WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional wave field

  1. Formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets in the field of two standing light waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, MA; Petropavlovsky, SV; Fedorov, MV; Schleich, WP; Yakovlev, VP

    2005-01-01

    The formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets produced in the interaction of a beam of two-level atoms with two standing light waves polarised in the same plane is considered. The mechanism providing a dispersionless particle dynamics is the balance of two processes: a rapid deca

  2. Tunable Lamb wave band gaps in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changjiang; Sai, Yi; Chen, Jiujiu

    2016-09-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the band gaps of Lamb mode waves in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field. With the assumption of uniformly oriented magnetization, an equivalent piezomagnetic material model is used. The effects of magnetostatic field on phononic crystals are considered carefully in this model. The numerical results indicate that the width of the first band gap is significantly changed by applying the external magnetic field with different amplitude, and the ratio between the maximum and minimum gap widths reaches 228%. Further calculations demonstrate that the orientation of the magnetic field obviously affects the width and location of the first band gap. The contactless tunability of the proposed phononic crystal slabs shows many potential applications of vibration isolation in engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Averaged two-dimensional low-frequency wave spectrum of wind waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, A.

    1984-01-01

    This report deals with second order, two-dimensional low frequency waves induced by the non-linear interactions of the first order component waves in a two-dimensional short wave field. The convolution to calculate the averaged two-dimensional low frequency wave spectrum is developed. Any given two-

  4. Large Bi-Polar Signature in a Perpendicular Electric Field of Two-Dimensional Electrostatic Solitary Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection: Statistics and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-You; Zhang, Shi-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) with a large perpendicular component which is a bi-polar waveform structure are observed in the boundary layer within the magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail. Such ESWs are called two-dimensional ESWs. A Singe-reconnection-based-statistical study of two-dimensional ESWs shows that: (1) ESWs can be continuously observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) associated with the magnetic reconnection diffusion region, and their amplitude ranges are mainly from several tens to hundreds of μV/m (2) both one-dimension-like ESWs (very small magnitude on E⊥) and two-dimension-like ESWs (large magnitude on E⊥, which are even comparable to that in the E‖) are observed within a small time interval; (3) within the observation time spans, more than 61% of ESWs are regarded as two-dimensional ESWs for the I2D > 20%. We discuss the bi-polar structure in E⊥. The observation of ESWs with a large bi-polar structure in the perpendicular electric field gives evidence that the unique waveform differs from previous understanding from observations and simulations which suggests that it should be a uni-polar waveform structure in the E⊥ of ESWs.

  5. Efficient computation method for two-dimensional nonlinear waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The theory and simulation of fully-nonlinear waves in a truncated two-dimensional wave tank in time domain are presented. A piston-type wave-maker is used to generate gravity waves into the tank field in finite water depth. A damping zone is added in front of the wave-maker which makes it become one kind of absorbing wave-maker and ensures the prescribed Neumann condition. The efficiency of nmerical tank is further enhanced by installation of a sponge layer beach (SLB) in front of downtank to absorb longer weak waves that leak through the entire wave train front. Assume potential flow, the space- periodic irrotational surface waves can be represented by mixed Euler- Lagrange particles. Solving the integral equation at each time step for new normal velocities, the instantaneous free surface is integrated following time history by use of fourth-order Runge- Kutta method. The double node technique is used to deal with geometric discontinuity at the wave- body intersections. Several precise smoothing methods have been introduced to treat surface point with high curvature. No saw-tooth like instability is observed during the total simulation.The advantage of proposed wave tank has been verified by comparing with linear theoretical solution and other nonlinear results, excellent agreement in the whole range of frequencies of interest has been obtained.

  6. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Farazmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue wave...

  7. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  8. Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.

  9. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metasurfaces: A full-wave study based on two-dimensional grooved metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Dyakov, Sergey A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Yan, Min

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials possess artificial bulk and surface electromagnetic states. Tamed dispersion properties of surface waves allow one to achieve a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer (RHT) process between two closely spaced objects. We numerically demonstrate enhanced RHT between two two-dimensional grooved metal plates by a full-wave scattering approach. The enhancement originates from both transverse-magnetic spoof surface-plasmon polaritons and a series of transverse-electric bonding- and anti-bonding-waveguide modes at surfaces. The RHT spectrum is frequency selective and highly geometrically tailorable. Our simulation also reveals thermally excited nonresonant surface waves in constituent metallic materials may play a prevailing role for RHT at an extremely small separation between two metal plates, rendering metamaterial modes insignificant for the energy-transfer process.

  10. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  11. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  12. Two-dimensional dispersive shock waves in dissipative optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2013-01-01

    We study generation of two-dimensional dispersive shock waves and oblique dark solitons upon interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects embedded into defocusing material with linear gain and two-photon absorption. Different evolution regimes are encountered including the formation of well-localized disturbances for input tilts below critical one, and generation of extended shock waves containing multiple intensity oscillations in the "upstream" region and gradually vanishing oblique dark solitons in "downstream" region for input tilts exceeding critical one. The generation of stable dispersive shock waves is possible only below certain critical defect strength.

  13. Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben Vaarbye

    2006-01-01

    for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower....... The important concept of entropy is introduced. In general, the entropy of a constrained field is not readily computable, but we give a series of upper and lower bounds based on one dimensional techniques. We discuss the use of a Pickard probability model for constrained fields. The novelty lies in using...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....

  14. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazmand, Mohammad; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue waves changes as the spectrum parameters vary, (ii) the computation of a critical length scale characterizing wave groups with high probability of evolving to rogue waves, and (iii) the formulation of a robust and parsimonious reduced-order prediction scheme for large waves. We assess the validity of this scheme in several cases of ocean wave spectra.

  15. Configuration of Shock Waves in Two-Dimensional Overexpanded Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Kashitani; Yutaka Yamaguchi; Yoshiaki Miyazato; Mitsuharu Masuda; Kazuyasu Matsuo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been carried out to obtain the clear understanding of a shock wave transition associated with a steady two-dimensional overexpanded flow. Two-dimensional inviscid theory with respect to a shock wave reflection is used in the present study on the characteristic of shock waves. The results obtained from the flow analysis are compared with those obtained from flow visualizations. It is shown that in the region of regular reflection, the angle of an incident shock wave becomes lower than that calculated by two shock theory with an increment in the ratio pe/pb of the nozzle exit pressure pe to the back pressure pb. It is indicated that the configuration of shock waves in overexpanded jets is influenced by the divergent angle at the nozzle exit. Also it is shown from the flow visualization that a series of shock waves move into the nozzle inside with a decrease in pressure ratio pe/pb, even if the pe/pb is under overexpanded conditions.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  17. Finite amplitude waves in two-dimensional lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniform expansion is obtained for nonlinear wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material consisting of a porous sheet followed by honeycomb cavities and backed by the impervious wall of the duct. The waves in the duct are coupled with those in the porous sheet and the cavities. An analytical expression is obtained for the absorption coefficient in terms of the sound frequency, the physical properties of the porous sheet, and the geometrical parameters of the flow configuration. The results show that the nonlinearity flattens and broadens the absorption vs. frequency curve, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions or the porous material acoustic properties, in agreement with experimental observations.

  18. Extraordinary waves in two dimensional electron gas with separate spin evolution and Coulomb exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamics analysis of waves in two-dimensional degenerate electron gas with the account of separate spin evolution is presented. The transverse electric field is included along with the longitudinal electric field. The Coulomb exchange interaction is included in the analysis. In contrast with the three-dimensional plasma-like mediums the contribution of the transverse electric field is small. We show the decrease of frequency of both the extraordinary (Langmuir) wave and the spin-electron acoustic wave due to the exchange interaction. Moreover, spin-electron acoustic wave has negative dispersion at the relatively large spin-polarization. Corresponding dispersion dependencies are presented and analyzed.

  19. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.

  20. Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2014-09-16

    We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.

  1. WAVE PROPAGATION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED PIEZOELECTRIC PHONONIC CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqiang Li; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto

    2008-01-01

    The wave propagation is studied in two-dimensional disordered piezoelectric phononie crystals using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For different eases of disorder,the transmission coefficients are calculated. The influences of disorders on band gaps are investigated. The results show that the disorder in the piezoelectric phononic crystals has more significant influences on the band gap in the low frequency regions than in the high frequency ones. The relation between the width of band gap and the direction of position disorder is also discussed. When the position disorder is along the direction perpendicular to the wave transmission, the piezoelectric phononic crystals have wider band gaps at low frequency regions than the case of position disorder being along the wave transmission direction. It can also be found that the effect of. size disorder on band gaps is analogous to that of location disorder. When the perturbation coefficient is big, it has more pronounced effects on the pass bands in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with both size and location disorders than in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with single disorder.In higher frequency regions the piezoelectric effect reduces the transmission coefficients. But for larger disorder degree, the effects of the piezoelectricity will be reduced.

  2. Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D

    1991-01-01

    This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.

  3. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi

  4. Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or

  5. Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059

  6. Dynamic patterns in a two-dimensional neural field with refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang; Gong, Pulin

    2015-08-01

    The formation of dynamic patterns such as localized propagating waves is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended systems including neural systems, in which they might play important functional roles. Here we derive a type of two-dimensional neural-field model with refractoriness to study the formation mechanism of localized waves. After comparing this model with existing neural-field models, we show that it is able to generate a variety of localized patterns, including stationary bumps, localized waves rotating along a circular path, and localized waves with longer-range propagation. We construct explicit bump solutions for the two-dimensional neural field and conduct a linear stability analysis on how a stationary bump transitions to a propagating wave under different spatial eigenmode perturbations. The neural-field model is then partially solved in a comoving frame to obtain localized wave solutions, whose spatial profiles are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations. We demonstrate that when there are multiple such propagating waves, they exhibit rich propagation dynamics, including propagation along periodically oscillating and irregular trajectories; these propagation dynamics are quantitatively characterized. In addition, we show that these waves can have repulsive or merging collisions, depending on their collision angles and the refractoriness parameter. Due to its analytical tractability, the two-dimensional neural-field model provides a modeling framework for studying localized propagating waves and their interactions.

  7. VARIATION METHOD FOR ACOUSTIC WAVE IMAGING OF TWO DIMENSIONAL TARGETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文杰; 邹振祝

    2003-01-01

    A new way of acoustic wave imaging was investigated. By using the Green function theory a system of integral equations, which linked wave number perturbation function with wave field, was firstly deduced. By taking variation on these integral equations an inversion equation, which reflected the relation between the little variation of wave number perturbation function and that of scattering field, was further obtained. Finally, the perturbation functions of some identical targets were reconstructed, and some properties of the novel method including converging speed, inversion accuracy and the abilities to resist random noise and identify complex targets were discussed. Results of numerical simulation show that the method based on the variation principle has great theoretical and applicable value to quantitative nondestructive evaluation.

  8. Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  9. Tricritical behavior in a two-dimensional field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamber, Herbert

    1980-05-01

    The critical behavior of a two-dimensional scalar Euclidean field theory with a potential term that allows for three minima is analyzed using an approximate position-space renormalization-group transformation on the equivalent quantum spin Hamiltonian. The global phase diagram shows a tricritical point separating a critical line from a line of first-order transitions. Other critical properties are examined, and good agreement is found with results on classical spin models belonging to the same universality class.

  10. Two-dimensional conformal field theory and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    We study chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional conformal field theory through out-of-time order thermal correlators of the form $\\langle W(t)VW(t)V\\rangle$. We reproduce bulk calculations similar to those of [1], by studying the large $c$ Virasoro identity block. The contribution of this block to the above correlation function begins to decrease exponentially after a delay of $\\sim t_* - \\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log \\beta^2E_w E_v$, where $t_*$ is the scrambling time $\\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log c$, and $E_w,E_v$ are the energy scales of the $W,V$ operators.

  11. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  12. Field analysis of two-dimensional integrated optical gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A rigorous technique to determine the field scattered by a two-dimensional rectangular grating made up of many corrugations was developed. In this method, the grating was deemed as a sequence of two types of waveguide sections, alternatingly connected by step discontinuities. A matrix was derived that described the entire rectangular grating by integrating the separate steps and waveguide sections. With the proposed technique, several configuration were analyzed. The obtained results showed good consistency with the consequences of previous studies. Furthermore, to examine the numerical stability of the proposed method, the length of the grating was increased and obtained results for a grating with 100 periods.

  13. Negative refraction and focusing of electromagnetic wave through two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-dong

    2006-01-01

    The negative refraction of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals was recently demonstrated experimentally,and the physical properties were analyzed.Microsuperlenses based on two-dimensional photonic crystals were designed and the subwavelength images were observed.In this review,after providing a brief history of the research related to the above phenomena,we will summarize our research works in this field including the method of creating a negative refraction region,generating an absolute negative refraction,the focusing of unpolarized electromagnetic waves,and the effect of interface and disorder on the image by the two-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens.The discussion on the negative refraction and the focusing by high symmetric quasicrystals is also presented.

  14. Two-dimensional nonlinear travelling waves in magnetohydrodynamic channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hagan, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the stability of a flow of viscous conducting liquid driven by pressure gradient in the channel between two parallel walls subject to a transverse magnetic field. Although the magnetic field has a strong stabilizing effect, this flow, similarly to its hydrodynamic counterpart -- plane Poiseuille flow, is known to become turbulent significantly below the threshold predicted by linear stability theory. We investigate the effect of the magnetic field on 2D nonlinear travelling-wave states which are found at substantially subcritical Reynolds numbers starting from $Re_n=2939$ without the magnetic field and from $Re_n\\sim6.50\\times10^3Ha$ in a sufficiently strong magnetic field defined by the Hartmann number $Ha.$ Although the latter value is by a factor of seven lower than the linear stability threshold $Re_l\\sim4.83\\times10^4Ha$,it is still more by an order of magnitude higher than the experimentally observed value for the onset of turbulence in this flow.

  15. Spin from defects in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We build two-dimensional quantum field theories on spin surfaces starting from theories on oriented surfaces with networks of topological defect lines and junctions. The construction uses a combinatorial description of the spin structure in terms of a triangulation equipped with extra data. The amplitude for the spin surfaces is defined to be the amplitude for the underlying oriented surface together with a defect network dual to the triangulation. Independence of the triangulation and of the other choices follows if the line defect and junctions are obtained from a Delta-separable Frobenius algebra with involutive Nakayama automorphism in the monoidal category of topological defects. For rational conformal field theory we can give a more explicit description of the defect category, and we work out two examples related to free fermions in detail: the Ising model and the so(n) WZW model at level 1.

  16. Two-dimensional topological superconducting phases emerged from d-wave superconductors in proximity to antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observations of nodeless superconductivity in the monolayer CuO2 grown on the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ substrates, we study the two-dimensional superconducting (SC) phases described by the two-dimensional t\\text-J model in proximity to an antiferromagnetic (AF) insulator. We found that i) the nodal d-wave SC state can be driven via a continuous transition into a nodeless d-wave pairing state by the proximity-induced AF field. ii) The energetically favorable pairing states in the strong field regime have extended s-wave symmetry and can be nodal or nodeless. iii) Between the pure d-wave and s-wave paired phases, there emerge two topologically distinct SC phases with (s+\\text{i}d) symmetry, i.e., the weak and strong pairing phases, and the weak pairing phase is found to be a Z 2 topological superconductor protected by valley symmetry, exhibiting robust gapless nonchiral edge modes. These findings strongly suggest that the high-T c superconductors in proximity to antiferromagnets can realize fully gapped symmetry-protected topological SC.

  17. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.

  18. Two-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) Fibonacci grating is used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light field through objects in front of the 2D Fibonacci grating in free space at once, we can retrieve the image of objects with beyond λ/7 spatial resolution. We also find that the coherent illumination case can give a better resolution than incoherent illumination case by such 2D grating-assisted imaging system. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation.

  19. A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna for millimeter-wave scattering in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910, Japan (JP)); Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia))

    1990-06-01

    A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for use with a tunable gyrotron in order to carry out millimeter-wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. The advantages of this antenna are the following: (1) The elliptical reflector focuses the radiation beam in the toroidal direction, while the parabolic reflector focuses in the direction of major radius. This gives excellent two-dimensional focusing in the plasma region, and consequently excellent spatial resolution. (2) The focal point can be easily swept along the direction of major radius in the whole plasma region, simply by changing the angle of the parabolic reflector by a small amount. These features have been demonstrated experimentally using the tunable gyrotron source, GYROTRON III, and in computations of the radiated fields.

  20. Relativistic Two-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator Plus Cornell Potentials in External Magnetic and AB Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.

  1. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev–Petviashvili dynamic equation in dust-acoustic plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALY R SEADAWY

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive perturbation method, the two-dimensional dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons lead to a KP equation. We derived the solitary travelling wave solutions of the twodimensional nonlinear KP equation by implementing sech–tanh, sinh–cosh, extended direct algebraic and fraction direct algebraicmethods. We found the electrostatic field potential and electric field in the form travellingwave solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear KP equation. The solutions for the KP equation obtained by using these methods can be demonstrated precisely and efficiency. As an illustration, we used the readymade package of $\\it{Mathematica}$ program 10.1 to solve the original problem. These solutions are in good agreement with the analytical one.

  2. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-09-01

    manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.

  3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.

  4. Unsteady Free-surface Waves Due to a Submerged Body in Two-dimensional Oseen Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUDong-qiang; AllenT.CHWANG

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional unsteady free-surface waves due to a submerged body moving in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is considered.The disturbed flow is governed by the unsteadyOseen equations with the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions linearized for the free-surface waves.Accordingly, the body is mathematically simulated by an Oseenlet with a periodically oscillating strength.By means of Fourier transforms,the exact solution for the free-surface waves is expressed by an integral with a complex dispersion function, which explicitly shows that the wave dynamics is characterized by a Reynolds number and a Strouhal number.By applying Lighthill's theorem, asymptotic representations are derived for the far-field waves with a sub-critical and a super-critical Strouhal number. It is found that the generated waves due to the oscillating Oseenlet consist of the steady-state and transient responses. For the viscous flow with a sub-critical Strouhal number, there exist four waves: three propagate downstream while one propagates upstream.However, for the viscous flow with a super-critical Strouhal number, there exist two waves only,which propagate downstream.

  5. Effects of external fields on two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudoharmonic oscillator interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjects to equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The non-relativistic limit, PHO and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  6. Commensurate and incommensurate states of a spin density wave in a quasi-two-dimensional system with an anisotropic energy spectrum in an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction relative to magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palistrant, M. E., E-mail: mepalistrant@yandex.com; Ursu, V. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A theory of thermodynamic properties of a spin density wave (SDW) in a quasi-two-dimensional system (with a preset impurity concentration x) is constructed. We choose an anisotropic dispersion relation for the electron energy and assume that external magnetic field H has an arbitrary direction relative to magnetic moment M{sub Q}. The system of equations defining order parameters M{sub Q}{sup z}, M{sub Q}{sup {sigma}}, M{sub z}, and M{sup {sigma}} is constructed and transformed with allowance for the Umklapp processes. Special cases when H Double-Vertical-Line M{sub Q} and H Up-Tack M{sub Q} (H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0) are considered in detail as well as cases of weak fields H of arbitrary direction. The condition for the transition of the system to the commensurate and incommensurate states of the SDW is analyzed. The concentration dependence of magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is calculated, and the components of the order parameter for the incommensurate phase are determined. The phase diagram (T,{approx}x) is constructed. The effect of the magnetic field on magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is analyzed for H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0, and longitudinal magnetic susceptibility {chi} Double-Vertical-Line is calculated; this quantity demonstrates the temperature dependence corresponding to a system with a gap for x < x{sub c} and to a gapless state for x > x{sub c}. In the immediate vicinity of the critical impurity concentration (x {approx} x{sub c}), the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility acquires a local maximum. The effect of anisotropy of the electron energy spectrum on the investigated physical quantities is also analyzed.

  7. Transient Topology Optimization of Two-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    A tapering device coupling two monomodal waveguides is designed with the topology optimization method based on transient wave propagation. The gradient-based optimization technique is applied to predict the material distribution in the tapering area such that the squared output displacement (a...

  8. Elastic Wave Scattering by Two-Dimensional Periodical Array of Cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We extend the multiple-scattering theory (MST) for elastic wave scattering and propagating in two-dimensional composite. The formalism for the band structure calculation is presented by taking into account the full vector character of the elastic wave. As a demonstration of application of the formalism, we calculate the band structure of elastic wave propagating in a two-dimensional periodic arrangement of cylinders. The results manifest that the MST shows great promise in complementing the plane-wave (PW) approach for the study of elastic wave.

  9. Numerical modeling of transient two-dimensional viscoelastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical modeling of transient mechanical waves in linear viscoelastic solids. Dissipation mechanisms are described using the Zener model. No time convolutions are required thanks to the introduction of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time differential equations. By appropriately choosing the Zener parameters, it is possible to accurately describe a large range of materials, such as solids with constant quality factors. The evolution equations satisfied by the velocity, the stress, and the memory variables are written in the form of a first-order system of PDEs with a source term. This system is solved by splitting it into two parts: the propagative part is discretized explicitly, using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, and the diffusive part is then solved exactly. Jump conditions along the interfaces are discretized by applying an immersed interface method. Numerical experiments of wave propagation in viscoelastic and fluid media show the efficiency of this nu...

  10. Solitary wave propagation through two-dimensional treelike structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, William J; Sen, Surajit

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that a velocity perturbation can travel through a mass spring chain with strongly nonlinear interactions as a solitary and antisolitary wave pair. In recent years, nonlinear wave propagation in 2D structures have also been explored. Here we first consider the propagation of such a velocity perturbation for cases where the system has a 2D "Y"-shaped structure. Here each of the three pieces that make up the "Y" are made of a small mass spring chain. In addition, we consider a case where multiple "Y"-shaped structures are used to generate a "tree." We explore the early time dynamical behavior associated with the propagation of a velocity perturbation initiated at the trunk and at the extremities for both cases. We are looking for the energy transmission properties from one branch to another of these "Y"-shaped structures. Our dynamical simulations suggest the following broad observations: (i) for strongly nonlinear interactions, mechanical energy propagation resembles pulse propagation with the energy propagation being dispersive in the linear case; (ii) for strong nonlinear interactions, the tree-like structure acts as an energy gate showing preference for large perturbations in the system while the behavior of the linear case shows no such preference, thereby suggesting that such structures can possibly act as switches that activate at sufficiently high energies. The study aspires to develop insights into the nature of nonlinear wave propagation through a network of linear chains.

  11. Nonlinear Wave Propagation and Solitary Wave Formation in Two-Dimensional Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Luna, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Solitary wave formation is a well studied nonlinear phenomenon arising in propagation of dispersive nonlinear waves under suitable conditions. In non-homogeneous materials, dispersion may happen due to effective reflections between the material interfaces. This dispersion has been used along with nonlinearities to find solitary wave formation using the one-dimensional p-system. These solitary waves are called stegotons. The main goal in this work is to find two-dimensional stegoton formation. To do so we consider the nonlinear two-dimensional p-system with variable coefficients and solve it using finite volume methods. The second goal is to obtain effective equations that describe the macroscopic behavior of the variable coefficient system by a constant coefficient one. This is done through a homogenization process based on multiple-scale asymptotic expansions. We compare the solution of the effective equations with the finite volume results and find a good agreement. Finally, we study some stability properties of the homogenized equations and find they and one-dimensional versions of them are unstable in general.

  12. Vibrational wave packet induced oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectra. I. Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nemeth, Alexandra; Mancal, Tomas; Lukes, Vladimir; Hauer, Juergen; Kauffmann, Harald F; Sperling, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    This is the first in a series of two papers investigating the effect of electron-phonon coupling in two-dimensional Fourier transformed electronic spectroscopy. We present a series of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for studying a dye molecule in solution. Ultrafast laser pulse excitation of an electronic transition coupled to vibrational modes induces a propagating vibrational wave packet that manifests itself in oscillating signal intensities and line-shapes. For the two-dimensional electronic spectra we can attribute the observed modulations to periodic enhancement and decrement of the relative amplitudes of rephasing and non-rephasing contributions to the total response. Different metrics of the two-dimensional signals are shown to relate to the frequency-frequency correlation function which provides the connection between experimentally accessible observations and the underlying microscopic molecular dynamics. A detailed theory of the time-dependent two-dimensional spectral li...

  13. SAR IMAGING SIMULATION OF HORIZONTAL FULLY TWO-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui; HE Yi-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research of Lynett and Liu, a new horizontal fully two-dimensional internal wave propagation model with rotation effect was deduced, which can be used to simulate the characteristics of internal waves in a horizontal fully two-dimensional plane. By combining the imaging mechanism of Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR), a simulation procedure was fatherly acquired, which can simulate the propagation characteristics of oceanic internal waves into SAR images. In order to evaluate the validity of the proposed simulation procedure, case studies are performed in South China Sea and results from simulation procedure are analyzed in detail. A very good consistency was found between the simulation results and satellite images. The proposed simulation procedure will be a possible foundation for the quantitative interpretation of internal waves from fully two-dimensional satellite images.

  14. Negative Dispersion of Lattice Waves in a Two-Dimensional Yukawa System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 刘斌; 杨思泽; 王龙

    2002-01-01

    Collective motion modes existing in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The dispersion relations of transverse and longitudinal lattice waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the parallel longitudinal wave is demonstrated by the simulation, and is explained by a physical model.

  15. Tunable far-field acoustic imaging by two-dimensional sonic crystal with concave incident surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng-Fu; Lu, Dan-Feng; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ji, Chang-Ying; Shi, Qing-Fan

    2017-01-01

    An additional concave incident surface comprised of two-dimensional (2D) sonic crystals (SCs) is employed to tune the acoustic image in the far-field region. The tunability is realized through changing the curvature of the concave surface. To explain the tuning mechanism, a simple ray-trace analysis is demonstrated based on the wave-beam negative refractive law. Then, a numerical confirmation is carried out. Results show that both the position and the intensity of the image can be tuned by the introduced concave surface.

  16. Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Jeffery A; Ward, William E; Scott, Alan; Arsenault, Dennis L

    2013-03-10

    An implementation of the field widened Michelson concept has been applied to obtain high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of low velocity (<50 m/s) Doppler wind fields in the lab. Procedures and techniques have been developed that allow Doppler wind and irradiance measurements to be determined on a bin by bin basis with an accuracy of less than 2.5 m/s from CCD images over the observed field of view. The interferometer scanning mirror position is controlled to subangstrom precision with subnanometer repeatability using the multi-application low-voltage piezoelectric instrument control electronics developed by COM DEV Ltd.; it is the first implementation of this system as a phase stepping Michelson. In this paper the calibration and characterization of the Doppler imaging system is described and the planned implementation of this new technique for imaging 2D wind and irradiance fields using the earth's airglow is introduced. Observations of Doppler winds produced by a rotating wheel are reported and shown to be of sufficient precision for buoyancy wave observations in airglow in the mesopause region of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Waves in Two-Dimensional Transformed Bianisotropic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We analyse wave propagation in two-dimensional bianisotropic media with the Finite Element Method (FEM). We start from the Maxwell-Tellegen's equations in bianisotropic media, and derive some system of coupled Partial Difference Equations (PDEs) for longitudinal electric and magnetic field components. Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) are discussed to model such unbounded media. We implement these PDEs and PMLs in a finite element software. We apply transformation optics in order to design some bianisotropic media with interesting functionalities, such as cloaks, concentrators and rotators. We propose a design of metamaterial with concentric layers made of homogeneous media with isotropic permittivity, permeability and magneto-electric parameters that mimic the required effective anisotropic tensors of a bianisotropic cloak in the long wavelength limit (homogenization approach). Our numerical results show that well-known metamaterials can be transposed to bianisotropic media.

  18. A Study of Two-Dimensional Unsteady Breaking Waves in Finite-Depth Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    1880). [8] J. H. Duncan, “An experimental investigation of breaking waves produced by a towed hydrofoil ,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 377, 331(1981...measured the drag per unit length due to quasi-steady breaking waves generated with a submerged hydrofoil . His measurements illustrated that the... hydrofoil . Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 377, 331-348. DUNCAN, J. H. 1983 The breaking and non-breaking wave resistance of a two- dimensional hydrofoil . J

  19. Observation of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochen; Yu, Zhengyue; Liao, Shijun

    2015-09-01

    A family of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth (1 mm to 2 mm) of absolute ethanol are observed experimentally using a Hele-Shaw cell that vibrates vertically. The same phenomena are not observed by means of water, ethanol solution, and silicone oil. These Faraday waves are quite different from the traditional ones. These phenomena are helpful to deepen and enrich our understandings about Faraday waves, and besides provide a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics.

  20. Two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves due to time-delayed feedback in cavity nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlidi, Mustapha; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a way to generate two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in the model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. The rogue waves are exited and controlled by the delay feedback. We characterize their formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. The long-tailed statistical contribution, which is often considered as a signature of the presence of rogue waves, appears for sufficiently strong feedback. The generality of our analysis suggests that the feedback induced instability leading to the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional rogue waves is a universal phenomenon.

  1. Plasma oscillations in two-dimensional semiconductor superstructures in the presence of a high electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the high permanent electric field on plasma oscillations in the two-dimensional electron gas with the superstructure and taking into account the transfer processes is investigated. The dispersions omega(k) is obtained for the case of high temperature T (DELTA << T, where DELTA is the width of the conductivity miniband). It is shown that the frequency of plasmons in the high electric field depends on the value of the electric field intensity and the wave number k as the oscillating function. The spectrum is periodic with the period equal to 2 pi/d for arbitrary values of k. The numerical estimation shown that the oscillations can be manifested at the electric field intensity more than 3 x 10 sup 3 V/cm

  2. Expectation value of composite field $T{\\bar T}$ in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zamolodchikov, Alexander B.

    2004-01-01

    I show that the expectation value of the composite field $T{\\bar T}$, built from the components of the energy-momentum tensor, is expressed exactly through the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor itself. The relation is derived in two-dimensional quantum field theory under broad assumptions, and does not require integrability.

  3. The focusing effect of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals with gradually varying lattice constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bakhshi Garmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.

  4. Two-dimensional field model for single-sheet tester

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanyi, A

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of the magnetic field in a circular-shaped single-sheet tester is developed under circular polarised field intensity as well as flux density. The non-linear anisotropy of the material is represented by a vector realisation of the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis operator. The monitored data of the components in the field vectors are simulated with the averaged values of the field resulted by the numerical analysis of the non-linear eddy current problem.

  5. Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.

  6. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  7. A two-dimensional Stockwell transform for gravity wave analysis of AIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindley, Neil P.; Smith, Nathan D.; Wright, Corwin J.; Rees, D. Andrew S.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-06-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play a crucial role in the dynamics of the earth's atmosphere. These waves couple lower, middle and upper atmospheric layers by transporting and depositing energy and momentum from their sources to great heights. The accurate parameterisation of GW momentum flux is of key importance to general circulation models but requires accurate measurement of GW properties, which has proved challenging. For more than a decade, the nadir-viewing Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite has made global, two-dimensional (2-D) measurements of stratospheric radiances in which GWs can be detected. However, one problem with current one-dimensional methods for GW analysis of these data is that they can introduce significant unwanted biases. Here, we present a new analysis method that resolves this problem. Our method uses a 2-D Stockwell transform (2DST) to measure GW amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths and directions of propagation using both the along-track and cross-track dimensions simultaneously. We first test our new method and demonstrate that it can accurately measure GW properties in a specified wave field. We then show that by using a new elliptical spectral window in the 2DST, in place of the traditional Gaussian, we can dramatically improve the recovery of wave amplitude over the standard approach. We then use our improved method to measure GW properties and momentum fluxes in AIRS measurements over two regions known to be intense hotspots of GW activity: (i) the Drake Passage/Antarctic Peninsula and (ii) the isolated mountainous island of South Georgia. The significance of our new 2DST method is that it provides more accurate, unbiased and better localised measurements of key GW properties compared to most current methods. The added flexibility offered by the scaling parameter and our new spectral window presented here extend the usefulness of our 2DST method to other areas of geophysical data analysis and beyond.

  8. Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....

  9. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is organized in the following way. In Chapter 2 we will give a brief introduction to conformal field theory along the lines of standard quantum field theory, without any claims to originality. We introduce the important concepts of the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, and prim

  10. Two-dimensional Morlet wavelet transform and its application to wave recognition methodology of automatically extracting two-dimensional wave packets from lidar observations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao; Chu, Xinzhao

    2017-09-01

    Waves in the atmosphere and ocean are inherently intermittent, with amplitudes, frequencies, or wavelengths varying in time and space. Most waves exhibit wave packet-like properties, propagate at oblique angles, and are often observed in two-dimensional (2-D) datasets. These features make the wavelet transforms, especially the 2-D wavelet approach, more appealing than the traditional windowed Fourier analysis, because the former allows adaptive time-frequency window width (i.e., automatically narrowing window size at high frequencies and widening at low frequencies), while the latter uses a fixed envelope function. This study establishes the mathematical formalism of modified 1-D and 2-D Morlet wavelet transforms, ensuring that the power of the wavelet transform in the frequency/wavenumber domain is equivalent to the mean power of its counterpart in the time/space domain. Consequently, the modified wavelet transforms eliminate the bias against high-frequency/small-scale waves in the conventional wavelet methods and many existing codes. Based on the modified 2-D Morlet wavelet transform, we put forward a wave recognition methodology that automatically identifies and extracts 2-D quasi-monochromatic wave packets and then derives their wave properties including wave periods, wavelengths, phase speeds, and time/space spans. A step-by-step demonstration of this methodology is given on analyzing the lidar data taken during 28-30 June 2014 at McMurdo, Antarctica. The newly developed wave recognition methodology is then applied to two more lidar observations in May and July 2014, to analyze the recently discovered persistent gravity waves in Antarctica. The decomposed inertia-gravity wave characteristics are consistent with the conclusion in Chen et al. (2016a) that the 3-10 h waves are persistent and dominant, and exhibit lifetimes of multiple days. They have vertical wavelengths of 20-30 km, vertical phase speeds of 0.5-2 m/s, and horizontal wavelengths up to several

  11. Minimal lectures on two-dimensional conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We provide a brief but self-contained review of conformal field theory on the Riemann sphere. We first introduce general axioms such as local conformal invariance, and derive Ward identities and BPZ equations. We then define Liouville theory and minimal models by specific axioms on their spectrums and degenerate fields. We solve these theories by computing three- and four-point functions, and discuss their existence and uniqueness.

  12. Aging in the two-dimensional random-field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Ma, Tianyu; Urazhdin, Sergei; Boettcher, Stefan

    Random fields introduced into the classical Ising and Heisenberg spin models can roughen the energy landscape, leading to complex nonequilibrium dynamics. The effects of random fields on magnetism have been previously studied in the context of dilute antiferromagnets (AF), impure substrates, and magnetic alloys [ 1 ] . We utilized random-field spin models to simulate the observed magnetic aging in thin-film ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (F/AF) bilayers. Our experiments show extremely slow cooperative relaxation over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields [ 2 ] . In our simulations, the experimental system is coarse-grained into a random field Ising model on a 2D square lattice. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that aging processes may be associated with the glassy evolution of the magnetic domain walls, due to the pinning by the random fields. The scaling of the simulated aging agrees well with experiments. Both are consistent with either a small power-law or logarithmic dependence on time. We further discuss the topological effects on aging due to the dimensional crossover from the Ising to the Heisenberg regime. Supported through NSF grant DMR-1207431.

