WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional vector fields

  1. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  2. Migration transformation of two-dimensional magnetic vector and tensor fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu; Wilson, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rapid interpretation of magnetic vector and tensor field data, based on ideas of potential field migration which extends the general principles of seismic and electromagnetic migration to potential fields. 2-D potential field migration represents a direct integral...... to the downward continuation of a well-behaved analytical function. We present case studies for imaging of SQUID-based magnetic tensor data acquired over a magnetite skarn at Tallawang, Australia. The results obtained from magnetic tensor field migration agree very well with both Euler deconvolution and the known...

  3. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  4. Vector current scattering in two dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishon, N.L.

    1979-04-01

    The interaction of vector currents with hadrons is considered in a two dimensional SU(N) color gauge theory coupled to fermions in leading order in an N -1 expansion. After giving a detailed review of the model, various transition matrix elements of one and two vector currents between hadronic states were considered. A pattern is established whereby the low mass currents interact via meson dominance and the highly virtual currents interact via bare quark-current couplings. This pattern is especially evident in the hadronic contribution to inelastic Compton scattering, M/sub μν/ = ∫ dx e/sup iq.x/ , which is investigated in various kinematic limits. It is shown that in the dual Regge region of soft processes the currents interact as purely hadronic systems. Modification of dimensional counting rules is indicated by a study of a large angle scattering analog. In several hard inclusive nonlight cone processes, parton model ideas are confirmed. The impulse approximation is valid in a Bjorken--Paschos-like limit with very virtual currents. A Drell--Yan type annihilation mechanism is found in photoproduction of massive lepton pairs, leading to identification of a parton wave function for the current. 56 references

  5. Two-dimensional gauge model with vector U(1) and axial-vector U(1) symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabiki, Y.

    1989-01-01

    We have succeeded in constructing a two-dimensional gauge model with both vector U(1) and axial-vector U(1) symmetries. This model is exactly solvable. The Schwinger term vanishes in this model as a consequence of the above symmetries, and negative-norm states appear. However, the norms of physical states are always positive semidefinite due to the gauge symmetries

  6. Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben Vaarbye

    2006-01-01

    a first order model to model higher order constraints by the use of an alphabet extension. We present an iterative method that based on a set of conditional probabilities can help in choosing the large numbers of parameters of the model in order to obtain a stationary model. Explicit results are given...... for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....

  7. An evaluation method of cross-type H-coil angle for accurate two-dimensional vector magnetic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Todaka, Takashi; Shimoji, Hiroyasu; Enokizono, Masato; Sievert, Johanes

    2006-01-01

    Recently, two-dimensional vector magnetic measurement has become popular and many researchers concerned with this field have attracted to develop more accurate measuring systems and standard measurement systems. Because the two-dimensional vector magnetic property is the relationship between the magnetic flux density vector B and the magnetic field strength vector H , the most important parameter is those components. For the accurate measurement of the field strength vector, we have developed an evaluation apparatus, which consists of a standard solenoid coil and a high-precision turntable. Angle errors of a double H-coil (a cross-type H-coil), which is wound one after the other around a former, can be evaluated with this apparatus. The magnetic field strength is compensated with the measured angle error

  8. Gibbs perturbations of a two-dimensional gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Small Gibbs perturbations of random fields have been investigated up to now for a few initial fields only. Among them there are independent fields, Gaussian fields and some others. The possibility for the investigation of Gibbs modifications of a random field depends essentially on the existence of good estimates for semiinvariants of this field. This is the reason why the class of random fields for which the investigation of Gibbs perturbations with arbitrary potential of bounded support is possible is rather small. The author takes as initial a well-known model: a two-dimensional gauge field. (Auth.)

  9. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as a model in the constructive quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.R.

    1976-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics((QED) 2 ) type models on the basis of the Hamiltonian formalism of a vector field. The transformation into a sine-Gordon equation is clarified as a generalized mass-shift transformation through canonical linear transformations. (auth.)

