, A.; Weissfuss, J.; Kirsten, H.; Wolfram, G.; Boltze, J.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with a strong genetic component. In a German case-control cohort, we studied the influence of the suspected dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2. For the first time in a German cohort, we describe association of a 2445 basepair deletion, first identified in an American study. Evidence of association for…

  2. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  3. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  4. Experiencing German in the Elementary School: Tapping a Natural Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    1988-01-01

    Elementary school German programs can demonstrate both the value and the accessibility of the German language. Cultural experiences make both the language and the countries in which it is spoken inviting and attractive, and successful elementary programs can overcome old prejudices. (Author/MSE)

  5. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  6. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  7. The Issue of Grammaticalization in Early German Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Carol W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the expression of grammatical categories in German in Turkish and German children attending a bilingual day care center in a multilingual speech community in Berlin is examined. Results indicate no evidence that pragmatic categories precede syntactic ones, but some evidence shows that grammatical markers develop first as…

  8. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirillo, R.

    2009-01-01

    Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988), Giusti (1990) and Shlonsky (1991) in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast

  9. A Heritage Deferred: The German-Americans in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers explores aspects of the lives of German-American immigrants in Minnesota. Part 1, "The Ethnic Experience," consists of the following papers: "Was There a Single German-American Experience?" (Bonney); "The Most Diversified Ethnic Group" (Johnson); "Unraveling the Mystery of…

  10. The Response of Household Saving to the Large Shock of German Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln

    2008-01-01

    German reunification was a large, unexpected shock for East Germans, with different economic consequences for different birth cohorts. Exploiting German reunification as a natural experiment, I analyze the validity of the life-cycle consumption model. In the empirical part, I derive three stylized features concerning the saving behavior of East vs. West Germans in the 1990s: (i) East Germans have higher saving rates than West Germans after reunification, (ii) this East-West gap in saving rate...

  11. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  12. Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  13. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  14. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  15. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  16. [A comparison of East German and West German probands: emotionality and objective personality variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsgen, K D; Kasielke, E; Schmidt, L R; Schwenkmezger, P

    1992-01-01

    Data from a joint research project between the University of Trier and the Humboldt University Berlin of personality dimensions were compared and analyzed. Since Germany was separated for forty years, studies of the general population are necessary in order to yield possible cultural differences. In the present comparison we analyzed personality constructs like anxiety, curiosity, anger and anger expression as well as variables of objective personality tests. The sample from the former western German states contained N = 109 persons. As a basis for comparison, we selected a parallized matched sample (n = 109) from the new eastern German states out of a larger sample (N = 586). The main results were as follows: (1) reliability (consistency) and factor structure of the measures are similar for both samples. This equivalency is the formal prerequisite for a comparison. (2) There are substantial differential effects between eastern and western samples. Wellness as well as emotionality also show different results considerable with regard to age and sex.

  17. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans or = 50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  19. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  20. Long memory in German energy price indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos P. [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Economia e Gestao; Caporale, Guglielmo Maria [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Centre for Empirical Finance; Gil-Alana, Luis A. [Navarra Univ., Pamplona (Spain). Faculty of Economics and Business Administration

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the long-memory properties of German energy price indices (specifically, import and export prices, as well as producer and consumer prices) for hard coal, lignite, mineral oil and natural gas adopting a fractional integration modelling framework. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 2000 to August 2011. The results suggest nonstationary long memory in the series (with orders of integration equal to or higher than 1) when breaks are not allowed for. However, endogenous break tests indicate a single break in all series except for producer prices for lignite for which two breaks are detected. When such breaks are taken into account, and with autocorrelated disturbances, evidence of mean reversion is found in practically all cases.

  1. Challenges for the German Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, C F; Riemer-Hommel, P

    2012-06-01

    The German Health Care System (GHCS) faces many challenges among which an aging population and economic problems are just a few. The GHCS traditionally emphasised equity, universal coverage, ready access, free choice, high numbers of providers and technological equipment; however, real competition among health-care providers and insurance companies is lacking. Mainly in response to demographic changes and economic challenges, health-care reforms have focused on cost containment and to a lesser degree also quality issues. In contrast, generational accounting, priorisation and rationing issues have thus far been completely neglected. The paper discusses three important areas of health care in Germany, namely the funding process, hospital management and ambulatory care, with a focus on cost control mechanisms and quality improving measures as the variables of interest. Health Information Technology (HIT) has been identified as an important quality improvement tool. Health Indicators have been introduced as possible instruments for the priorisation debate.