  13. Two Dimensional Honeycomb Materials: Random Fields, Dissipation and Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, T.; Oliveira, O.; de Paula, W.; Hussein, M. S.; Cardoso, T. R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to describe the many-body problem of electrons in honeycomb materials via the introduction of random fields which are coupled to the electrons and have a Gaussian distribution. From a one-body approach to the problem, after integrating exactly the contribution of the random fields, one builds a non-hermitian and dissipative effective Hamiltonian with two-body interactions. Our approach introduces besides the usual average over the electron field a second average over the random fields. The interplay of two averages enables the definition of various types of Green's functions which allow the investigation of fluctuation-dissipation characteristics of the interactions that are a manifestation of the many-body problem. In the current work, we study only the dissipative term, through the perturbative analysis of the dynamics associated the effective Hamiltonian generated by two different kinds of couplings. For the cases analyzed, the eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian are complex and, therefore, some of the states have a finite life time. Moreover, we also investigate, in the mean field approximation, the most general parity conserving coupling to the random fields and compute the width of charge carriers Γ as a function of the Fermi energy E F . The theoretical prediction for Γ( E F ) is compared to the available experimental data for graphene. The good agreement between Γ t h e o and Γ e x p suggests that description of the many-body problem associated to the electrons in honeycomb materials can indeed be done via the introduction of random fields.

  14. Spontaneous assembly of chemically encoded two-dimensional coacervate droplet arrays by acoustic wave patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liangfei; Martin, Nicolas; Bassindale, Philip G.; Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Barnes, Adrian; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Mann, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The spontaneous assembly of chemically encoded, molecularly crowded, water-rich micro-droplets into periodic defect-free two-dimensional arrays is achieved in aqueous media by a combination of an acoustic standing wave pressure field and in situ complex coacervation. Acoustically mediated coalescence of primary droplets generates single-droplet per node micro-arrays that exhibit variable surface-attachment properties, spontaneously uptake dyes, enzymes and particles, and display spatial and time-dependent fluorescence outputs when exposed to a reactant diffusion gradient. In addition, coacervate droplet arrays exhibiting dynamical behaviour and exchange of matter are prepared by inhibiting coalescence to produce acoustically trapped lattices of droplet clusters that display fast and reversible changes in shape and spatial configuration in direct response to modulations in the acoustic frequencies and fields. Our results offer a novel route to the design and construction of `water-in-water' micro-droplet arrays with controllable spatial organization, programmable signalling pathways and higher order collective behaviour.

  15. Alfvén waves and ideal two-dimensional Galerkin truncated magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Brachet, Marc-Etienne; Pouquet, Annick

    2011-07-01

    We investigate numerically the dynamics of two-dimensional Euler and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flows in systems with a finite number of modes, up to 4096(2), for which several quadratic invariants are preserved by the truncation and the statistical equilibria are known. Initial conditions are the Orszag-Tang vortex with a neutral X point centered on a stagnation point of the velocity field in the large scales. In MHD, we observe that the total energy spectra at intermediate times and intermediate scales correspond to the interactions of eddies and waves, E(T)(k)~k(-3/2). Moreover, no pseudodissipative range is visible for either Euler or ideal MHD in two dimensions. In the former case, this may be linked to the existence of a vanishing turbulent viscosity whereas in MHD, the numerical resolution employed may be insufficient. When imposing a uniform magnetic field to the flow, we observe a lack of saturation of the formation of small scales together with a significant slowing down of their equilibration, with however a cutoff independent partial thermalization being reached at intermediate scales.

  16. Field computation for two-dimensional array transducers with limited diffraction array beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi

    2005-10-01

    A method is developed for calculating fields produced with a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer. This method decomposes an arbitrary 2D aperture weighting function into a set of limited diffraction array beams. Using the analytical expressions of limited diffraction beams, arbitrary continuous wave (cw) or pulse wave (pw) fields of 2D arrays can be obtained with a simple superposition of these beams. In addition, this method can be simplified and applied to a 1D array transducer of a finite or infinite elevation height. For beams produced with axially symmetric aperture weighting functions, this method can be reduced to the Fourier-Bessel method studied previously where an annular array transducer can be used. The advantage of the method is that it is accurate and computationally efficient, especially in regions that are not far from the surface of the transducer (near field), where it is important for medical imaging. Both computer simulations and a synthetic array experiment are carried out to verify the method. Results (Bessel beam, focused Gaussian beam, X wave and asymmetric array beams) show that the method is accurate as compared to that using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula and agrees well with the experiment.

  17. The Classification of Two-Dimensional Extended Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schommer-Pries, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    We provide a complete generators and relations presentation of the 2-dimensional extended unoriented and oriented bordism bicategories as symmetric monoidal bicategories. Thereby we classify these types of 2-dimensional extended topological field theories with arbitrary target bicategory. As an immediate corollary we obtain a concrete classification when the target is the symmetric monoidal bicategory of algebras, bimodules, and intertwiners over a fixed commutative ground ring. In the oriented case, such an extended topological field theory is equivalent to specifying a (non-commutative) separable symmetric Frobenius algebra. We review the notion of symmetric monoidal bicategory, giving also a precise notion of generators and relations in this context. We provide several supporting lemmas, one of which provides a simple list of criteria for determining when a morphism of symmetric monoidal bicategories is an equivalence. We introduce the symmetric monoidal bicategory of bordisms with structure, where the all...

  18. Two Dimensional Fully Nonlinear Numerical Wave Tank Based on the BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Sun; Yongjie Pang; Hongwei Li

    2012-01-01

    The development of a two dimensional numerical wave tank (NWT) with a rocker or piston type wavemaker based on the high order boundary element method (BEM) and mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) is examined.The cauchy principle value (CPV) integral is calculated by a special Gauss type quadrature and a change of variable.In addition the explicit truncated Taylor expansion formula is employed in the time-stepping process.A modified double nodes method is assumed to tackle the comer problem,as well as the damping zone technique is used to absorb the propagation of the free surface wave at the end of the tank.A variety of waves are generated by the NWT,for example; a monochromatic wave,solitary wave and irregular wave.The results confirm the NWT model is efficient and stable.

  19. Numerical simulations of blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Homae, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper numerically visualizes explosion phenomena in order to discuss blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model. After the shock wave exits via an opening, the blast wave propagates into open space. In the present study, a parametric study was conducted to determine the blast wave characteristics from the room exit by changing the room shape and the mass of the high explosive. Our results show that the blast wave characteristics can be correctly estimated using a scaling factor proposed in the present paper that includes the above parameters. We conducted normalization of the peak overpressure curve using the shock overpressure at the exit and the length scale of the room volume. In the case where the scaling factor has the same value, the normalized peak overpressure curve does not depend on the calculation conditions, and the scaling factor describes the blast wave characteristics emerging from the current room model.

  20. A two-dimensional spin field-effect switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjing; Txoperena, Oihana; Llopis, Roger; Dery, Hanan; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix

    2016-11-01

    Future development in spintronic devices will require an advanced control of spin currents, for example by an electric field. Here we demonstrate an approach that differs from previous proposals such as the Datta and Das modulator, and that is based on a van de Waals heterostructure of atomically thin graphene and semiconducting MoS2. Our device combines the superior spin transport properties of graphene with the strong spin-orbit coupling of MoS2 and allows switching of the spin current in the graphene channel between ON and OFF states by tuning the spin absorption into the MoS2 with a gate electrode. Our proposal holds potential for technologically relevant applications such as search engines or pattern recognition circuits, and opens possibilities towards electrical injection of spins into transition metal dichalcogenides and alike materials.

  1. Entanglement hamiltonians in two-dimensional conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cardy, John

    2016-01-01

    We enumerate the cases in 2d conformal field theory where the logarithm of the reduced density matrix (the entanglement or modular hamiltonian) may be written as an integral over the energy-momentum tensor times a local weight. These include known examples and new ones corresponding to the time-dependent scenarios of a global and local quench. In these latter cases the entanglement hamiltonian depends on the momentum density as well as the energy density. In all cases the entanglement spectrum is that of the appropriate boundary CFT. We emphasize the role of boundary conditions at the entangling surface and the appearance of boundary entropies as universal O(1) terms in the entanglement entropy.

  2. Interaction of a Surface Acoustic Wave with a Two-dimensional Electron Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shi-Jie; ZHAO Hu; YU Yue

    2005-01-01

    When a surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagates on the surface of a GaAs semiconductor, coupling between electrons in the two-dimensional electron gas beneath the interface and the elastic host crystal through piezoelectric interaction will attenuate the SAW. The coupling coefficient is calculated for the SAW propagating along an arbitrary direction. It is found that the coupling strength is strongly dependent on the propagating direction. When the SAW propagates along the [011] direction, the coupling becomes quite weak.

  3. Scattering of Fexural Gravity Waves by a Two-Dimensional Thin Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analysis based on standard perturbation technique together with an application of Green’s integral theorem is used in this paper to study the problem of scattering of water waves by a two dimensional thin plate submerged in deep ocean with ice cover. The reflection and transmission coefficients upto first order are obtained in terms of the shape function describing the plate and are studied graphically for different shapes of the plate.

  4. Third order finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for two-dimensional wave equation system

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Warnecke, Gerald; Zahaykah, Yousef

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the derivation and analysis of third order finite volume evolution Galerkin schemes for the two-dimensional wave equation system. To achieve this the first order approximate evolution operator is considered. A recovery stage is carried out at each level to generate a piecewise polynomial approximation from the piecewise constants, to feed into the calculation of the fluxes. We estimate the truncation error and give numerical examples to demonstrate the higher order...

  5. Dispersive wave propagation in two-dimensional rigid periodic blocky materials with elastic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gambarotta, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Dispersive waves in two-dimensional blocky materials with periodic microstructure made up of equal rigid units, having polygonal centro-symmetric shape with mass and gyroscopic inertia, connected with each other through homogeneous linear interfaces, have been analyzed. The acoustic behavior of the resulting discrete Lagrangian model has been obtained through a Floquet-Bloch approach. From the resulting eigenproblem derived by the Euler-Lagrange equations for harmonic wave propagation, two acoustic branches and an optical branch are obtained in the frequency spectrum. A micropolar continuum model to approximate the Lagrangian model has been derived based on a second-order Taylor expansion of the generalized macro-displacement field. The constitutive equations of the equivalent micropolar continuum have been obtained, with the peculiarity that the positive definiteness of the second-order symmetric tensor associated to the curvature vector is not guaranteed and depends both on the ratio between the local tangent and normal stiffness and on the block shape. The same results have been obtained through an extended Hamiltonian derivation of the equations of motion for the equivalent continuum that is related to the Hill-Mandel macro homogeneity condition. Moreover, it is shown that the hermitian matrix governing the eigenproblem of harmonic wave propagation in the micropolar model is exact up to the second order in the norm of the wave vector with respect to the same matrix from the discrete model. To appreciate the acoustic behavior of some relevant blocky materials and to understand the reliability and the validity limits of the micropolar continuum model, some blocky patterns have been analyzed: rhombic and hexagonal assemblages and running bond masonry. From the results obtained in the examples, the obtained micropolar model turns out to be particularly accurate to describe dispersive functions for wavelengths greater than 3-4 times the characteristic dimension of

  6. Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves in two-dimensional locally-resonant phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aichao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Lingang; Ma, Jian; Zou, Yang; Li, Min; Wu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves through a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) is demonstrated by substituting dual Helmholtz resonators (DHRs) for acoustically-rigid scatterers in the PC. Due to the coupling of the incident waves with the acoustic multi-resonance modes of the DHRs, acoustic waves can tunnel through the PC at specific frequencies which lie inside the band gaps of the PC. This wave tunneling transmission can be further broadened by using the multilayer Helmholtz resonators. Thus, a PC consisting of an array of dual/multilayer Helmholtz resonators can serve as an acoustic band-pass filter, used to pick out acoustic waves with certain frequencies from noise.

  7. p-wave superconductivity in a two-dimensional generalized Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J. Samuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria, UNACAR, 24180, Cd. de Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Perez, Luis A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang Chumin [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: chumin@servidor.unam.mx

    2005-02-21

    In this Letter, we consider a two-dimensional Hubbard model that includes a second-neighbor correlated hopping interaction, and we find a triplet p-wave superconducting ground state within the BCS formalism. A small distortion of the square-lattice right angles is introduced in order to break the degeneracy of kx+/-ky oriented p-wave pairing states. For the strong coupling limit, analytical results are obtained. An analysis of the superconducting critical temperature reveals the existence of an optimal electron density and the gap ratio exhibits a non-BCS behavior. Finally, the particular case of strontium ruthenate is examined.

  8. Elastic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Ordered and Weakly Disordered Phononic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zuo-Dong; CHENG Jian-Chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional solid-solid ordered and weakly disordered phononic crystals is studied by using finite-difference time-domain method.Theoretical results show that obvious band gaps in the ordered crystal could be found, while in the weakly disordered ones the band gaps could partially vanish.Furthermore,with increase of disorder, band gaps are destructed badly and prominently in the high frequency regime while slightly in the low regime.Comparing the energy transmission dependent on time, we find that the coda wave phenomenon is prominent in the ordered crystal while weakened in the weakly disordered ones, and the physical properties are discussed.

  9. Wave transmission through two-dimensional structures by the hybrid FE/WFE approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Giannoula; Ferguson, Neil; Renno, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The knowledge of the wave transmission and reflection characteristics in connected two-dimensional structures provides the necessary background for many engineering prediction methodologies. Extensive efforts have previously been exerted to investigate the propagation of waves in two-dimensional periodic structures. This work focuses on the analysis of the wave propagation and the scattering properties of joined structures comprising of two or more plates. The joint is modelled using the finite element (FE) method whereas each (of the joined) plate(s) is modelled using the wave and finite element (WFE) method. This latter approach is based on post-processing a standard FE model of a small segment of the plate using periodic structure theory; the FE model of the segment can be obtained using any commercial/in-house FE package. Stating the equilibrium and continuity conditions at the interfaces and expressing the motion in the plates in terms of the waves in each plate yield the reflection and transmission matrices of the joint. These can then be used to obtain the response of the whole structure, as well as investigating the frequency and incidence dependence for the flow of power in the system.

  10. Two-dimensional cylindrical ion-acoustic solitary and rogue waves in ultrarelativistic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Mushtaq, A. [National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary and rogue waves is investigated in a two-dimensional ultrarelativistic degenerate warm dense plasma. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the cylindrical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived, which can be further transformed into a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. The latter admits a solitary wave solution. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, the KdV equation can be transferred to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified IA wavepackets. The propagation characteristics of the IA solitary and rogue waves are strongly influenced by the variation of different plasma parameters in an ultrarelativistic degenerate dense plasma. The present results might be helpful to understand the nonlinear electrostatic excitations in astrophysical degenerate dense plasmas.

  11. Conical wave propagation and diffraction in two-dimensional hexagonally packed granular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C; Kevrekidis, P G; Ablowitz, M J; Ma, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear mechanisms for conical wave propagation in two-dimensional lattices are explored in the realm of phononic crystals. As a prototypical example, a statically compressed granular lattice of spherical particles arranged in a hexagonal packing configuration is analyzed. Upon identifying the dispersion relation of the underlying linear problem, the resulting diffraction properties are considered. Analysis both via a heuristic argument for the linear propagation of a wave packet and via asymptotic analysis leading to the derivation of a Dirac system suggests the occurrence of conical diffraction. This analysis is valid for strong precompression, i.e., near the linear regime. For weak precompression, conical wave propagation is still possible, but the resulting expanding circular wave front is of a nonoscillatory nature, resulting from the complex interplay among the discreteness, nonlinearity, and geometry of the packing. The transition between these two types of propagation is explored.

  12. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

  13. Robustness and breakup of the spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice network of neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The robustness and breakup of spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice networks of neurons are investigated. The effect of small- world type connection is often simplified with local regular connection and the long-range connection with certain probability. The network effect on the development of spiral wave can be better described by local regular connection and changeable long-range connection probability than fixed long-range connection probability because the long-range probability could be changeable in realistic biological system. The effect from the changeable probability for long-range connection is simplified by multiplicative noise. At first, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed by using appropriate initial values, parameters and no-flux boundary conditions, and then the effect of networks is investigated. Extensive numerical studies show that spiral wave keeps its alive and robust when the intensity of multiplicative noise is below a certain threshold, otherwise, the breakup of spiral wave occurs. A statistical factor of synchronization in two-dimensional array is defined to study the phase transition of spiral wave by checking the membrane potentials of all neurons corresponding to the critical parameters(the intensity of noise or forcing current)in the curve for factor of synchronization. The Hindmarsh-Rose model is investigated, the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model in the presence of the channel noise is also studied to check the model independence of our conclusions. And it is found that breakup of spiral wave is easier to be induced by the multiplicative noise in presence of channel noise.

  14. Theoretical and numerical investigation of HF elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, B.; Tian, B. Y.; Aubry, D.

    2013-12-01

    The elastic wave propagation phenomena in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices are studied by using the Bloch wave transform. The numerical modeling is applied to the hexagonal and the rectangular beam lattices, in which, both the in-plane (with respect to the lattice plane) and out-of-plane waves are considered. The dispersion relations are obtained by calculating the Bloch eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The frequency bandgaps are observed and the influence of the elastic and geometric properties of the primitive cell on the bandgaps is studied. By analyzing the phase and the group velocities of the Bloch wave modes, the anisotropic behaviors and the dispersive characteristics of the hexagonal beam lattice with respect to the wave propagation are highlighted in high frequency domains. One important result presented herein is the comparison between the first Bloch wave modes to the membrane and bending/transverse shear wave modes of the classical equivalent homogenized orthotropic plate model of the hexagonal beam lattice. It is shown that, in low frequency ranges, the homogenized plate model can correctly represent both the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviors of the beam lattice, its frequency validity domain can be precisely evaluated thanks to the Bloch modal analysis. As another important and original result, we have highlighted the existence of the retropropagating Bloch wave modes with a negative group velocity, and of the corresponding "retro-propagating" frequency bands.

  15. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  16. Effects of external fields on a two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudo-harmonic oscillator interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer M.Ikhdair; Majid Hamzavi

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjected to an equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO).We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter,magnetic field strength,AB flux field,and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.The non-relativistic limit,PHO,and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  17. Temperature Dependence of Magnetization at Zero Applied Magnetic Field in Nearly Two Dimensional Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki

    2012-12-01

    NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.

  18. Excited states of two-dimensional hydrogen atom in tilted magnetic field: Quantum chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Eugene A.; Koval, Oksana A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current work is the research of the influence of a tilted magnetic field direction on the spectrum and the energy level spacing distribution of a two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom and of an exciton in GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum well. It was discovered that the quantum chaos (QC) is initiated with an increasing angle α between the magnetic field direction and the normal to the atomic plane. It is characterized by the repulsion of levels leading to the eliminating of the shell structure and by changing the spectrum statistical properties. The statement about the initiation of chaos and its dominance over regular motion with increasing angle α is confirmed by the results of our calculations of the classical dynamics presented in this paper. The evolution of the spatial distribution of the square of the absolute value of the wave function at an increasing angle α was observed. The differences of calculated dependencies of energies for various excited states on the tilt angle at a wide range of the magnetic field strength were described.

  19. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran_g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2016-08-15

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev–Petviashvili solitons.

  20. Tightness of the recentered maximum of the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian Free Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bramson, Maury

    2010-01-01

    We consider the maximum of the discrete two dimensional Gaussian free field (GFF) in a box, and prove that its maximum, centered at its mean, is tight, settling a long-standing conjecture. The proof combines a recent observation of Bolthausen, Deuschel and Zeitouni with elements from (Bramson 1978) and comparison theorems for Gaussian fields. An essential part of the argument is the precise evaluation, up to an error of order 1, of the expected value of the maximum of the GFF in a box. Related Gaussian fields, such as the GFF on a two-dimensional torus, are also discussed.

  1. Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

  2. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  3. Grain coarsening in two-dimensional phase-field models with an orientation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbuly, Bálint; Pusztai, Tamás; Henry, Hervé; Plapp, Mathis; Apel, Markus; Gránásy, László

    2017-05-01

    In the literature, contradictory results have been published regarding the form of the limiting (long-time) grain size distribution (LGSD) that characterizes the late stage grain coarsening in two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional polycrystalline systems. While experiments and the phase-field crystal (PFC) model (a simple dynamical density functional theory) indicate a log-normal distribution, other works including theoretical studies based on conventional phase-field simulations that rely on coarse grained fields, like the multi-phase-field (MPF) and orientation field (OF) models, yield significantly different distributions. In a recent work, we have shown that the coarse grained phase-field models (whether MPF or OF) yield very similar limiting size distributions that seem to differ from the theoretical predictions. Herein, we revisit this problem, and demonstrate in the case of OF models [R. Kobayashi, J. A. Warren, and W. C. Carter, Physica D 140, 141 (2000), 10.1016/S0167-2789(00)00023-3; H. Henry, J. Mellenthin, and M. Plapp, Phys. Rev. B 86, 054117 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.054117] that an insufficient resolution of the small angle grain boundaries leads to a log-normal distribution close to those seen in the experiments and the molecular scale PFC simulations. Our paper indicates, furthermore, that the LGSD is critically sensitive to the details of the evaluation process, and raises the possibility that the differences among the LGSD results from different sources may originate from differences in the detection of small angle grain boundaries.

  4. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2002-06-10

    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  5. |m| Partial wave treatment for two-dimensional Coulomb-scattering and Regge pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jing; ZENG; Jinyan

    2004-01-01

    The symmetry and |m| partial-wave analysis for two-dimensional (2D) Coulomb-scattering is investigated. As a function of energy E, the |m| partial-wave scattering amplitude f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the negative E (complex k) plane, and it is found that the bound state energy eigenvalues (E<0) are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive imaginary k axis as is expected. In addition, as a function of |m|, f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the complex |m| plane, the bound state energy eigenvalues are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive real |m| axis.

  6. Anti-periodic traveling wave solution to a forced two-dimensional generalized KdV-Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Junyu

    2003-01-01

    The anti-periodic traveling wave solutions to a forced two-dimensional generalized KdV-Burgers equation are studied.Some theorems concerning the boundness, existence and uniqueness of the solution to this equation are proved.

  7. Two Dimensional Acoustic Propagation Through Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves: Weak Scattering Theory and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    sech2 wave form is used because the amplitude and horizontal displacement are solutions of the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) non linear wave equation which...a solution to the KDV wave equation . After making the frozen field approximation, the soliton can be represented by the following mathematical...scattering. 3. The Gaussian Soliton As discussed, the sech2 form of a soliton is chosen because it is an exact solution to the KDV wave equation . For

  8. Bipartite entanglement entropy in massive two-dimensional quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2009-01-23

    Recently, Cardy, Castro Alvaredo, and the author obtained the first exponential correction to saturation of the bipartite entanglement entropy at large region lengths in massive two-dimensional integrable quantum field theory. It depends only on the particle content of the model, and not on the way particles scatter. Based on general analyticity arguments for form factors, we propose that this result is universal, and holds for any massive two-dimensional model (also out of integrability). We suggest a link of this result with counting pair creations far in the past.

  9. Two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field: some rigorous results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Pei-Song; You Wen-Long; Tian Guang-Shan

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of the two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field. Using the PerronFr(o)enius theorem and the reflection positivity method, we rigorously determine the low energy spectrum of this model and its global ground state Ψ0. Furthermore, we show that Ψ0 has a directional long-range order.

  10. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlangeli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

  11. A Solvable Model in Two-Dimensional Gravity Coupled to a Nonlinear Matter Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; WANG Shun-Jin; TAO Bi-You

    2001-01-01

    The two-dimensional gravity model with a coupling constant k = 4 and a vanishing cosmological constant coupled to a nonlinear matter field is investigated. We found that the classical equations of motion are exactly solvable and the static solutions of the induced metric and scalar curvature can be obtained analytically. These solutions may be used to describe the naked singularity at the origin.``

  12. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nizhankovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of the chemical potential of electrons in a GaAs-AlGa1−As heterojunction was measured in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T at several temperatures from 2.17 to 12.3 K. A thermodynamic equation of state of two-dimensional electron gas well describes the experimental results.

  13. Two new integrable cases of two-dimensional quantum mechanics with a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    Two integrable cases of two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a magnetic field are proposed. Using the polar coordinates and the symmetrical gauge, we will obtain solutions of these equations through biconfluent and confluent Heun functions. The quantization rules will be derived for both systems under consideration.

  14. Two-dimensional shear wave speed and crawling wave speed recoveries from in vitro prostate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce R; Thomas, Ashley; Parker, Kevin; Castaneda, Benjamin; Rubens, Deborah J

    2011-07-01

    The crawling wave experiment was developed to capture a shear wave induced moving interference pattern that is created by two harmonic vibration sources oscillating at different but almost the same frequencies. Using the vibration sonoelastography technique, the spectral variance image reveals a moving interference pattern. It has been shown that the speed of the moving interference pattern, i.e., the crawling wave speed, is proportional to the shear wave speed with a nonlinear factor. This factor can generate high-speed artifacts in the crawling wave speed images that do not actually correspond to increased stiffness. In this paper, an inverse algorithm is developed to reconstruct both the crawling wave speed and the shear wave speed using the phases of the crawling wave and the shear wave. The feature for the data is the application to in vitro prostate data, while the features for the algorithm include the following: (1) A directional filter is implemented to obtain a wave moving in only one direction; and (2) an L(1) minimization technique with physics inspired constraints is employed to calculate the phase of the crawling wave and to eliminate jump discontinuities from the phase of the shear wave. The algorithm is tested on in vitro prostate data measured at the Rochester Center for Biomedical Ultrasound and University of Rochester. Each aspect of the algorithm is shown to yield image improvement. The results demonstrate that the shear wave speed images can have less artifacts than the crawling wave images. Examples are presented where the shear wave speed recoveries have excellent agreement with histology results on the size, shape, and location of cancerous tissues in the glands. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Two-dimensional TBR calculations for conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. W.; Battat, M. E.; Dudziak, D. J.

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis was performed for a conceptual first wall, blanket, and shield design for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor. The design includes significant two-dimensional aspects presented by the limiter, vacuum ducts, and coolant manifolds; these aspects seriously degrade the tritium-breeding reaction (TBR) predicted by one-dimensional calculations. A range of design change to increase the TBR were investigated within the two-dimensional analysis. The results of this investigation indicated that an adequate TBR could be achieved with a thinning copper first wall, a (6)Li enrichment near 90%, the proper selection of reflector, and a small addition to the blanket thickness, determined by the one-dimensional analysis.

  16. Diffusive and localization behavior of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the transport phenomena of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random system which is composed of arrays of electrical dipoles, following the model presented earlier by Erdogan et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 391 (1993)]. A set of self-consistent equations is presented, accounting for the multiple scattering in the system, and is then solved numerically. A strong localization regime is discovered in the frequency domain. The transport properties within, near the edge of, and nearly outside the localization regime are investigated for different parameters such as filling factor and system size. The results show that within the localization regime, waves are trapped near the transmitting source. Meanwhile, the diffusive waves follow an intuitive but expected picture. That is, they increase with traveling path as more and more random scattering incurs, followed by a saturation, then start to decay exponentially when the travelling path is large enough, signifying the localization effect. For the cases where the frequencies are near the boundary of or outside the localization regime, the results of diffusive waves are compared with the diffusion approximation, showing less encouraging agreement as in other systems [Asatryan et al., Phys. Rev. E 67, 036605 (2003)].

  17. Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Hsun

    2015-05-01

    We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.

  18. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth order phase field crystal model [Jaatinen et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase field crystal models. We find that among the phase field crystal models...

  19. Wave-induced response of a floating two-dimensional body with a moonpool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Arnt G.; Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2015-01-01

    Regular wave-induced behaviour of a floating stationary two-dimensional body with a moonpool is studied. The focus is on resonant piston-mode motion in the moonpool and rigid-body motions. Dedicated two-dimensional experiments have been performed. Two numerical hybrid methods, which have previously been applied to related problems, are further developed. Both numerical methods couple potential and viscous flow. The semi-nonlinear hybrid method uses linear free-surface and body-boundary conditions. The other one uses fully nonlinear free-surface and body-boundary conditions. The harmonic polynomial cell method solves the Laplace equation in the potential flow domain, while the finite volume method solves the Navier–Stokes equations in the viscous flow domain near the body. Results from the two codes are compared with the experimental data. The nonlinear hybrid method compares well with the data, while certain discrepancies are observed for the semi-nonlinear method. In particular, the roll motion is over-predicted by the semi-nonlinear hybrid method. Error sources in the semi-nonlinear hybrid method are discussed. The moonpool strongly affects heave motions in a frequency range around the piston-mode resonance frequency of the moonpool. No resonant water motions occur in the moonpool at the piston-mode resonance frequency. Instead large moonpool motions occur at a heave natural frequency associated with small damping near the piston-mode resonance frequency. PMID:25512594

  20. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  1. Dynamics of two-dimensional complex plasmas in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, T; Bonitz, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional complex plasma layer containing charged dust particles in a perpendicular magnetic field. Computer simulations of both one-component and binary systems are used to explore the equilibrium particle dynamics in the fluid state. The mobility is found to scale with the inverse of the magnetic field strength (Bohm diffusion) for strong fields. For bidisperse mixtures, the magnetic field dependence of the long-time mobility depends on the particle species providing an external control of their mobility ratio. For large magnetic fields, even a two-dimensional model porous matrix can be realized composed by the almost immobilized high-charge particles which act as obstacles for the mobile low-charge particles.

  2. The effect of depolarization fields on the electronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Han; Kim, Hye Jung; Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a zero band gap. By weakening the sp2 covalent bonding of graphene with additional elements such as hydrogen or fluorine, however, it is possible to make it insulating. We can expect that the band gap converges to that of a three-dimensional analogue by repeating such two-dimensional layers along the normal to the layer. If we control the position of additional elements to make a dipole monolayer, the system will have an intrinsic internal field decreases as the number of layers increases. But, for two-dimensional bilayers, depolarization field is so strong that its electronic properties can be much different from its monolayer analogue. In this presentation, we show that the internal fields induced by dipole moments can change electronic properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene-like structures and complex metal oxides. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2009-0093818, 2012-014007, 2014M3A7B4049367)

  3. Well-posedness of two-dimensional hydroelastic waves with mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shunlian; Ambrose, David M.

    2017-05-01

    We study hydroelastic waves in interfacial flow of two-dimensional irrotational fluids. Each of the fluids is taken to be of infinite extent in one vertical direction, and bounded by a free surface in the other vertical direction. Elastic effects are considered at the free surface; this can describe physical settings such as the ocean bounded above by a layer of ice. A previous study proved well-posedness without considering the mass of the elastic surface; we now consider the effect of this mass. Under the assumption that a certain integral equation is solvable, we prove well-posedness of the initial value problem for the system. We are able to demonstrate that in some cases, such as the case of small mass parameter, the integral equation is indeed solvable. The proof uses geometric dependent variables, a normalized arclength parameterization, and a small-scale decomposition in the evolution equations.

  4. Derivation of asymptotic two-dimensional time-dependent equations for ocean wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Lannes, David

    2007-01-01

    A general method for the derivation of asymptotic nonlinear shallow water and deep water models is presented. Starting from a general dimensionless version of the water-wave equations, we reduce the problem to a system of two equations on the surface elevation and the velocity potential at the free surface. These equations involve a Dirichlet-Neumann operator and we show that all the asymptotic models can be recovered by a simple asymptotic expansion of this operator, in function of the shallowness parameter (shallow water limit) or the steepness parameter (deep water limit). Based on this method, a new two-dimensional fully dispersive model for small wave steepness is also derived, which extends to uneven bottom the approach developed by Matsuno \\cite{matsuno3} and Choi \\cite{choi}. This model is still valid in shallow water but with less precision than what can be achieved with Green-Naghdi model, when fully nonlinear waves are considered. The combination, or the coupling, of the new fully dispersive equati...

  5. Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketata H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW. The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.

  6. Wave Mode Discrimination of Coded Ultrasonic Guided Waves Using Two-Dimensional Compressed Pulse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Sergio; Fateri, Sina; Livadas, Makis; Mares, Cristinel; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves testing is a technique successfully used in many industrial scenarios worldwide. For many complex applications, the dispersive nature and multimode behavior of the technique still poses a challenge for correct defect detection capabilities. In order to improve the performance of the guided waves, a 2-D compressed pulse analysis is presented in this paper. This novel technique combines the use of pulse compression and dispersion compensation in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal-spatial resolution of the signals. The ability of the technique to discriminate different wave modes is also highlighted. In addition, an iterative algorithm is developed to identify the wave modes of interest using adaptive peak detection to enable automatic wave mode discrimination. The employed algorithm is developed in order to pave the way for further in situ applications. The performance of Barker-coded and chirp waveforms is studied in a multimodal scenario where longitudinal and flexural wave packets are superposed. The technique is tested in both synthetic and experimental conditions. The enhancements in SNR and temporal resolution are quantified as well as their ability to accurately calculate the propagation distance for different wave modes.

  7. A discussion of $Bl$ conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shisong; Huang, Songling

    2015-01-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant $h$. In watt balances, the $1/r$ magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor $Bl$ independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal $r$ and vertical $z$) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the $r$ symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the $Bl$ conservation is shown. By using either Gauss's law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the $Bl$ conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized $Bl$ conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  8. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  9. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  10. On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.

  11. Negative refraction and imaging of acoustic waves in a two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    The negative refraction behavior and imaging effect for acoustic waves in a kind of two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure are studied in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed structure consists of four zigzag arms connected through a thin circular ring at the central part. The relation of the symmetry of the unit cell and the negative refraction phenomenon is investigated. Using the finite element method, we calculate the band structures and the equi-frequency surfaces of the system, and confirm the frequency range where the negative refraction is present. Due to the rotational symmetry of the unit cell, a phase difference is induced to the waves propagating from a point source through the structure to the other side. The phase difference is related to the width of the structure and the frequency of the source, so we can get a tunable deviated imaging. This kind of phenomenon is also demonstrated by the numerical simulation of two Gaussian beams that are symmetrical about the interface normal with the same incident angle, and the different negative refractive indexes are presented. Based on this special performance, a double-functional mirror-symmetrical slab is proposed for realizing acoustic focusing and beam separation.

  12. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  13. Spatiotemporal chaos and two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panajotov, Krassimir; Clerc, Marcel G.; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2017-06-01

    Driven nonlinear optical cavities can exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics. We consider the paradigmatic Lugiato-Lefever model describing driven nonlinear optical resonator. This model is one of the most-studied nonlinear equations in optics. It describes a large spectrum of nonlinear phenomena from bistability, to periodic patterns, localized structures, self-pulsating localized structures and to a complex spatiotemporal behavior. The model is considered also as prototype model to describe several optical nonlinear devices such as Kerr media, liquid crystals, left handed materials, nonlinear fiber cavity, and frequency comb generation. We focus our analysis on a spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics in one-dimension. We identify a route to spatiotemporal chaos through an extended quasiperiodicity. We have estimated the Kaplan-Yorke dimension that provides a measure of the strange attractor complexity. Likewise, we show that the Lugiato-Leferver equation supports rogues waves in two-dimensional settings. We characterize rogue-wave formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  14. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kolokolov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time what contradicts to the statements present in literature. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. These tensors demonstrate highly intermittent statistics of the field fluctuations both in space and time.

  15. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiński, A.; Maciołek, A.; Barasiński, A.; Dietrich, S.

    2009-04-01

    Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large ℓ as slow as ℓ-δ with δinterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Švrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases δ=2 and δ=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

  16. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiński, A; Maciołek, A; Barasiński, A; Dietrich, S

    2009-04-01

    Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large l as slow as l(-delta) with deltainterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Svrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases delta=2 and delta=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

  17. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional large- Q Potts model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling algorithm to map out the phase diagram of a Q-state Potts model with Q⩽10 in an external field H that couples to one state. Finite-size scaling analyses show that for large Q the first-order phase transition point at H=0 is in fact a triple point at which three first-order phase transition lines meet. One such line is restricted to H=0; another line has H⩽0. The third line, which starts at the H=0 triple point, ends at a critical point (T,H) which needs to be located in a two-dimensional parameter space. The critical field H(Q) is positive and decreases with decreasing Q, which is in qualitative agreement with previous predictions.