  11. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  12. Introduction to two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenker, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the basic properties of conformal and superconformal field theories in two dimensions are discussed in connection with the string and superstring theories built from them. In the first lecture the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, highest weight states, primary fields, operator products coefficients, bootstrap ideas, and unitary and degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra are discussed. In the second lecture the basic structure of superconformal two dimensional field theory is sketched and then the Ramond Neveu-Schwarz formulation of the superstring is described. Some of the issues involved in constructing the fermion vertex in this formalism are discussed

  13. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  14. Multi-perspective views of students’ difficulties with one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Ratna Kawuri, Kunthi; Pratiwi, Retno

    2017-01-01

    Researchers of students’ conceptual change usually collects data from written tests and interviews. Moreover, reports of conceptual change often simply refer to changes in concepts, such as on a test, without any identification of the learning processes that have taken place. Research has shown that students have difficulties with vectors in university introductory physics courses and high school physics courses. In this study, we intended to explore students’ understanding of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector in multi perspective views. In this research, we explore students’ understanding through test perspective and interviews perspective. Our research study adopted the mixed-methodology design. The participants of this research were sixty students of third semester of physics education department. The data of this research were collected by testand interviews. In this study, we divided the students’ understanding of one-dimensional vector and two-dimensional vector in two categories, namely vector skills of the addition of one-dimensionaland two-dimensional vector and the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding. From the investigation, only 44% of students provided correct answer for vector skills of the addition of one-dimensional and two-dimensional vector and only 27% students provided correct answer for the relation between vector skills and conceptual understanding.

  15. Two dimensional topological insulator in quantizing magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of quantizing magnetic field on the electron transport is investigated in a two dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) based on a 8 nm (013) HgTe quantum well (QW). The local resistance behavior is indicative of a metal-insulator transition at B ≈ 6 T. On the whole the experimental data agrees with the theory according to which the helical edge states transport in a 2D TI persists from zero up to a critical magnetic field Bc after which a gap opens up in the 2D TI spectrum.

  16. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  17. A static investigation of yaw vectoring concepts on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, B. L.; Mason, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The flow-turning capability and nozzle internal performance of yaw-vectoring nozzle geometries were tested in the NASA Langley 16-ft Transonic wind tunnel. The concept was investigated as a means of enhancing fighter jet performance. Five two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles were equipped for yaw-vectoring and examined. The configurations included a translating left sidewall, left and right sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle throat, left sidewall flaps or port located upstream of the nozzle throat, and a powered rudder. Trials were also run with 20 deg of pitch thrust vectoring added. The feasibility of providing yaw-thrust vectoring was demonstrated, with the largest yaw vector angles being obtained with sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle primary throat. It was concluded that yaw vector designs that scoop or capture internal nozzle flow provide the largest yaw-vector capability, but decrease the thrust the most.

  18. Ion distributions in a two-dimensional reconnection field geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, D.B.; Goertz, C.K.; Whelan, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE observations have shown trapped ion distributions in the magnetosphere along with streaming ion distributions in the magnetosheath. The more energetic ion beams are found to exist further away from the magnetopause than lower-energy ion beams. In order to understand these properties of the data, we have taken a simple two-dimensional reconnection model which contains a neutral line and an azimuthal electric field and compared its predictions with the experimental data of September 8, 1978. Our model explains trapped particles in the magnetosphere due to nonadiabatic mirroring in the magnetosheath and streaming ions in the magnetosheath due to energization at the magnetopause. The model also shows the higher-energy ions extending further into the magnetosheath, away from the magnetopause than the lower-energy ions. This suggests the ion data of September 8, 1978 are consistent with a reconnection geometry. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  19. String vacuum backgrounds with covariantly constant null Killing vector and two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional sigma model with a (2+N)-dimensional Minkowski signature target space metric having a covariantly constant null Killing vector. We study solutions of the conformal invariance conditions in 2+N dimensions and find that generic solutions can be represented in terms of the RG flow in N-dimensional 'transverse space' theory. The resulting conformal invariant sigma model is interpreted as a quantum action of the two-dimensional scalar ('dilaton') quantum gravity model coupled to a (non-conformal) 'transverse' sigma model. The conformal factor of the two-dimensional metric is identified with a light-cone coordinate of the (2+N)-dimensional sigma model. We also discuss the case when the transverse theory is conformal (with or without the antisymmetric tensor background) and reproduce in a systematic way the solutions with flat transverse space known before. (orig.)

  20. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  1. Semilogarithmic Nonuniform Vector Quantization of Two-Dimensional Laplacean Source for Small Variance Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Peric

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper high dynamic range nonuniform two-dimensional vector quantization model for Laplacean source was provided. Semilogarithmic A-law compression characteristic was used as radial scalar compression characteristic of two-dimensional vector quantization. Optimal number value of concentric quantization domains (amplitude levels is expressed in the function of parameter A. Exact distortion analysis with obtained closed form expressions is provided. It has been shown that proposed model provides high SQNR values in wide range of variances, and overachieves quality obtained by scalar A-law quantization at same bit rate, so it can be used in various switching and adaptation implementations for realization of high quality signal compression.