  2. [Quality of German medical services: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Robbers, J; Lakomek, H-J

    2016-02-01

    In the current draft of the law on the reform of the support structures of hospital provision (German Hospital Structure Law) the future quality of provision is highly significant. Quality assurance measures are mandatory for hospitals. The Federal General Committee was legally charged with developing the relevant quality indicators for structural, procedural and outcome quality that are designed to form the criteria and the basis for planning decisions in the federal states. This involves a paradigm shift in quality assurance measures in hospitals. In the future, subject to the verified quality, this should have an influence on hospital planning, and the funding or regulation of hospital departments should also adhere to this prescribed quality. This review reveals the course of quality or quality assurance measures in medical services in Germany. The status of the institutions responsible for the quality of care in hospitals and the significance of quality indicators are explained.

  3. [Progress in psychogerontology at German universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, U M

    1997-01-01

    The development of psychogerontology in Germany is described. First important publications in the 1950s and basic empirical investigations in the 1960s and 1970s were followed by the foundation of psychogerontological educational programs at the Universities of Kassel, Osnabrück-Vechta, Erlangen-Nuremberg and Heidelberg. With the foundation of the Deutsches Zentrum für Alternsforschung DZFA in 1996, German psychogerontology is now supported in a substantial way. In psychogeronotological research the Max-Planck-Institutions in Berlin and Munich play an influential role. Some major psychogerontological research projects and future developments in research are mentioned. Fundamental characteristics of the psychogerontological educational programs at the Universities of Kassel, Osnabrück, Erlangen-Nuremberg and Heidelberg are presented finally.

  4. Has the export pricing behaviour of German enterprises changed? Empirical evidence from German sectoral prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stahn, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The question as to whether the globalisation-related increase in competitive pressure may have caused the importance of exchange rate pass-through and pricing-to-market for export pricing in Germany to shift since the 1990s is addressed by testing the long-run export pricing behaviour of German enterprises for changes in the impact of its determinants. As globalisation may have affected competitive pressure in individual product markets differently, export pricing is analysed for 11 product c...

  5. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Friedensethik und Sicherheitspolitik: Weißbuch 2006 und die EDK-Friedensdenkschrift 2007 in der Diskussion [Peace ethics and security Policy: White...10. 363 Seibel, “Libyen,” 107; Brockmeier, “Germany and the Intervention in Libya,” 72; Christian Hacke , “Deutschland und der Libyen Konflikt...Kriegsbeteiligung und—verweigerung [German participation and nonparticipation in wars],” 117; Hacke , “Deutschland und der Libyen Konflikt [Germany and the Libyan

  6. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  7. Emergency medical equipment on board German airliners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Picker, Susanne; Böttiger, Bernd W; Gathof, Birgit S

    2014-01-01

    Medical emergencies often occur on commercial airline flights, but valid data on their causes and consequences are rare. Therefore, it is unclear what emergency medical equipment is necessary. Although a minimum standard for medical equipment is defined in regulations, additional material is not standardized and may vary significantly between different airlines. German airlines operating aircrafts with more than 30 seats were selected and interviewed with a 5-page written questionnaire between August 2011 and January 2012. Besides pre-packed and required emergency medical material, drugs, medical devices, and equipment lists were queried. If no reply was received, airlines were contacted another three times by e-mail and/or phone. Descriptive analysis was used for data presentation and interpretation. From a total of 73 German airlines, 58 were excluded from analysis (eg, those not providing passenger transport). Fifteen airlines were contacted and data of 13 airlines were available for analysis (two airlines did not participate). A first aid kit was available on all airlines. Seven airlines reported having a doctor's kit, and another four provided an "emergency medical kit." Four airlines provided an automated external defibrillator (AED)/electrocardiogram (ECG). While six airlines reported providing anesthesia drugs, a laryngoscope, and endotracheal tubes, another four airlines did not provide even a resuscitator bag. One airline did not provide any material for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although the minimal material required according to European aviation regulations is provided by all airlines for medical emergencies, there are significant differences in the provision of additional material. The equipment on most airlines is not sufficient for the treatment of specific emergencies according to published medical guidelines (eg, for CPR or acute myocardial infarction). © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  8. 轮机英语中动作名词的特征与翻译%The Characteristics of Action Noun in Marine Engineering English and its Translation Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘卫群

    2015-01-01

    动作名词是英语中动词名词化的一种体现,被广泛应用于轮机专业英语中.该文分析了动作名词的特征,指出英语动作名词词组形式结构和语义结构不一致是它区别于汉语词组的特征,也是它成为教学难点的原因,并探讨了它的翻译对策.%As one form of verbal nominalization in English,action noun is widely used in marine engineering English.This text makes an attempt to reveal its characteristics,and points out that the phrase of English action noun has different formal structure and semantic structure.This is different from the phrase of Chinese action noun,therefore becomes a block for Chinese students.Translation of phrase of English action noun is also explored.