  18. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  19. The mean field study of phase transitions in two dimensional Kagome lattice under local anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mortezapour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this work we investigated the critical properties of the anti-ferromagnetic XY model on a two dimensional Kagome lattice under single-ion easy-axes anisotropy. Employing the mean field theory, we found that this model shows a second order phase transition from disordered to all-in all-out state for any value of anisotropy.

  20. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. ...

  1. Studies of two-dimensional MoGe superconductors in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitulnik, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Yazdani, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Urbach, J.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); White, W.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Beasley, M.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The H-T phase diagram of two-dimensional amorphous MoGe superconductors is studied near H[sub c2] and near the melting line of the vortex lattice. Good agreement with the lowest Landau level approximation is found for the broadening of the specific heat in a field. We also find that melting of the vortex lattice can be observed only on short enough length scales, shorter than the disorder-mediated lattice correlation length. (orig.)

  2. Two-dimensional Rarefaction Waves in the High-speed Two-phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masafumi; Harada, Atsushi

    Two-phase flow nozzles are used in the total flow system for geothermal power plants and in the ejector of the refrigerant cycle, etc. One of the most important functions of a two-phase flow nozzle is to convert the thermal energy to the kinetic energy of the two-phase flow. The kinetic energy of the two-phase flow exhausted from a nozzle is available for all applications of this type. There exist the shock waves or rarefaction waves at the outlet of a supersonic nozzle in the case of non-best fitting expansion conditions when the operation conditions of the nozzle are widely chosen. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate theoretically the character of the rarefaction waves at the outlet of the supersonic two-phase flow nozzle. Two-dimensional basic equations for the compressible two-phase flow are introduced considering the inter-phase momentum transfer. Sound velocities are obtained from these equations by using monochromatic wave approximation. Those depend on the relaxation time that determines the momentum transfer. The two-phase flow with large relaxation times has a frozen sound velocity, and with small one has an equilibrium sound velocity. Rarefaction waves which occurred behind the two-phase flow nozzle are calculated by the CIP method. Although the frozen Mach number, below one, controls these basic equations, the rarefaction waves appeared for small relaxation time. The Mach line behind which the expansion starts depends on the inlet velocity and the relaxation time. Those relationships are shown in this paper. The pressure expansion curves are only a function of the revolution angle around the corner of the nozzle outlet for the relaxation time less than 0.1. For the larger relaxation time, the pressure decays because of internal friction caused by inter phase momentum transfer, and the expansion curves are a function of not only the angle but also the flow direction. The calculated expansion curves are compared with the experimental ones

  3. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  4. Development of fast two-dimensional standing wave microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliko, Olga; Reddy, Duemani G.; Brownell, William E.; Saggau, Peter

    2008-02-01

    A novel scheme for two-dimensional (2D) standing wave fluorescence microscopy (SWFM) using acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) is proposed. Two laser beams were coupled into an inverted microscope and focused at the back focal plane of the objective lens. The position of each of two beams at the back focal plane was controlled by a pair of AODs. This resulted in two collimated beams that interfered in the focal plane, creating a lateral periodic excitation pattern with variable spacing and orientation. The phase of the standing wave pattern was controlled by phase delay between two RF sinusoidal signals driving the AODs. Nine SW patterns of three different orientations about the optical axis and three different phases were generated. The excitation of the specimen using these patterns will result in a SWFM image with enhanced 2D lateral resolution with a nearly isotropic effective point-spread function. Rotation of the SW pattern relative to specimen and varying the SW phase do not involve any mechanical movements and are only limited by the time required for the acoustic wave to fill the aperture of AOD. The resulting total acquisition time can be as short as 100 µs and is only further limited by speed and sensitivity of the employed CCD camera. Therefore, this 2D SWFM can provide a real time imaging of subresolution processes such as docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the combination of 2D SWFM with variable angle total internal reflection (TIR) can extend this scheme to fast microscopy with enhanced three-dimensional (3D) resolution.

  5. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissilä, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth-order phase-field crystal model [A. Jaatinen et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase-field crystal models. We find that among the phase-field crystal mod...

  6. Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras and two-dimensional topological field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Getzler, E

    1994-01-01

    Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras are a new type of algebraic structure on graded vector spaces, which first arose in the work of Batalin and Vilkovisky on gauge fixing in quantum field theory. In this article, we show that there is a natural structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on the cohomology of a topological field theory in two dimensions. Lian and Zuckerman have constructed this Batalin-Vilkovisky structure, in the setting of topological chiral field theories, and shown that the structure is non-trivial in two-dimensional string theory. Our approach is to use algebraic topology, whereas their proofs have a more algebraic character.

  7. Fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-yang; ZHOU Jun; L Petti; S De Nicola; P Mormile

    2011-01-01

    We report a numerical method to analyze the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse(2-D TM) structures.The far-field diffraction patterns of the 2-D TM structures can be obtained by the numerical method,and they have a good agreement with the experimental ones.The analysis shows that the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for the 2-D TM structures are determined by the inflation rule,which have potential applications in the design of optical diffraction devices.

  8. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Luukko, P J J

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy.

  9. Spin Hall conductivity in the impure two-dimensional Rashba s-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biderang, M.; Yavari, H.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the Kubo formula approach, the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) of a two-dimensional (2D) Rashba s-wave superconductor in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities is calculated. We will show that by increasing the superconducting gap, the SHC decreases monotonically to zero, while by decreasing the concentration of impurities at zero gap, the SHC closes to the clean limit universal value - e/8 π. As a function of the impurity relaxation rate τ at Tc = 0.1 and γ = 0.01 (γ is the spin-orbit coupling in unit of eV · m), we will show that in the dirty limit (τ → 0) the SHC vanishes, and by increasing the relaxation time (τ → ∞) the SHC depends on the value of superconducting gap (Δ = 1.76Tc√{ 1 -T/Tc }), is changed from zero for full gap to -e/8 π in zero gap. At low temperatures, the SHC goes to zero exponentially and near the critical temperature depending on the concentration of the scattering centers, the SHC will tend to the value of normal state. We will also show that the SHC is independent of spin-orbit coupling (γ) in the clean limit.

  10. Dispersive shock waves in the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and two dimensional Benjamin-Ono equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablowitz, Mark J.; Demirci, Ali; Ma, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) in the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and two dimensional Benjamin-Ono (2DBO) equation are considered using step like initial data along a parabolic front. Employing a parabolic similarity reduction exactly reduces the study of such DSWs in two space one time (2 + 1) dimensions to finding DSW solutions of (1 + 1) dimensional equations. With this ansatz, the KP and 2DBO equations can be exactly reduced to the cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries (cKdV) and cylindrical Benjamin-Ono (cBO) equations, respectively. Whitham modulation equations which describe DSW evolution in the cKdV and cBO equations are derived and Riemann type variables are introduced. DSWs obtained from the numerical solutions of the corresponding Whitham systems and direct numerical simulations of the cKdV and cBO equations are compared with very good agreement obtained. In turn, DSWs obtained from direct numerical simulations of the KP and 2DBO equations are compared with the cKdV and cBO equations, again with good agreement. It is concluded that the (2 + 1) DSW behavior along self similar parabolic fronts can be effectively described by the DSW solutions of the reduced (1 + 1) dimensional equations.

  11. Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L J; O'Farrell, E C T; Loh, K P; Eda, G; Özyilmaz, B; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-01-14

    To understand the complex physics of a system with strong electron-electron interactions, the ideal is to control and monitor its properties while tuning an external electric field applied to the system (the electric-field effect). Indeed, complete electric-field control of many-body states in strongly correlated electron systems is fundamental to the next generation of condensed matter research and devices. However, the material must be thin enough to avoid shielding of the electric field in the bulk material. Two-dimensional materials do not experience electrical screening, and their charge-carrier density can be controlled by gating. Octahedral titanium diselenide (1T-TiSe2) is a prototypical two-dimensional material that reveals a charge-density wave (CDW) and superconductivity in its phase diagram, presenting several similarities with other layered systems such as copper oxides, iron pnictides, and crystals of rare-earth elements and actinide atoms. By studying 1T-TiSe2 single crystals with thicknesses of 10 nanometres or less, encapsulated in two-dimensional layers of hexagonal boron nitride, we achieve unprecedented control over the CDW transition temperature (tuned from 170 kelvin to 40 kelvin), and over the superconductivity transition temperature (tuned from a quantum critical point at 0 kelvin up to 3 kelvin). Electrically driving TiSe2 over different ordered electronic phases allows us to study the details of the phase transitions between many-body states. Observations of periodic oscillations of magnetoresistance induced by the Little-Parks effect show that the appearance of superconductivity is directly correlated with the spatial texturing of the amplitude and phase of the superconductivity order parameter, corresponding to a two-dimensional matrix of superconductivity. We infer that this superconductivity matrix is supported by a matrix of incommensurate CDW states embedded in the commensurate CDW states. Our results show that spatially

  12. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  13. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  14. Canonical analysis of scalar fields in two-dimensional curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, D. G. C.; Patrushev, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Scalar fields on a two-dimensional curved surface are considered and the canonical structure of this theory analyzed. Both the first- and second-order forms of the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action for the metric are used (these being inequivalent in two dimensions). The Dirac constraint formalism is used to find the generator of the gauge transformation, using the formalisms of Henneaux, Teitelboim and Zanelli (HTZ) and of Castellani (C). The HTZ formalism is slightly modified in the case of the first-order EH action to accommodate the gauge transformation of the metric; this gauge transformation is unusual as it mixes the affine connection with the scalar field.

  15. Greybody factors of massive charged fermionic fields in a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)

  16. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-12-01

    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  17. Two-Dimensional Wave Motion on the Charged Surface of a Viscous Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; YIN Xie-Yuan; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    The wave motion on the charged surface of a viscous Newtonian liquid is solved as an initial-value problem. Both the leaky dielectric and perfect dielectric cases are considered. The amplitude of wave is assumed to be small. The electric field induced by surface charge is shown to have a generally destabilizing effect on surface wave. The neutral stability curve is drawn in the (G, N,e) plane (G: the gravitational bond number; Ne: the electrical Bond number). The Ohnesorge number, Taylor-Melcher number and permittivity ratio have little influence on the neutral stability curve. It is testified that the classical normal mode method cannot predict wave behaviour at small times.

  18. Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-05-15

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  19. Two-dimensional vertical moisture-pressure dynamics above groundwater waves: Sand flume experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Jazayeri; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre; Nielsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new laboratory dataset on the moisture-pressure relationship above a dispersive groundwater wave in a two-dimensional vertical unconfined sand flume aquifer driven by simple harmonic forcing. A total of five experiments were conducted in which all experimental parameters were kept constant except for the oscillation period, which ranged from 268 s to 2449 s between tests. Moisture content and suction head sensor pairings were co-located at two locations in the unsaturated zone both approximately 0.2 m above the mean watertable elevation and respectively 0.3 m and 0.75 m from the driving head boundary. For all oscillation periods except for the shortest (T = 268s), the formation of a hysteretic moisture-pressure scanning loop was observed. Consistent with the decay of the saturated zone groundwater wave, the size of the observed moisture-pressure scanning loops decayed with increasing distance landward and the decay rate is larger for the shorter oscillation periods. At the shortest period (T = 268s), the observed moisture-pressure relationship was observed to be non-hysteretic but with a capillary capacity that differs from that of the static equilibrium wetting and drying curves. This finding is consistent with observations from existing one-dimensional vertical sand column experiments. The relative damping of the moisture content with distance landward is higher than that for the suction head consistent with the fact that transmission of pressure through a porous medium occurs more readily than mass transfer. This is further supported by the fact that observed phase lags for the unsaturated zone variables (i.e. suction head and moisture content) relative to the driving head are greater than the saturated zone variables (i.e. piezometric head). Harmonic analysis of the data reveals no observable generation of higher harmonics in either moisture or pressure despite the strongly non-linear relationship between the two. In addition, a phase lag

  20. Zero-differential resistance state of two-dimensional electron systems in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A A; Zhang, Jing-qiao; Vitkalov, Sergey; Kalagin, A K; Bakarov, A K

    2007-09-14

    We report the observation of a zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) in response to a direct current above a threshold value I>I th applied to a two-dimensional system of electrons at low temperatures in a strong magnetic field. Entry into the ZDRS, which is not observable above several Kelvins, is accompanied by a sharp dip in the differential resistance. Additional analysis reveals an instability of the electrons for I>I th and an inhomogeneous, nonstationary pattern of the electric current. We suggest that the dominant mechanism leading to the new electron state is a redistribution of electrons in energy space induced by the direct current.

  1. Return probability and recurrence for the random walk driven by two-dimensional Gaussian free field

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Marek; Ding, Jian; Goswami, Subhajit

    2016-01-01

    Given any $\\gamma>0$ and for $\\eta=\\{\\eta_v\\}_{v\\in \\mathbb Z^2}$ denoting a sample of the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free field on $\\mathbb Z^2$ pinned at the origin, we consider the random walk on $\\mathbb Z^2$ among random conductances where the conductance of edge $(u, v)$ is given by $\\mathrm{e}^{\\gamma(\\eta_u + \\eta_v)}$. We show that, for almost every $\\eta$, this random walk is recurrent and that, with probability tending to 1 as $T\\to \\infty$, the return probability at time $2...

  2. Scaling and universality in the two-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Dudalev, Michael Yu; Bazhanov, Vladimir V; Batchelor, Murray T

    2010-06-01

    The scaling function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the square and triangular lattices is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer-matrix approach. The use of Aharony-Fisher nonlinear scaling variables allowed us to perform calculations sufficiently away from the critical point and to confirm all predictions of the scaling and universality hypotheses. Our results are in excellent agreement with quantum field theory calculations of Fonseca and Zamolodchikov as well as with many previously known exact and numerical calculations, including susceptibility results by Barouch, McCoy, Tracy, and Wu.

  3. Zero-differential conductance of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. A.; Byrnes, Sean; Dietrich, Scott; Vitkalov, Sergey; Marchishin, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. V.

    2013-02-01

    An electronic state with zero-differential conductance is found in nonlinear response to an electric field E applied to two dimensional Corbino discs of highly mobile carriers placed in quantizing magnetic fields. The state occurs above a critical electric field E>Eth at low temperatures and is accompanied by an abrupt dip in the differential conductance. The proposed model considers a local instability of the electric field E as the origin of the observed phenomenon. Comparison between the observed electronic state and the state with zero differential resistance, occurring in Hall bar geometry, indicates that the nonlinear response of edge states and/or skipping orbits is not essential in the studied samples. The result confirms that quantal heating is the dominant nonlinear mechanism leading to electronic states with both zero differential resistance and conductance.

  4. Entanglement entropy for a Maxwell field: Numerical calculation on a two dimensional lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy (EE) for a Maxwell field in 2+1 dimensions. We do numerical calculations in two dimensional lattices. This gives a concrete example of the general results of our recent work on entropy for lattice gauge fields using an algebraic approach. To evaluate the entropies we extend the standard calculation methods for the entropy of Gaussian states in canonical commutation algebras to the more general case of algebras with center and arbitrary numerical commutators. We find that while the entropy depends on the details of the algebra choice, mutual information has a well defined continuum limit. We study several universal terms for the entropy of the Maxwell field and compare with the case of a massless scalar field. We find some interesting new phenomena: An "evanescent" logarithmically divergent term in the entropy with topological coefficient which does not have any correspondence with ultraviolet entanglement in the universal quantities, and a non standard way in which strong subaddi...

  5. Donor-bound electron states in a two-dimensional quantum ring under uniform magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Bo-Yong; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Liu Yu-Min; Han Li-Hong; Yao Wen-Jie; Feng Hao; Ye Han

    2011-01-01

    The electron states in a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs quantum ring are theoretically studied in effective mass approximation. On-centre donor impurity and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the ring plane are taken into account. The energy spectrum with different angular momentum changes dramatically with the geometry of the ring.The donor impurity reduces the energies with an almost fixed value; however, the magnetic field alters energies in a more complex way. For example, energy levels under magnetic field will cross each other when increasing the inner radius and outer radius of the ring, leading to the fact that the arrangement of energy levels is distinct in certain geometry of the ring. Moreover, energy levels with negative angular momentum exhibit the non-monotonous dependence on the increasing magnetic field.

  6. Two-dimensional behavior of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow with a strong guiding field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-11-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the presence of a guiding magnetic field are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. The basis of the investigation consists of nine runs forced at the small scales. The results demonstrate that for a large enough uniform magnetic field the large scale flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) (non-MHD) fluid exhibiting an inverse cascade of energy in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the small scales behave like a three-dimensional (3D) MHD fluid cascading the energy forwards. The amplitude of the inverse cascade is sensitive to the magnetic field amplitude, the domain size, the forcing mechanism, and the forcing scale. All these dependences are demonstrated by the varying parameters of the simulations. Furthermore, in the case that the system is forced anisotropically in the small parallel scales an inverse cascade in the parallel direction is observed that is feeding the 2D modes k(//)=0.

  7. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  8. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  9. Coexistence of superconductivity and density waves in quasi-two-dimensional metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismer, Jan-Peter

    2011-06-03

    This dissertation deals with the high-temperature superconductivity in the hole- and electron-doped copper superconductors. In the first part, superconducting phases are investigated on a background of different types of density waves. Singlet superconductivity is studied with s- and d-wave symmetry on a background of spin, charge or D-density waves with respect to stability as well as phase structure and impulse dependence of the gap function. In the second part, the dynamic spin susceptibility for different phases is calculated and compared with experimental data extracted from results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The observed phases are d-wave superconductivity, D-density wave, and coexistence of the two. For d-wave superconductivity, the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the copper oxide layer and the temperature development of the susceptibility when for T >> T{sub c} a spin density wave phase is present are investigated. [German] Diese Dissertation beschaeftigt sich mit der Hochtemperatursupraleitung in den loch- und elektron-dotierten Kuprat-Supraleitern. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit werden supraleitende Phasen auf einem Hintergrund verschiedener Typen von Dichtewellen untersucht. Es wird Singlett-Supraleitung mit s- und d-Wellen-Symmetrie auf einem Hintergrund von Spin-, Ladungs- oder D-Dichtewelle hinsichtlich Stabilitaet sowie Phasenstruktur und Impulsabhaengigkeit der Gapfunktion untersucht. Im zweiten Teil wird die dynamische Spinsuszeptibilitaet fuer verschiedene Phasen berechnet und mit experimentellen Daten verglichen, die aus Ergebnissen von Inelastischen Neutronenstreuungsexperimenten extrahiert wurden. Die betrachteten Phasen sind d-Wellen-Supraleitung, D-Dichtewelle und Koexistenz der beiden. Fuer d-Wellen-Supraleitung werden der Einfluss eines Magnetfelds parallel zur Kupferoxidschicht und die Temperaturentwicklung der Suszeptibilitaet, wenn fuer T >> T{sub c} eine Spin-Dichtewelle-Phase vorliegt, untersucht.

  10. Non-Linear Conduction in the Density Wave State of Quasi-Two Dimensional Organic Conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yoneyama, Naoki; Kobayashi, Norio

    2004-06-01

    Current-voltage characteristics are measured in the quasi-two dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 at temperatures down to 0.5 K and in the magnetic field up to 25 T. The non-linear conduction with a threshold electric field is found in the density wave state. The features of threshold electric field obtained in the low magnetic field region are explained by the unconventional charge density wave model. In the high magnetic field region, where the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations appear, the current-voltage characteristics reveal that the density wave state synchronizes with the filling of the electron on the Landau level and continues even above a kink field 23 T.

  11. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2010-12-01

    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth-order phase-field crystal model [A. Jaatinen , Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevE.80.031602] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase-field crystal models. We find that among the phase-field crystal models studied, the eighth-order fitting scheme gives results in good agreement with the density functional theory for both static and dynamic properties, suggesting it is an accurate and computationally efficient approximation to the density functional theory.

  12. Multiscale Analysis for Field-Effect Penetration through Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Rice, Peter; Santos, Elton J G; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-08-10

    Gate-tunable two-dimensional (2D) materials-based quantum capacitors (QCs) and van der Waals heterostructures involve tuning transport or optoelectronic characteristics by the field effect. Recent studies have attributed the observed gate-tunable characteristics to the change of the Fermi level in the first 2D layer adjacent to the dielectrics, whereas the penetration of the field effect through the one-molecule-thick material is often ignored or oversimplified. Here, we present a multiscale theoretical approach that combines first-principles electronic structure calculations and the Poisson-Boltzmann equation methods to model penetration of the field effect through graphene in a metal-oxide-graphene-semiconductor (MOGS) QC, including quantifying the degree of "transparency" for graphene two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to an electric displacement field. We find that the space charge density in the semiconductor layer can be modulated by gating in a nonlinear manner, forming an accumulation or inversion layer at the semiconductor/graphene interface. The degree of transparency is determined by the combined effect of graphene quantum capacitance and the semiconductor capacitance, which allows us to predict the ranking for a variety of monolayer 2D materials according to their transparency to an electric displacement field as follows: graphene > silicene > germanene > WS2 > WTe2 > WSe2 > MoS2 > phosphorene > MoSe2 > MoTe2, when the majority carrier is electron. Our findings reveal a general picture of operation modes and design rules for the 2D-materials-based QCs.

  13. Two-dimensional manipulation of microparticles using phase-controllable ultrasonic standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, C. R. P.; Ong, C.-K.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Grinenko, A.

    2012-05-01

    The ability to trap, and then manipulate, micro-particles in a fluid, is of interest as a research tool in the biosciences. Applications include tissue engineering, particle sorting and improving alignment with bio-sensors. This paper relates to the use of phase-controllable counter-propagating ultrasonic waves to generate a standing wave with pressure nodes whose positions are determined by the relative phases of the component counter-propagating travelling waves. As dense (relative to the fluid) particles are forced to nodes in the pressure field this allows particles to be trapped at particular points and moved to arbitrary positions. Counter-propagating waves are generated using pairs of opposing transducers, matched and backed to minimise reflection. Using one pair of transducers allows particles to be trapped and manipulated in one dimension. Using two pairs of transducers, positioned orthogonally, and adjusting the relative phases appropriately, allows trapping and manipulation in two dimensions. The device is shown experimentally to be capable of trapping and manipulating 10-micron-diameter polystyrene beads in two dimensions.

  14. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Pham, Dang-Lan [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software Town, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: hoanglv@hcmup.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity.

  15. Error analysis for satellite gravity field determination based on two-dimensional Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Lin; Hsu, Houtse; Gao, Fang; Zhu, Zhu; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The time-wise and space-wise approaches are generally applied to data processing and error analysis for satellite gravimetry missions. But both the approaches, which are based on least-squares collocation, address the whole effect of measurement errors and estimate the resolution of gravity field models mainly from a numerical point of indirect view. Moreover, requirement for higher accuracy and resolution gravity field models could make the computation more difficult, and serious numerical instabilities arise. In order to overcome the problems, this study focuses on constructing a direct relationship between power spectral density of the satellite gravimetry measurements and coefficients of the Earth's gravity potential. Based on two-dimensional Fourier transform, the relationship is analytically concluded. By taking advantage of the analytical expression, it is efficient and distinct for parameter estimation and error analysis of missions. From the relationship and the simulations, it is analytically confir...

  16. Relative entropy of excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sárosi, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We study the relative entropy and the trace square distance, both of which measure the distance between reduced density matrices of two excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories. We find a general formula for the relative entropy between two primary states with the same conformal dimension in the limit of a single small interval and find that in this case the relative entropy is proportional to the trace square distance. We check our general formulae by calculating the relative entropy between two generalized free fields and the trace square distance between the spin and disorder operators of the critical Ising model. We also give the leading term of the relative entropy in the small interval expansion when the two operators have different conformal dimensions. This turns out to be universal when the CFT has no primaires lighter than the stress tensor. The result reproduces the previously known special cases.

  17. New indices of coherence for one or two-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The modern definition of optical coherence highlights a frequency dependent function based on a matrix of spectra and cross-spectra. Due to general properties of matrices, such a function is invariant in changes of basis. In this article, we attempt to measure the proximity of two stationary fields by a real and positive number between 0 and 1. The extremal values will correspond to uncorrelation and linear dependence, similar to a correlation coefficient which measures linear links between random variables. We show that these "indices of coherence" are generally not symmetric, and not unique. We study and we illustrate this problem together for one-dimensional and two-dimensional fields in the framework of stationary processes.

  18. Zeeman-Field-Tuned Topological Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Class-DIII Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W Y; Geng, H; Luo, W; Sheng, L; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductor in the presence of a Zeeman field. Based on the spin Chern number theory, we find that the system exhibits a number of topologically distinct phases with changing the out-of-plane component of the Zeeman field, including a quantum spin Hall-like phase, quantum anomalous Hall-like phases with total Chern number C = -2, -1, 1 and 2, and a topologically trivial superconductor phase. The BdG band gap closes at each boundary of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zero bias conductance provides clear transport signatures of the different topological phases, which are robust against symmetry-breaking perturbations.

  19. Evidence of two-dimensional quantum Wigner Crystal in a zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    In disorder-dominated cases, Anderson localization occurs as a result of destructive interference effects caused by (short-ranged) random disorders. On the other hand, in interaction-dominated scenarios, striking manifestations of quantum physics emerge in response to strong inter-particle Coulomb energy (EC). The most prominent interaction-driven effect is the Wigner crystallization (WC) of electrons, an electron solid made up with spatially separated charges settling in a form of a lattice. The classical version of the crystallization, with the Debye temperature ΘD two-dimensional (2D) electrons on helium surfaces (EHS). However, the more desired quantum version with the Fermi energy EF <field. We present a transport study of ultra-high quality dilute two-dimensional hole (2DH) systems in a genuine interaction-driven regime. A high resolution dc VI measurement reveals a pA level threshold transport accompanied by resistivity oscillations, indicating the coexistence of a pinned quantum WC with discrete edge filaments of unpinned carriers. NSF DMR 1105183

  20. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P. [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes, UMR CNRS 6294, Université du Havre, 75 rue Bellot, 76058 Le Havre (France); Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C. [Institut d' Electronique, de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  1. Vibrational wave packet induced oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectra. II. Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mancal, Tomas; Milota, Franz; Lukes, Vladimir; Kauffmann, Harald F; Sperling, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory of vibrational modulation of two-dimensional coherent Fourier transformed electronic spectra. Based on an expansion of the system's energy gap correlation function in terms of Huang-Rhys factors, we explain the time-dependent oscillatory behavior of the absorptive and dispersive parts of two-dimensional spectra of a two-level electronic system, weakly coupled to intramolecular vibrational modes. The theory predicts oscillations in the relative amplitudes of the rephasing and non-rephasing parts of the two-dimensional spectra, and enables to analyze time dependent two-dimensional spectra in terms of simple elementary components whose line-shapes are dictated by the interaction of the system with the solvent only. The theory is applicable to both low and high energy (with respect to solvent induced line broadening) vibrations. The results of this paper enable to qualitatively explain experimental observations on low energy vibrations presented in the preceding paper [A. Nemeth et al, arXiv:1...

  2. Development and transition of spiral wave in the coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in two-dimensional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Ying He-Ping; Liu Yong; Li Shi-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics and the transition of spiral waves in the couplcd Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neurons in two-dimensional space are investigated in the paper. It is found that the spiral wave can be induced and developed in the coupled HR neurons in two-dimensional space, with appropriate initial values and a parameter region given. However, the spiral wave could encounter instability when the intensity of the external current reaches a threshold value of 1.945. The transition of spiral wave is found to be affected by coupling intensity D and bifurcation parameter r. The spiral wave becomes sparse as the coupling intensity increases, while the spiral wave is eliminated and the whole neuronal system becomes homogeneous as the bifurcation parameter increases to a certain threshold value. Then the coupling action of the four sub-adjacent neurons, which is described by coupling coefficient DI, is also considered, and it is found that the spiral wave begins to breakup due to the introduced coupling action from the sub-adjacent neurons (or sites) and together with the coupling action of the nearest-neighbour neurons, which is described by the coupling intensity D.

  3. Axisymmetric Two-Dimensional Computation of Magnetic Field Dragging in Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we model a geometrically thin accretion disk interacting with an externally imposed, uniform, vertical magnetic field. The accretion flow in the disk drags and distorts field lines, amplifying the magnetic field in the process. Inside the disk the radial component of the field is sheared into a toroidal component. The aim of this work is to establish the character of the resultant magnetic field and its dependence on the disk's parameters. We concentrate on alpha-disks driven by turbulent viscosity. Axisymmetric, two-dimensional solutions are obtained without taking into account the back-reaction of the magnetic field on the structure of the disk. The character of the magnetic field depends strongly on the magnitude of the magnetic Prandtl number, P . We present two illustrative examples of viscous disks: a so-called 'standard' steady state model of a disk around a compact star (e.g., cataclysmic variable), and a steady state model of a proto-planetary disk. In both cases, P = 1, P = 10(sup -1), and P = 10(sup -2) scenarios are calculated. Significant bending and magnification of the magnetic field is possible only for disks characterized by P of the order of 10(sup -2). In such a case, the field lines are bent sufficiently to allow the development of a centrifugally driven wind. Inside the disk the field is dominated by its toroidal component. We also investigate the dragging of the magnetic field by a nonviscous protoplanetary disk described by a phenomenological model. This scenario leads to large distortion and magnification of the magnetic field.

  4. Diffeomorphism algebra of two dimensional free massless scalar field with signature change

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F; Rezaei-Aghdam, A

    1999-01-01

    We study a model of free massless scalar fields on a two dimensional cylinder with metric that admits a change of signature between Lorentzian and Euclidean type (ET), across the two timelike hypersurfaces (with respect to Lorentzian region). Considering a long strip-shaped region of the cylinder, denoted by an angle \\theta, as the signature changed region it is shown that the energy spectrum depends on the angle \\theta and in a sense differs from ordinary one for low energies. Morever diffeomorphism algebra of corresponding infinite conserved charges is different from '' Virasoro'' algebra and approaches to it at higher energies. The central term is also modified but does not approach to the ordinary one at higher energies.

  5. Quantum Phase Transition in the Two-Dimensional Random Transverse-Field Ising Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, C.; Young, A. P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model by Monte Carlo simulations. In one-dimension it has been established that this system has the following striking behavior: (i) the dynamical exponent is infinite, and (ii) the exponents for the divergence of the average and typical correlation lengths are different. An important issue is whether this behavior is special to one-dimension or whether similar behavior persists in higher dimensions. Here we attempt to answer this question by studies of the two-dimensional model. Our simulations use the Wolff cluster algorithm and the results are analyzed by anisotropic finite size scaling, paying particular attention to the Binder ratio of moments of the order parameter distribution and the distribution of the spin-spin correlation functions for various distances.

  6. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    The Halbach cylinder is a construction of permanent magnets used in applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus, accelerator magnets and magnetic cooling devices. In this paper the analytical expression for the magnetic vector potential, magnetic flux density and magnetic field for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer $p$. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero except for the case where $p$ for the inner magnet is one minus $p$ for the outer magnet. Also the force is shown never to be balancing. The torque is shown to be zero unless the inner magnet $p$ is equal to minus the outer magnet $p$. Thus there can never be a force and a torque in the same system.

  8. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sohail; Yi, Jiabao

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive interest due to their excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene has been one of the most explored 2D materials. However, its zero band gap has limited its applications in electronic devices. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), another kind of 2D material, has a nonzero direct band gap (same charge carrier momentum in valence and conduction band) at monolayer state, promising for the efficient switching devices (e.g., field-effect transistors). This review mainly focuses on the recent advances in charge carrier mobility and the challenges to achieve high mobility in the electronic devices based on 2D-TMDC materials and also includes an introduction of 2D materials along with the synthesis techniques. Finally, this review describes the possible methodology and future prospective to enhance the charge carrier mobility for electronic devices.

  9. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Luo, Zhengtang, E-mail: keztluo@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-04-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and ∼2298 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  10. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2011-03-21

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ(2)∕εσ(3) ≤ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  11. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ2/ɛσ3 ⩽ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  12. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Instability and Death of Spiral Wave in a Two-Dimensional Array of Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ni; Ma, Jun; Tang, Jun; Li, Yan-Long

    2010-02-01

    Spiral wave could be observed in the excitable media, the neurons are often excitable within appropriate parameters. The appearance and formation of spiral wave in the cardiac tissue is linked to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia that can denervate into polymorphic tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The neuronal system often consists of a large number of neurons with complex connections. In this paper, we theoretically study the transition from spiral wave to spiral turbulence and homogeneous state (death of spiral wave) in two-dimensional array of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron with completely nearest-neighbor connections. In our numerical studies, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed and selected as the initial state, then the bifurcation parameters are changed to different values to observe the transition from spiral wave to homogeneous state, breakup of spiral wave and weak change of spiral wave, respectively. A statistical factor of synchronization is defined with the mean field theory to analyze the transition from spiral wave to other spatial states, and the snapshots of the membrane potentials of all neurons and time series of mean membrane potentials of all neurons are also plotted to discuss the change of spiral wave. It is found that the sharp changing points in the curve for factor of synchronization vs. bifurcation parameter indicate sudden transition from spiral wave to other states. And the results are independent of the number of neurons we used.

  13. Tunable spin wave dynamics in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanodot lattices by varying dot shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahato, Bipul Kumar; Rana, Bivas; Kumar, Dheeraj; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sugimoto, Satoshi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate tunable spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanodot lattices by varying dot shape. A single collective mode in elliptical dot lattices transforms into three distinct modes for the half-elliptical, rectangular, and diamond dot lattices, albeit with different peak frequencies and intensities. A drastic change is observed for the triangular dots, where eight modes covering a broad band are observed. Using micromagnetic simulations, we characterized the modes as different localized, extended, and quantized modes, whose frequencies and spatial profiles are determined by a combination of internal field profiles within the nanodots and the stray magnetic field within the lattice.

  14. Simulations of low field helicon discharges using a two-dimensional hybrid plasma equipment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinder, R.L.; Kushner, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    As the semiconductor industry moves towards larger wafers, a greater degree of process uniformity than is currently available with conventional inductively coupled plasma reactors will be necessary. Due to their high ionization efficiency, high flux density and their ability to deposit power within the volume of the plasma, helicon reactors are being developed for downstream etching and deposition. The power coupling of the antenna radiation to the plasma is of concern due to issues related to process uniformity. Furthermore, operation of helicon discharges at low magnetic fields (5--20 G) is not only economically attractive, but lower fields provide greater ion flux uniformity to the substrate. At low magnetic fields, it has been observed that there is a resonant peak in the power deposition and plasma density. This has been attributed to the occurrence of an electron cyclotron wave, or Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) mode, when {omega}/{omega}{sub c} is of order unity. To investigate these issues, the authors have improved the electromagnetics module of the HPEM to resolve the helicon wave structure of a m = 0 mode. The electrostatic component of the wave equation has been neglected, so this work focuses on the effects of the helicon mode. Plasma dynamics are coupled to the electromagnetic fields through a tensor form of Ohm's law and an effective collision frequency for Landau damping has been incorporated. Using a solenoidal magnetic field and an antenna operating at 13.65 MHz, studies show a shift in the power deposition towards the center of the reactor as the magnetic field is decreased below 30 G. Furthermore, peak values and wave structure is sensitive to the magnetic field configuration. Results for process relevant gas mixtures are examined and the dependence on magnetic field strength, field configuration and power are discussed.

  15. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Propagation of Ion Acoustic Waves through KPB and KP Equations in Weakly Relativistic Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hafez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional three-component plasma system consisting of nonextensive electrons, positrons, and relativistic thermal ions is considered. The well-known Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations are derived to study the basic characteristics of small but finite amplitude ion acoustic waves of the plasmas by using the reductive perturbation method. The influences of positron concentration, electron-positron and ion-electron temperature ratios, strength of electron and positrons nonextensivity, and relativistic streaming factor on the propagation of ion acoustic waves in the plasmas are investigated. It is revealed that the electrostatic compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic waves are obtained for superthermal electrons and positrons, but only compressive ion acoustic waves are found and the potential profiles become steeper in case of subthermal positrons and electrons.