  2. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-09-01

    manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.

  3. Topics in two dimensional conformal field theory and three dimensional topological lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Stephen-wei.

    1993-01-01

    The authors first construct new parafermions in two-dimensional conformal field theory, generalizing the Z L parafermion theories from integer L to rational L. These non-unitary parafermions have some novel features: an infinite number of currents with negative conformal dimensions for most (if not all) of them. String functions of these new parafermion theories are calculated. They also construct new representations of N = 2 superconformal field theories, whose characters are obtained in terms of these new string functions. They then generalize Felder's BRST cohomology method to construct the characters and branching functions of the SU(2) L x SU(2) K /SU(2) K+L coset theories, where one of the (K,L) is an integer. This method of obtaining the branching functions also serves as a check of their new Z L parafermion theories. The next topic is the Lagrangian formulation of conformal field theory. They construct a chiral gauged WZW theory where the gauge fields are chiral and belong to the subgroups H L and H R , which can be different groups. This new construction is beyond the ordinary vector gauged WZW theory, whose gauge group H is a subgroup of both G L and G R . In the special case where H L = H R , the quantum theory of chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to that of the vector gauged WZW theory. It can be further shown that the chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to [G L /H L ](z) direct-product [G R /H R ](bar z) coset models in conformal field theory. In the second half of this thesis, they construct topological lattice field theories in three dimensions. After defining a general class of local lattice field theories, they impose invariance under arbitrary topology-preserving deformations of the underlying lattice, which are generated by two local lattice moves. Invariant solutions are in one-to-one correspondence with Hopf algebras satisfying a certain constraint

  4. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  5. Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....

  6. Lattice formulation of a two-dimensional topological field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kazutoshi; Takimi, Tomohisa

    2007-01-01

    We investigate an integrable property and the observables of 2-dimensional N=(4,4) topological field theory defined on a discrete lattice by using the 'orbifolding' and 'deconstruction' methods. We show that our lattice model is integrable and, for this reason, the partition function reduces to matrix integrals of scalar fields on the lattice sites. We elucidate meaningful differences between a discrete lattice and a differentiable manifold. This is important for studying topological quantities on a lattice. We also propose a new construction of N=(2,2) supersymmetric lattice theory, which is realized through a suitable truncation of scalar fields from the N=(4,4) theory. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional frustrated spin systems in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B; Shannon, N; Thalmeier, P

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our numerical results on the properties of the S = 1/2 frustrated J 1 -J 2 Heisenberg model on a square lattice as a function of temperature and frustration angle φ = tan -1 (J 2 /J 1 ) in an applied magnetic field. We cover the full phase diagram of the model in the range π ≤ φ ≤ π. The discussion includes the parameter dependence of the saturation field itself, and addresses the instabilities associated with it. We also discuss the magnetocaloric effect of the model and show how it can be used to uniquely determine the effective interaction constants of the compounds which were investigated experimentally

  8. Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Various types of N = 4 superconformal symmetries in two dimensions are considered. It is proposed that apart from the well-known cases of SU(2) and SU(2)¢SU(2)¢U(1), their Kac–. Moody symmetry can also be SU(2) ¢(U(1))4. Operator product expansions for the last case are derived. A complete free field ...

  9. Energy dispersion of charged particles decelerated in a two-dimensional electrostatic field of the type x1/n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zashkvara, V.V.; Bok, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Two components of the spatial dispersion of particles with respect to kinetic energy can be distinguished of the motion of charged particle beams in electrostatic mirros with a two-dimensional field φ(x,y) ans xz symmetry plane. The first is the longitudinal dispersion, which is along the z axis perpendicular to the field; the second is the transverse dispersion, along the x axis parallel to the field vector in the plane of symmetry. The longitudinal dispersion is a basic characteristic of electrostatic mirrors used as energy analyzers. It has been shown that for first-order angular focusing, the longitudinal dispersion, divided by the focal length, is independent of the structure of the two-dimensional field and is a function only of the angle at which the charged particle beam enters the mirror. The transverse dispersion stems from the energy dependence of the penetration depth of the beam as it is decelerated, and it plays an important role when the energy of a charged particle beam is analyzed by the filtering principle, making use of the property of an electrostatic mirror to transmit or reflect charged particles with kinetic energy in a specified interval. This type of dispersion in electrostatic mirrors with two-dimensional fields has not been analyzed systematically. In the present note the authors consider a particular type of two-dimensional electrostatic field which is characterized by a large transverse dispersion, many times larger than in existing electrostatic reflecting filters employing planar and cylindrical fields