  9. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  10. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  11. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  12. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  13. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  14. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  15. Psychohistory before Hitler: early military analyses of German national psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendersky, J W

    1988-04-01

    As part of a grandiose post-World War I psychological project to predict the behavior of nations, the U.S. Military Intelligence Division (MID) utilized racial and social psychological theories to explain an alleged problematic German national character. Though unsuccessful, this project has major significance in the history of psychohistory. For the newly discovered MID files reveal that ideas, attitudes, and biases many psychohistorians subsequently identified as manifestations of a peculiar German national character had previously been held by American officers and reputable psychologists. What American analysts would, in 1940, view as symptoms of a maladjusted German mind, their predecessors had, in 1920, considered valid scientific concepts.

  16. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  17. The Burden of History? Civic Education at German Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Händle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The following essay gives an overview of the development of civic education at German schools in the 20th century. This is based on the study of German contributions to the international comparative project "Civic Education" within the scheme of the International Association for Evaluation of Educational achievement (IEA, which were published internationally and by the German project group. Essential empirical findings are taken into account to describe civic education in Germany in an international comparison. This article helps for a better understanding of civic education in Germany under both a historical and comparative perspective.

  18. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  19. German as a foreign language in Britain: the history of German as a 'useful' language since 1600

    OpenAIRE

    McLelland, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    A quarter of a century ago, two essays examined the early history of German as a Foreign Language (GFL) in Britain.2 The present paper revisits the history of GFL at a time of perceived crisis in modern language education, to provide some historical answers to the question “Why learn German?” that may offer a useful context for debates about the status of German in schools and universities and in wider society today.3 Using as primary sources the materials available to learners since 1600, mo...

  20. Losing the Battle for Balanced Bilingualism: The German-American Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Studies the case of a religious group of German immigrants, whose German-American descendants attended German-language parochial schools but received secular instruction in English. Although the situation resulted in English-dominant children rather than the intended German-dominant bilinguals, recent sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and…

  1. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  2. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  3. Light in hellas: how German classical philology engendered gay scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Wayne R

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the latter part of the eighteenth century, German classical philology acquired a hegemonic status that made it the envy of scholars in other nations. Among the tasks embraced by this great endeavor was the study of what is known of same-sex behavior in ancient Greece. Remarkably, the German philologists chose to present their findings straightforwardly in modern German, accessible to every educated reader. The deposit of this inquiry is the basis of our contemporary knowledge of ancient Greek homosexuality. Moreover, by providing models of homosexual behavior that were more positive than those prevalent in Europe at the time, the research fostered the emergence of the German Gay Movement in 1897.

  4. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... child's back. Distribution is similar to that of measles, but the lesions are less intensely red. This ...

  5. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  6. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  7. Traces of Suffix Ablaut in Germanic wō-stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vaan, Michiel; Kroonen, Guus

    2016-01-01

    Many of the jō-stems of Germanic were in fact ī/jō-stems that go back to ablauting iH/ieH-stems of Proto-Indo-European. The Germanic wō-stems go back to PIE uH/ueHstems with parallel ablaut behaviour to the iH/ieH-stems. Whereas the suffix variant in -ū has nowhere been preserved as such in Germa......Many of the jō-stems of Germanic were in fact ī/jō-stems that go back to ablauting iH/ieH-stems of Proto-Indo-European. The Germanic wō-stems go back to PIE uH/ueHstems with parallel ablaut behaviour to the iH/ieH-stems. Whereas the suffix variant in -ū has nowhere been preserved...

  8. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  9. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  10. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  11. Evaluating Automatic Detection of Misspellings in German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rimrott

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available his study investigates the performance of a spell checker designed for native writers on misspellings made by second language (L2 learners. It addresses two research questions: 1 What is the correction rate of a generic spell checker for L2 misspellings? 2 What factors influence the correction rate of a generic spell checker for L2 misspellings? To explore these questions, the study considers a corpus of 1,027 unique misspellings from 48 Anglophone learners of German and classifies these along three error taxonomies: linguistic competence (competence versus performance misspellings, linguistic subsystem (lexical, morphological or phonological misspellings, and target modification (single-edit misspellings (edit distance = one versus multiple-edit misspellings (edit distance > 1. The study then evaluates the performance of the Microsoft Word® spell checker on these misspellings. Results indicate that only 62% of the L2 misspellings are corrected and that the spell checker, independent of other factors, generally cannot correct multiple-edit misspellings although it is quite successful in correcting single-edit errors. In contrast to most misspellings by native writers, many L2 misspellings are multiple-edit errors and are thus not corrected by a spell checker designed for native writers. The study concludes with computational and pedagogical suggestions to enhance spell checking in CALL.