  16. Synchronization of radiation in an oversized coaxial Ka-band backward wave oscillator using two-dimensional Bragg structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ginzburg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A coaxial Ka-band backward wave oscillator with a two-dimensional Bragg structure located at the output of the interaction space has been studied. This structure has a double-period corrugation and provides azimuthal electromagnetic energy fluxes, which act on the synchronized radiation of an oversized tubular electron beam. Proof-of-principle experiments were conducted based on the Saturn thermionic accelerator (300  keV/200  A/2  μs. In accordance with simulations, narrow-band generation was obtained at a frequency of 30 GHz and a power level of 1.5–2 MW. As a result, the possibility of using a two-dimensional distributed feedback mechanism in oscillators of the Cherenkov type has been demonstrated.

  17. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large r{sub s} value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with r{sub s} > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  18. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×108 cm-2. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large rs value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with rs > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  19. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2013-03-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation

  20. Excitation of instability waves in a two-dimensional shear layer by sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation of instability waves in a plane compressible shear layer by sound waves is studied. The problem is formulated mathematically as an inhomogeneous boundary-value problem. A general solution for abitrary incident sound wave is found by first constructing the Green's function of the problem. Numerical values of the coupling constants between incident sound waves and excited instability waves for a range of flow Mach number are calculated. The effect of the angle of incidence in the case of a beam of acoustic waves is analyzed. It is found that for moderate subsonic Mach numbers a narrow beam aiming at an angle between 50 to 80 deg to the flow direction is most effective in exciting instability waves.

  1. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  2. Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    Full Text Available Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF. Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.

    Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  3. A benchmark study of the two-dimensional Hubbard model with auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Ground state properties of the Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are studied by the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method. Accurate results for energy, double occupancy, effective hopping, magnetization, and momentum distribution are calculated for interaction strengths of U/t from 2 to 8, for a range of densities including half-filling and n = 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.75, and 0.875. At half-filling, the results are numerically exact. Away from half-filling, the constrained path Monte Carlo method is employed to control the sign problem. Our results are obtained with several advances in the computational algorithm, which are described in detail. We discuss the advantages of generalized Hartree-Fock trial wave functions and its connection to pairing wave functions, as well as the interplay with different forms of Hubbard-Stratonovich decompositions. We study the use of different twist angle sets when applying the twist averaged boundary conditions. We propose the use of quasi-random sequences, whi...

  4. Two-dimensional nonstationary flow of a conducting fluid, induced by a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, A.B.

    1977-07-01

    An examination is made of a full induction problem on the planar movement of a conducting fluid in a rotating magnetic field. The solution to this problem is sought by the method of degradation into Fourier series by harmonics of the rotating field. The initial system of partial differential equations is reduced to the system 2+1 of normal differential equations that bind the amplitudes of function harmonics and electrical vector potential. A solution to the problem for small anti ..omega.. was found with an accuracy up to the second approximation. The unsteadiness of flow was found to be manifested in a form of induced cross-sectional waves, traveling along the stream tubes of this flow at a speed that is equal to the phase velocity of the magnetic field. The appearance of wave effects is explained by considerations of symmetry. 5 references, 1 figure.

  5. Two-dimensional structure of mountain wave observed by aircraft during the PYREX experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Attié

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis from aircraft measurements above the Pyrenees chain during the PYREX experiment. The Pyrenees chain, roughly WE oriented, is a major barrier for northerly and southerly airflows. We present a case of southerly flow (15 October 1990 and three successive cases of northerly flows above the Pyrenees (14, 15 and 16 November 1990 documented by two aircraft. The aircraft have described a vertical cross section perpendicular to the Pyrenean ridge. This area is described via the thermodynamical and dynamical fields which have a horizontal resolution of 10 km. Three methods for computing the vertical velocity of the air are presented. The horizontal advection terms which play a role in the budget equations are also evaluated. The altitude turbulence zone of 15 October are shown via turbulent fluxes, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, dissipation rate of TKE and inertial length-scale. A comparison of results obtained by eddy-correlation and inertial-dissipation method is presented. The experimental results show a warm and dry downdraft for the southerly flow with large values for advection terms. All the mountain wave cases are also shown to present an important dynamical perturbation just above the Pyrenees at upper altitudes.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects on two-dimensional MoS2 field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julian J.; Cress, Cory D.; Arnold, Heather N.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Schmucker, Scott W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2017-02-01

    Atomically thin MoS2 has generated intense interest for emerging electronics applications. Its two-dimensional nature and potential for low-power electronics are particularly appealing for space-bound electronics, motivating the need for a fundamental understanding of MoS2 electronic device response to the space radiation environment. In this letter, we quantify the response of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) total ionizing dose radiation. Single-layer (SL) and multilayer (ML) MoS2 FETs are compared to identify differences that arise from thickness and band structure variations. The measured evolution of the FET transport properties is leveraged to identify the nature of VUV-induced trapped charge, isolating the effects of the interface and bulk oxide dielectric. In both the SL and ML cases, oxide trapped holes compete with interface trapped electrons, exhibiting an overall shift toward negative gate bias. Raman spectroscopy shows no variation in the MoS2 signatures as a result of VUV exposure, eliminating significant crystalline damage or oxidation as possible radiation degradation mechanisms. Overall, this work presents avenues for achieving radiation-hard MoS2 devices through dielectric engineering that reduces oxide and interface trapped charge.

  7. Contact research strategy for emerging molybdenum disulfide and other two-dimensional field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered two-dimensional (2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs have been widely isolated, synthesized, and characterized recently. Numerous 2D materials are identified as the potential candidates as channel materials for future thin film technology due to their high mobility and the exhibiting bandgaps. While many TMD filed-effect transistors (FETs have been widely demonstrated along with a significant progress to clearly understand the device physics, large contact resistance at metal/semiconductor interface still remain a challenge. From 2D device research point of view, how to minimize the Schottky barrier effects on contacts thus reduce the contact resistance of metals on 2D materials is very critical for the further development of the field. Here, we present a review of contact research on molybdenum disulfide and other TMD FETs from the fundamental understanding of metal-semiconductor interfaces on 2D materials. A clear contact research strategy on 2D semiconducting materials is developed for future high-performance 2D FETs with aggressively scaled dimensions.

  8. Two-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, N. E.; Sasaki, Y.; Wilt, M. J.

    1985-03-01

    Two dimensional iterative, least-squares inversions were performed on dc resistivity data obtained over the geothermal field at five successive times during the 1979-1983 period. The solutions gave the percent change in resistivity within each of 47 rectangular blocks representing the reservoir and recharge regions. The changes are consistent with hydrogeologic and recharge models, on the basis of geophysical well logs, well cuttings, well production, geochemical and reservoir engineering data. The solutions support the model of a reservoir that is recharged mainly by cooler, less saline water, causing changes in both pore fluid resistivity and the extent of boiling near the wells. There may be a component of high-temperature recharge from below and to the east, but flow may be impeded by a two-phase zone. Notwithstanding the various sources of error and uncertainty in the data acquisition and 2-D inversions, repetitive, high precision dc resistivity monitoring seems to be a useful method for assessing reservoir conditions when used in conjunction with production and reservoir engineering data and analysis.

  9. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  10. Experimental study of two-dimensional turbulence properties in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votsish, A.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for an experimental study of two-dimensional turbulent flow with shifts in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field. The turbulent flow was shown to become practically equal to zero in a sufficiently strong field whereas the intensity of the pulsation rate has a finite value. This is explained by the fact that the magnetic field transforms the structure of turbulence into a two-dimensional structure whose maintenance merely requires an insignificant portion of medium flow energy. 4 illustrations, 8 references.

  11. Stabilizations of Two-Dimensional Trapped and Untrapped Matter Waves via a Feshbach Resonance Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-Bing; HAI Wen-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have studied the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) trapped and untrapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with a rapid periodic modulation of the scattering length via a Feshbach resonance technique, a → ao + a1 sin(Ωt) with an attractive (negative) mean value and the large constants ao, a1 and Ω.Applying a variation approximation (VA), the critical threshold for the collapse of the 2D trapped vortex BEC is predicted and the collapse is prevented by causing the scattering length oscillating rapidly.On the other hand, with analytical calculation, we prove that the stabilization of a bright soliton in a 2D untrapped BEC is impossible for enough large interaction intensity and the upper limit of the intensity for the soliton stabilization is derived.

  12. Monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment by shear wave elastography induced by two-dimensional-array therapeutic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Nagaoka, Ryo; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is expected to be a noninvasive monitoring method of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, conventional SWE techniques encounter difficulty in inducing shear waves with adequate displacements in deep tissue. To observe tissue coagulation at the HIFU focal depth via SWE, in this study, we propose using a two-dimensional-array therapeutic transducer for not only HIFU exposure but also creating shear sources. The results show that the reconstructed shear wave velocity maps detected the coagulated regions as the area of increased propagation velocity even in deep tissue. This suggests that “HIFU-push” shear elastography is a promising solution for the purpose of coagulation monitoring in deep tissue, because push beams irradiated by the HIFU transducer can naturally reach as deep as the tissue to be coagulated by the same transducer.

  13. Acoustic Wave Propagation Modeling by a Two-dimensional Finite-difference Summation-by-parts Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petersson, N. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Acoustic waveform modeling is a computationally intensive task and full three-dimensional simulations are often impractical for some geophysical applications such as long-range wave propagation and high-frequency sound simulation. In this study, we develop a two-dimensional high-order accurate finite-difference code for acoustic wave modeling. We solve the linearized Euler equations by discretizing them with the sixth order accurate finite difference stencils away from the boundary and the third order summation-by-parts (SBP) closure near the boundary. Non-planar topographic boundary is resolved by formulating the governing equation in curvilinear coordinates following the interface. We verify the implementation of the algorithm by numerical examples and demonstrate the capability of the proposed method for practical acoustic wave propagation problems in the atmosphere.

  14. A method for the frequency control in time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an extension of the time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging based on the optical pump-probe technique with periodic light source at a fixed repetition frequency. Usually such imaging measurement may generate and detect acoustic waves with their frequencies only at or near the integer multiples of the repetition frequency. Here we propose a method which utilizes the amplitude modulation of the excitation pulse train to modify the generation frequency free from the mentioned limitation, and allows for the first time the discrimination of the resulted upper- and lower-side-band frequency components in the detection. The validity of the method is demonstrated in a simple measurement on an isotropic glass plate covered by a metal thin film to extract the dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves.

  15. Bloch waves in an arbitrary two-dimensional lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2016-01-01

    We study waves governed by the planar Helmholtz equation, propagating in an infinite lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers, the periodicity being comparable to the wavelength. Applying the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the scatterers are effectively replaced by asymptotic point constraints. The resulting coarse-grained Bloch-wave dispersion problem is solved by a generalised Fourier series, whose singular asymptotics in the vicinities of scatterers yield the dispersion relation governing modes that are strongly perturbed from plane-wave solutions existing in the absence of the scatterers; there are also empty-lattice waves that are only weakly perturbed. Characterising the latter is useful in interpreting and potentially designing the dispersion diagrams of such lattices. The method presented, that simplifies and expands on Krynkin & McIver [Waves Random Complex, 19 347 2009], could be applied in the future to study more sophisticated designs entailing resonant subwavelength elements di...

  16. Riccati parameterized self-similar waves in two-dimensional graded-index waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Kanchan; Goyal, Amit; Raju, Thokala Soloman; Kumar, C. N.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method based on gauge-similarity transformation technique has been employed for mapping a (2+1)- dimensional variable coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations (vc-CNLSE) with dispersion, nonlinearity and gain to standard NLSE. Under certain functional relations we construct a large family of self-similar waves in the form of bright similaritons, Akhmediev breathers and rogue waves. We report the effect of dispersion on the intensity of the solitary waves. Further, we illustrate the procedure to amplify the intensity of self-similar waves using isospectral Hamiltonian approach. This approach provides an efficient mechanism to generate analytically a wide class of tapering profiles and widths by exploiting the Riccati parameter. Equivalently, it enables one to control efficiently the self-similar wave structures and hence their evolution.

  17. ELASTIC WAVE LOCALIZATION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL PHONONIC CRYSTALS WITH ONE-DIMENSIONAL QUASI-PERIODICITY AND RANDOM DISORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Chen; Yuesheng Wang; Guilan Yu; Yafang Guo; Zhengdao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The band structures of both in-plane and anti-plane elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional ordered and disordered (in one direction) phononic crystals are studied in this paper. The localization of wave propagation due to random disorder is discussed by introducing the concept of the localization factor that is calculated by the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method. By treating the quasi-periodicity as the deviation from the periodicity in a special way, two kinds of quasi phononic crystal that has quasi-periodicity (Fibonacci sequence) in one direction and translational symmetry in the other direction are considered and the band structures are characterized by using localization factors. The results show that the localization factor is an effective parameter in characterizing the band gaps of two-dimensional perfect, randomly disordered and quasi-periodic phcnonic crystals. Band structures of the phononic crystals can be tuned by different random disorder or changing quasi-periodic parameters. The quasi phononic crystals exhibit more band gaps with narrower width than the ordered and randomly disordered systems.

  18. Pattern formation and coarse-graining in two-dimensional colloids driven by multiaxial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2014-05-13

    We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.

  19. Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

  20. Systematic method for unification of various field theories in a two-dimensional classical $\\phi^4$ field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zarei, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Although creating a unified theory in Elementary Particles Physics is still an open problem, there are a lot of attempts for unifying other fields of physics. Following such unifications, we regard a two dimensional (2D) classical $\\Phi^{4}$ field theory model to study several field theories with different symmetries in various dimensions. While the completeness of this model has been already proved by a mapping between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, here, we take into account a fundamental systematic approach with purely mathematical basis to re-derive such completeness in a general manner. Due to simplicity and generality, we believe that our method leads to a general approach which can be understood by other physical communities as well as quantum information theorists. Furthermore, our proof of the completeness is not only a proof-of-principle, but also an interesting algorithmic proof. We consider a discrete version of a general field theory as an arbitrary polynomial function of f...

  1. KP solitons and the Grassmannians combinatorics and geometry of two-dimensional wave patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to treat combinatorial and geometric aspects of two-dimensional solitons. Based on recent research by the author and his collaborators, the book presents new developments focused on an interplay between the theory of solitons and the combinatorics of finite-dimensional Grassmannians, in particular, the totally nonnegative (TNN) parts of the Grassmannians. The book begins with a brief introduction to the theory of the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation and its soliton solutions, called the KP solitons. Owing to the nonlinearity in the KP equation, the KP solitons form very complex but interesting web-like patterns in two dimensions. These patterns are referred to as soliton graphs. The main aim of the book is to investigate the detailed structure of the soliton graphs and to classify these graphs. It turns out that the problem has an intimate connection with the study of the TNN part of the Grassmannians. The book also provides an elementary introduction to the recent development of ...

  2. Magnons in a two-dimensional transverse-field XXZ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Satyaki; Wierschem, Keola; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-07-01

    The XXZ model on a square lattice in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied within the spin-wave theory to investigate the resulting canted antiferromagnet. The small- and large-field regimes are probed separately both for easy-axis and easy-plane scenarios which reveal an unentangled factorized ground state at an intermediate value of the field. Goldstone modes are obtained for the field-free XY antiferromagnet as well as for the isotropic antiferromagnet with field up to its saturation value. Moreover, for an easy-plane anisotropy, we find that there exists a nonzero field, where magnon degeneracy appears as a result of restoration of a U(1) sublattice symmetry and that, across that field, there occurs a magnon band crossing. For completeness, we then obtain the system phase diagram for S =1 /2 via large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations using the stochastic series expansion technique. Our numerical method is based on a quantization of spin along the direction of the applied magnetic field and does not suffer from a sign problem, unlike comparable algorithms based on a spin quantization along the axis of anisotropy. With this formalism, we are also able to obtain powder averages of the transverse and longitudinal magnetizations, which may be useful for understanding experimental measurements on polycrystalline samples.

  3. Quenching Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Electron Gas by a Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael; Rudin, Sergey; Greg Rupper Collaboration; Andrey Muraviev Collaboration

    Plasmonic detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the plasma wave excitation in 2D electron gas are capable of detecting ultra short THz pulses. To study the plasma wave propagation and decay, we used femtosecond laser pulses to quench the plasma waves excited by a short THz pulse. The femtosecond laser pulse generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs effectively shorting the 2D electron gas channel and dramatically increasing the channel conductance. Immediately after the application of the femtosecond laser pulse, the equivalent circuit of the device reduces to the source and drain contact resistances connected by a short. The total response charge is equal to the integral of the current induced by the THz pulse from the moment of the THz pulse application to the moment of the femtosecond laser pulse application. This current is determined by the plasma wave rectification. Registering the charge as a function of the time delay between the THz and laser pulses allowed us to follow the plasmonic wave decay. We observed the decaying oscillations in a sample with a partially gated channel. The decay depends on the gate bias and reflects the interplay between the gated and ungated plasmons in the device channel. Army Research Office.

  4. Two-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic half-space with quadratic nonlinearity: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, Sebastian; Meurer, Thomas; Jacobs, Laurence J; Qu, Jianmin

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates two-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic half-space with quadratic nonlinearity. The problem is formulated as a hyperbolic system of conservation laws, which is solved numerically using a semi-discrete central scheme. These numerical results are then analyzed in the frequency domain to interpret the nonlinear effects, specifically the excitation of higher-order harmonics. To quantify and compare the nonlinearity of different materials, a new parameter is introduced, which is similar to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter beta for one-dimensional longitudinal waves. By using this new parameter, it is found that the nonlinear effects of a material depend on the point of observation in the half-space, both the angle and the distance to the excitation source. Furthermore it is illustrated that the third-order elastic constants have a linear effect on the acoustic nonlinearity of a material.

  5. Frequency degeneracy of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Le Clezio, E [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2007-12-15

    Degeneracies of acoustic wave spectra in 2D phononic crystals (PC) and PC slabs are studied. A PC structure is constituted of parallel steel rods immersed into water and forming the quadratic lattice. Given the projection k{sub z} of the wave vector on the direction of rods, the bulk wave spectrum of the infinite PC is a set of frequency surfaces f{sub i}(k{sub x}, k{sub y}), i = 1,2,..., where k{sub x,y} are the components of the wave vector in the plane perpendicular to the rods. An investigation is performed of the shape of frequency surfaces in the vicinity of points (k{sub dx}, k{sub dy}), where these surfaces fall into contact. In addition, the evolution of the degeneracy with changing rod radius and cross-section shape is examined. Degeneracy in the spectrum of leaky modes propagating along a single waveguide in a PC slab is also investigated.

  6. Construction of wave operator for two-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger systems with Yukawa coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tsuruta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.

  7. A Bicharacteristic Scheme for the Numerical Computation of Two-Dimensional Converging Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, U E; Meier, Uwe E.; Demmig, Frank

    1997-01-01

    A 2d unsteady bicharacteristic scheme with shock fitting is presented and its characteristic step, shock point step and boundary step are described. The bicharacteristic scheme is compared with an UNO scheme and the Moretti scheme. Its capabilities are illustrated by computing a converging, deformed shock wave.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OVERTOPPING AGAINST SEAWALLS ARMORED WITH ARTIFICIAL UNITS IN REGULAR WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-jin; LIU Hua; WU Wei; ZHANG Jiu-shan

    2007-01-01

    A new mathematical model for the overtopping against seawalls armored with artificial units in regular waves was established. The 2-D numerical wave flume, based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard k-ε turbulence model, was developed to simulate the turbulent flows with the free surface, in which the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used to handle the large deformation of the free surface and the relaxation approach of combined wave generation and absorbing was implemented. In order to consider the effects of energy dissipation due to the armors on a slope seawall, a porous media model was proposed and implemented in the numerical wave flume. A series of physical model experiments were carried out in the same condition of the numerical simulation to determine the drag coefficient in the porous media model in terms of the overtopping discharge. Compared the computational value of overtopping over the seawall with the experimental data, the values of the effective drag coefficient was calibrated for the layers of blocks at different locations along the seawalls.

  9. Reduction of Multidimensional Wave Equations to Two-Dimensional Equations: Investigation of Possible Reduced Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yehorchenko, Irina

    2010-01-01

    We study possible Lie and non-classical reductions of multidimensional wave equations and the special classes of possible reduced equations - their symmetries and equivalence classes. Such investigation allows to find many new conditional and hidden symmetries of the original equations.

  10. Tunable spin wave spectra in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with varying lattice symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Saha, S.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Otani, Y. [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Ferromagnetic antidot lattices are important systems for magnetic data storage and magnonic devices, and understanding their magnetization dynamics by varying their structural parameters is an important problems in magnetism. Here, we investigate the variation in spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with lattice symmetry. By varying the bias magnetic field values in a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer, we observed a stark variation in the spin wave spectrum with the variation of lattice symmetry. The simulated mode profiles showed further difference in the spatial nature of the modes between different lattices. While for square and rectangular lattices extended modes are observed in addition to standing spin wave modes, all modes in the hexagonal, honeycomb, and octagonal lattices are either localized or standing waves. In addition, the honeycomb and octagonal lattices showed two different types of modes confined within the honeycomb (octagonal) units and between two such consecutive units. Simulated internal magnetic fields confirm the origin of such a wide variation in the frequency and spatial nature of the spin wave modes. The tunability of spin waves with the variation of lattice symmetry is important for the design of future magnetic data storage and magnonic devices.

  11. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer p. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero...

  12. Adaptive Algorithm for Estimation of Two-Dimensional Autoregressive Fields from Noisy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimorad Mahmoudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional autoregressive (AR estimation from noisy observations. The Yule-Walker equations are solved using adaptive steepest descent (SD algorithm. Performance comparisons are made with other existing methods to demonstrate merits of the proposed method.

  13. Generation of two-dimensional water waves by moving bottom disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Zuazua, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the potential and limitations of the wave generation by disturbances moving at the bottom. More precisely, we assume that the wavemaker is composed of an underwater object of a given shape which can be displaced according to a given trajectory. The practical question we address in this study is how to compute the wavemaker shape and its trajectory in order to generate a wave with prescribed characteristics? For the sake of simplicity we model the hydrodynamics by a generalized forced BBM equation. This practical problem is reformulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Some constraints are imposed in order to make practically feasible the computed solution. Finally, we show some numerical results to support our theoretical and algorithmic developments.

  14. d-wave superconductivity, antiferromagnetism and spin liquid in quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahebsara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The self-energy-functional approach is a powerful many-body tool to investigate different broken symmetry phases of strongly correlated electron systems. We use the variational cluster perturbation theory (also called the variational cluster approximation to investigate the interplay between the antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity of κ-(ET2 X conductors. These compounds are described by the so-called dimer Hubbard model, with various values of the on-site repulsion U and diagonal hopping amplitude t. At strong coupling, our zero-temperature calculations show a transition from Néel antiferromagnetism to a spin-liquid phase with no long range order, at around t ~ 0.9. At lower values of U, we find d-wave superconductivity. Taking into account the point group symmetries of the lattice, we find a transition between dx2-y2 and dxy pairing symmetries, the latter happening for smaller values of U.

  15. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  16. Two-Dimensional Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners with Agile Beam Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2014-01-01

    position; all points in space within a cone with a full opening angle of 1208 can be reached from about 8mout to some hundred meters depending on the range resolution required. The first two-dimensional mean wind fields measured in a horizontal plane and in a vertical plane below a hovering search...

  17. Two-dimensional time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2016-09-01

    Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a trade-off between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2-D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second order in time and fourth order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.

  18. Parallel implementation of geometrical shock dynamics for two dimensional converging shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi; Liu, Kuang; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-10-01

    Geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) theory is an appealing method to predict the shock motion in the sense that it is more computationally efficient than solving the traditional Euler equations, especially for converging shock waves. However, to solve and optimize large scale configurations, the main bottleneck is the computational cost. Among the existing numerical GSD schemes, there is only one that has been implemented on parallel computers, with the purpose to analyze detonation waves. To extend the computational advantage of the GSD theory to more general applications such as converging shock waves, a numerical implementation using a spatial decomposition method has been coupled with a front tracking approach on parallel computers. In addition, an efficient tridiagonal system solver for massively parallel computers has been applied to resolve the most expensive function in this implementation, resulting in an efficiency of 0.93 while using 32 HPCC cores. Moreover, symmetric boundary conditions have been developed to further reduce the computational cost, achieving a speedup of 19.26 for a 12-sided polygonal converging shock.

  19. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  20. Discontinuity of the Spin-Wave Stiffness in the Two-Dimensional XY Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayes, L.

    Using a graphical representation based on the Wolff algorithm, the (classical) d-dimensional XY model and some related spin-systems are studied. It is proved that in d≡2, the predicted discontinuity in the spin-wave stiffness indeed occurs. Further, the critical properties of the spin-system are related to percolation properties of the graphical representation. In particular, a suitably defined notion of percolation in the graphical representation is proved to be the necessary and sufficient condition for positivity of the spontaneous magnetization.

  1. Modulational instability and nonlinear evolution of two-dimensional electrostatic wave packets in ultra-relativistic degenerate dense plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A P

    2010-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in an ultra-relativistic (UR) degenerate dense electron-ion plasma, whose dynamics is governed by the nonlocal two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger-like equations. The coupled set of equations are then used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a uniform wave train to an infinitesimal perturbation of multi-dimensional form. The condition for the MI is obtained, and it is shown that the nondimensional parameter, $\\beta\\propto\\lambda_C n_0^{1/3}$ (where $\\lambda_C$ is the reduced Compton wavelength and $n_0$ is the particle number density), associated with the UR pressure of degenerate electrons, shifts the stable (unstable) regions at $n_{0}\\sim10^{30}$ cm$^{-3}$ to unstable (stable) ones at higher densities, i.e. $n_{0}\\gtrsim7\\times10^{33}$. It is also found that higher the values of $n_{0}$, the lower is the growth rate of MI with cut-offs at lower wave numbers of modulation. Furthermore, the dynamical evolution of the wave packet...

  2. Studying the effect of cracks on the ultrasonic wave propagation in a two dimensional gearbox finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozevin, Didem; Fazel, Hossein; Cox, Justin; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth S.; Timmons, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Gearbox components of aerospace structures are typically made of brittle materials with high fracture toughness, but susceptible to fatigue failure due to continuous cyclic loading. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) methods are used to monitor the crack growth in gearbox components. Damage detection methodologies developed in laboratory-scale experiments may not represent the actual gearbox structural configuration, and are usually not applicable to real application as the vibration and wave properties depend on the material, structural layers and thicknesses. Also, the sensor types and locations are key factors for frequency content of ultrasonic waves, which are essential features for pattern recognition algorithm development in noisy environments. Therefore, a deterministic damage detection methodology that considers all the variables influencing the waveform signature should be considered in the preliminary computation before any experimental test matrix. In order to achieve this goal, we developed two dimensional finite element models of a gearbox cross section from front view and shaft section. The cross section model consists of steel revolving teeth, a thin layer of oil, and retention plate. An ultrasonic wave up to 1 MHz frequency is generated, and waveform histories along the gearbox are recorded. The received waveforms under pristine and cracked conditions are compared in order to analyze the crack influence on the wave propagation in gearbox, which can be utilized by both active and passive SHM methods.

  3. Anisotropic States of Two-Dimensional Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Doiron, C. B.; Klironomos, F. D.; Côté, R.; Dorsey, Alan T.

    2006-05-01

    We study the collective states formed by two-dimensional electrons in Landau levels of index n≥2 near half filling. By numerically solving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for a set of oblique two-dimensional lattices, we find that the stripe state is an anisotropic Wigner crystal (AWC), and determine its precise structure for varying values of the filling factor. Calculating the elastic energy, we find that the shear modulus of the AWC is small but finite (nonzero) within the HF approximation. This implies, in particular, that the long-wavelength magnetophonon mode in the stripe state vanishes like q3/2 as in an ordinary Wigner crystal, and not like q5/2 as was found in previous studies where the energy of shear deformations was neglected.

  4. Construction of two-dimensional quantum field models through Longo-Witten endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Yoh

    2013-01-01

    We present a procedure to construct families of local, massive and interacting Haag-Kastler nets on the two-dimensional spacetime through an operator-algebraic method. An existence proof of local observable is given without relying on modular nuclearity. By a similar technique, another family of wedge-local nets is constructed using certain endomorphisms of conformal nets recently studied by Longo and Witten.

  5. Two-Dimensional Tests of Wave Transmission and Reflection Characteristics of Laboratory Breakwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    should be adjusted to KFC = - - 2C)- 0 and 1 on 15 fronting slope (16)R R Figures 17 and 18 illustrate the observed and predicted wave transmission...65. 1.69 1.0 .337 .337 .016 .0006 700301124. as. 1.69 0.3 .215 .sibs016 .0015 78103011131. 65. 1.41 9.6 .100 .100 .016 t00l0 76430211400 45. logo 13.6... logo 1. .391 .397 .016 .0020 78002631ft3. 35. 1.30 11.5 0862 .3A2 .001 .0069 7830eh610?. 35. 1.301 18.8 also o3’0 .021 .0069 780261236. 30. 2.17 7.7

  6. Approximate Ad Hoc Parametric Solutions for Nonlinear First-Order PDEs Governing Two-Dimensional Steady Vector Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Markakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a suitable ad hoc assumption, a nonlinear PDE governing a three-dimensional weak, irrotational, steady vector field is reduced to a system of two nonlinear ODEs: the first of which corresponds to the two-dimensional case, while the second involves also the third field component. By using several analytical tools as well as linear approximations based on the weakness of the field, the first equation is transformed to an Abel differential equation which is solved parametrically. Thus, we obtain the two components of the field as explicit functions of a parameter. The derived solution is applied to the two-dimensional small perturbation frictionless flow past solid surfaces with either sinusoidal or parabolic geometry, where the plane velocities are evaluated over the body's surface in the case of a subsonic flow.

  7. Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near......-field optical images. For the regime of strong multiple scattering, the near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by 10-50 times. This feature is attributed to strong localization of surface polaritons due to interference effects in multiple scattering...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....

  8. Enhancement of acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities by utilizing surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian-Xue [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    A phoxonic crystal is a periodically patterned material that can simultaneously localize optical and acoustic modes. The acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities is investigated numerically. The photons can be well confined in the slot owing to the large electric field discontinuity at the air/dielectric interfaces. Besides, the surface acoustic modes lead to the localization of the phonons near the air-slot. The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes near the slot results in a significant enhancement of the moving interface effect, and thus strengthens the total acousto-optical interaction. The results of two cavities with different slot widths show that the coupling strength is dependent on the slot width. It is expected to achieve a strong acousto-optical/optomechanical coupling in air-slot phoxonic crystal structures by utilizing surface acoustic modes. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities which can confine simultaneously optical and acoustic waves are proposed. • The acoustic and optical waves are highly confined near/in the air-slot. • The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes significantly enhances the moving interface effect. • Different factors which affect the acousto-optical coupling are discussed.

  9. Exact field-driven interface dynamics in the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model with helicoidal boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the interface dynamics of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model in an external field under helicoidal boundary conditions. At sufficiently low temperatures and fields, the dynamics of the interface is described by an exactly solvable high-spin asymmetric quantum Hamiltonian that is the infinitesimal generator of the zero range process. Generally, the critical dynamics of the interface fluctuations is in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class of critical behavior. We re...

  10. Analytic solution of a relativistic two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, V.M. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica; Pino, R. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica]|[Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apdo 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    1998-01-26

    We obtain exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Pauli-Schroedinger equations for a two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the presence of a constant magnetic field. Analytic solutions for the energy spectrum are obtained for particular values of the magnetic field strength. The results are compared to those obtained in the non-relativistic and spinless case. We obtain that the relativistic spectrum does not present s states. (orig.). 7 refs.

  11. Wave mode coupling due to plasma wakes in two-dimensional plasma crystals: In-depth view

    CERN Document Server

    Couëdel, L; Ivlev, A V; Nosenko, V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with two-dimensional (2D) plasma crystals are usually carried out in rf plasma sheaths, where the interparticle interactions are modified due to the presence of plasma wakes. The wake-mediated interactions result in the coupling between wave modes in 2D crystals, which can trigger the mode-coupling instability and cause melting. The theory predicts a number of distinct fingerprints to be observed upon the instability onset, such as the emergence of a new hybrid mode, a critical angular dependence, a mixed polarization, and distinct thresholds. In this paper we summarize these key features and provide their detailed discussion, analyze the critical dependence on experimental parameters, and highlight the outstanding issues.

  12. Elastic wave localization in two-dimensional phononic crystals with one-dimensional random disorder and aperiodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    The band structures of in-plane elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional phononic crystals with one-dimensional random disorder and aperiodicity are analyzed in this paper. The localization of wave propagation is discussed by introducing the concept of the localization factor, which is calculated by the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method. By treating the random disorder and aperiodicity as the deviation from the periodicity in a special way, three kinds of aperiodic phononic crystals that have normally distributed random disorder, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequence in one direction and translational symmetry in the other direction are considered and the band structures are characterized using localization factors. Besides, as a special case, we analyze the band gap properties of a periodic planar layered composite containing a periodic array of square inclusions. The transmission coefficients based on eigen-mode matching theory are also calculated and the results show the same behaviors as the localization factor does. In the case of random disorders, the localization degree of the normally distributed random disorder is larger than that of the uniformly distributed random disorder although the eigenstates are both localized no matter what types of random disorders, whereas, for the case of Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro structures, the band structures of Thue-Morse sequence exhibit similarities with the quasi-periodic (Fibonacci) sequence not present in the results of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence.

  13. Field in field technique in two-dimensional planning for whole brain irradiation; Tecnica field in field em planejamentos bidimensionais para irradiacao de cerebro total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-11-01

    Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)

  14. Central charges and boundary fields for two dimensional dilatonic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pinamonti, N

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we first show that within the Hamiltonian description of general relativity, the central charge of a near horizon asymptotic symmetry group is zero, and therefore that the entropy of the system cannot be estimated using Cardy's formula. This is done by mapping a static black hole to a two dimensional plane. We explain how such a charge can only appear to a static observer who chooses to stay permanently outside the black hole. Then an alternative argument is given for the presence of a universal central charge. Finally we suggest an effective quantum theory on the horizon that is compatible with the thermodynamics behaviour of the black hole.

  15. High-field studies of quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Pravindrajit

    The organic metals derived from the molecule BEDT-TTF (or ET for short) are important as model systems for the study of low-dimensional phenomena. These materials are molecular crystals with a low Fermi energy (10--100 meV), high mobility (˜104 cm2/Vs) and highly anisotropic Fermi surfaces. We have conducted experimental studies of ( i) the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect in pulsed fields up to 50 T and (ii) the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect in steady fields up to 33 T on alpha - (ET)2 MHg(SCN) 4 (where M = K, Tl and NH4) and kappa - (ET)2 Cu (NCS)2. At these high fields, the wave shape as well as the temperature and field-dependence of the oscillations deviate from the behavior predicted by the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich theory. These measurements reveal the limits of the conventional theory of metals and lay the ground-work for extending the theory to low-dimensional systems. We have also performed extended Huckel tight-binding calculations to model the effects of pressure and uniaxial stress on the electronic band structure of kappa - (ET)2 KHg (SCN)4 and kappa - (ET)2 Cu (NCS)2. The calculated changes in the Fermi surface topology are in excellent agreement with the experimental values determined from SdH measurements. We also report predictions of the effects of uniaxial stress in the transverse directions and discuss the behavior of the effective mass and magnetic breakdown probability. Finally, we have investigated the origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in the dHvA effect that are forbidden according to semi-classical theories. We construct a tight-binding model based on the realistic band-structure of the system, which is then solved numerically to compute the field-dependence of the magnetization. This model provides a natural description for the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown between co-existing closed and open Fermi surfaces and accounts for the anomalous frequencies that are observed experimentally. The occurrence of these

  16. Numerical Investigation on the Generation and Propagation of Irregular Waves in A Two-Dimensional Wave Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruey-syan SHIH; Chung-ren CHOU; John Z. YIM

    2004-01-01

    The modeling of generation and subsequent propagation of irregular waves in a numerical wave flume is performed by mean of the boundary element method. Random waves are generated by a piston-type wave generator at one end of the flume with the Mitsuyasu-Bretschneider spectrum used as the target spectrum for the generation. An artificial absorbing beach is placed at the other end of the flume to minimize wave reflection. Surface fluctuations are described by use of the Lagrangian description, and finite difference is adopted for the approximation of time derivative. To monitor the developments of the waves, a number of pseudo wave gauges are installed along the tank. Through comparison of the spectra from those gauges with the target spectrum, satisfactory results can be obtained from the present numerical scheme.