  10. Classification of integrable two-dimensional models of relativistic field theory by means of computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of classification of two-dimensional relativistic field models (1) spinor; (2) essentially-nonlinear scalar) possessing higher conservation laws using the system of symbolic computer calculations are presented shortly

  11. Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov scheme of construction of two-dimensional completely integrable field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Columbia Univ., New York; Chudnovsky, G.V.; Columbia Univ., New York

    1980-01-01

    General algebraic and analytic formalism for derivation and solution of general two dimensional field theory equations of Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov type is presented. The examples presented show that this class of equations covers most of the known two-dimensional completely integrable equations. Possible generalizations for four dimensional systems require detailed analysis of Baecklund transformation of these equations. Baecklund transformation is presented in the form of Riemann problem and one special case of dual symmetry is worked out. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the two dimensional Datta-Das Spin Field Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the conductance modulation of a ballistic two dimensional Datta-Das Spin Field Effect Transistor (SPINFET) as a function of gate voltage. Using this expression, we show that the recently observed conductance modulation in a two-dimensional SPINFET structure does not match the theoretically expected result very well. This calls into question the claimed demonstration of the SPINFET and underscores the need for further careful investigation.

  13. Analysis of the two-dimensional Datta-Das spin field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2010-03-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the conductance modulation of a ballistic two-dimensional Datta-das spin field effect transistor (SPINFET) as a function of gate voltage. Using this expression, we show that the recently observed conductance modulation in a two-dimensional SPINFET structure does not match the theoretically expected result very well. This calls into question the claimed demonstration of the SPINFET and underscores the need for further careful investigation.

  14. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, I.V., E-mail: igor.kolokolov@gmail.com [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334, Kosygina 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRU Higher School of Economics, 101000, Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-18

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor–Kraichnan–Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  15. Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF. Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  16. Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    Full Text Available Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF. Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.

    Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  17. Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Jeffery A; Ward, William E; Scott, Alan; Arsenault, Dennis L

    2013-03-10

    An implementation of the field widened Michelson concept has been applied to obtain high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of low velocity (interferometer scanning mirror position is controlled to subangstrom precision with subnanometer repeatability using the multi-application low-voltage piezoelectric instrument control electronics developed by COM DEV Ltd.; it is the first implementation of this system as a phase stepping Michelson. In this paper the calibration and characterization of the Doppler imaging system is described and the planned implementation of this new technique for imaging 2D wind and irradiance fields using the earth's airglow is introduced. Observations of Doppler winds produced by a rotating wheel are reported and shown to be of sufficient precision for buoyancy wave observations in airglow in the mesopause region of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  18. Series expansion of two-dimensional fields produced by iron-core magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kotaro.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the validity of a series expansion of two-dimensional magnetic fields with harmonic functions, and suggests that the series may not converge outside of the pole gap. It also points out that this difficulty may appear due to a slow convergence of the series near to the pole edge, even within the convergent area. (author)

  19. Two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to four-dimensional BF theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, Merced; Perez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional BF theory admits a natural coupling to extended sources supported on two-dimensional surfaces or string world sheets. Solutions of the theory are in one to one correspondence with solutions of Einstein equations with distributional matter (cosmic strings). We study new (topological field) theories that can be constructed by adding extra degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional world sheet. We show how two-dimensional Yang-Mills degrees of freedom can be added on the world sheet, producing in this way, an interactive (topological) theory of Yang-Mills fields with BF fields in four dimensions. We also show how a world sheet tetrad can be naturally added. As in the previous case the set of solutions of these theories are contained in the set of solutions of Einstein's equations if one allows distributional matter supported on two-dimensional surfaces. These theories are argued to be exactly quantizable. In the context of quantum gravity, one important motivation to study these models is to explore the possibility of constructing a background-independent quantum field theory where local degrees of freedom at low energies arise from global topological (world sheet) degrees of freedom at the fundamental level

  20. Second order phase transition in two dimensional sine-Gordon field theory - lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Joseph, K.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional sine-Gordon (SG) field theory on a lattice is studied using the single-site basis variational method of Drell and others. The nature of the phase transition associated with the spontaneous symmetry breakdown in a SG field system is clarified to be of second order. A generalisation is offered for a SG-type field theory in two dimensions with a potential of the form [cossup(n)((square root of lambda)/m)phi-1].(author)

  1. Magnetic Field Effect on Ultrashort Two-dimensional Optical Pulse Propagation in Silicon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konobeeva, N. N.; Evdokimov, R. A.; Belonenko, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the magnetic field effect which provides a stable propagation of ultrashort pulses in silicon nanotubes from the viewpoint of their waveform. The equation is derived for the electromagnetic field observed in silicon nanotubes with a glance to the magnetic field for two-dimensional optical pulses. The analysis is given to the dependence between the waveform of ultrashort optical pulses and the magnetic flux passing through the cross-sectional area of the nanotube.