  12. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Speech Act Classification of German Advertising Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the theory of speech acts and the underlying concept of pragmalinguistics to determine the types of speech acts and their classification in the German advertising printed texts. We ascertain that the advertising of cars and accessories, household appliances and computer equipment, watches, fancy goods, food, pharmaceuticals, and financial, insurance, legal services and also airline advertising is dominated by a pragmatic principle, which is based on demonstrating information about the benefits of a product / service. This influences the frequent usage of certain speech acts. The dominant form of exposure is to inform the recipient-user about the characteristics of the advertised product. This information is fore-grounded by means of stylistic and syntactic constructions specific to the advertisement (participial constructions, appositional constructions which contribute to emphasize certain notional components within the framework of the advertising text. Stylistic and syntactic devices of reduction (parceling constructions convey the author's idea. Other means like repetitions, enumerations etc are used by the advertiser to strengthen his selling power. The advertiser focuses the attention of the consumer on the characteristics of the product seeking to convince him of the utility of the product and to influence his/ her buying behavior.

  14. A SUFFIX USED TO FORM COLLECTIVE/FAMILY NOUN IN THE SOME DIALECTS OF TURKISH: +ēNi/+îNi / BAZI TÜRKIYE TÜRKÇESI AĞIZLARINDA TOPLULUK/AILE ADI YAPAN BIR EK: +ēNi / +îNi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Serpil ERSÖZ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two suffixes used to form collective/family nouns: +giland +lAr. These suffixes which also indicates plurality in nouns are used inalmost all dialects of Turkish. This essay’s topic is suffix +ēNi+/+îNi whichis used to form collective/family nouns as +gil and +lAr in some dialects ofTurkish. In this essay, we extrapolate that the form of the suffix +îN(i withclose unrounded vowel is used in dialect of immigrants whereas the form ofthe suffix +ēNi with open unrounded vowel is used in dialects of noimmigrants, of yoruk and some Oguz tribes.

  15. THE GERMANS IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA: PERCEPTION AND TRUST

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    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article attempt, to show how the process of formation of relations between the Cossacks, who moved by the Decree of Catherine II in the southern regions of Russia and arrived in the same region representatives of other peoples in the specific case of the Germans, bound also previously adopted by the Decree of the Queen (1762, as an invited foreigners to Russia. Part of Germans has settled in the black sea (Kuban Cossack troops, arriving from Central Russia and the Volga area. Undoubtedly, in process of settlement were established and relations between the Cossacks and the Germans, allowed for the sharing of experience of farming, cultivation techniques, culture. Contacts developed in terms of relationships that is demonstrated in the confidence and of the perception of the Cossacks and became the Russian Germans. Cossacks married girls from the German colonies. Of course, not without contradictions, frustration, but overall remained prevalent in a relationship consensus. Cossacks with respect and understanding belonged to the Germans expressed an interest in the field of culture the Germans, especially the training of children, youth education, consumer culture. Noteworthy is the fact that the Cossacks and the Germans showed together attention to the construction of roads, improvement of transport communications. All this was caused by a complex landscape of the region of inhabitance and of the Cossacks, and Germans, often the spills happen in Kuban river. Of course, the Germans welcomed the peaceful nature of the relations. The relationship has been continuously improved and filled with new content. The leaders of the German community of Michaelsberg adopt this policy. The head of the community, the Ruhr has always been a supporter of the principle of peaceful coexistence with neighbors and respect for the initiatives of the Cossacks on the arrangement of habitat, speaking at the same time for the trust between the community and

  16. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  17. Several issues influencing the course of German history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Youfa

    2006-01-01

    The course of German history is very sinuous.German national ism,the imbalance of the political and economic development generated by the influence of the historical and cultural traditions,the might of the Junker feudal aristocracy,the weakness of the bourgeoisie,the postwar reeducation of democratization imposed by the western allied powers on Germany,the developed education and technology,etc.are all important factors that in fluenced Germany's history.

  18. Comparing German and Danish employee representatives on European Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicknell, Helen; Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the links and possible‘fit’ between German and Danish representation structures and trade union policies on the one hand, and the views and activities of European Works Council (EWC) representatives from the two countries on the other. Which similarities or differences....... It is concluded that the views and practices of German and Danish EWC representatives largely converge. Those divergent views that are found are explained by differences in national representation structures, union policies and labour market situation....

  19. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  20. 125 years German Meteorological Association; 125 Jahre Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, Gerd [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Meteorologie (LIM); Luedecke, Cornelia [International Commission on History of Meteorology, Muenchen (Germany); Behr, Hein Dieter (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The book includes lectures on the historical development of the German Meteorological Association (Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft DMG) from the year of foundation 1875 until 2005, taking into account the meteorological association in Western Germany (DMG) and in the German Democratic Republic (MG) after World War II, the reunion of DMG and DM. One of the contributions describes the history of the meteorological journal (Meteorologische Zeitschrift).