  17. The TUBES algorithm for the exact representation of advective transport in a two-dimensional discretized flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Cabral, M.C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Current Lagrangian models for simulating advective transport of trace species in a discretized two-dimensional flow field use simplified descriptions of tracer sources, receptors and flow paths. When 'forward trajectories' are used, a diffuse source spread over a two-dimensional grid cell is treated as a single point source located at the cell's center, and its flow is projected in the downflow direction by a line. When 'backward trajectories' are used, each cell is treated as a point receptor and flow is projected back in time in the upflow direction by a line. In both cases, two-dimensional sources or receptors are treated as zero dimensional, and two-dimensional flow tubes are replaced by one-dimensional lines. While these simplifications may be acceptable in some cases, they can generate large errors when the flow field contains regions of considerable divergence of flow directions, or when fine scales are used. A new algorithm is introduced, called TUBES, which provides an exact solution to advective transport in a discretized two-dimensional flow field. TUBES uses two-dimensional flow tubes whose width expands and contracts over directionally divergent and convergent regions of the flow field, respectively. TUBES has applications in a wide variety of the earth sciences, including atmospheric science, oceanography, and surface and groundwater hydrology. (orig.) [German] Gegenwaertige Lagrange-Modelle zur Simulation advektiver Transporte von Tracern in einem diskretisierten zweidimensionalen Stroemungsfeld verwenden vereinfachte Beschreibungen der Quellen, Rezeptoren und Transportwege. Bei der Verwendung vorwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('forward trajectories') werden diffusive Quellen, die ueber eine zweidimensionale Gitterzelle verteilt sind, als Punktquelle behandelt, und der Transport mit der Stroemung erfolgt entlang einer Linie. Bei der Verwendung rueckwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('backward trajectories

  18. Terahertz signal detection in a short gate length field-effect transistor with a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostokov, N. V., E-mail: vostokov@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Shashkin, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia and N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-28

    We consider the problem of non-resonant detection of terahertz signals in a short gate length field-effect transistor having a two-dimensional electron channel with zero external bias between the source and the drain. The channel resistance, gate-channel capacitance, and quadratic nonlinearity parameter of the transistor during detection as a function of the gate bias voltage are studied. Characteristics of detection of the transistor connected in an antenna with real impedance are analyzed. The consideration is based on both a simple one-dimensional model of the transistor and allowance for the two-dimensional distribution of the electric field in the transistor structure. The results given by the different models are discussed.

  19. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  20. Real-space and plane-wave hybrid method for electronic structure calculations for two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, V. Nam; Le, H. Anh; Vu, V. Thieu

    2017-04-01

    We propose a computational approach to combining the plane-wave method and the real-space treatment to describe the periodic variation in the material plane and the decay of wave functions from the material surfaces. The proposed approach is natural for two-dimensional material systems and thus may circumvent some intrinsic limitations involving the artificial replication of material layers in traditional supercell methods. In particular, we show that the proposed method is easy to implement and, especially, computationally effective since low-cost computational algorithms, such as iterative and recursive techniques, can be used to treat matrices with block tridiagonal structure. Using this approach we show first-principles features that supplement the current knowledge of some fundamental issues in bilayer graphene systems, including the coupling between the two graphene layers, the preservation of the σ band of monolayer graphene in the electronic structure of the bilayer system, and the differences in low-energy band structure between the AA- and AB-stacked configurations.

  1. Radiation from a D-dimensional collision of shock waves: Two dimensional reduction and Carter-Penrose diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Flávio S

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the causal structure of the two dimensional (2D) reduced background used in the perturbative treatment of a head-on collision of two $D$-dimensional Aichelburg-Sexl gravitational shock waves. After defining all causal boundaries, namely the future light-cone of the collision and the past light-cone of a future observer, we obtain characteristic coordinates using two independent methods. The first is a geometrical construction of the null rays which define the various light cones, using a parametric representation. The second is a transformation of the 2D reduced wave operator for the problem into a hyperbolic form. The characteristic coordinates are then compactified allowing us to represent all causal light rays in a conformal Carter-Penrose diagram. Our construction holds to all orders in perturbation theory. In particular, we can easily identify the singularities of the source functions and of the Green's functions appearing in the perturbative expansion, at each order, which is crucial for a su...

  2. Field-induced sublimation in perfect two-dimensional colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pedrero, F; Benet, J; Rubio, J E F; Sanz, E; Rubio, R G; Ortega, F

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems are of considerable fundamental and practical importance. However, the kinetics of these processes are difficult to predict and understand, even in simple systems for which equilibrium states are properly described, owing to the difficulty of studying crystallites with single-particle resolution and free of defects. Here we introduce an alternative method for the sublimation of 2D colloidal crystallites by a sudden induction of repulsive forces between the particles. The sublimation kinetics, studied in real space by microscopy and by computer simulations, shows a scaling behavior that suggests a universal mechanism fundamentally different from the one usually accepted for thermal sublimation. The universal behavior found for the early stages of the process may be useful for understanding the dynamic features of particle systems at liquid interfaces and for designing technological applications without the need of performing extensive experimental studies.

  3. Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung-Jae; Hong, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yun; Bae, Byung Wook; Lee, Kyoung J [CRI Center for Neurodynamics and Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyoung@nld.korea.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    Understanding spiral reentry wave dynamics in cardiac systems is important since it underlies various cardiac arrhythmia including cardiac fibrillation. Primary cultures of dissociated cardiac cells have been a convenient and useful system for studying cardiac wave dynamics, since one can carry out systematic and quantitative studies with them under well-controlled environments. One key drawback of the dissociated cell culture is that, inevitably, some spatial inhomogeneities in terms of cell types and density, and/or the degree of gap junction connectivity, are introduced to the system during the preparation. These unintentional spatial inhomogeneities can cause some non-trivial wave dynamics, for example, the entrainment dynamics among different spiral waves and the generation of complex-oscillatory spiral waves. The aim of this paper is to quantify these general phenomena in an in vitro cardiac system and provide explanations for them with a simple physiological model having some realistic spatial inhomogeneities incorporated.

  4. Zero modes of the Dirac operator on a noncompact two-dimensional surface in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitenko, Y.A. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR (UA))

    1989-09-01

    We investigate zero modes of the two-dimensional Dirac operator on a noncompact singly connected surface in an external magnetic field. The number of square-integrable zero modes is shown to be determined by global characteristics of the external field and surface: the flux of the magnetic field through the surface and the Gauss curvature integrated over the surface. The equivalence of the square integrability condition for the noncompact surface to the conditions of the index theorem for a closed compact surface is discussed.

  5. Exact two-dimensionalization of low-magnetic-Reynolds-number flows subject to a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of flows, including turbulent flows, driven by a horizontal body-force and subject to a vertical magnetic field, with the following question in mind: for very strong applied magnetic field, is the flow mostly two-dimensional, with remaining weak three-dimensional fluctuations, or does it become exactly 2D, with no dependence along the vertical? We first focus on the quasi-static approximation, i.e. the asymptotic limit of vanishing magnetic Reynolds number Rm << 1: we prove that the flow becomes exactly 2D asymptotically in time, regardless of the initial condition and provided the interaction parameter N is larger than a threshold value. We call this property "absolute two-dimensionalization": the attractor of the system is necessarily a (possibly turbulent) 2D flow. We then consider the full-magnetohydrodynamic equations and we prove that, for low enough Rm and large enough N, the flow becomes exactly two-dimensional in the long-time limit provided the initial vertically-de...

  6. Translation of waves along quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: Robert.VanGorder@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, “Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self

  7. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. GREEN FUNCTION ON TWO-PHASE SATURATED MEDIUM BY CONCENTRATED FORCE IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伯阳; 丁翠红; 陈禹; 陶海冰

    2004-01-01

    The Green function on two-phase saturated medium by concentrated force has a broad and important use in seismology, seismic engineering, soil mechanics, geophysics,dynamic foundation theory and so on. According to the Green function on two-phase saturated medium by concentrated force in three-dimentional displacement field obtained by Ding Bo-yang et al. , it gives out the Green function in two-dimensional displacement field by infinite integral method along x3-direction derived by De Hoop and Manolis. The method adopted in the thesis is simpler. The result will be simplified to the boundary element method of dynamic problem.

  9. Modeling of Lamb wave propagation in plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate using plane-wave-expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Zhilin [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: zhilin.hou@lpmi.uhp-nancy.fr; Assouar, Badreddine M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-03-17

    We show that the conversional three-dimensional plane wave expansion method can be revised to investigate the lamb wave propagation in the plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate. We find that an imaginary three-dimensional periodic system can be constructed by stacking the studied plates and vacuum layers alternately, and then the Fourier series expansion can be performed. The difference between our imaginary periodic system and the true three-dimensional one is that, in our system, the Bloch feature of the wave along the thickness direction is broken. Three different systems are investigated by the proposed method as examples. The principle and reliability of the method are also discussed.

  10. Wave breaking onset of two-dimensional deep-water wave groups in the presence and absence of wind

    CERN Document Server

    Saket, Arvin; Banner, Michael L; Barthelemy, Xavier; Allis, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The criterion for the initiation of breaking demonstrated numerically by Barthelemy et al. (2015) has been investigated in the laboratory for unidirectional wave groups in deep-water and extended to include conditions of moderate wind forcing. Thermal Image Velocimetry was used to compare measurements of the crest surface water particle velocity (Us) with the wave crest velocity (C), as determined by an array of closely-spaced wave gauges. The energy flux ratio Bx = Us/C that distinguishes maximum recurrence from marginal breaking was found to be 0.840 $\\pm$ 0.016 in good agreement with the numerically determined value of 0.855. Further, the threshold was found to be robust for different classes of wave groups of distinct characteristic steepness at the breaking threshold. Increasing wind forcing from zero to U{\\lambda}/4/C0=1.42 increased this threshold by 2%. Increasing the spectral bandwidth (decreasing the Benjamin-Feir index from 0.39 to 0.31) systematically reduced the threshold by 1.5%.

  11. Particle in short-range potential in two dimensional structure in magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, S. P.; Pavlova, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    An exact solution is given for the problem of determining the ground state of a charge particle in a zero range force field located in a quantum well and in a magnetic field. The dependence of the electron's ground state on the potential depth and the magnetic field is investigated in a semiconducto

  12. Axis and velocity determination for quasi two-dimensional plasma/field structures from Faraday's law: A second look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Denton, Richard E.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Swisdak, M.

    2013-05-01

    We re-examine the basic premises of a single-spacecraft data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2005), for determining the axis orientation and proper frame velocity of quasi two-dimensional, quasi-steady structures of magnetic field and plasma. The method, which is based on Faraday's law, makes use of magnetic and electric field data measured by a single spacecraft traversing the structure, although in many circumstances the convection electric field, - v × B, can serve as a proxy for E. It has been used with success for flux ropes observed at the magnetopause but has usually failed to provide acceptable results when applied to real space data from reconnection events as well as to virtual data from numerical MHD simulations of such events. In the present paper, the reasons for these shortcomings are identified, analyzed, and discussed in detail. Certain basic properties of the method are presented in the form of five theorems, the last of which makes use of singular value decomposition to treat the special case where the magnetic variance matrix is non-invertible. These theorems are illustrated using data from analytical models of flux ropes and also from MHD simulations as well as a 2-D kinetic simulation of reconnection. The results make clear that the method requires the presence of a significant, non-removable electric field distribution in the plane transverse to the invariant direction and that it is sensitive to deviations from strict two-dimensionality and strict time stationarity.

  13. The orientation field of fibers advected by a two-dimensional chaotic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    We examine the orientation of slender fibers advected by a 2D chaotic flow. The orientation field of these fibers show fascinating structures called scar lines, where they rotate by π over short distances. We use the standard map as a convenient model to represent a time-periodic 2D incompressible fluid flow. To understand the fiber orientation field, we consider the stretching field, given by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Cauchy-Green strain tensors. The eigenvector field is strongly aligned with the fibers over almost the entire field, but develops topological singularities at certain points which do not exist in the advected fiber field. The singularities are points that have experienced zero stretching, and the number of such points increases rapidly with time. A key feature of both the fiber orientation and the eigenvector field are the scar lines. We show that certain scar lines form from fluid elements that are initially stretched in one direction and then stretched in an orthogonal direction to cancel the initial stretching. The scar lines that satisfy this condition contain the singularities of the eigenvector field. These scar lines highlight the major differences between the passive director field and the much more widely studied passive scalar field.

  14. A Multifunctional Interface Method for Coupling Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods: Two-Dimensional Scalar-Field Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.

    2002-01-01

    A multifunctional interface method with capabilities for variable-fidelity modeling and multiple method analysis is presented. The methodology provides an effective capability by which domains with diverse idealizations can be modeled independently to exploit the advantages of one approach over another. The multifunctional method is used to couple independently discretized subdomains, and it is used to couple the finite element and the finite difference methods. The method is based on a weighted residual variational method and is presented for two-dimensional scalar-field problems. A verification test problem and a benchmark application are presented, and the computational implications are discussed.

  15. Temperature and velocity field of the two-dimensional transverse hot-air jet in a freestream flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatom, J. W.; Cooper, M. A.; Hayden, T. K.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the low subsonic, two-dimensional transverse hot-air jet. In the study jet-to-freestream angles of 90, 120, 135, and 150 deg and jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 5, 10, and 20 were investigated. In the tests the jet velocity and temperature fields were measured using a temperature-compensated hot-wire anemometer. Photographs of the flowfield were also made. The tests results are compared with the available data and analysis. Results indicate a relatively minor deflection of the freestream by the jet and the presence of a large separated flow region behind the jet.

  16. Simultaneous negative refraction and focusing of fundamental frequency and second-harmonic fields by two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, 453007 Xinxiang, Henan (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Simultaneous negative refraction for both the fundamental frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) fields in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals have been found through both the physical analysis and exact numerical simulation. By combining such a property with the phase-matching condition and strong second-order susceptibility, we have designed a SH lens to realize focusing for both the FF and SH fields at the same time. Good-quality non-near field images for both FF and SH fields have been observed. The physical mechanism for such SH focusing phenomena has been disclosed, which is different from the backward SH generation as has been pointed out in the previous investigations. In addition, the effect of absorption losses on the phenomena has also been discussed. Thus, potential applications of these phenomena to biphotonic microscopy technique are anticipated.

  17. Screened Raman response in two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductors: Relative intensities in different symmetry channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenger, F.; Käll, M.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the Raman-scattering response in a two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductor and point out a strong suppression of relative intensity in the screened A(1g) channel compared to the B-1g channel for a generic tight-binding model. This is in contrast with the observed behavior in high...

  18. Two-dimensional deterministic photonic band gap structures based on the quasiperiodic sequences at millimeter wave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Trabelsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional quasi-periodic band gap structures were investigated theoretically in microwave frequency range. Quasiperiodic photonic crystal based on the square range, arranged in a quasi-periodical fashion which follows Thue Morse or Fibonaci period substitutional sequences were obtained by the inflation rules emerging from the quasi-periodic sequence. The introduction of 2D quasi-periodicity distribution like Thue Morse or Fibonacci order and deterministic aperiodicity give some interesting microwave properties and offers amultitude of adjacent pseudo-band gap in different frequency range. The potential of photonic structures are explored by varying the structural parameters. The photonic band gap formation was explored as function of geometries of the structures such as pillar radius and parameters of quasi-periodical sequences. The electromagnetic field distribution can be described as a quasi-localized state varied by some defect carried by Thue Morse order. These structures provide interesting properties, which could be used to design novelmicrowave devices.

  19. Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K. S.; Gabay, M.; Jaccard, D.; Shibuya, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2006-05-01

    Correlated oxides display a variety of extraordinary physical properties including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. In these materials, strong electronic correlations often lead to competing ground states that are sensitive to many parameters-in particular the doping level-so that complex phase diagrams are observed. A flexible way to explore the role of doping is to tune the electron or hole concentration with electric fields, as is done in standard semiconductor field effect transistors. Here we demonstrate a model oxide system based on high-quality heterostructures in which the ferroelectric field effect approach can be studied. We use a single-crystal film of the perovskite superconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3 as the superconducting channel and ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 as the gate oxide. Atomic force microscopy is used to locally reverse the ferroelectric polarization, thus inducing large resistivity and carrier modulations, resulting in a clear shift in the superconducting critical temperature. Field-induced switching from the normal state to the (zero resistance) superconducting state was achieved at a well-defined temperature. This unique system could lead to a field of research in which devices are realized by locally defining in the same material superconducting and normal regions with `perfect' interfaces, the interface being purely electronic. Using this approach, one could potentially design one-dimensional superconducting wires, superconducting rings and junctions, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) or arrays of pinning centres.

  20. The effect of magnetic field on mean flow generation by rotating two-dimensional convection

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the significant interaction of convection, rotation and magnetic field in many astrophysical objects, we investigate the interplay between large-scale flows driven by rotating convection and an imposed magnetic field. We utilise a simple model in two dimensions comprised of a plane layer that is rotating about an axis inclined to gravity. It is known that this setup can result in strong mean flows; we numerically examine the effect of an imposed horizontal magnetic field on such flows. We show that increasing the field strength in general suppresses the time-dependent mean flows, but in some cases it organises them leading to stronger time-averaged flows. Further, we discuss the effect of the field on the correlations responsible for driving the flows and the competition between Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. A change in behaviour is observed when the (fluid and magnetic) Prandtl numbers are decreased. In the smaller Prandtl number regime, it is shown that significant mean flows can persist even ...

  1. Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Young-Jin; Choi, Yeongyu; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    We report a simple method for reducing the response time of a fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell by using two-dimensional confinement of the liquid crystals. Through both numerical calculations and experiments, we show that the switching speed can be increased by several fold in a fringe-field switching cell by simply using a rubbing angle of zero, which causes virtual walls to be built when an electric field is applied between the interdigitated electrodes and the common electrode, without requiring additional fabrication steps or complicated drive schemes. Furthermore, the devices fabricated with this method exhibit a reduced color shift and excellent dynamic stability, even with a high applied voltage and under external pressure.

  2. Unified (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of oscillator algebra and two-dimensional conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burban, I.M., E-mail: burban@bitp.kiev.ua

    2013-11-29

    The unified (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of a number of well-known deformed oscillator algebras is introduced. The deformation is constructed by imputing new free parameters into the structure functions and by generalizing the defining relations of these algebras. The generalized Jordan–Schwinger and Holstein–Primakoff realizations of the U{sub pq}{sup αγl}(su(2)) algebra by the generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed operators are found. The generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of the two-dimensional conformal field theory is established. By introducing the (p,q;α,γ,l)-operator product expansion (OPE) between the energy–momentum tensor and primary fields, we obtain the (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed centerless Virasoro algebra. The two-point correlation function of the primary generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed fields is calculated.

  3. Classification of N=2 Superconformal Field Theories with Two-Dimensional Coulomb Branches

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, P C; Shapere, A D; Wittig, J R; Argyres, Philip C.; Crescimanno, Michael; Shapere, Alfred D.; Wittig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We study the classification of 2-dimensional scale-invariant rigid special Kahler (RSK) geometries, which potentially describe the Coulomb branches of N=2 supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions. We show that this classification is equivalent to the solution of a set of polynomial equations by using an integrability condition for the central charge, scale invariance, constraints coming from demanding single-valuedness of physical quantities on the Coulomb branch, and properties of massless BPS states at singularities. We find solutions corresponding to lagrangian scale invariant theories--including the scale invariant G_2 theory not found before in the literature--as well as many new isolated solutions (having no marginal deformations). All our scale-invariant RSK geometries are consistent with an interpretation as effective theories of N=2 superconformal field theories, and, where we can check, turn out to exist as quantum field theories.

  4. A new technique for calculating reentry base heating. [analysis of laminar base flow field of two dimensional reentry body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, J. C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The laminar base flow field of a two-dimensional reentry body has been studied by Telenin's method. The flow domain was divided into strips along the x-axis, and the flow variations were represented by Lagrange interpolation polynomials in the transformed vertical coordinate. The complete Navier-Stokes equations were used in the near wake region, and the boundary layer equations were applied elsewhere. The boundary conditions consisted of the flat plate thermal boundary layer in the forebody region and the near wake profile in the downstream region. The resulting two-point boundary value problem of 33 ordinary differential equations was then solved by the multiple shooting method. The detailed flow field and thermal environment in the base region are presented in the form of temperature contours, Mach number contours, velocity vectors, pressure distributions, and heat transfer coefficients on the base surface. The maximum heating rate was found on the centerline, and the two-dimensional stagnation point flow solution was adquate to estimate the maximum heating rate so long as the local Reynolds number could be obtained.

  5. Classification of N=2 Superconformal Field Theories with Two-Dimensional Coulomb Branches, II

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, P C; Argyres, Philip C.; Wittig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We continue the classification of 2-dimensional scale-invariant rigid special Kahler (RSK) geometries. This classification was begun in [hep-th/0504070] where singularities corresponding to curves of the form y^2=x^6 with a fixed canonical basis of holomorphic one forms were analyzed. Here we perform the analysis for the y^2=x^5 type singularities. (The final maximal singularity type, y^2=x^3(x-1)^3, will be analyzed in a later paper.) These singularities potentially describe the Coulomb branches of N=2 supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions. We show that there are only 13 solutions satisfying the integrability condition (enforcing the RSK geometry of the Coulomb branch) and the Z-consistency condition (requiring massless charged states at singularities). Of these solutions, one has a marginal deformation, and corresponds to the known solution for certain Sp(2) gauge theories, while the rest correspond to isolated strongly interacting conformal field theories.

  6. The renormalization group and two dimensional multicritical effective scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, T R

    1995-01-01

    Direct verification of the existence of an infinite set of multicritical non-perturbative FPs (Fixed Points) for a single scalar field in two dimensions, is in practice well outside the capabilities of the present standard approximate non-perturbative methods. We apply a derivative expansion of the exact RG (Renormalization Group) equations in a form which allows the corresponding FP equations to appear as non-linear eigenvalue equations for the anomalous scaling dimension \\eta. At zeroth order, only continuum limits based on critical sine-Gordon models, are accessible. At second order in derivatives, we perform a general search over all \\eta\\ge.02, finding the expected first ten FPs, and {\\sl only} these. For each of these we verify the correct relevant qualitative behaviour, and compute critical exponents, and the dimensions of up to the first ten lowest dimension operators. Depending on the quantity, our lowest order approximate description agrees with CFT (Conformal Field Theory) with an accuracy between ...

  7. Matrix Product Approximations to Multipoint Functions in Two-Dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Robert; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-09-01

    Matrix product states (MPSs) illustrate the suitability of tensor networks for the description of interacting many-body systems: ground states of gapped 1D systems are approximable by MPSs, as shown by Hastings [M. B. Hastings, J. Stat. Mech. (2007) P08024]. By contrast, whether MPSs and more general tensor networks can accurately reproduce correlations in critical quantum systems or quantum field theories has not been established rigorously. Ample evidence exists: entropic considerations provide restrictions on the form of suitable ansatz states, and numerical studies show that certain tensor networks can indeed approximate the associated correlation functions. Here, we provide a complete positive answer to this question in the case of MPSs and 2D conformal field theory: we give quantitative estimates for the approximation error when approximating correlation functions by MPSs. Our work is constructive and yields an explicit MPS, thus providing both suitable initial values and a rigorous justification of variational methods.

  8. The two-dimensional 4-state Potts model in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Shchur, Lev

    2013-01-01

    We present a solution of the non-linear renormalization group equations leading to the dominant and subdominant singular behaviours of physical quantities (free energy density, correlation length, internal energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility and magnetocaloric coefficient) at the critical temperature in a non- vanishing magnetic field. The solutions i) lead to exact cancellation of logarithmic corrections in universal amplitude ratios and ii) prove recently proposed relations among logarithmic exponents.

  9. Full extremal process, cluster law and freezing for two-dimensional discrete Gaussian Free Field

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren

    2016-01-01

    We study the extremal process associated with the Discrete Gaussian Free Field (DGFF) in scaled-up (square-)lattice versions of bounded open planar domains subject to mild regularity conditions on the boundary. We prove that, in the scaling limit, this process tends to a Cox process decorated by independent, correlated clusters whose distribution is completely characterized. As an application, we control the scaling limit of the discrete supercritical Liouville measure, extract a Poisson-Diri...

  10. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  11. Second constant of motion for two-dimensional positronium in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, G

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical work indicates that the classical motion of positronium in a constant magnetic field does not exhibit chaotic behavior if the system is confined to two dimensions. One would therefore expect this system to possess a second constant of the motion in addition to the total energy. In this paper we construct a generalization of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and show that a component of this vector is a constant of the motion.

  12. Two-Dimensional Far Field Source Locating Method with Nonprior Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative position of seismic source and sensors has great influence on locating accuracy, particularly in far field conditions, and the accuracy will decrease seriously due to limited calculation precision and prior velocity error. In order to improve the locating accuracy of far field sources by isometric placed sensors in a straight line, a new locating method with nonprior velocity is proposed. After exhaustive research, this paper states that the hyperbola which is used for locating will be very close to its asymptote when seismic source locates in far field of sensors; therefore, the locating problem with prior velocity is equivalent to solving linear equations and the problem with nonprior velocity is equivalent to a nonlinear optimization problem with respect to the unknown velocity. And then, this paper proposed a new locating method based on a one-variable objective function with respect to the unknown velocity. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method has faster convergence speed, higher accuracy, and better stability.

  13. On intermediate level sets of two-dimensional discrete Gaussian Free Field

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren

    2016-01-01

    We consider the discrete Gaussian Free Field (DGFF) in scaled-up (square-lattice) versions of suitably regular continuum domains $D\\subset\\mathbb C$ and describe the scaling limit, including local structure, of the level sets at heights growing as a $\\lambda$-multiple of the height of the absolute maximum, for any $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. We prove that, in the scaling limit, the scaled spatial position of a typical point $x$ sampled from this level set is distributed according to a Liouville Quantu...

  14. Exponential and double exponential tails for maximum of two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free field

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Jian

    2011-01-01

    We study the tail behavior for the maximum of discrete Gaussian free field on a 2D box with Dirichlet boundary condition after centering by its expectation. We show that it exhibits an exponential decay for the right tail and a double exponential decay for the left tail. In particular, our result implies that the variance of the maximum is of order 1, improving an $o(\\log n)$ bound by Chatterjee (2008) and confirming a folklore conjecture. An important ingredient for our proof is a result of Bramson and Zeitouni (2010), who proved the tightness of the centered maximum together with an evaluation of the expectation up to an additive constant.

  15. Holographic R\\'enyi entropy for two-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}$=(2,2) superconformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the holographic R\\'enyi entropy for two-dimensional $\\mathcal N=(2,2)$ superconformal field theory (SCFT), which is dual to $\\mathcal N=2$ supergravity in AdS$_3$ background. In SCFT we have the stress tensor, current, and their supersymmetric partners, and in supergravity we have the graviton, vector field, and two gravitinos. We get the R\\'enyi mutual information of two short intervals on complex plane in expansion by the cross ratio $x$ to order $x^4$, and R\\'enyi entropy of one interval on torus in expansion by $q=\\exp(-2\\pi\\beta/L)$, with $\\beta$ being the inverse temperature and $L$ being the spatial period, to order $q^2$. We calculate in both the supergravity and SCFT sides, and find matches of the results.

  16. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction are implemented in the stacked two-dimensional ring network model proposed by the present author. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator network, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the system exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterization by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes in the rings. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points ...

  17. Temperature and magnetic field effects on electron transport through DNA molecules in a two-dimensional four-channel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D

    2013-06-01

    We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.

  18. Extreme Local Extrema of Two-Dimensional Discrete Gaussian Free Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren

    2016-07-01

    We consider the discrete Gaussian Free Field in a square box in {mathbb{Z}^2} of side length N with zero boundary conditions and study the joint law of its properly-centered extreme values ( h) and their scaled spatial positions ( x) in the limit as {N to infty}. Restricting attention to extreme local maxima, i.e., the extreme points that are maximal in an r N -neighborhood thereof, we prove that the associated process tends, whenever {r_N to infty} and {r_N/N to 0}, to a Poisson point process with intensity measure {Z{(dx)}e^{-α h} dh}, where {α:= 2/√{g}} with g: = 2/π and where Z(dx) is a random Borel measure on [0, 1]2. In particular, this yields an integral representation of the law of the absolute maximum, similar to that found in the context of Branching Brownian Motion. We give evidence that the random measure Z is a version of the derivative martingale associated with the continuum Gaussian Free Field.

  19. Effective mass theory of a two-dimensional quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himanshu Asnani; Raghu Mahajan; Praveen Pathak; Vijay A Singh

    2009-09-01

    The effective mass of electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors is position-dependent. The standard kinetic energy operator of quantum mechanics for this position-dependent mass is non-Hermitian and needs to be modified. This is achieved by imposing the BenDaniel–Duke (BDD) boundary condition. We have investigated the role of this boundary condition for semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in one, two and three dimensions. In these systems the effective mass m i inside the dot of size R is different from the mass m o outside. Hence a crucial factor in determining the electronic spectrum is the mass discontinuity factor = /} . We have proposed a novel quantum scale, , which is a dimensionless parameter proportional to 220, where 0 represents the barrier height. We show both by numerical calculations and asymptotic analysis that the ground state energy and the surface charge density, (ρ()), can be large and dependent on . We also show that the dependence of the ground state energy on the size of the dot is infraquadratic. We also study the system in the presence of magnetic field . The BDD condition introduces a magnetic length-dependent term $(\\sqrt{\\hbar /eB})$ into and hence the ground state energy. We demonstrate that the significance of BDD condition is pronounced at large and large magnetic fields. In many cases the results using the BDD condition is significantly different from the non-Hermitian treatment of the problem.

  20. A Semi-implicit Numerical Scheme for a Two-dimensional, Three-field Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Jeong, Jaejoon

    2007-07-15

    The behavior of two-phase flow is modeled, depending on the purpose, by either homogeneous model, drift flux model, or separated flow model, Among these model, in the separated flow model, the behavior of each flow phase is modeled by its own governing equation, together with the interphase models which describe the thermal and mechanical interactions between the phases involved. In this study, a semi-implicit numerical scheme for two-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field is derived. The work is an extension to the previous study for the staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme in one-dimensional geometry (KAERI/TR-3239/2006). The two-dimensional extension is performed by specifying a relevant governing equation set and applying the related finite differencing method. The procedure for employing the semi-implicit scheme is also described in detail. Verifications are performed for a 2-dimensional vertical plate for a single-phase and two-phase flows. The calculations verify the mass and energy conservations. The symmetric flow behavior, for the verification problem, also confirms the momentum conservation of the numerical scheme.

  1. Two Dimensional Near-field Calculations of Radionuclide Releases from the Vaults of the SFR 1 Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio [AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm Center of Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Sundstroem, Benny [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    Radionuclide releases from the near-field for the vaults of the SFR 1 repository are examined in this report. To model those releases we have developed four models, one for each of the vaults; 2BTF, 1BTF, BMA and BLA. The respective codes are based on the finite element method and are called FEMBTF2, FEMBTF1, FEMBMA and FEMBLA, respectively. These codes are two-dimensional representations of the cross sections of the vaults. The different barriers of the vaults have been modelled individually using the physical dimensions of the cross sections. The same conceptual model has been used to estimate the releases from the near-field. This conceptual model is implemented by four different FEM codes that solve the two-dimensional transport equation, e.g. the advective-diffusive-reactive equation that also includes radioactive decay. An interesting property of the codes is that they allow the use of time-dependent properties to represent for instance the evolution of water flow, porosities, distribution coefficients etc. This capability of the code has been used only in some cases because the FEM codes put heavy requirements on the computer's CPU. The nuclides studied here were chosen from a set representing the highest release rates from the near-field obtained by SKB during their project SAFE. Some of the results reported here are somewhat lower than SKBs, other higher. Uncertainties in the conceptual models and differences in the input data are the reasons for the numerical differences. For most cases, the differences between our results and those of SKB should be considered relatively small within present context of near-field calculations.

  2. Rotational Symmetry of Classical Orbits, Arbitrary Quantization of Angular Momentum and the Role of Gauge Field in Two-Dimensional Space

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Jun-Li

    2010-01-01

    We study the quantum-classical correspondence in terms of coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar-potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level-space of angular momentum being greater or less than $\\hbar$ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily $2\\pi$-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The quantum mechanical model of anyon proposed by Wilczek (Phys. Rev. Lette. 48, 1144) becomes a special case of th...

  3. Rotational symmetry of classical orbits, arbitrary quantization of angular momentum and the role of the gauge field in two-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun-Li; Liang, Jiu-Qing

    2012-04-01

    We study quantum—classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than ħ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily 2π-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization, where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.

  4. New families of flows between two-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, P; Tateo, R; Dorey, Patrick; Dunning, Clare; Tateo, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence for the existence of infinitely-many new families of renormalisation group flows between the nonunitary minimal models of conformal field theory. These are associated with perturbations by the $\\phi_{21}$ and In all of the new flows, the finite-volume effective central charge is a non-monotonic function of the system size. The evolution of this effective central charge is studied by means of a nonlinear integral equation, a massless variant of an equation recently found to describe certain massive perturbations of these same models. We also observe that a similar non-monotonicity arises in the more familiar $\\phi_{13}$ perturbations, when the flows induced are between nonunitary minimal models.

  5. Field-effect transistor biosensors with two-dimensional black phosphorus nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yantao; Ren, Ren; Pu, Haihui; Chang, Jingbo; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2017-03-15

    A black phosphorous (BP)-based field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor was fabricated by using few-layer BP nanosheets labeled with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates. BP nanosheets were mechanically exfoliated and used as the sensing/conducting channel in the FET, with an Al2O3 thin film as the dielectric layer for surface passivation. Antibody probes were conjugated with gold nanoparticles that were sputtered on the BP through surface functionalization. The sensor response was measured by the change in the BP's electrical resistance after antigens were introduced. The adsorbed antigens through specific antigen-antibody binding interactions induced a gate potential, thereby changing the drain-source current. The as-produced BP biosensor showed both high sensitivity (lower limit of detection ~10ng/ml) and selectivity towards human immunoglobulin G. Results from this study demonstrate the outstanding performance of BP as a sensing channel for FET biosensor applications.

  6. Scattering of Discrete States in Two Dimensional Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sevic, B U

    1993-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers devoted to open string field theory in two dimensions. In this paper we aim to clarify the origin and the role of discrete physical states in the theory. To this end, we study interactions of discrete states and generic tachyons. In particular, we discuss at length four point amplitudes. We show that behavior of the correlation functions is governed by the number of generic tachyons involved and values of the kinematic invariants $s$, $t$ and $u$. Divergence of certain classes of correlators is shown to be the consequence of the fact certain kinematic invariants are non--positive integers in that case. Explicit examples are included. We check our results by standard conformal technique.

  7. Absence of localization in disordered two-dimensional electron gas at weak magnetic field and strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2016-09-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.