  2. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  3. Unidirectional Wave Vector Manipulation in Two-Dimensional Space with an All Passive Acoustic Parity-Time-Symmetric Metamaterials Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tuo; Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Fei; Liang, Shanjun; Zhu, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Exploring the concept of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians respecting parity-time symmetry with classical wave systems is of great interest as it enables the experimental investigation of parity-time-symmetric systems through the quantum-classical analogue. Here, we demonstrate unidirectional wave vector manipulation in two-dimensional space, with an all passive acoustic parity-time-symmetric metamaterials crystal. The metamaterials crystal is constructed through interleaving groove- and holey-structured acoustic metamaterials to provide an intrinsic parity-time-symmetric potential that is two-dimensionally extended and curved, which allows the flexible manipulation of unpaired wave vectors. At the transition point from the unbroken to broken parity-time symmetry phase, the unidirectional sound focusing effect (along with reflectionless acoustic transparency in the opposite direction) is experimentally realized over the spectrum. This demonstration confirms the capability of passive acoustic systems to carry the experimental studies on general parity-time symmetry physics and further reveals the unique functionalities enabled by the judiciously tailored unidirectional wave vectors in space.

  4. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  5. Vorticity vector-potential method based on time-dependent curvilinear coordinates for two-dimensional rotating flows in closed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Zhang, Da-peng; Xie, Xi-lin

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a vorticity vector-potential method for two-dimensional viscous incompressible rotating driven flows is developed in the time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. The method is applicable in both inertial and non-inertial frames of reference with the advantage of a fixed and regular calculation domain. The numerical method is applied to triangle and curved triangle configurations in constant and varying rotational angular velocity cases respectively. The evolutions of flow field are studied. The geostrophic effect, unsteady effect and curvature effect on the evolutions are discussed.

  6. Fractal vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field.

  7. Hall field-induced magnetoresistance oscillations of a two-dimensional electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, A.; Torres, M.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a model of the nonlinear response to a dc electrical current of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) placed on a magnetic field. Based on the exact solution to the Schroedinger equation in arbitrarily strong electric and magnetic fields, and separating the relative and guiding center coordinates, a Kubo-like formula for the current is worked out as a response to the impurity scattering. Self-consistent expressions determine the longitudinal and Hall components of the electric field in terms of the dc current. The differential resistivity displays strong Hall field-induced oscillations, in agreement with the main features of the phenomenon observed in recent experiments

  8. Infinite additional symmetries in two-dimensional conformal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates additional symmetries in two-dimensional conformal field theory generated by spin s = 1/2, 1,...,3 currents. For spins s = 5/2 and s = 3, the generators of the symmetry form associative algebras with quadratic determining relations. ''Minimal models'' of conforma field theory with such additional symmetries are considered. The space of local fields occurring in a conformal field theory with additional symmetry corresponds to a certain (in general, reducible) representation of the corresponding algebra of the symmetry

  9. Two-Dimensional Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The fuzzy rules include both the sliding manifold and its derivative. The fuzzy sliding mode control has advantages of the sliding mode control and the fuzzy control rules are minimized. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and inherently unstable systems. The two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control can stabilize the nonlinear systems globally and attenuate chatter effectively. It is adequate to be applied to magnetic suspension systems. New design circuits of magnetic suspension systems are proposed in this paper. ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is utilized as a digital controller. The implemented driver, sensor, and control circuits are simpler, more inexpensive, and effective. This apparatus is satisfactory for engineering education. In the hands-on experiments, the proposed control scheme markedly improves performances of the field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

  10. Gauge fields in nonlinear group realizations involving two-dimensional space-time symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machacek, M.E.; McCliment, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that gauge fields may be consistently introduced into a model Lagrangian previously considered by the authors. The model is suggested by the spontaneous breaking of a Lorentz-type group into a quasiphysical two-dimensional space-time and one internal degree of freedom, loosely associated with charge. The introduction of zero-mass gauge fields makes possible the absorption via the Higgs mechanism of the Goldstone fields that appear in the model despite the fact that the Goldstone fields do not transform as scalars. Specifically, gauge invariance of the Yang-Mills type requires the introduction of two sets of massless gauge fields. The transformation properties in two-dimensional space-time suggest that one set is analogous to a charge doublet that behaves like a second-rank tensor in real four-dimensional space time. The other set suggests a spin-one-like charge triplet. Via the Higgs mechanism, the first set absorbs the Goldstone fields and acquires mass. The second set remains massless. If massive gauge fields are introduced, the associated currents are not conserved and the Higgs mechanism is no longer fully operative. The Goldstone fields are not eliminated, but coupling between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields does shift the mass of the antisymmetric second-rank-tensor gauge field components

  11. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  12. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  13. Two-dimensional conformal field theory and beyond. Lessons from a continuing fashion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, I.