  8. Effect of field modulation on the quasi-phase-matching for second harmonic generation in a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Ai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) in a two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC) with finite width along z-direction that is embedded in air is investigated, without adopting the traditional approximations such as a plane-wave approximation (PWA) and slowly varying amplitude approximation (SVAA). The so-called quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and the corresponding SHG conversion efficiency can be modulated significantly by the field of fundamental wave (FW). It is assumed that the incident light, along z-direction, is normally launched upon the surface of the sample, and QPM for different directions is investigated. It is found that the QPM shows significant differences, compared with the traditional QPM along the two different directions: in the direction of finite width of the sample, the peak value of SHG conversion efficiency is deviated from the traditional case and it gets to its peak values when the transmittance resonance occurs. However, in the other direction, the deviation from the traditional QPM arises from the field modulation of the second harmonic wave (SHW) and in this direction, it is investigated that the full width at half maximum of QPM is much wider than that in the direction of finite width of the sample. These results can be used to provide a theoretical guidance for achieving QPM SHG.

  9. Efficient split field FDTD analysis of third-order nonlinear materials in two-dimensionally periodic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Navarro-Fuster, Víctor; Fenoll, Sandra; Martínez-Gaurdiola, Francisco J.; Neipp, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In this work the split-field finite-difference time-domain method (SF-FDTD) has been extended for the analysis of two-dimensionally periodic structures with third-order nonlinear media. The accuracy of the method is verified by comparisons with the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM). Once the formalism has been validated, examples of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear gratings are analysed. Regarding the 2D case, the shifting in resonant waveguides is corroborated. Here, not only the scalar Kerr effect is considered, the tensorial nature of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is also included. The consideration of nonlinear materials in this kind of devices permits to design tunable devices such as variable band filters. However, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is usually small and high intensities are needed in order to trigger the nonlinear effect. Here, a one-dimensional CBG is analysed in both linear and nonlinear regime and the shifting of the resonance peaks in both TE and TM are achieved numerically. The application of a numerical method based on the finite- difference time-domain method permits to analyse this issue from the time domain, thus bistability curves are also computed by means of the numerical method. These curves show how the nonlinear effect modifies the properties of the structure as a function of variable input pump field. When taking the nonlinear behaviour into account, the estimation of the electric field components becomes more challenging. In this paper, we present a set of acceleration strategies based on parallel software and hardware solutions.

  10. Impact of electric-field dependent dielectric constants on two-dimensional electron gases in complex oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelaers, H.; Gordon, L.; Steiauf, D.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Krishnaswamy, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9560 (United States); Sarwe, A. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Applied Physics Department, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg SE 412-96 (Sweden)

    2015-11-02

    High-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) can be formed at complex oxide interfaces such as SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}. The electric field in the vicinity of the interface depends on the dielectric properties of the material as well as on the electron distribution. However, it is known that electric fields can strongly modify the dielectric constant of SrTiO{sub 3} as well as other complex oxides. Solving the electrostatic problem thus requires a self-consistent approach in which the dielectric constant varies according to the local magnitude of the field. We have implemented the field dependence of the dielectric constant in a Schrödinger-Poisson solver in order to study its effect on the electron distribution in a 2DEG. Using the SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} interface as an example, we demonstrate that including the field dependence results in the 2DEG being confined closer to the interface compared to assuming a single field-independent value for the dielectric constant. Our conclusions also apply to SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} as well as other similar interfaces.

  11. Coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two-dimensional kinematic wave theory for flood forecast in semi-arid catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-L. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific characteristics of semi-arid catchments, this paper aims to establish a grid-and-Green-Ampt-and-two-dimensional-kinematic-wave-based distributed hydrological physical model (Grid-GA-2D model coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two dimensional overland flow routing model based on kinematic wave theory for flood simulation and forecasting with using GIS technology and digital elevation model (DEM. Taking into consideration the soil moisture redistribution at hillslope, Green-Ampt infiltration physical method is applied for grid-based runoff generation and two-dimensional implicit finite difference kinematic wave model is introduced to solve depressions water storing for grid-based overland flow concentration routing in the Grid-GA-2D model. The Grid-GA-2D model, the Grid-GA model with coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and one-dimension kinematic wave theory, and Shanbei model were employed to the upper Kongjiapo catchment in Qin River, a tributary of the Yellow River, with an area of 1454 km2 for flood simulation. Results show that two grid-based distributed hydrological models perform better in flood simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in semi-arid catchments. Comparing with the Grid-GA model, the flood peak simulation accuracy of the newly developed model is higher.

  12. Coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two-dimensional kinematic wave theory for flood forecast in semi-arid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-L.; Chen, D.-H.; Li, Z.-J.; Zhao, L.-N.

    2011-08-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of semi-arid catchments, this paper aims to establish a grid-and-Green-Ampt-and-two-dimensional-kinematic-wave-based distributed hydrological physical model (Grid-GA-2D model) coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two dimensional overland flow routing model based on kinematic wave theory for flood simulation and forecasting with using GIS technology and digital elevation model (DEM). Taking into consideration the soil moisture redistribution at hillslope, Green-Ampt infiltration physical method is applied for grid-based runoff generation and two-dimensional implicit finite difference kinematic wave model is introduced to solve depressions water storing for grid-based overland flow concentration routing in the Grid-GA-2D model. The Grid-GA-2D model, the Grid-GA model with coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and one-dimension kinematic wave theory, and Shanbei model were employed to the upper Kongjiapo catchment in Qin River, a tributary of the Yellow River, with an area of 1454 km2 for flood simulation. Results show that two grid-based distributed hydrological models perform better in flood simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in semi-arid catchments. Comparing with the Grid-GA model, the flood peak simulation accuracy of the newly developed model is higher.

  13. Two-dimensional phase-field study of competitive grain growth during directional solidification of polycrystalline binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu; Shibuta, Yasushi; Sakane, Shinji; Shimokawabe, Takashi; Aoki, Takayuki

    2016-05-01

    Selections of growing crystals during directional solidification of a polycrystalline binary alloy were numerically investigated using two-dimensional phase-field simulations. To accelerate the simulations, parallel graphics processing unit (GPU) simulations were performed using the GPU-rich supercomputer TSUBAME2.5 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Twenty simulations with a combination of five sets of different seed orientation distributions and four different temperature gradients covering dendritic and cellular growth regions were performed. The unusual grain selection phenomenon, in which the unfavorably oriented grains preferentially grow instead of the favorably oriented grains, was observed frequently. The unusual selection was more remarkable in the cellular structure than in the dendritic structure.

  14. Hyper-Kähler singularities in superstring compactification and two-dimensional N = 4 conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, A.; Saidi, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Using a geometric realization of the SU(2)R symmetry and a factorization of the gauge and SU(2)R charges, we study the small instanton singularities of the Higgs branch of supersymmetric U(1)r gauge theories with eight supercharges. We derive new solutions for the moduli space of vacua preserving manifestly the eight supercharges. In particular, we obtain an extension of the ordinary ADE singularities for hyper-Kähler manifolds and show that the classical moduli space of vacua is, in general, given by cotangent bundles of compact weighted projective spaces describing new models which flow in the infrared to two-dimensional (2D) N = (4,4) scale-invariant models. We also study the N = 4 conformal Liouville description near an An singularity of the metric of the 2D N = 4 Higgs branch using a field-theoretical approach.

  15. Dynamic phase transition in the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model in an oscillating field: universality with respect to the stochastic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, G M; Rikvold, P A

    2008-11-01

    We study the dynamical response of a two-dimensional Ising model subject to a square-wave oscillating external field. In contrast to earlier studies, the system evolves under a so-called soft Glauber dynamic [Rikvold and Kolesik, J. Phys. A 35, L117 (2002)], for which both nucleation and interface propagation are slower and the interfaces smoother than for the standard Glauber dynamic. We choose the temperature and magnitude of the external field such that the metastable decay of the system following field reversal occurs through nucleation and growth of many droplets of the stable phase, i.e., the multidroplet regime. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition, in which the symmetry-broken dynamic phase corresponds to an asymmetric stationary limit cycle for the time-dependent magnetization. The critical point is located where the half period of the external field is approximately equal to the metastable lifetime of the system. We employ finite-size scaling analysis to investigate the characteristics of this dynamical phase transition. The critical exponents and the fixed-point value of the fourth-order cumulant are found to be consistent with the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model. This universality class has previously been established for the same nonequilibrium model evolving under the standard Glauber dynamic, as well as in a different nonequilibrium model of CO oxidation. The results reported in the present paper support the hypothesis that this far-from-equilibrium phase transition is universal with respect to the choice of the stochastic dynamics.

  16. Two-dimensional standing wave total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy: superresolution imaging of single molecular and biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Daekeun; Cui, Yan; Kim, Yang-Hyo; So, Peter T C

    2007-09-01

    The development of high resolution, high speed imaging techniques allows the study of dynamical processes in biological systems. Lateral resolution improvement of up to a factor of 2 has been achieved using structured illumination. In a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, an evanescence excitation field is formed as light is total internally reflected at an interface between a high and a low index medium. The excitation region resulting in low background fluorescence. We present even higher resolution wide-field biological imaging by use of standing wave total internal reflection fluorescence (SW-TIRF). Evanescent standing wave (SW) illumination is used to generate a sinusoidal high spatial frequency fringe pattern on specimen for lateral resolution enhancement. To prevent thermal drift of the SW, novel detection and estimation of the SW phase with real-time feedback control is devised for the stabilization and control of the fringe phase. SW-TIRF is a wide-field superresolution technique with resolution better than a fifth of emission wavelength or approximately 100 nm lateral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of the SW-TIRF microscopy using one- and two-directional SW illumination with a biological sample of cellular actin cytoskeleton of mouse fibroblast cells as well as single semiconductor nanocrystal molecules. The results confirm the superior resolution of SW-TIRF in addition to the merit of a high signal/background ratio from TIRF microscopy.

  17. Experiments on localized wireless power transmission using a magneto-inductive wave two-dimensional metamaterial cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Pham, Thanh; Kumara Ranaweera, Aruna; Dinh Lam, Vu; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a magneto-inductive wave (MIW) metamaterial cavity for enhanced mid-range wireless power transfer (WPT) applications. Cavity operation is achieved by controlling the propagation of MIWs at lower megahertz frequencies. The cavity is realized by omitting a cell and thereby breaking the periodicity of the closely coupled metamaterial slabs. The cavity in the proposed metamaterial effectively confines the MIWs into a subwavelength region. Consequently, it localizes the magnetic field in the WPT region and provides enhanced power transmission. When the proposed MIW metamaterial cavity is used, the measured efficiency improves significantly from 8.7 to 54.9%.

  18. Connecting the Sun and the Solar Wind: The First Two-Dimensional Self-consistent MHD Simulation under the Alfv\\'en Wave Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the first two-dimensional self-consistent simulations directly covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space. We carefully set up grid points with spherical coordinate to treat Alfv\\'enic waves in the atmosphere with the huge density contrast, and successfully simulate hot coronal wind streaming out as a result of surface convective motion. Footpoint motion excites upwardly propagating Alfv\\'enic waves along an open magnetic flux tube. These waves, traveling in non-uniform medium, suffer reflection, nonlinear mode conversion to compressive modes, and turbulent cascade. Combination of these mechanisms, the Alfv\\'enic waves eventually dissipate to accelerate the solar wind. While the shock heating by the dissipation of the compressive wave plays a primary role in the coronal heating, both turbulent cascade and shock heating contribute to drive the solar wind.

  19. Solution of the two-dimensional MHD problem on the distribution of induced electromagnetic fields of an annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrent' ev, I.V.; Sidorenkov, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    To establish the limits of applicability of two-dimensional mathematical models describing induced electromagnetic field distribution in an annular MHD channel, it is necessary to solve a three-dimensional problem. By reducing the number of dimensions of the problem (using, for example, the axial symmetry of MHD flow), the solution can be derived in some approximation. This paper proposes and demonstrates this method by studying the motion of a conducting medium in an annular channel with a two-pole ferromagnetic system under various assumptions for the field, channel and liquid, among them the superconductivity of the working medium. The work performed by the Lorentz force in the channel, equal to the Joule losses in the current-carrying boundary layer, was determined. It was concluded that the current-carrying boundary layer begins to develop at the wall of the channel when the flow enters the magnetic field and that its thickness grows with the length of the region of MHD interaction. The problem was solved numerically and asymptotically.

  20. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-02-20

    The superconductor-insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films.

  1. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor–insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-02-01

    The superconductor–insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films.

  2. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor–insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-01-01

    The superconductor–insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films. PMID:28218296

  3. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    We study the effects of a synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network model. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator lattice, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the model exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterized by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points can be preserved by breaking the space-inversion symmetry. Implementing both the synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction requires a certain nonreciprocity.

  4. Two-dimensional model of the Penning discharge in a cylindrical chamber with the axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2017-08-01

    The drift-diffusion model of a Penning discharge in molecular hydrogen under pressures of about 1 Torr with regard to the external electric circuit has been proposed. A two-dimensional axially symmetric discharge geometry with a cylindrical anode and flat cathodes perpendicular to the symmetry axis has been investigated. An external magnetic field of about 0.1 T is applied in the axial direction. Using the developed drift-diffusion model, the electrodynamic structure of a Penning discharge in the pressure range of 0.5-5 Torr at a current source voltage of 200-500 V is numerically simulated. The evolution of the discharge electrodynamic structure upon pressure variations in zero magnetic field (the classical glow discharge mode) and in the axial magnetic field (Penning discharge) has been studied using numerical experiments. The theoretical predictions of the existence of an averaged electron and ion motion in a Penning discharge both in the axial and radial directions and in the azimuthal direction have been confirmed by the calculations.

  5. Conformal Field Theory at central charge c=0 and Two-Dimensional Critical Systems with Quenched Disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Gurarie, V

    2004-01-01

    We examine two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at central charge c=0. These arise typically in the description of critical systems with quenched disorder, but also in other contexts including dilute self-avoiding polymers and percolation. We show that such CFTs must in general possess, in addition to their stress energy tensor T(z), an extra field whose holomorphic part, t(z), has conformal weight two. The singular part of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) between T(z) and t(z) is uniquely fixed up to a single number b, defining a new `anomaly' which is a characteristic of any c=0 CFT, and which may be used to distinguish between different such CFTs. The extra field t(z) is not primary (unless b=0), and is a so-called `logarithmic operator' except in special cases which include affine (Kac-Moody) Lie-super current algebras. The number b controls the question of whether Virasoro null-vectors arising at certain conformal weights contained in the c=0 Kac table may be set to zero or not, in these n...

  6. A matrix-exponential decomposition based time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-05-01

    A time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional (2D) periodic structures is proposed. In the time-stepping process of the proposed method, the column vector containing the spatially sampled field values is updated by multiplying it with an iteration matrix, which is written in a matrix-exponential form. The matrix-exponential is first computed by using the Suzuki's decomposition based technique of the fourth order, in which the Floquet-Bloch boundary conditions are incorporated. The obtained iteration matrix is then squared to enlarge the time-step that can be used in the time-stepping process (namely, the squaring technique), and the small nonzero elements in the iteration matrix is finally pruned to improve the sparse structure of the matrix (namely, the pruning technique). The numerical examples of the super-cell calculations for 2D defect-containing phononic crystal structures show that, the fourth order decomposition based technique for the matrix-exponential computation is much more efficient than the frequently used precise integration technique (PIT) if the PIT is of an order greater than 2. Although it is not unconditionally stable, the proposed time-domain method is particularly efficient for the super-cell calculations of the defect states in a 2D periodic structure containing a defect with a wave speed much higher than those of the background materials. For this kind of defect-containing structures, the time-stepping process can run stably for a sufficiently large number of the time-steps with a time-step much larger than the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) upper limit, and consequently the overall efficiency of the proposed time-domain method can be significantly higher than that of the conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Some physical interpretations on the properties of the band structures and the defect states of the calculated periodic structures are also presented.

  7. Analysis and design of coaxial three-mirror anastigmat with long effective focal length and full two-dimensional field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Baoqi, Mao; Wen, Sun; Weimin, Shen

    2016-10-01

    There is a race to develop spaceborne high-resolution video cameras since Skybox's success. For low manufacture cost and adaption to micro and small satellites, it is urgent to design and develop compact long focal length optical system with not only small volume, light weight and easy implementation, and also two dimensional field. Our focus is on the Coaxial Three-Mirror Anastigmat (CTMA) with intermediate real image for its no need outer hood and compactness and for its easy alignment, low-order aspheric surface and low cost. The means to deflect its image space beam for accessibility of focal plane array detector and to eliminate its inherent secondary obscuration from its primary mirror central hole and deflection flat mirror is discussed. The conditions to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements are presented with our derived relationship among its optical and structural parameters based on Gaussian optics and geometry. One flat mirror near its exit pupil can be used to deflect its image plane from its axis. And its total length can be decreased with other some flat mirrors. Method for determination of its initial structure with the derived formulae is described through one design example. Furthermore, optimized CTMA without secondary obscuration and with effective focal length (EFFL) of 10m is reported. Its full field, F-number and total length are respectively 1.1°×1°, F/14.3, and one eighth of its EFFL. And its imaging quality is near diffraction limit.

  8. Two-dimensional inflow-wind solution of black hole accretion with an evenly symmetric magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallanezhad, Amin; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We solve the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations of black hole accretion with the presence of magnetic field. The field includes a turbulent component, whose role is represented by the viscosity, and a large-scale ordered component. The latter is further assumed to be evenly symmetric with the equatorial plane. The equations are solved in the $r-\\theta$ plane of a spherical coordinate by assuming time-steady and radially self-similar. An inflow-wind solution is found. Around the equatorial plane, the gas is inflowing; while above and below the equatorial plane at a certain critical $\\theta$ angle, $\\theta\\sim 47^{\\circ}$, the inflow changes its direction of radial motion and becomes wind. The driving forces are analyzed and found to be the centrifugal force and the gradient of gas and magnetic pressure. The properties of wind are also calculated. The specific angular momentum of wind is found to be significantly larger than that of inflow, thus wind can transfer angular momentum outward. These...

  9. Quasilongitudinal soliton in a two-dimensional strongly coupled complex dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samiran

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.

  10. Feasibility of two-dimensional speckle tracking in evaluation of arterial stiffness: Comparison with pulse wave velocity and conventional sonographic markers of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórski, Michał; Grzelak, Piotr; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Polguj, Michał; Łukaszewski, Maciej; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2017-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffening is an early marker of atherosclerosis that has a prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although many markers of arterial hardening have been proposed, the search is on for newer, more user-friendly and reliable surrogates. One such potential candidate has emerged from cardiology, the speckle-tracking technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the two-dimensional speckle tracking for the evaluation of arterial wall stiffness in comparison with standard stiffness parameters. Methods Carotid ultrasound and applanation tonometry were performed in 188 patients with no cardiovascular risk factors. The following parameters were then evaluated: the intima-media complex thickness, distensibility coefficient, β-stiffness index, circumferential strain/strain rate, and pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. These variables were compared with each other and with patient age, and their reliability was assessed with Bland-Altman plots. Results Strain parameters derived from two-dimensional speckle tracking and intima-media complex thickness correlated better with age and pulse wave velocity than standard makers of arterial stiffness. Moreover, the reliability of these measurements was significantly higher than conventional surrogates. Conclusions Two-dimensional speckle tracing is a reliable method for the evaluation of arterial stiffness. Therefore, together with intima-media complex thickness measurement, it offers great potential in clinical practice as an early marker of atherosclerosis.

  11. Magnetic field induced phase branches of the superconducting transition in two-dimensional square Π-loop arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dang-Ting; Tian Ye; Chen Geng-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of explicit forms of free energy density for each possible arrangement of magnetization fluxes in large-scale two-dimensional (2D) square Π-loop arrays given by Li et al [2007 Chin.Phys.16 1450],the field-cooled superconducting phase transition is further investigated by analysing the free energy of the arrays with a simplified symmetrical model.Our analytical result is exactly the same as that obtained in Li's paper by means of numerical calculations.It is shown that the phase transition splits into two branches with either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic flux ordering,which depends periodically on the strength of external magnetic flux φe through each loop and monotonically on the screen parameter β of the loops in the arrays.In principle,the diagram of the phase branches is similar to that of its one-dimensional counterpart.The influence of thermal fluctuation on the flux ordering during the transition from normal to superconducting states of the Π-loop arrays is also discussed.

  12. Integral field optical spectroscopy of a representative sample of ULIRGs: II. Two-dimensional kpc-scale extinction structure

    CERN Document Server

    García-Marín, M; Arribas, S

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional kpc-scale structure of the extinction in a representative sample of local ULIRGs using the Halpha/Hbeta line ratio.We use optical integral field spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL instrument at the William Herschel Telescope. Complementary optical and near-IR high angular resolution HST images have also been used. The extinction exhibits a very complex and patchy structure in ULIRGs on kpc scales, from basically transparent regions to others deeply embedded in dust (Av~0.0 to Av~8.0 mag). Nuclear extinction covers a broad range in Av from 0.6 to 6 mag, 69% of the nuclei having Av>2.0 mag. Extinction in the external regions is substantially lower than in the nuclei with 64% of the ULIRGs in the sample having median Av of less than 2 mag for the entire galaxy. While post-coalescence nuclei tend to cluster around Av values of 2 to 3 mag, pre-coalescence nuclei appear more homogeneously distributed over the entire 0.4 mag

  13. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  14. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Julio G; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P; Jordan, David R; Eilers, Paul H C; Malosetti, Marcos; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2017-07-01

    A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and selection of genotypes. Current mixed model methods of spatial analysis are based on a multi-step modelling process where global and local trends are fitted after trying several candidate spatial models. This paper reports the application of a novel spatial method that accounts for all types of continuous field variation in a single modelling step by fitting a smooth surface. The method uses two-dimensional P-splines with anisotropic smoothing formulated in the mixed model framework, referred to as SpATS model. We applied this methodology to a series of large and partially replicated sorghum breeding trials. The new model was assessed in comparison with the more elaborate standard spatial models that use autoregressive correlation of residuals. The improvements in precision and the predictions of genotypic values produced by the SpATS model were equivalent to those obtained using the best fitting standard spatial models for each trial. One advantage of the approach with SpATS is that all patterns of spatial trend and genetic effects were modelled simultaneously by fitting a single model. Furthermore, we used a flexible model to adequately adjust for field trends. This strategy reduces potential parameter identification problems and simplifies the model selection process. Therefore, the new method should be considered as an efficient and easy-to-use alternative for routine analyses of plant breeding trials.

  15. Effects of oblique wave propagation on the nonlinear plasma resonance in the two-dimensional channel of the Dyakonov-Shur detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Crowne, Frank J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector the conduction channel of a heterostructure High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) is used as a plasma wave resonator for density oscillations in electron gas. Nonlinearities in the plasma wave propagation lead to a constant source-to-drain voltage, providing the detector output. In this paper, we start with the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation and derive the hydrodynamic model with temperature dependent transport coefficients for a two-dimensional viscous flow. This derivation allows us to obtain the parameters for the hydrodynamic model from the band-structure of the HEMT channel. The treatment here also includes the energy balance equation into the analysis. By numerical solution of the hydrodynamic equations with a non-zero boundary current we evaluate the detector response function and obtain the temperature dependence of the plasma resonance. The present treatment extends the theory of Dyakonov-Shur plasma resonator and detector to account for the temperature dependence of viscosity, the effects of oblique wave propagation on detector response, and effects of boundary current in two-dimensional flow on quality of the plasma resonance. The numerical results are given for a GaN channel. We also investigated a stability of source to drain flow and formation of shock waves.

  16. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  17. Negative differential conductivity induced current instability in two-dimensional electron gas system in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2015-03-01

    High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of I. As the current exceed Ith, Vxx suddenly drops a ΔVxx and becomes irregular associated with the appearance of hysteresis with sweeping I. We find that Ith increases with the increase of B and of T; meanwhile, ΔVxx is larger at higher B but lower T. Data analysis suggest that the onset of voltage fluctuation can be described by a NDC model proposed by Kurosawa et al. in 1976. The general behaviors of T and B dependence of current instability are analog to those recently reported at lower both T and B. This consistence suggests the same genuine mechanism of NDC phenomena observed in 2DEG system.

  18. Partition function for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field-A heuristic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The exact partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model pertaining to square lattices is derived for N sites in the case of a non-vanishing magnetic field.When the magnetic field is zero,the partition functions estimated from the present analysis are identical with those arising from Onsager's exact solution.

  19. Effects of anisotropy and magnetic fields on the specific heat of a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Li Yu-Qi; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects due to anisotropy and magnetic field interaction for a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot.The specific heat is studied with varying temperature,anisotropy,and magnetic field strength.The cases without and with the inclusion of the spin Zeeman interaction are considered.

  20. A three-dimensional coupled-mode model for the acoustic field in a two-dimensional waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Ze-Zhong; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) coupled-mode model using the direct-global-matrix technique as well as Fourier synthesis. This model is a full wave, two-way three-dimensional model, and is therefore capable of providing accurate acoustic field solutions. Because the problem of sound propagation excited by a point source in an ideal wedge with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of a few three-dimensional problems with analytical solutions, the ideal wedge problem is chosen in this work to validate the presented three-dimensional model. Numerical results show that the field results by analytical solutions and those by the presented model are in excellent agreement, indicating that the presented model can serve as a benchmark model for three-dimensional sound propagation problems involving a planar two-dimensional geometry as well as a point source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11125420, 11434012, and 41561144006) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Elastic wave band gaps tuned by configuring radii of rods in two-dimensional phononic crystals with a hybrid square-like lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongqiang; Zhao, Haojiang; Zhang, Yingying; Guo, Honghwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-12-01

    The plane wave expansion (PWE) method is used to calculate the band gaps of two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PCs) with a hybrid square-like (HSL) lattice. Band structures of both XY-mode and Z-mode are calculated. Numerical results show that the band gaps between any two bands could be maximized by altering the radius ratio of the inclusions at different positions. By comparing with square lattice and bathroom lattice, the HSL lattice is more efficient in creating larger gaps.

  2. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H1,δH1,H1,δH1,..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H1tr/J=3, δtr=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×Tcb. Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H1w) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1165 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ≪M, e.g., [H1(x,λ)>0], one can obtain the effective field Heff at a λ coarse-grained level given by Heff=(1)/(λ)∑x=1

  3. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H(1),δH(1),H(1),δH(1),..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H(1)(tr)/J=3, δ(tr)=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×T(cb). Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H(1w)) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ0], one can obtain the effective field H(eff) at a λ coarse-grained level given by H(eff)=1/λ∑(x=1)(λ)H(1)(x,λ). Then we conjectured that the

  4. Self-Oscillations of a spontaneous electric field in a nonequilibrium two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    Self-oscillations of a microwave photovoltage with irregular interruptions have been discovered in the states with vanishing dc dissipation emerging in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave irradiation. The observed picture can be caused by transitions between a stable pole and a limiting cycle in the phase space of the systems (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation) that occur owing to fluctuations.

  5. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  6. Acousto-optical interaction of surface acoustic and optical waves in a two-dimensional phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Zou, Kui; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Su, Xiao-Xing

    2014-11-17

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising material for manipulating sound and light simultaneously. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the propagation of acoustic and optical waves along the truncated surface of a two-dimensional square-latticed phoxonic crystal. Further, a phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity is proposed, which can simultaneously confine surface acoustic and optical waves. The interface motion and photoelastic effects are taken into account in the acousto-optical coupling. The results show obvious shifts in eigenfrequencies of the photonic cavity modes induced by different phononic cavity modes. The symmetry of the phononic cavity modes plays a more important role in the single-phonon exchange process than in the case of the multi-phonon exchange. Under the same deformation, the frequency shift of the photonic transverse electric mode is larger than that of the transverse magnetic mode.

  7. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); El Khamkhami, Jamal [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); and others

    2016-09-15

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  8. EXACT SOLITRAY WAVE SOLUTIONS AND SINGULAR SOLUTIONS TO THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR DISSIPATIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 陈天华

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm for constructing exact solitary wave solutions and singular solutions for a class of nonlinear dissipative-dispersive system is presented. With the aid of symbolic manipulation system Maple, some explicit solutions are obtained for the system in physically interesting but non-integrable cases.

  9. Inertial-range dynamics and scaling laws of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the weak-field regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, Luke A K; Tran, Chuong V

    2014-08-01

    We study inertial-range dynamics and scaling laws in unforced two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the regime of moderately small and small initial magnetic-to-kinetic-energy ratio r(0), with an emphasis on the latter. The regime of small r(0) corresponds to a relatively weak field and strong magnetic stretching, whereby the turbulence is characterized by an intense conversion of kinetic into magnetic energy (dynamo action in the three-dimensional context). This conversion is an inertial-range phenomenon and, upon becoming quasisaturated, deposits the converted energy within the inertial range rather than transferring it to the small scales. As a result, the magnetic-energy spectrum E(b)(k) in the inertial range can become quite shallow and may not be adequately explained or understood in terms of conventional cascade theories. It is demonstrated by numerical simulations at high Reynolds numbers (and unity magnetic Prandtl number) that the energetics and inertial-range scaling depend strongly on r(0). In particular, for fully developed turbulence with r(0) in the range [1/4,1/4096], E(b)(k) is found to scale as k(α), where α≳-1, including α>0. The extent of such a shallow spectrum is limited, becoming broader as r(0) is decreased. The slope α increases as r(0) is decreased, appearing to tend to +1 in the limit of small r(0). This implies equipartition of magnetic energy among the Fourier modes of the inertial range and the scaling k(-1) of the magnetic potential variance, whose flux is direct rather than inverse. This behavior of the potential resembles that of a passive scalar. However, unlike a passive scalar whose variance dissipation rate slowly vanishes in the diffusionless limit, the dissipation rate of the magnetic potential variance scales linearly with the diffusivity in that limit. Meanwhile, the kinetic-energy spectrum is relatively steep, followed by a much shallower tail due to strong antidynamo excitation. This gives rise to a total

  10. Multiple-scattering theory for out-of-plane propagation of elastic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Liu, Zhengyou; Qiu, Chunyin

    2005-06-29

    We extend the multiple-scattering theory (MST) to out-of-plane propagating elastic waves in 2D periodical composites by taking into account the full vector character. The formalism for both the band structure calculation and the reflection and transmission coefficient calculation for finite slabs is presented. The latter is based on a double-layer scheme, which obtains the reflection and transmission matrix elements for the multilayer slab from those of a single layer. Being more rapid in both the band structure and the transmission coefficient calculations for out-of-plane propagating elastic waves, our approach especially shows great advantages in handling the systems with mixed solid and fluid components, for which the conventional plane wave approach fails. As the applications of the formalism, we calculate the band structure as well as the transmission coefficients through finite slabs for systems with lead rods in an epoxy host, steel rods in a water host and water rods in a PMMA host.

  11. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...

  12. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction, with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground. Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more

  13. Partition Function for Two-Dimensional Nearest Neighbour Ising Model in a Non-Zero Magnetic Field for a Square Lattice of 16 Sites

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An explicit expression for the partition function of two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models in the presence of a magnetic field is derived by a systematic enumeration of all the spin configurations pertaining to a square lattice of sixteen sites. The critical temperature is shown to be in excellent agreement with the reported values while the corresponding dimensionless magnetic field is obtained as 0.004.

  14. Anisotropic symmetry breaking in two-dimensional charge density waves of ErTe3 investigated by femtosecond electron crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Faran; Golubev, Timofey; Hwang, Bin; Ruan, Chong-Yu; Duxbury, Phil; Malliakas, Christos; Kanatzidis, Mercouri

    2015-03-01

    Electron-phonon interactions can give rise to various charge-ordered states, especially at low dimensions, where Fermi surface is more prone to form nesting. Rare earth tritellurides compound ErTe3 develops charge density waves (CDW) along two perpendicular directions at different temperatures. By directly probing the order parameters of the two CDWs using femtosecond electron crystallography under different temperatures and driving photonic energy, we investigated the emergences of competing CDW orders in a dynamical phase diagram. The anisotropic symmetry breaking and the role of electron-phonon coupling, and photo-doping effect are discussed in reference to other CDW systems. Our work is supported by Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46309.

  15. Two-dimensional circulation and mixing in the far field of a surface-advected river plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Piero L. F.; Chant, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    Field observations of the Hudson River plume are presented to discuss circulation and mixing in the far field of this coastally trapped buoyant flow. The plume was surface advected and propagated downshelf near the internal wave speed. The plume outflow was characterized by a two-layer bulge-like feature but became continuously stratified and vertically sheared in the far field, where Richardson numbers are generally below 0.5. High-frequency velocity and backscatter data from a moored ADCP revealed strong vertical and horizontal oscillatory motions at the front with a wavelength approximately 7-8 times the plume thickness, consistent with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These motions quickly died out after 2-3 cycles. The combination of vertical shear and stratification in the plume leads to a buoyancy flux toward the nose of the plume, which competes with mixing. However, the continued salinity increase of the plume as it propagated downshelf indicates that mixing overcomes this delivery of freshwater to the plume front. A simple 2-D model is developed, which relates the time rate-of-change of the plume salinity to: (1) salt entrainment due to vertical mixing, and (2) freshwater flux and salt removal due to the vertical shear of the stratified plume. Estimates of an entrainment coefficient from this model are consistent with previous estimates from the near field of a river outflow. A scaling of the plume width is obtained by assuming that vertical shears are controlled by both thermal wind and a critical Richardson number. This scaling yields plume widths that are consistent with previous laboratory studies.

  16. Quantum transport in two dimensional electron gas/p-wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling at the interface and in the normal layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadkhani, R., E-mail: rmkhani@znu.ac.ir; Hassanloo, Gh.

    2014-11-01

    We have studied the tunneling conductance of a clean two dimensional electron gas/p- wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) which is present in the normal layer and at the interface. Using the extended Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk formalism we have found that the subgap conductance peaks are shifted to a nonzero bias by RSOC at the interface which are the same as Ref. [1]. It is shown that for low insulating barrier and in the absence of the interface RSOC, the tunneling conductance decreases within energy gap with increasing of the RSOC in the normal layer while for high insulating barrier it enhances by increase of the RSOC. We have also shown that the RSOC inside the normal cannot affect the location of the subgap conductance peaks shifted by the interface RSOC.

  17. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  18. Near-field relaxation of a quantum emitter to two-dimensional semiconductors: Surface dissipation and exciton polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolas, Vasilios D.; Marocico, Cristian A.; Eastham, Paul R.; Bradley, A. Louise

    2016-11-01

    The total spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter in the presence of an infinite MoS2 monolayer is enhanced by several orders of magnitude, compared to its free-space value, due to the excitation of surface exciton polariton modes and lossy modes. The spectral and distance dependence of the spontaneous emission rate are analyzed and the lossy surface wave, surface exciton polariton mode and radiative contributions are identified. The transverse magnetic and transverse electric exciton polariton modes can be excited for different emission frequencies of the quantum emitter, and their contributions to the total spontaneous emission rate are different. To calculate these different decay rates we use the non-Hermitian description of light-matter interactions, employing a Green's tensor formalism. The distance dependence follows different trends depending on the emission energy of the quantum emitter. For the case of the lossy surface waves, the distance dependence follows a z-n,n =2 ,3 ,4 , trend. When transverse magnetic exciton polariton modes are excited, they dominate and characterize the distance dependence of the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter in the presence of the MoS2 layers. The interaction between a quantum emitter and a MoS2 superlattice is investigated, and we observe a splitting of the modes supported by the superlattice. Moreover, a blueshift of the peak values of the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter is observed as the number of layers is increased. The field distribution profiles, created by a quantum emitter, are used to explain this behavior.

  19. Two-Dimensional Standing Wave Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy: Superresolution Imaging of Single Molecular and Biological Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The development of high resolution, high speed imaging techniques allows the study of dynamical processes in biological systems. Lateral resolution improvement of up to a factor of 2 has been achieved using structured illumination. In a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, an evanescence excitation field is formed as light is total internally reflected at an interface between a high and a low index medium. The

  20. Effects of antidot shape on the spin wave spectra of two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Ruma; Laha, Pinaki; Das, Kaustuv; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2013-12-23

    We show that the optically induced spin wave spectra of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) antidot lattices can be tuned by changing the antidot shape. The spin wave spectra also show an anisotropy with the variation of the in-plane bias field orientation. Analyses show this is due to various quantized and extended modes, whose nature changes with the antidot shape and bias field orientation as a result of the variation of the internal magnetic field profile. The observed variation and anisotropy in the spin waves with the internal and external parameters are important for their applications in magnonic devices.

  1. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

  2. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Materials and Methods Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD...

  3. Parametric decay of linearly polarized shear Alfvén waves in oblique propagation: One and two-dimensional hybrid simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorenzo Matteini; Simone Landi; Luca Del Zanna; Marco Velli; Petr Hellinger

    2010-01-01

      The parametric instability of a monochromatic shear Alfvén wave in oblique propagation with respect the ambient magnetic field is investigated in a kinetic regime, performing one-dimensional (1-D...

  4. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  5. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  6. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  7. DNA- and AC electric field-assisted assembly of two-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals and their controlled defect insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejong

    Photonic crystals (PC) are structures in which the refractive index is a periodic function in space. The ability of photonic crystals to localize and manipulate electromagnetic waves has attracted considerable attention from the scientific community. The self-assembly of monodisperse micrometer scale colloidal spheres into hexagonal closed-packed colloidal crystals provides a simple, fast, and cheap materials chemistry approach to PCs. Employing DNA supramolecular recognition, 2-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal monolayer was fabricated with monodisperse polystyrene colloidal microspheres. Amine-terminated DNA oligomers were covalently attached onto carboxy-decorated microspheres and enabled their DNA-functionalization while preserving their colloidal stability and organization properties. Following a capillary-force-assisted organization of DNA-decorated microspheres into close-packed 2D opaline arrays, the first monolayer was immobilized by DNA hybridization. Insertion of vacancies at predetermined sites within the lattice of colloidal crystals is a prerequisite in order to realize high-quality, opaline-based photonic devices. The previously obtained DNA-hybridization type binding of 2D-opaline arrays provides a heat-sensitive "adhesive" between substrate and microspheres within a surrounding aqueous medium that enables tuning the hybridization strength of DNA linker as well as a mechanism to facilitate the removal of unbound microspheres. Focusing a laser beam onto a single microsphere of the opaline array induces localized heating that enables the microsphere to detach, leaving behind vacancies. By repeating this process, line vacancies were successfully obtained. The effects of salt concentration, laser power, light-absorbing dyes, DNA length and refractive index mismatch were investigated and found to correlate with heat-induced DNA dehybridization. In addition, AC (alternating current) electrokinetic force was also utilized to obtain assembly of colloidal

  8. Statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation for two dimensional amplitude and time-of-flight mapping of guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn Chong, See; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yik Park, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Conventional threshold crossing technique generally encounters the difficulty in setting a common threshold level in the extraction of the respective time-of-flights (ToFs) and amplitudes from the guided waves obtained at many different points by spatial scanning. Therefore, we propose a statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation to automatically process numerous guided waves having different propagation distances. First, a two-dimensional (2-D) noise map is generated using one-dimensional (1-D) WT magnitudes at time zero of the acquired waves. Then, the probability density functions (PDFs) of Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution and exponential distribution are used to model the measured 2-D noise map. Graphical goodness-of-fit measurements are used to find the best fit among the three theoretical distributions. Then, the threshold level is automatically determined by selecting the desired confidence level of the noise rejection in the cumulative distribution function of the best fit PDF. Based on this threshold level, the amplitudes and ToFs are extracted and mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. The threshold level determined by the noise statistics may cross the noise signal after time zero. These crossings are represented as salt-and-pepper noise in the ToF and amplitude maps but finally removed by the 1-D median filter. This proposed method was verified in a thick stainless steel hollow cylinder where guided waves were acquired in an area of 180 mm×126 mm of the cylinder by using a laser ultrasonic scanning system and an ultrasonic sensor. The Gamma distribution was estimated as the best fit to the verification experimental data by the proposed algorithm. The statistical parameters of the Gamma distribution were used to determine the threshold level appropriate for most of the guided waves. The ToFs and amplitudes of the first arrival mode were mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. Each map included 447 noisy points out of 90

  9. Accurate iterative solution of the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey) and Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey)]. E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com; Boztosun, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we present the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field by using the asymptotic iteration method. The binding energy eigenvalues in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields ({gamma}<>0) are obtained within the framework of this iterative approach for 1S, 2P{sup -} and 3D{sup -} levels. The energy eigenvalues for the non-magnetic field case ({gamma}=0) are also determined and the results are compared with the values in weak and strong magnetic fields. The effect of the magnetic field strength on the energy eigenvalues are determined explicitly and excellent agreement with the findings of other methods is obtained.

  10. Study of Landau spectrum for a two-dimensional random magnetic field; Etude du spectre de Landau pour un champ magnetique aleatoire en dimension deux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtlehner, C. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-09-24

    This thesis deals with the two-dimensional problem of a charged particle coupled to a random magnetic field. Various situations are considered, according to the relative importance of the mean value of field and random component. The last one is conceived as a distribution of magnetic impurities (punctual vortex), having various statistical properties (local or non-local correlations, Poisson distribution, etc). The study of this system has led to two distinct situations: - the case of the charged particle feeling the influence of mean field that manifests its presence in the spectrum of broadened Landau levels; - the disordered situation in which the spectrum can be distinguished from the free one only by a low energy Lifshits behaviour. Additional properties are occurring in the limit of `strong` mean field, namely a non-conventional low energy behaviour (in contrast to Lifshits behaviour) which was interpreted in terms of localized states. (author) 78 refs.

  11. Numerical Study of Shock Wave Attenuation in Two-Dimensional Ducts Using Solid Obstacles: How to Utilize Shock Focusing Techniques to Attenuate Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on shock wave mitigation in channels has been a topic of much attention in the shock wave community. One approach to attenuate an incident shock wave is to use obstacles of various geometries arranged in different patterns. This work is inspired by the study from Chaudhuri et al. (2013, in which cylinders, squares and triangles placed in staggered and non-staggered subsequent columns were used to attenuate a planar incident shock wave. Here, we present numerical simulations using a different obstacle pattern. Instead of using a matrix of obstacles, an arrangement of square or cylindrical obstacles placed along a logarithmic spiral curve is investigated, which is motivated by our previous work on shock focusing using logarithmic spirals. Results show that obstacles placed along a logarithmic spiral can delay both the transmitted and the reflected shock wave. For different incident shock Mach numbers, away from the logarithmic spiral design Mach number, this shape is effective to either delay the transmitted or the reflected shock wave. Results also confirm that the degree of attenuation depends on the obstacle shape, effective flow area and obstacle arrangement, much like other obstacle configurations.

  12. Visualization and quantification of four steps in magnetic field induced two-dimensional ordering of superparamagnetic submicron particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajula, Gnana Prakash; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2010-01-01

    We hereby report a methodology that permits a quantitative investigation of the temporal self-organization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the presence of an external magnetic field. The kinetics of field-induced self-organization into linear chains, time-dependent chain-size distribution...

  13. Exponential suppression of interlayer conductivity in very anisotropic quasi-two-dimensional compounds in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, P.D., E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that in rather strong magnetic field the interlayer electron conductivity is exponentially damped by the Coulomb barrier arising from the formation of polaron around each localized electron state. The theoretical model is developed to describe this effect, and the calculation of the temperature and field dependence of interlayer magnetoresistance is performed. The results obtained agree well with the experimental data in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and in strongly anisotropic organic metals. The proposed theory allows to use the experiments on interlayer magnetoresistance to investigate the electron states, localized by magnetic field and disorder.

  14. Gravitational Wave - Gauge Field Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, R R; Maksimova, N A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multi-dimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.

  15. Exact solution to two-dimensional isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field in non-commutative phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gao-Feng; LONG Chao-Yun; LONG Zheng-Wen; QIN Shui-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field is researched in the non-commutative phase space;the corresponding exact energy is obtained,and the analytic eigenfunction is presented in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function.It is shown that in the non-commutative space,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field has the similar behaviors to the Landau problem.

  16. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  17. Observation of the variations of the domain structure of a spontaneous electric field in a two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    It has been found on a sample of the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with the two-dimensional electron system that different configurations of domains of a spontaneous electric field are possible within one microwave- induced state with the resistance tending to zero. Transitions between such configurations are observed at the variation of the radiation power and magnetic field. In the general case, the configuration of domains is more complicated than existing models. The fragment of the distribution of the electric field in the sample for one of the observed configurations is in agreement with the rhombic domain structure considered by I. G. Finkler and B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085315 (2009).

  18. Coherent Excitonic Wavepackets in Two-Dimensional Square Dot-Arrays Driven by an In-Plane Uniform Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀平; 阎维贤

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the evolution behaviour of electron-hole pair wavepacket in optically excited square quantum-dot arrays driven by in-plane (x-y plane) uniform electric field E (viz, E = Exex + Eyey, ex,ey are unit vectors along x and y directions respectively), in the time domain. It is found that if the ratio of the x-component electric field Ex to the y-component electric field Ey is a rational p/q (p and q being coprime integer numbers),the wavepackets undergo a time-periodic breathing mode, with the period 2πp/ωBx, where ωBx = eExa/h, with a being the lattice constant of square dot arrays, h being Planck's constant, e being the electron charge. This finding provides a time-domain demonstration of the recent spectral result [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001)3116].

  19. Effects of electric field on structures and dynamics in a two-dimensional dust dipole particle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. N.; Liu, Y. H.; Huang, F.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Effects of radial electric field on the structures and dynamics of dust dipoles are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The dipoles' configuration and mean distance to the system center are used to illustrate the structures of the whole system. It is shown that the dipole particles can arrange themselves into ring-like structures in the absence of external electric field, which can gradually transform to vortex, and then to radial arrangement with the increase of the strength of electric field. The trajectories, mean square displacement, and the mean speed in radial and tangential directions of dipoles are investigated to depict the effects of the radial electric filed on the collective motion of dust dipolar particles, which are closely associated with the growth of dust particle, especially for the formation of rod-like and some other complex fractal dust particles.

  20. Characteristics of Acoustic Field of Two-dimensional Ultrasonic Phased Array%二维超声相控阵的声场特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙绒蓉; 王海涛; 郭瑞鹏; 徐君; 郭艳; 沈立军

    2015-01-01

    基于空间冲激响应的脉冲声场模型及超声相控阵指向性理论,使用 MATLAB 仿真软件,分析了二维矩形阵列各参数对其声场特性的影响,据此推导出阵列探头设计、选取的一般准则;对比研究二维矩形阵列和圆形阵列的脉冲回波声场。结果表明,圆形阵列具有更窄的主瓣宽度和更低的第一级旁瓣,更优的指向性。%Based on the pulsed ultrasonic field model of the space impulse response and the directivity theory of ultrasonic phased array,the effect of two-dimensional rectangular array parameters on the acoustical characteristics was investigated by using MATLAB simulation software.Accordingly,the general guidelines of array probe design and selection was derived.Comparative studies were also carried on the pulse-echo acoustic field of two-dimensional rectangular array and circular array,showing that the circular array had a narrower width of main lobe and lower first side lobe,etc,so the performance of the latter being more outstanding.

  1. Linear stability of horizontal, laminar fully developed, quasi-two-dimensional liquid metal duct flow under a transverse magnetic field and heated from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tony; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.

    2017-03-01

    This study considers the linear stability of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flows subjected to a transverse magnetic field, to understand the instabilities that arise from the complex interaction between the effects of shear, thermal stratification, and magnetic damping. This fundamental study is motivated in part by the desire to enhance heat transfer in the blanket ducts of nuclear fusion reactors. In pure magnetohydrodynamic flows, the imposed transverse magnetic field causes the flow to become quasi-two-dimensional and exhibit disturbances that are localized to the horizontal walls. However, the vertical temperature stratification in Rayleigh-Bénard flows feature convection cells that occupy the interior region, and therefore the addition of this aspect provides an interesting point for investigation. The linearized governing equations are described by the quasi-two-dimensional model proposed by Sommeria and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 507 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082001177], which incorporates a Hartmann friction term, and the base flows are considered fully developed and one-dimensional. The neutral stability curves for critical Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, Rec and Rac, respectively, as functions of Hartmann friction parameter H have been obtained over 10-2≤H ≤104 . Asymptotic trends are observed as H →∞ following Rec∝H1 /2 and Rac∝H . The linear stability analysis reveals multiple instabilities which alter the flow both within the Shercliff boundary layers and the interior flow, with structures consistent with features from plane Poiseuille and Rayleigh-Bénard flows.

  2. Numerical Model of Formaldehyde Photo-Oxidation in a Two Dimensional Flow Field Over Cylindrical UV Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    light (Schmelzle, 1994 and Albano , 1994). The kinetic mechanisms were incorporated into the flow field model by introducing the species mass... Albano , M., 1994. Computer Simulation of a Photolytic Reactor to Study the Effects of a Variety of Wavelengths, A Thesis in Environmental Pollution

  3. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckers, Elke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier [Laboratiore d' Acoustique de l' Universiteé du Maine, L' Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, Université du Maine, CNRS, UMR-6613 CNRS, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Desmet, Wim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  4. Design of two-dimensional ultrasonic wave wind speed and wind direction sensor%二维超声波风速风向传感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东明; 曹晓钟; 马尚昌

    2015-01-01

    Wind speed is an important factor meteorological forecast,accurate forecasting of wind speed,has certain influence on people’s production and living. Two-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed sensor is one of the most important way of wind speed measurement in meteorology and industry,on the basis of traditional ultrasonic wave anemometer,accurately adjust by measuring temperature and humidity of air,compensate influence of environmental factors such as rain and fog,design a 200 kHz ultrasonic anemometer all-weather based on STM32 processor,it is proved through experiment that the device can realize accurate wind speed and wind direction measurement,all-weather measurement error is small.%风是气象预报中的一个重要的要素,准确地预报风速,对人们的生产生活都有一定的影响。二维超声风传感器是气象与工业中最重要的风速测量方式之一,在传统的超声波测风仪器的基础上,通过测量空气温湿度来进行准确的调节,补偿了雨雾等环境因素的影响,设计一种基于STM32处理器的200 kHz全天候超声测风仪,通过实验证明:该装置可以实现全天候精确测量风速风向,测量误差小。

  5. A Basic Experiment on Two-Dimensional Force of HTSC-Bulk in DC Magnetic-Field

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 欣二郎; 松田, 茂雄; 松本, 洋和

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTSC) bulk can levitate stably on a track which consists of permanent magnets of the same polarity. This is because HTSC-bulk has a pinning force which keeps from vertical displacement due to the weight. We have proposed a new LSM theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing force in using armature travelling-magnetic-field instead of permanent magnets. However, the lift force enough to levitate the vehicle on the ground ...

  6. Noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory: Wilson loop in two-dimensional Yang-Mills, and unitarity from string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The results of our research on noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to string theory are exposed with details. 1) We give an introduction to noncommutative quantum field theory and its derivation from open string theory in an antisymmetric background. 2) We perform a perturbative Wilson loop calculation for 2D NCYM. We compare the LCG results for the WML and the PV prescription. With WML the loop is well-defined and regular in the commutative limit. With PV the result is singular. This is intriguing: in the commutative theory their difference is related to topological excitations, moreover PV provides a point-like potential. 3) Commutative 2D YM exhibits an interplay between geometrical and U(N) gauge properties: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a scaling intertwines n and N. In the NC case the interplay becomes tighter due to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries. Surprisingly, in our up to O(g^6) (and beyond) crossed graphs calculations the scaling we mentioned occurs for large n, N and theta. 4) We discuss the breakdown of perturbative unitarity of noncommutative electric-type QFT in the light of strings. We consider the analytic structure of string loop two-point functions suitably continuing them off-shell, and then study the Seiberg-Witten limit. In this way we pick up how the unphysical tachyonic branch cut appears in the NC field theory.

  7. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H M; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN-PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0-18 kV cm(-1) was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis.

  8. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H. M.; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN–PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0–18 kV cm−1 was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis. PMID:27738414

  9. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  10. Critical field of two-dimensional superconducting Sn1-x/Six bimetallic composite cluster assembled films with energetic cluster impact deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Yuichiro; Hihara, Takehiko; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2013-05-01

    Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films have been prepared by an energetic cluster impact deposition using a plasma-gas-condensation cluster beam deposition apparatus. Transmission electron microscope images indicated that individual clusters have composite morphologies, where Sn and Si were separated from each other. The superconducting critical magnetic fields, Hc, of Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films were measured and found to be much higher than the critical magnetic field of the bulk Sn. We estimated the Hc values by using a theory of the superconducting thin film. The estimated values are in good agreement with the experiments, indicating that the Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films can be regarded as a two-dimensional system although thickness, t, of Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films (t ≈ 1000 nm) is thicker than conventional superconducting thin film (t < 100 nm).

  11. Noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory Wilson loop in two-dimensional Yang-Mills, and unitarity from string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, A

    2003-01-01

    The results of our research on noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to string theory are exposed with details. 1) We give an introduction to noncommutative quantum field theory and its derivation from open string theory in an antisymmetric background. 2) We perform a perturbative Wilson loop calculation for 2D NCYM. We compare the LCG results for the WML and the PV prescription. With WML the loop is well-defined and regular in the commutative limit. With PV the result is singular. This is intriguing: in the commutative theory their difference is related to topological excitations, moreover PV provides a point-like potential. 3) Commutative 2D YM exhibits an interplay between geometrical and U(N) gauge properties: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a scaling intertwines n and N. In the NC case the interplay becomes tighter due to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries. Surprisingly, in our up to O(g^6) (and beyond) crossed graphs calculations th...

  12. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  13. Adaptive Finite Element Modeling of Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Fields in Two-Dimensional General Anisotropic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuguo; LUO Ming; PEI Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we extend the scope of numerical simulations of marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) fields in a particular case of anisotropy (dipping anisotropy) to the general case of anisotropy by using an adaptive finite element approach.In comparison to a dipping anisotropy case,the first order spatial derivatives of the strike-parallel components arise in the partial differential equations for generally anisotropic media,which cause a non-symmetric linear system of equations for finite element modeling.The adaptive finite element method is employed to obtain numerical solutions on a sequence of refined unstructured triangular meshes,which allows for arbitrary model geometries including bathymetry and dipping layers.Numerical results of a 2D anisotropic model show both anisotropy strike and dipping angles have great influence on the marine CSEM responses.

  14. The field-induced laws of thermodynamic properties in the two-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Qiurong [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Yuan, E-mail: newbayren@163.com [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Green's function method is applied to investigate the two-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the exchange and single-ion anisotropies. In the presence of the magnetic field, the effects of the anisotropies and field on the thermodynamic properties are obtained within the random phase approximation combining with Anderson-Callen approximation. The field-induced laws are found for the thermodynamic properties. Field dependences of heights of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum fit well to power laws. The linear increase at high fields is shown for positions of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum. A power law at low fields occurs for the position of the susceptibility maximum. At the positions of the maxima, the magnetization and internal energy display the power-law increase and linear decrease with the field, respectively. The exponents of the power laws are dependent of the anisotropies, as well as the slopes of the linear laws. Our results do not support the 2/3 power law which was obtained by the Landau theory.

  15. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  16. Design strategy of two-dimensional material field-effect transistors: Engineering the number of layers in phosphorene FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Demin; Yoon, Youngki

    2016-06-01

    Thickness or the number of layers in 2D semiconductors is a key parameter to determine the material's electronic properties and the overall device performance of 2D material electronics. Here, we discuss the engineering practice of optimizing material and device parameters of phosphorene field-effect transistors (FETs) by means of self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations, where the impacts of different numbers of phosphorene layers on various device characteristics are explored in particular, considering two specific target applications of high-performance and low-power devices. Our results suggest that, for high-performance applications, monolayer phosphorene should be utilized in a conventional FET structure since it can provide the equally large on current as other multilayer phosphorenes (Ion > 1 mA/μm) without showing a penalty of relatively lower density of states, along with favorableness for steep switching and large immunity to gate-induced drain leakage. On the other hand, more comprehensive approach is required for low-power applications, where operating voltage, doping concentration, and channel length should be carefully engineered along with the thickness of phosphorene in tunnel FET (TFET) structure to achieve ultra-low leakage current without sacrificing on current significantly. Our extensive simulation results revealed that either bilayer or trilayer phosphorene can provide the best performance in TFET with the maximum Ion/Ioff of ˜2 × 1011 and the subthreshold swing as low as 13 mV/dec. In addition, our comparative study of phosphorene-based conventional FET and TFET clearly shows the feasibility and the limitation of each device for different target applications, providing irreplaceable insights into the design strategy of phosphorene FETs that can be also extended to other similar layered material electronic devices.

  17. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  18. X-ray and visible light transmission as two-dimensional, full-field moisture-sensing techniques: A preliminary comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-21

    Two independent high-resolution moisture-sensing techniques, x-ray absorption and light transmission, have been developed for use in two-dimensional, thin-slab experimental systems. The techniques yield full-field measurement capabilities with exceptional resolution of moisture content in time and space. These techniques represent powerful tools for the experimentalist to investigate processes governing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured and nonfractured porous media. Evaluation of these techniques has been accomplished by direct comparison of data obtained by means of the x-ray and light techniques as well as comparison with data collected by gravimetric and gamma-ray densitometry techniques. Results show excellent agreement between data collected by the four moisture-content measurement techniques. This program was established to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  19. Simple and rapid CD4 testing based on large-field imaging system composed of microcavity array and two-dimensional photosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tatsuya; Sugamura, Yuriko; Hosokawa, Masahito; Yoshino, Tomoko; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-15

    This study presents a novel method for CD4 testing based on one-shot large-field imaging. The large-field imaging system was fabricated by a microcavity array and a two-dimensional (2D) photosensor within the desk-top-sized instrument. The microcavity array was employed to separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size of leukocytes and other blood cells. The large-field imaging system with lower side irradiation enabled acquisition of cell signatures with high signal-to-noise ratio, because the metallic substrate of the microcavity array obstructed excessive excitation light. In this setting, dual-color imaging of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was achieved within the entire image area (64 mm(2)) in 2s. The practical performance of the large-field imaging system was demonstrated by determining the CD4/CD8 ratio in a few microliter of control whole blood as small as those obtained by a finger prick. The CD4/CD8 ratios measured using the large-field imaging system correlated well with those measured by microscopic analysis. These results indicate that our proposed system provides a simple and rapid CD4 testing for the application of HIV/AIDS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the flow behavior of ferrofluids in a two-dimensional channel (1st report). Magnetic field of various derections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukio; Ishibashi, Yukio; Saito, Eiji; Saito, Toshio

    1988-02-25

    For elucidation of the flow behavior of a magnetic fluid as a one-phase fluid, water base ferrofluids were introduced in a two-dimensional channel and the action of a uniform vertical magnetic field axial magnetic field, and both fields inclined at various angles to examine the laminar flow region. The ferrofluids used in the experiment were prepared by dispersing 17.5 weight % of Fe/sub 3/ O/sub 4/ fine particles of about 100A in diameter into ion-exchange water, and adding an anionic sodium oleate to stabilize the dispersion. Under no action of the magnetic fields, ferrofluids having a higher concentration than the above value exhibited plastic fluid. As the direction of the magnetic field acting on the fluid approached the vertical, so the pressure loss was increased. The pipe friction coefficient could be expressed by the empirical formula of which the variables are the ratios of inertia force/viscous force and magnetic force/viscous force, and the inclination of the magnetic poles. (15 figs, 14 refs)

  1. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  2. Operation in the turbulent jet field of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet (Variation of mean velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Shigetaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194 operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC, and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.

  3. Operation in the turbulent jet field of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet (Variation of mean velocity field)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Harima, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s) was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194) operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC), and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.

  4. A first-principles study on the mechanism of screening depolarizing field in two-dimensional BaTiO3 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haigen; Yue, Zhenxing; Li, Longtu

    2016-03-01

    A first-principles method is employed to study the mechanism of screening depolarizing field in two-dimensional BaTiO3 nanosheets. The geometric structures and ferroelectric properties show that the low-dimensional BaTiO3 with thickness m = 3 is a freestanding ultrathin film. Therefore, the scale of BaTiO3 nanosheets is defined as m = 1 and 2. The stable domain period corresponding to m = 1, 2, and 3 is 2, 2, and 6, respectively. When m = 1 and 2, only the spontaneous polarizations perpendicular to the surfaces are observed, and they are ˜6 and 15 μC/cm2, respectively. This indicates that the depolarizing field still has an effect on spontaneous polarizations. The difference in macroscopic charge density distribution between ferroelectric and paraelectric phases reveals that a dipole is formed at the ferroelectric domain wall, which leads to a decrease in the depolarizing field in the direction [001]. As a consequence, the critical thickness disappears.

  5. Mapping Two-Dimensional Deformation Field Time-Series of Large Slope by Coupling DInSAR-SBAS with MAI-SBAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping deformation field time-series, including vertical and horizontal motions, is vital for landslide monitoring and slope safety assessment. However, the conventional differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR technique can only detect the displacement component in the satellite-to-ground direction, i.e., line-of-sight (LOS direction displacement. To overcome this constraint, a new method was developed to obtain the displacement field time series of a slope by coupling DInSAR based small baseline subset approach (DInSAR-SBAS with multiple-aperture InSAR (MAI based small baseline subset approach (MAI-SBAS. This novel method has been applied to a set of 11 observations from the phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR sensor onboard the advanced land observing satellite (ALOS, spanning from 2007 to 2011, of two large-scale north–south slopes of the largest Asian open-pit mine in the Northeast of China. The retrieved displacement time series showed that the proposed method can detect and measure the large displacements that occurred along the north–south direction, and the gradually changing two-dimensional displacement fields. Moreover, we verified this new method by comparing the displacement results to global positioning system (GPS measurements.

  6. Generation of eye field/optic vesicle-like structures from human embryonic stem cells under two-dimensional and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Maryam; Parivar, Kazem; Safari, Fatemeh; Tondar, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying retinal cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a cost-effective eye field cells with the capability to further differentiate into retinal derivatives. In this study, by drawing chemicals on our four-step differentiation strategy, we demonstrated the ability of hESCs in assembling such qualifications to follow human retinogenesis in a serum- and feeder-free adherent condition. Two-dimensional (2D) populations of eye field cells arose within early forebrain progeny upon hESCs differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that the treatment of hESCs with a combination of selected small molecules (SMs) gave rise to the higher expressions of eye field-specific genes, PAX6, RX, and SIX3. Thereafter, a subset of cells gained the transient features of advancing retinal differentiation, including optic vesicle (OV)-like structures, which expressed MITF and CHX10 in a manner imitated in vivo human retinal development. The competency of derived cells in differentiation to retinal derivatives was further investigated. The gene analysis of the cells showed more propensity for generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) than neural retina (NR). The generation of OV-like structures in 2D cultures can shed light on molecular events governing retinal specification. It can also facilitate the study of human retinal development.

  7. Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

  8. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  9. A two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber array prototype for small-field verification: characterization and first clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brualla-González, Luis; Gómez, Faustino; Vicedo, Aurora; González-Castaño, Diego M; Gago-Arias, Araceli; Pazos, Antonio; Zapata, Martín; Roselló, Joan V; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-08-21

    In this work we present the design, characterization and first clinical tests of an in-house developed two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber prototype for the verification of small radiotherapy fields and treatments containing such small fields as in radiosurgery, which consists of 2 mm × 2 mm pixels arranged on a 16×8 rectangular grid. The ionization medium is isooctane. The characterization of the device included the study of depth, field-size and dose-rate dependences, which are sufficiently moderate for a good operation at therapy radiation levels. However, the detector presents an important anisotropic response, up to ≃ 12% for front versus near-lateral incidence, which can impact the verification of full treatments with different incidences. In such a case, an anisotropy correction factor can be applied. Output factors of small square fields measured with the device show a small systematic over-response, less than 1%, when compared to unshielded diode measurements. An IMRT radiosurgery treatment has been acquired with the liquid-filled ionization chamber device and compared with film dosimetry by using the gamma method, showing good agreement: over 99% passing rates for 1.2% and 1.2 mm for an incidence-per-incidence analysis; 100% passing rates for tolerances 1.8% and 1.8 mm when the whole treatment is analysed and the anisotropy correction factor is applied. The point dose verification for each incidence of the treatment performed with the liquid-filled ionization chamber agrees within 1% with a CC01 ionization chamber. This prototype has shown the utility of this kind of technology for the verification of small fields/treatments. Currently, a larger device covering a 5 cm × 5 cm area is under development.

  10. A Real-Time Mathematical Model for the Two-Dimensional Temperature Field of Petroleum Coke Calcination in Vertical Shaft Calciner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Huang, Jindi; Zhong, Qifan; Li, Fachuang; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Jie

    2016-08-01

    A real-time mathematical model for the two-dimensional temperature field of petroleum coke calcination in vertical shaft calciner was developed based on computational fluid dynamics. In the modeling process, the petroleum coke discharging process was described by the solid viscous flow, the dynamic heat flux boundary condition was adopted to specify the heat transfer between the flue wall and the gas in the flue, and the Arrhenius equation was used to characterize the pyrolysis process of petroleum coke. The model was validated with both measurement data and data from the literature. The effects of discharge rate per pot, volatile content of green coke, and excess air coefficient on the temperature field of the vertical shaft calciner were investigated with the use of the developed model. The following reasonable operating conditions were obtained: the discharge rate per pot should be less than 90 kg/h, the volatile content of green coke should be in the range of 9-11%, and the excess air coefficient should be in the range of 1.10-1.20. In this work, the governing equations were discretized by using the finite volume method, and the discrete linear equations were solved by using sparse matrix package UMFPACK. The model calculating process takes about less than 15 s. Therefore, the model is beneficial in realizing real-time online temperature detection of petroleum coke calcination in a vertical shaft calciner.

  11. Two-Dimensional Field-Step ELDOR. A Method for Characterizing the Motion of Spin Probes and Spin Labels in Glassy Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalmueller, J. W.; Long, H. W.; Maresch, G. G.; Spiess, H. W.

    A practical route for obtaining two-dimensional electron double-resonance spectra of radicals in disordered solids is presented in detail. It involves narrow-band pulse excitation during a magnetic field step combined with echo detection after a mixing time. The equipment and experimental procedures are described, and factors affecting the performance of the field-jump coil, spectral resolution, and sensitivity are thoroughly discussed. Simulated spectra, which take into account distributions of correlation times, show the spectral features that can be observed with this technique. These simulations have been improved over previous work by taking into account g-tensor fluctuations, which is the dominant effect in determining the anisotropy of the electron spin-lattice relaxation. Data for nitroxide radicals in polycarbonate at 110 K are analyzed and an orientation averaged nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time of 82 ± 13 μs and an electron spin-lattice relaxation time for radicals oriented along the zdirection (slowest relaxation) of 23 ± 4 μs are measured. Simulations show that this relaxation is caused by highly restricted liberational motion with a distribution of correlation times having mean of 0.1 μs and a width of about 0.8 decades in combination with a very narrow mode having a correlation time of 10 ps.

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in FeSe0.3Te0.7 thin films and electric-field modulation of superconducting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhu; Mei, Chenguang; Wei, Linlin; Sun, Zhangao; Wu, Shilong; Huang, Haoliang; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Chang; Feng, Yang; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yalin; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-09-18

    We report the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe0.3Te0.7 (FST) thin films with different thicknesses grown on ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 substrates. It was shown that the FST films undergo biaxial tensile strains which are fully relaxed for films with thicknesses above 200 nm. Electrical transport measurements reveal that the ultrathin films exhibit an insulating behavior and superconductivity appears for thicker films with Tc saturated above 200 nm. The current-voltage curves around the superconducting transition follow the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition behavior and the resistance-temperature curves can be described by the Halperin-Nelson relation, revealing quasi-two-dimensional phase fluctuation in FST thin films. The Ginzburg number decreases with increasing film thickness indicating the decrease of the strength of thermal fluctuations. Upon applying electric field to the heterostructure, Tc of FST thin film increases due to the reduction of the tensile strain in FST. This work sheds light on the superconductivity, strain effect as well as electric-field modulation of superconductivity in FST films.

  13. Dynamic effects on the transition between two-dimensional regular and Mach reflection of shock waves in an ideal, steady supersonic free stream

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available et al. (1999) investigated the effect of continuous rapid wedge rotation on the point of transition with Euler CFD on moving meshes. In contrast to the work by Markelov et al. (1999), Khotyanovsky et al. (1999) considered larger move- ments... between the three-dimensional Euler CFD predictions of Ivanov et al. (2001) and their measurements from experiments with the finite aspect ratio wedge. This agreement established confidence in their two-dimensional Mach stem predictions with Euler CFD...

  14. Effects of the Reynolds number on two-dimensional dielectrophoretic motions of a pair of particles under a uniform electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Mo; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Maniyeri, Ranjith Maniyeri [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations to explore the effect of the Reynolds number on the Dielectrophoretic (DEP) motion of a pair of freely suspended particles in an unbounded viscous fluid under an external uniform electric field. Accordingly, the electric potential is obtained by solving the Maxwell'00s equation with a great sudden change in the electric conductivity at the particle-fluid interface and then the Maxwell stress tensor is integrated to determine the DEP force exerted on each particle. The fluid flow and particle movement, on the other hand, are predicted by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations together with the kinetic equations. Numerical simulations are carried out using a finite volume approach, composed of a sharp interface method for the electric potential and a direct-forcing immersed-boundary method for the fluid flow. Through the simulations, it is found that both particles with the same sign of the conductivity revolve and eventually align themselves in a line with the electric field. With different signs, to the contrary, they revolve in the reverse way and eventually become lined up at a right angle with the electric field. The DEP motion also depends significantly on the Reynolds number defined based on the external electric field for all the combinations of the conductivity signs. When the Reynolds number is approximately below Re{sub cr} ≈ 0.1, the DEP motion becomes independent of the Reynolds number and thus can be exactly predicted by the no-inertia solver that neglects all the inertial and convective effects. With increasing Reynolds number above the critical number, on the other hand, the particles trace larger trajectories and thus take longer time during their revolution to the eventual in-line alignment.

  15. Numerical study of the effect of disorder and magnetic field on the quantum transport of two-dimensional nanostructures modeled by tight-binding approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghizdehsiskht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In recent years, semiconductor nanostructures have become the model systems of choice for investigation of electrical conduction on short length scales. Quantum transport is studied in a two dimensional electron gas because of the combination of a large Fermi wavelength and large mean free path. In the present work, a numerical method is implemented in order to contribute to the understanding of quantum transport in narrow channels in different conditions of disorder and magnetic fields. We have used an approach that has proved to be very useful in describing mesoscopic transport. We have assumed zero temperature and phase coherent transport. By using the trick that a conductor connected to infinite leads can be replaced by a finite conductor with the effect of the leads incorporated through a 'self-energy' function, a convenient method was provided for evaluating the Green's function of the whole device numerically. Then, Fisher-Lee relations was used for calculating the transmission coefficients through coherent mesoscopic conductors. Our calculations were done in a model system with Hard-wall boundary conditions in the transverse direction, and the Anderson model of disorder was used in disordered samples. We have presented the results of quantum transport for different strengths of disorder and introduced magnetic fields. Our results confirmed the Landauer formalism for calculation of electronic transport. We observed that weak localization effect can be removed by application of a weak perpendicular magnetic field. Finally, we numerically showed the transition to the integral quantum Hall effect regime through the suppression of backscattering on a disordered model system by calculating the two­ terminal conductance of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum conductor as a strong magnetic field is applied. Our results showed that this regime is entered when there is a negligible overlap between electron edge states localized at opposite sides of

  16. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  17. Application of adjustment calculus in the nodeless Trefftz method for a problem of two-dimensional temperature field of the boiling liquid flowing in a minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.