    2000-01-01

    Two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) has several sources: the search for simple examples of quantum field theory, tile description of surface critical phenomena, the study of (super)string vacua (which made it particularly fashionable). In the present overview of tile subject we emphasize the role of CFT in bridging the gap between mathematics and quantum field theory and discuss some new physical concepts that emerged in the study of CFT models: anomalous dimensions, rational CFT, braid group statistics. In an aside, at tile end of the paper, we share tile misgivings, recently expressed by Penrose, about some dominant trends in fundamental theoretical physics. (author)

  14. Absence of effects of an in-plane magnetic field in a quasi-two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, F. T.; Sánchez-Monroy, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of a quasi-two-dimensional electron system (q2DES) in the presence of a tilted magnetic field is reconsidered employing the thin-layer method. We derive the effective equations for relativistic and nonrelativistic q2DESs. Through a perturbative expansion, we show that while the magnetic length is much greater than the confinement width, the in-plane magnetic field only affects the particle dynamics through the spin. Therefore, effects due to an in-plane magnetic vector potential reported previously in the literature for 2D quantum rings, 2D quantum dots and graphene are fictitious. In particular, the so-called pseudo chiral magnetic effect recently proposed in graphene is not realistic.

  15. Perturbation theory and coupling constant analyticity in two-dimensional field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.

    1973-01-01

    Conjectural material and results over a year old are presented in the discussion of perturbation theory and coupling constant analyticity in two-dimensional field theories. General properties of perturbation series are discussed rather than questions of field theory. The question is interesting for two reasons: First, one would like to understand why perturbation theory is such a good guide (to show that perturbation theory determines the theory in some way). Secondly, one hopes to prove that some or all of the theories are nontrivial. (U.S.)

  16. Greybody factors of massive charged fermionic fields in a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)

  17. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D.; Nguyen, Duy-Anh P.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  18. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  19. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  20. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  1. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  2. THE DECAY OF A WEAK LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M., E-mail: t.kondic@leeds.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.

  3. A structural modification of the two dimensional fuel behaviour analysis code FEMAXI-III with high-speed vectorized operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Misako; Yamazaki, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yasuo.

    1985-02-01

    Though the two-dimensional fuel behaviour analysis code FEMAXI-III has been developed by JAERI in form of optimized scalar computer code, the call for more efficient code usage generally arized from the recent trends like high burn-up and load follow operation asks the code into further modification stage. A principal aim of the modification is to transform the already implemented scalar type subroutines into vectorized forms to make the programme structure efficiently run on high-speed vector computers. The effort of such structural modification has been finished on a fair way to success. The benchmarking two tests subsequently performed to examine the effect of the modification led us the following concluding remarks: (1) In the first benchmark test, comparatively high-burned three fuel rods that have been irradiated in HBWR, BWR, and PWR condition are prepared. With respect to all cases, a net computing time consumed in the vectorized FEMAXI is approximately 50 % less than that consumed in the original one. (2) In the second benchmark test, a total of 26 PWR fuel rods that have been irradiated in the burn-up ranges of 13-30 MWd/kgU and subsequently power ramped in R2 reactor, Sweden is prepared. In this case the code is purposed to be used for making an envelop of PCI-failure threshold through 26 times code runs. Before coming to the same conclusion, the vectorized FEMAXI-III consumed a net computing time 18 min., while the original FEMAXI-III consumed a computing time 36 min. respectively. (3) The effects obtained from such structural modification are found to be significantly attributed to saving a net computing time in a mechanical calculation in the vectorized FEMAXI-III code. (author)

  4. Infinite additional symmetries in the two-dimensional conformal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Additional symmetries in the two-dimensional conformal field theory, generated by currents (2,3/2,5/2) and (2,3/2,3) have been studied. It has been shown that algebra (2,3/2,5/2) is the direct product of algebras (2,3/2) and (2,5/2), and algebra (2,3/2,3) is the direct product of algebras (2,3/2) and (2,3). Associative algebra, formed by multicomponent symmetry generators of spin 3 for SO(3) has also been found

  5. Diagnosing Chaos Using Four-Point Functions in Two-Dimensional Conformal Field Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel A; Stanford, Douglas

    2015-09-25

    We study chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional conformal field theory through out-of-time-order thermal correlators of the form ⟨W(t)VW(t)V⟩. We reproduce holographic calculations similar to those of Shenker and Stanford, by studying the large c Virasoro identity conformal block. The contribution of this block to the above correlation function begins to decrease exponentially after a delay of ~t_{*}-(β/2π)logβ^{2}E_{w}E_{v}, where t_{*} is the fast scrambling time (β/2π)logc and E_{w},E_{v} are the energy scales of the W,V operators.

  6. Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.

    2004-01-01

    The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively

  7. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  8. Beam alignment based on two-dimensional power spectral density of a near-field image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenzhen; Yuan, Qiang; Zeng, Fa; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Junpu; Li, Kehong; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Yang, Ying; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yuanchen; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua

    2017-10-30

    Beam alignment is crucial to high-power laser facilities and is used to adjust the laser beams quickly and accurately to meet stringent requirements of pointing and centering. In this paper, a novel alignment method is presented, which employs data processing of the two-dimensional power spectral density (2D-PSD) for a near-field image and resolves the beam pointing error relative to the spatial filter pinhole directly. Combining this with a near-field fiducial mark, the operation of beam alignment is achieved. It is experimentally demonstrated that this scheme realizes a far-field alignment precision of approximately 3% of the pinhole size. This scheme adopts only one near-field camera to construct the alignment system, which provides a simple, efficient, and low-cost way to align lasers.

  9. Viscosity of two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma modified by a perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Lin, Wei; Murillo, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially. When the magnetic field is increased, its viscosity increases at low temperatures, while at high temperatures its viscosity diminishes. It is determined that these different variational trends of η arise from the different behaviors of the kinetic and potential parts of the shear stress under external magnetic fields.

  10. Study of Landau spectrum for a two-dimensional random magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtlehner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the two-dimensional problem of a charged particle coupled to a random magnetic field. Various situations are considered, according to the relative importance of the mean value of field and random component. The last one is conceived as a distribution of magnetic impurities (punctual vortex), having various statistical properties (local or non-local correlations, Poisson distribution, etc). The study of this system has led to two distinct situations: - the case of the charged particle feeling the influence of mean field that manifests its presence in the spectrum of broadened Landau levels; - the disordered situation in which the spectrum can be distinguished from the free one only by a low energy Lifshits behaviour. Additional properties are occurring in the limit of 'strong' mean field, namely a non-conventional low energy behaviour (in contrast to Lifshits behaviour) which was interpreted in terms of localized states. (author)

  11. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  12. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems. PMID:27905523

  13. Far-Field Focus and Dispersionless Anticrossing Bands in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshuang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the simulation work for the far-field focus and dispersionless anticrossing bands in two-dimensional (2D photonic crystals. In a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based concave lens, the far-field focus of a plane wave is given by the distance between the focusing point and the lens. Strong and good-quality far-field focusing of a transmitted wave, explicitly following the well-known wave-beam negative refraction law, can be achieved. The spatial frequency information of the Bloch mode in multiple Brillouin zones (BZs is investigated in order to indicate the wave propagation in two different regions. When considering the photonic transmission in a 2D photonic crystal composed of a negative phase-velocity medium (NPVM, it is shown that the dispersionless anticrossing bands are generated by the couplings among the localized surface polaritons of the NPVM rods. The photonic band structures of the NPVM photonic crystals are characterized by a topographical continuous dispersion relationship accompanied by many anticrossing bands.

  14. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  15. Two-dimensional electron states bound to an off-plane donor in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno-Alfonso, A; Candido, L; Hai, G-Q

    2010-01-01

    The states of an electron confined in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and bound to an off-plane donor impurity center, in the presence of a magnetic field, are investigated. The energy levels of the ground state and the first three excited states are calculated variationally. The binding energy and the mean orbital radius of these states are obtained as a function of the donor center position and the magnetic field strength. The limiting cases are discussed for an in-plane donor impurity (i.e. a 2D hydrogen atom) as well as for the donor center far away from the 2D plane in strong magnetic fields, which corresponds to a 2D harmonic oscillator.