  18. Characterization of a two-dimensional temperature field within a rapid compression machine using a toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Camille; Sotton, Julien; Mura, Arnaud; Bellenoue, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is an advanced operating mode for automotive engines. The self-ignition mechanisms that occur within the combustion chamber exhibit extreme temperature dependence. Therefore, the thorough understanding of corresponding phenomena requires the use of diagnostic methods featuring a sufficient thermal sensitivity, applicable in severe conditions similar to those encountered within engines. In this respect, toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to the inert compression flow generated within an optical rapid compression machine (RCM). A relatively simple diagnostic system is retained: a single wavelength excitation device (266 nm) and a single (filtered) collection system. This diagnostic system is associated with an image processing strategy specifically adapted to RCM devices. Despite the severe conditions under consideration (40 bar, 700-950 K), the method allows us to obtain relatively large two-dimensional temperature fields that display a level of description seldom achieved in such devices. In particular the temperature gradients, which play a crucial role in HCCI combustion processes, can be estimated. The present experimental results confirm the good reliability and accuracy of the method. The information gathered with this toluene PLIF method puts in evidence its high potentialities for the study of aero-thermal-reactive processes as they take place in real engine conditions. The retained strategy also brings new possibilities of non-intrusive analysis for flows practically encountered within industrial devices.

  19. Modeling of anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Ballistic transport characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene are explored through quantum transport simulations. We focus on the effects of the channel crystal orientation and the channel length scaling on device performances. Especially, the role of degenerate conduction band (CB) valleys in monolayer HfS{sub 2} is comprehensively analyzed. Benchmarking monolayer HfS{sub 2} with phosphorene MOSFETs, we predict that the effect of channel orientation on device performances is much weaker in monolayer HfS{sub 2} than in phosphorene due to the degenerate CB valleys of monolayer HfS{sub 2}. Our simulations also reveal that at 10 nm channel length scale, phosphorene MOSFETs outperform monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs in terms of the on-state current. However, it is observed that monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs may offer comparable, but a little bit degraded, device performances as compared with phosphorene MOSFETs at 5 nm channel length.

  20. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  1. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  2. Alternate proof of ultraviolet stability of the two-dimensional massive sine--Gordon field theory in all regions of collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, J.; Steinmann, A.

    1986-07-01

    The upper bound for the ultraviolet stability of the two-dimensional cosine interaction ..integral../sub ..lambda../:cos ..cap alpha..phi/sub xi/:dxi, ..lambda..is contained inR/sup 2/, in finite volume ..lambda.. is proven for ..cap alpha../sup 2/ element of (4..pi..,8..pi..(, where the theory has been shown to be superrenormalizable (see, e.g., G. Gallavotti, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 471 (1985)). Ultraviolet stability in this interval was proven previously (F. Nicolo, J. Renn, and A.Steinmann, ''On the massive sine--Gordon equation in all regions of collapse,'' preprint II Universita di Roma, 1985). Here we give a second proof using renormalization group methods based on a multiscale decomposition of the field by showing that the large fluctuations may be controlled by their small probability. The method essentially follows the one given by Nicolo (F. Nicolo, Commun. Math. Phys. 88, 681 (1983)) for ..cap alpha../sup 2/ element of (4..pi.., (32)/(5) ..pi..(.

  3. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface before and after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Dermal exposure can represent a significant health risk in settings involving potential contact with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, there is limited work on the ability of PAHs in contaminated soil to reach the skin surface via desorption from the soil. We evaluated PAH desorption from a field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface (C18 extraction disk) as a measure of potential dermal exposure as a function of soil loading (5-100 mg dry soil cm(-2)), temperature (20-40°C), and soil moisture content (2-40%) over periods up to 16d. The efficacy of bioremediation in removing the most readily desorbable PAH fractions was also evaluated. Desorption kinetics were described well by an empirical two-compartment kinetic model. PAH mass desorbed to the C18 disk kept increasing at soil loadings well above the estimated monolayer coverage, suggesting mechanisms for PAH transport to the surface other than by direct contact. Such mechanisms were reinforced by observations that desorption occurred even with dry or moist glass microfiber filters placed between the C18 disk and the soil. Desorption of all PAHs was substantially reduced at a soil moisture content corresponding to field capacity, suggesting that transport through pore air contributed to PAH transport to the C18 disk. The lower molecular weight PAHs had greater potential to desorb from soil than higher molecular weight PAHs. Biological treatment of the soil in a slurry-phase bioreactor completely eliminated PAH desorption to the C18 disks.

  4. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  5. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  6. Spectral Anisotropy of Els\\"asser Variables in Two Dimensional Wave-vector Space as Observed in the Fast Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Limei; Zhang, Lei; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Xin; Wang, Linghua; Wicks, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Intensive studies have been conducted to understand the anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. However, the anisotropy of Els\\"asser variables ($\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$) in 2D wave-vector space has yet to be investigated. Here we first verify the transformation based on the projection-slice theorem between the power spectral density PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ and the spatial correlation function CF$_{2D} (r_\\parallel,r_\\perp )$. Based on the application of the transformation to the magnetic field and the particle measurements from the WIND spacecraft, we investigate the spectral anisotropy of Els\\"asser variables ($\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$), and the distribution of residual energy E$_{R}$, Alfv\\'en ratio R$_{A}$ and Els\\"asser ratio R$_{E}$ in the $(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp)$ space. The spectra PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ of $\\textbf{B}$, $\\textbf{V}$, and $\\textbf{Z}_{major}$ (the larger of $\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$) show a similar pattern that PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ is mainly distributed along a ridge inclined toward t...

  7. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rojansky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory covers the major aspects, including scalar fields, vectors, laws of Ohm, Joule, Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell's equation, and more. With numerous diagrams and illustrations.

  9. Rotational symmetry of classical orbits, arbitrary quantization of angular momentum and the role of the gauge field in two-dimensional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Jun-Li; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We study quantum-classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in twodimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits.For both closed and open classical orbits,the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than h is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions,which is not necessarily 2π-periodic.The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value,which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model.The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization,where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.

  10. APPLICATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVELET TRANSFORM IN NEAR-SHORE X-BAND RADAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiang-bo; YAN Yi-xin; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Among existing remote sensing applications, land-based X-band radar is an effective technique to monitor the wave fields,and spatial wave information could be obtained from the radar images.Two-dimensional Fourier Transform (2-D FT) is the common algorithm to derive the spectra of radar images.However, the wave field in the nearshore area is highly non-homogeneous due to wave refraction, shoaling, and other coastal mechanisms.When applied in nearshore radar images, 2-D FT would lead to ambiguity of wave characteristics in wave number domain.In this article, we introduce two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2-D WT) to capture the non-homogeneity of wave fields from nearshore radar images.The results show that wave number spectra by 2-D WT at six parallel space locations in the given image clearly present the shoaling of nearshore waves.Wave number of the peak wave energy is increasing along the inshore direction, and dominant direction of the spectra changes from South South West (SSW) to West South West (WSW).To verify the results of2-D WT, wave shoaling in radar images is calculated based on dispersion relation.The theoretical calculation results agree with the results of 2-D WT on the whole.The encouraging performance of 2-D WT indicates its strong capability of revealing the non-homogeneity of wave fields in nearshore X-band radar images.

  11. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  12. Exact Propagator for the Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Charged Harmonic Oscillator in a Constant Magnetic Field and an Arbitrary Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Zhi-Yuan; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated. Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.%The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated.Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.

  13. Exact solutions of a two-dimensional Duffin-Petiau-Kemmer oscillator subject to a coulomb potential in the gravitational field of cosmic string

    CERN Document Server

    Boumali, Abdelmalek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of a two-dimensional Duffin-Petiau-Kemmer (DKP) oscillator in the presence of a coulomb potential in the cosmic string background is solved. The eigensolutions of the problem in question have been found, and the influence of the cosmic string space-time on the eigenvalues has been analyzed.

  14. A time-domain numerical modeling of two-dimensional wave propagation in porous media with frequency-dependent dynamic permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Emilie; Chiavassa, Guillaume; Lombard, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    An explicit finite-difference scheme is presented for solving the two-dimensional Biot equations of poroelasticity across the full range of frequencies. The key difficulty is to discretize the Johnson-Koplik-Dashen (JKD) model which describes the viscous dissipations in the pores. Indeed, the time-domain version of Biot-JKD model involves order 1/2 fractional derivatives which amount to a time convolution product. To avoid storing the past values of the solution, a diffusive representation of fractional derivatives is used: The convolution kernel is replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations. The coefficients of the diffusive representation follow from an optimization procedure of the dispersion relation. Then, various methods of scientific computing are applied: The propagative part of the equations is discretized using a fourth-order finite-difference scheme, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. An immersed interface method is implemented to discretize the geometry on a Cartesian grid, and also to discretize the jump conditions at interfaces. Numerical experiments are proposed in various realistic configurations.

  15. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  16. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  17. 反场构形的二维磁流体力学描述%Two-dimensional magneto-hydro dynamic description of field reversed configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐璐; 张华; 杨显俊

    2014-01-01

    磁化靶聚变技术作为实现纯聚变的一种途径,不需要惯性约束聚变的高初始密度(约1026 cm-3),也不需要磁约束聚变的长约束时间(秒量级),可能是一种实现纯聚变更低廉更有效的途径。开发了一个二维磁流体力学模拟程序MPF-2D,用于描述反场构形的形成过程。采用该程序对美国洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室在反场构形形成装置上形成反场构形的实验进行了二维模拟和分析,理论值与实验值符合得较好;同时也对中国工程物理研究院流体物理研究所设计的“荧光-1”实验装置上形成的反场构形进行了模拟与评估,结果表明该装置上的反场构形基本达到设计指标。%Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is an alternative approach to fusion, of which the plasma lifetime and density are those between inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a candidate target plasma of MTF. In this paper, a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic code MPF-2D is developed, and it is used to simulate the formation process of FRC on experimental devices FRX series at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, design parameters of FRC on“Yingguang-1”device are also evaluated, which will be constructed in 2015 at the Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics.

  18. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  19. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  20. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  1. Oscillations of Low-Field Magnetoresistivity of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN Heterostructures in a Weak Localization Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Kui; YU Guo-Lin; CHU Jun-Hao; TANG Ning; DUAN Jun-Xi; LU Fang-Chao; LIU Yu-Chi; SHEN Bo; ZHOU Wen-Zheng; LIN Tie; SUN Lei

    2011-01-01

    @@ Low-field magnetotransport properties of two-dimensional electron gases(2DEGs) are investigated in Al0.22Ga0.78 N/GaN heterostructures.By means of a tilting magnetic field, unexpected oscillations of magnetoresistivity are observed in a weak localization region.Qualitative understanding based on Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations is proposed for the case of interface disorder in Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN heterostructures.

  2. Oscillations of Low-Field Magnetoresistivity of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN Heterostructures in a Weak Localization Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kui; Tang, Ning; Duan, Jun-Xi; Lu, Fang-Chao; Liu, Yu-Chi; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Wen-Zheng; Lin, Tie; Sun, Lei; Yu, Guo-Lin; Chu, Jun-Hao

    2011-08-01

    Low-field magnetotransport properties of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) are investigated in Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN heterostructures. By means of a tilting magnetic field, unexpected oscillations of magnetoresistivity are observed in a weak localization region. Qualitative understanding based on Altshuler—Aronov—Spivak oscillations is proposed for the case of interface disorder in Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN heterostructures.

  3. Sensitivity kernels for coda-wave interferometry and scattering tomography: theory and numerical evaluation in two-dimensional anisotropically scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerin, Ludovic; Planès, Thomas; Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Coda-wave interferometry is a technique which exploits tiny waveform changes in the coda to detect temporal variations of seismic properties in evolving media. Observed waveform changes are of two kinds: traveltime perturbations and distortion of seismograms. In the last 10 yr, various theories have been published to relate either background velocity changes to traveltime perturbations, or changes in the scattering properties of the medium to waveform decorrelation. These theories have been limited by assumptions pertaining to the scattering process itself-in particular isotropic scattering, or to the propagation regime-single-scattering and/or diffusion. In this manuscript, we unify and extend previous results from the literature using a radiative transfer approach. This theory allows us to incorporate the effect of anisotropic scattering and to cover a broad range of propagation regimes, including the contribution of coherent, singly scattered and multiply scattered waves. Using basic physical reasoning, we show that two different sensitivity kernels are required to describe traveltime perturbations and waveform decorrelation, respectively, a distinction which has not been well appreciated so far. Previous results from the literature are recovered as limiting cases of our general approach. To evaluate numerically the sensitivity functions, we introduce an improved version of a spectral technique known as the method of `rotated coordinate frames', which allows global evaluation of the Green's function of the radiative transfer equation in a finite domain. The method is validated through direct pointwise comparison with Green's functions obtained by the Monte Carlo method. To illustrate the theory, we consider a series of scattering media displaying increasing levels of scattering anisotropy and discuss the impact on the traveltime and decorrelation kernels. We also consider the related problem of imaging variations of scattering properties based on intensity

  4. Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, J V; Tikka, P T; Salomaa, M M

    2000-05-01

    A scanning homodyne Michelson interferometer is constructed for two-dimensional imaging of high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) fields in SAW devices. The interferometer possesses a sensitivity of ~10(-5)nm/ radicalHz , and it is capable of directly measuring SAW's with frequencies ranging from 0.5 MHz up to 1 GHz. The fast scheme used for locating the optimum operation point of the interferometer facilitates high measuring speeds, up to 50,000 points/h. The measured field image has a lateral resolution of better than 1 mu;m . The fully optical noninvasive scanning system can be applied to SAW device development and research, providing information on acoustic wave distribution that cannot be obtained by merely electrical measurements.

  5. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  6. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  7. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  8. User's Manual for LINER: FORTRAN Code for the Numerical Simulation of Plane Wave Propagation in a Lined Two-Dimensional Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, R, S.; Biringen, S.; Howard, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    LINER is a system of Fortran 77 codes which performs a 2D analysis of acoustic wave propagation and noise suppression in a rectangular channel with a continuous liner at the top wall. This new implementation is designed to streamline the usage of the several codes making up LINER, resulting in a useful design tool. Major input parameters are placed in two main data files, input.inc and nurn.prm. Output data appear in the form of ASCII files as well as a choice of GNUPLOT graphs. Section 2 briefly describes the physical model. Section 3 discusses the numerical methods; Section 4 gives a detailed account of program usage, including input formats and graphical options. A sample run is also provided. Finally, Section 5 briefly describes the individual program files.

  9. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  10. Transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through two dimensional cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Timo

    2015-06-01

    The recent experimental advances in manipulating ultra-cold atoms make it feasible to study coherent transport of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) through various mesoscopic structures. In this work the quasi-stationary propagation of BEC matter waves through two dimensional cavities is investigated using numerical simulations within the mean-field approach of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The focus is on the interplay between interference effects and the interaction term in the non-linear wave equation. One sees that the transport properties show a complicated behaviour with multi-stability, hysteresis and dynamical instabilities for non-vanishing interaction. Furthermore, the prominent weak localization effect, which is a robust interference effect emerging after taking a configuration average, is reduced and partially inverted for non-vanishing interaction.

  11. Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Shuhao

    2016-11-14

    Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. © 2016 Author(s).

  12. Two-dimensional gain cross-grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhou, Feng-Xue; Guo, Hong-Ju; Niu, Yue-Ping; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain, a two-dimensional gain cross-grating is theoretically proposed. As the probe field propagates along the z direction and passes through the intersectant region of the two orthogonal standing-wave fields in the x-y plane, it can be effectively diffracted into the high-order directions, and the zero-order diffraction intensity is amplified at the same time. In comparison with the two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating based on electromagnetically induced transparency, the two-dimensional gain cross-grating has much higher diffraction intensities in the first-order and the high-order directions. Hence, it is more suitable to be utilized as all-optical switching and routing in optical networking and communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274112 and 11347133).

  13. Improved two-dimensional electron mobility in asymmetric barrier delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudhakar; Mohapatra, Meryleen; Nayak, Rasmita K.; Panda, Ajit K.; Sahu, Trinath

    2017-03-01

    We study the enhancement of electron mobility μ in barrier delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well-based modulation-doped field-effect transistor (MODFET) structures. We asymmetrically vary the doping concentrations N d1 and N d2 in the barriers on the substrate and surface sides, respectively, to obtain a nonlinear enhancement of μ as a function of the well width w through multi-subband effects. We show that an increase in doping concentration increases the surface electron density N s, which in turn enhances μ. Interchanging N d1 and N d2 leads to no change in N s but rather, an enhancement of μ as a function of w for N d2 > N d1 owing to asymmetric variation of subband wave functions, thereby implying a higher channel conductivity in a surface-doped structure than in an inverted doped structure. By keeping (N d1 + N d2) unchanged, the conductivity of a single-channel MODFET, N d1 (N d2) ≠ 0 and N d2 (N d1) = 0, can be enhanced by considering a MODFET based on an asymmetrically doped (N d1 ≠ N d2 ≠ 0) quantum well structure. We show that the highest N s and μ product for these structures occurs almost before the onset of the occupation of the second subband. Our analysis of the effect of asymmetric doping profiles on channel conductivity can be utilized for the performance improvement of MODFET-like devices.

  14. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  15. Two-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Melt-wave Erosion in Solid Armatures%固体电枢熔化波烧蚀的二维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩飞; 翁春生

    2012-01-01

    为了准确地反映电磁轨道炮内电枢烧蚀的特性,建立了二维固体电枢熔化波烧蚀的计算模型.采用有限差分的交替方向隐式法进行耦合计算,得到了熔化波烧蚀的变化特性.计算结果表明,烧蚀的驱动机制为速度趋肤效应,电流集中在电枢与导轨接触面的尾部边缘,使电枢焦耳热剧增导致出现烧蚀.熔化波从电枢尾部向头部推进,当传至电枢头部时,可能引发电枢转捩.%In order to reflect Armature erosion characteristics in railguns exactly, a computational model of melt-wave erosion in two-dimensional solid armatures is developed. The variation characteristics of melt-wave erosion are obtained adopting coupling calculations by using the Peaceman-Rachford(P-R) format of the finite difference method. The calculation results show that; the driving mechanism of erosion is the velocity skin effect,a concentration of current is at the rear edge of the rail-armature interface, and the erosion occurs due to the joule heating. The melt-wave moves from the back to the front of the armature. It is possible to cause an armature transition when the melt-wave reaches the front of the armature.

  16. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  17. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  18. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  19. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  20. Reflection of Plane Waves in Generalized Thermoelastic Half Space under the Action of Uniform Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Maity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection of longitudinal displacement waves in a generalized thermoelastic half space under the action of uniform magnetic field has been investigated. The magnetic field is applied in such a direction that the problem can be considered as a two-dimensional one. The discussion is based on the three theories of generalized thermoelasticity: Lord-Shulman (L-S, Green-Lindsay (G-L, and Green-Naghdi (G-N with energy dissipation. We compute the possible wave velocities for different models. Amplitude ratios have been presented. The effects of magnetic field on various subjects of interest are discussed and shown graphically.

  1. Fingerprints of field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in quasi-two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg magnets Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 and Cu(tn)Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranová, Lucia; Orendáčová, Alžbeta; Čižmár, Erik; Tarasenko, Róbert; Tkáč, Vladimír; Orendáč, Martin; Feher, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Organo-metallic compounds Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 (en=C2H8N2) and Cu(tn)Cl2 (tn=C3H10N2) representing S=1/2 quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets with an effective intra-layer exchange coupling J/kB≈3 K, have been examined by specific heat measurements at temperatures down to nominally 50 mK and magnetic fields up to 14 T. A comparative analysis of magnetic specific heat in zero magnetic field revealed nearly identical contribution of short-range magnetic correlations and significant differences were observed at lowest temperatures. A phase transition to long-range order was observed in Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 at TC=0.9 K while hidden in Cu(tn)Cl2. A response of both compounds to the application of magnetic field has rather universal features characteristic for a field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition theoretically predicted for ideal two-dimensional magnets.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  3. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  4. Zero-Field Magnetism of a Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, Determined by Muon Spin Rotation and Magnetization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miho; Uehara, Tomotaka; Taniguchi, Hiromi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Isao

    2015-05-01

    The zero-field magnetism of a two-dimensional noncollinear antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, has been investigated by magnetization and zero-field muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements. Low-field magnetization measurements enabled us to determine the magnetic transition temperature TN as 22.80 ± 0.02 K. Distinct muon spin precession signals appeared below 21.4 K. μSR spectra below 21.4 K were well described by two types of precession components and a relaxation one. The temperature dependence of internal field converted by μSR data was in good agreement with that of macroscopic residual magnetism. These results suggest that the tiny interlayer interaction, which has been suggested to be almost 106 times less than the intralayer exchange interaction, spontaneously causes the three-dimensional long-range order.

  5. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  6. Bias driven coherent carrier dynamics in a two-dimensional aperiodic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Viana, L. P.; Lyra, M. L.; Malyshev, Victor; Dominguez-Adame, F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an electron wave-packet in a two-dimensional square lattice with an aperiodic site potential in the presence of an external uniform electric field. The aperiodicity is described by epsilon(m) = V cos(pi alpha m(x)(nu x)) cos(pi alpha m(y)(nu y)) at lattice sites (m(x),m(y)),

  7. Field-cooling induced unidirectional anisotropy in the two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet Rb sub 2 Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Co sub x F sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Kawecka-Magiera, B; Maksymowicz, A Z

    2000-01-01

    Small cluster approximation and Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm are applied to demonstrate that field cooling induces a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of small clusters of Cu in Rb sub 2 Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Co sub x F sub 4. Within the Ising model, this anisotropy appears as a net magnetization at zero magnetic field. The effect is due to a coupling between the orbital ordering within clusters of Cu impurities and the antiferromagnetic ordering of Co matrix.

  8. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  9. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  10. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  11. Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Li, Lin; Li, Zhenglu; Ji, Huiwen; Stern, Alex; Xia, Yang; Cao, Ting; Bao, Wei; Wang, Chenzhe; Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Z. Q.; Cava, R. J.; Louie, Steven G.; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    The realization of long-range ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals, combined with their rich electronic and optical properties, could lead to new magnetic, magnetoelectric and magneto-optic applications. In two-dimensional systems, the long-range magnetic order is strongly suppressed by thermal fluctuations, according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem; however, these thermal fluctuations can be counteracted by magnetic anisotropy. Previous efforts, based on defect and composition engineering, or the proximity effect, introduced magnetic responses only locally or extrinsically. Here we report intrinsic long-range ferromagnetic order in pristine Cr2Ge2Te6 atomic layers, as revealed by scanning magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. In this magnetically soft, two-dimensional van der Waals ferromagnet, we achieve unprecedented control of the transition temperature (between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) using very small fields (smaller than 0.3 tesla). This result is in contrast to the insensitivity of the transition temperature to magnetic fields in the three-dimensional regime. We found that the small applied field leads to an effective anisotropy that is much greater than the near-zero magnetocrystalline anisotropy, opening up a large spin-wave excitation gap. We explain the observed phenomenon using renormalized spin-wave theory and conclude that the unusual field dependence of the transition temperature is a hallmark of soft, two-dimensional ferromagnetic van der Waals crystals. Cr2Ge2Te6 is a nearly ideal two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet and so will be useful for studying fundamental spin behaviours, opening the door to exploring new applications such as ultra-compact spintronics.

  12. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  13. The ferroelectric field effect on the two-dimensional electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001) interface: Insights from first principle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Qiang; Li, Pan; Wang, Nan; Xing, Hui; Chen, Chang-Le

    2016-06-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to explore the possibility of tuning the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001) interface through BaTiO3 substrate. A metal-to-insulator transition is found at the interface as the polarization of BaTiO3 reverses. Through the potential analysis of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superstructure, we find that the intrinsic electric field of LaAlO3 is significantly suppressed as the polarization points away from the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, while it is enhanced with the polarization pointing to the interface. The ferroelectric field control of the intrinsic electric field, and therefore the electronic reconstructions at the interface, originating from the screening of polarization charges, opens the way to the development of novel nanoscale electronic devices.

  14. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J.

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J ) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J2=-J1/2 for a rectangular lattice and J2=-J1 for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  15. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J_{1}) and next-nearest-neighbor (J_{2}) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J_{2}=-J_{1}/2 for a rectangular lattice and J_{2}=-J_{1} for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  16. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  17. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  18. Self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a two-dimensional strongly type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar

    2017-01-01

    A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.

  19. Optimised polychromatic field-mediated suppression of H-atom tunnelling in a coupled symmetric double well: two-dimensional malonaldehyde model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhasree; Talukder, Srijeeta; Sen, Shrabani; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2015-12-01

    The cis-cis isomerisation motion of malonaldehyde can be modelled as a symmetric double well coupled with an asymmetric double well, which includes the effect of the cis-trans out-of-plane motion on the cis-cis motion. We have presented an effective method for having control over the tunnelling dynamics of the symmetric double well which is coupled with the asymmetric double well by monitoring tunnelling splitting. When a suitable external field is allowed to interact with the system, the tunnelling splitting gets modified. As the external time perturbation is periodic in nature, the Floquet theory can be applied to calculate the quasi-energies of the perturbed system and hence the tunnelling splitting. The Floquet analysis is coupled with a stochastic optimiser in order to minimise the tunnelling splitting, which is related to slowering of the tunnelling process. The minimisation has been done by one of the stochastic optimisers, simulated annealing. Optimisation has been performed on the parameters which define the external polychromatic field, such as intensities and frequencies of the components of the polychromatic field. With the optimised sets of parameters, we have followed the dynamics of the system and have found suppression of tunnelling which is manifested by a much higher tunnelling time.

  20. Band Gap Computation of Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal for High Index Contrast Grating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal (PHc is convenient type of PHc, It refers to the fact that the dielectric is periodic in Two directions. The study of photonic structure by a simulation method is extremely momentous. At optical frequencies the optical density contained by two dimensional PHc changes periodically. They have the property to strong effect the propagation of light waves at these optical frequencies. A typical linearization method which solves the common nonlinear Eigen values difficulties has been used to achieve structures of the photonic band. There are two method plane wave expansion method (PWE and Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD. These Methods are most widely used for band gap calculation of PHc’s. FDTD Method has more smoothness and directness and can be explored effortlessly for simulation of the field circulation inside the photonic structure than PWE method so we have used FDTD Method for Two dimensional PHc’s calculation. In simulation of Two Dimensional band structures, silicon material has 0.543nm lattice constant and 1.46refractive index.

  1. A Continuous Framework of Morse-Smale Complex Segmentation for Two-Dimensional Scalar Fields%连续框架下二维标量场Morse-Smale复形分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦婷; 方美娥; 张楠; 计忠平

    2016-01-01

    Mining topology structure is an effective way of obtaining key information of data fields, and Morse- Smale (MS) complex is an important topology of two dimensional scalar fields. The traditional methods were all based on PL models and discrete Morse theory. The results generated from a discrete frame have lower ac-curacy, zigzag integral lines and much redundant feature information, which have to be cut repeatedly. This ar-ticle introduced a new method of MS complex segmentation for two dimensional scalar data fields. Firstly, we reconstruct a quasi-interpolation model based on double ZP splines for the data field; Then we use the con-tinuous Morse theory to extract feature points, to compute Hessian matrix for classifying features accurately; Finally, we calculate gradient information to build integral lines and MS complex. Double ZP splines adopted in this paper have higher order of continuity and satisfy the condition of at leastC2-continuity of Morse theory. The continuous framework is mathematically completeness, on which all differential computations are exact. It can extract high accurate feature points, and obey a strict standard of classification and generate smooth inte-gral lines without massive post-processing. The experiments show that the flow of the method is simpler than any of traditional methods. Its MS complex results are more accuracy and smoother, which can demonstrate key feature structures contained in the data field more clearly.%通讯作者,主要研究方向为CAGD&CG、可视分析等;张楠(1989—),男,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为可视分析;计忠平(1980—),男,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为CAGD&CG、数字几何处理。

  2. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  3. Uniformly accurate Particle-in-Cell method for the long time solution of the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation with uniform strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouseilles, Nicolas; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian; Zhao, Xiaofei

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we focus on the numerical resolution of the four dimensional phase space Vlasov-Poisson system subject to a uniform strong external magnetic field. To do so, we consider a Particle-in-Cell based method, for which the characteristics are reformulated by means of the two-scale formalism, which is well-adapted to handle highly-oscillatory equations. Then, a numerical scheme is derived for the two-scale equations. The so-obtained scheme enjoys a uniform accuracy property, meaning that its accuracy does not depend on the small parameter. Several numerical results illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  4. Threshold electric field in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known most charge-density waves (CDW's) and spin-density waves exhibit nonlinear transport with well-defined threshold electric field ET. Here we study theoretically the threshold electric field of unconventional density waves. We find that the threshold field increases monotonically with temperature without divergent behavior at Tc, unlike the one in conventional CDW. The present result in the three-dimensional weak pinning limit appears to describe rather well the threshold electric field observed recently in the low-temperature phase of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  5. Noncommutative Field Theory on Homogeneous Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, S; Halliday, Sam; Szabo, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an algebraic approach to the time-dependent noncommutative geometry of a six-dimensional Cahen-Wallach pp-wave string background supported by a constant Neveu-Schwarz flux, and develop a general formalism to construct and analyse quantum field theories defined thereon. Various star-products are derived in closed explicit form and the Hopf algebra of twisted isometries of the plane wave is constructed. Scalar field theories are defined using explicit forms of derivative operators, traces and noncommutative frame fields for the geometry, and various physical features are described. Noncommutative worldvolume field theories of D-branes in the pp-wave background are also constructed.

  6. Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembège, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe; Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-03-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used for analyzing in detail different nonstationary behaviors of a perpendicular supercritical shock. A recent study by Hellinger et al. (2007) has shown that the front of a supercritical shock can be dominated by the emission of large-amplitude whistler waves. These waves inhibit the self-reformation driven by the reflected ions; then, the shock front appears almost ``quasi-stationary.'' The present study stresses new complementary results. First, for a fixed β i value, the whistler waves emission (WWE) persists for high M A above a critical Mach number (i.e., M A >= M A WWE). The quasi-stationarity is only apparent and disappears when considering the full 3-D field profiles. Second, for lower M A , the self-reformation is retrieved and becomes dominant as the amplitude of the whistler waves becomes negligible. Third, there exists a transition regime in M A within which both processes compete each other. Fourth, these results are observed for a strictly perpendicular shock only as B 0 is within the simulation plane. When B 0 is out of the simulation plane, no whistler waves emission is evidenced and only self-reformation is recovered. Fifth, the occurrence and disappearance of the nonlinear whistler waves are well recovered in both 2-D PIC and 2-D hybrid simulations. The impacts on the results of the mass ratio (2-D PIC simulations), of the resistivity and spatial resolution (2-D hybrid simulations), and of the size of the simulation box along the shock front are analyzed in detail.

  7. Reduction of Z classification of a two-dimensional weak topological insulator: Real-space dynamical mean-field theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable interaction effects on topological insulators is the reduction of topological classification in free-fermion systems. We address this issue in a bilayer honeycomb lattice model by taking into account temperature effects on the reduction. Our analysis, based on the real-space dynamical mean-field theory, elucidates the following results. (i) Even when the reduction occurs, the winding number defined by the Green's function can take a nontrivial value at zero temperature. (ii) The winding number taking the nontrivial value becomes consistent with the absence of gapless edge modes due to Mott behaviors emerging only at the edges. (iii) Temperature effects can restore the gapless edge modes, provided that the energy scale of interactions is smaller than the bulk gap. In addition, we observe the topological edge Mott behavior only in some finite-temperature region.

  8. Work Function Tuning in Two-Dimensional MoS2 Field-Effect-Transistors with Graphene and Titanium Source-Drain Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Su; Im, Seongil; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Based on the first principles calculation, we investigate the electronic band structures of graphene-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 heterojunctions under gate-voltages. By simultaneous control of external electric fields and carrier charging concentrations, we show that the graphene’s Dirac point position inside the MoS2 bandgap is easily modulated with respect to the co-varying Fermi level, while keeping the graphene’s linear band structure around the Dirac point. The easy modulation of graphene bands is not confined to the special cases where the conduction-band-minimum point of MoS2 and the Dirac point of graphene are matched up in reciprocal space, but is generalized to their dislocated cases. This flexibility caused by the strong decoupling between graphene and MoS2 bands enhances the gate-controlled switching performance in MoS2-graphene hybrid stacking-device. PMID:28358116

  9. Methods for Autonomous Ground-based Real-Time Monitoring and Mapping of CO2 Concentrations Over Extended Two-Dimensional Fields of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Botos, C.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) combines real-time differential Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) measurements with a lightweight web-based data acquisition and product generation system to provide autonomous 24/7 monitoring of CO2. The current GreenLITE system is comprised of two transceivers and a series of retro-reflectors that continuously measure the differential transmission over a user-defined set of intersecting line-of-site paths or "chords" that form the plane of interest. These observations are first combined with in situ surface measurements of temperature (T), pressure (P) and relative humidity (RH) to compute the integrated CO2 mixing ratios based on an iterative radiative transfer modeling approach. The retrieved CO2 mixing ratios are then grouped based on observation time and employed in a sparse sample reconstruction method to provide a tomographic- like representation of the 2-D distribution of CO2 over the field of interest. This reconstruction technique defines the field of interest as a set of idealized plumes whose integrated values best match the observations. The GreenLITE system has been deployed at two primary locations; 1) the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe, and 2) continuously at a carbon sequestration test facility in Feb-Aug 2015. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the ZERT test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, algorithm design and extended study results.

  10. EIT waves and coronal magnetic field diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN PengFei

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field in the solar lower atmosphere can be measured by the use of the Zeeman and Hanle effects. By contrast, the coronal magnetic field well above the solar surface, which directly controls various eruptive phenomena, can not be precisely measured with the traditional techniques. Several attempts are being made to probe the coronal magnetic field, such as force-free extrapolation based on the photospheric magnetograms, gyroresonance radio emissions, and coronal seismology based on MHD waves in the corona. Compared to the waves trapped in the localized coronal loops, EIT waves are the only global-scale wave phenomenon, and thus are the ideal tool for the coronal global seismology. In this paper, we review the observations and modelings of EIT waves, and illustrate how they can be applied to probe the global magnetic field in the corona.

  11. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  12. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors.

  13. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  14. Characteristics of anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic, and external electric-field induced spin-orbit couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Song; Yan Yu-Zhen; Hu Liang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The various competing contributions to the anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic,extrinsic and external electric-field induced spin-orbit coupling were investigated theoretically.Based on a unified semiclassical theoretical approach,it is shown that the total anomalous Hall conductivity can be expressed as the sum of three distinct contributions in the presence of these competing spin-orbit interactions,namely an intrinsic contribution determined by the Berry curvature in the momentum space,an extrinsic contribution determined by the modified Bloch band group velocity and an extrinsic contribution determined by spin-orbit-dependent impurity scattering.The characteristics of these competing contributions are discussed in detail in the paper.

  15. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pourtois, Geoffrey [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Agarwal, Tarun [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Afzalian, Aryan [TSMC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Radu, Iuliana P. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Houssa, Michel [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  16. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  17. Magnetic Fields inside Extremely Fast Shock Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of my research on magnetic fields in extremely fast shock waves has been to predict the properties of shock waves that move almost with the speed of light. These shocks are created in the tenuous interstellar medium by catastrophic events such as the explosion of stars many times heavier

  18. Magnetic Fields inside Extremely Fast Shock Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of my research on magnetic fields in extremely fast shock waves has been to predict the properties of shock waves that move almost with the speed of light. These shocks are created in the tenuous interstellar medium by catastrophic events such as the explosion of stars many times heavier

  19. Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D

    2006-03-10

    Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

  20. Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton S. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.