  16. Hamiltonian field description of two-dimensional vortex fluids and guiding center plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1981-03-01

    The equations that describe the motion of two-dimensional vortex fluids and guiding center plasmas are shown to possess underlying field Hamiltonian structure. A Poisson bracket which is given in terms of the vorticity, the physical although noncanonical dynamical variable, casts these equations into Heisenberg form. The Hamiltonian density is the kinetic energy density of the fluid. The well-known conserved quantities are seen to be in involution with respect to this Poisson bracket. Expanding the vorticity in terms of a Fourier-Dirac series transforms the field description given here into the usual canonical equations for discrete vortex motion. A Clebsch potential representation of the vorticity transforms the noncanonical field description into a canonical description

  17. Effective field theory and integrability in two-dimensional Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottesi, Federico L.; Zemba, Guillermo R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mott transition in 2d lattice fermion model. → 3D integrability out of 2D. → Effective field theory for Mott transition in 2d. → Double Chern-Simons. → d-Density waves. - Abstract: We study the Mott transition in a two-dimensional lattice spinless fermion model with nearest neighbors density-density interactions. By means of a two-dimensional Jordan-Wigner transformation, the model is mapped onto the lattice XXZ spin model, which is shown to possess a quantum group symmetry as a consequence of a recently found solution of the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation. A projection (from three to two space-time dimensions) property of the solution is used to identify the symmetry of the model at the Mott critical point as U q (sl(2)-circumflex)xU q (sl(2)-circumflex), with deformation parameter q = -1. Based on this result, the low-energy effective field theory for the model is obtained and shown to be a lattice double Chern-Simons theory with coupling constant k = 1 (with the standard normalization). By further employing the effective filed theory methods, we show that the Mott transition that arises is of topological nature, with vortices in an antiferromagnetic array and matter currents characterized by a d-density wave order parameter. We also analyze the behavior of the system upon weak coupling, and conclude that it undergoes a quantum gas-liquid transition which belongs to the Ising universality class.

  18. Relative entropy of excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárosi, Gábor [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology,Budapest, H-1521 (Hungary); Ugajin, Tomonori [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara,CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We study the relative entropy and the trace square distance, both of which measure the distance between reduced density matrices of two excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories. We find a general formula for the relative entropy between two primary states with the same conformal dimension in the limit of a single small interval and find that in this case the relative entropy is proportional to the trace square distance. We check our general formulae by calculating the relative entropy between two generalized free fields and the trace square distance between the spin and disorder operators of the critical Ising model. We also give the leading term of the relative entropy in the small interval expansion when the two operators have different conformal dimensions. This turns out to be universal when the CFT has no primaires lighter than the stress tensor. The result reproduces the previously known special cases.

  19. Energy spectrum of two-dimensional tight-binding electrons in a spatially varying magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, G.Y.; Lee, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional lattice in a spatially varying magnetic field is studied within the framework of the tight-binding model by using the scheme of the transfer matrix. It is found that, in comparison with the case of a uniform magnetic field, the energy spectrum exhibits more complicated behavior; band broadening (or gap closing) and band splitting (or gap opening) occur depending on characteristic parameters of the lattice. The origin of these phenomena lies in the existence of direct touching and indirect overlapping between neighboring subbands. Dependence of direct touching and indirect overlapping, and thus the electronic band structure together with the density of states, on characteristic parameters of the lattice is elucidated in detail. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Regular and chaotic motion of two dimensional electrons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Lev, Oded; Levit, Shimon.

    1992-05-01

    For two dimensional system of electrons in a strong magnetic field a standard approximation is the projection on a single Landau level. The resulting Hamiltonian is commonly treated semiclassically. An important element in applying the semiclassical approximation is the integrability of the corresponding classical system. We discuss the relevant integrability conditions and give a simple example of a non-integrable system-two interacting electrons in the presence of two impurities-which exhibits a coexistence of regular and chaotic classical motions. Since the inverse of the magnetic field plays the role of the Planck constant in these problems, one has the opportunity to control the 'closeness' of chaotic physical systems to the classical limit. (author)

  1. Magnetic field line random walk in two-dimensional dynamical turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. F.; Qin, G.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    The field line random walk (FLRW) of magnetic turbulence is one of the important topics in plasma physics and astrophysics. In this article, by using the field line tracing method, the mean square displacement (MSD) of FLRW is calculated on all possible length scales for pure two-dimensional turbulence with the damping dynamical model. We demonstrate that in order to describe FLRW with the damping dynamical model, a new dimensionless quantity R is needed to be introduced. On different length scales, dimensionless MSD shows different relationships with the dimensionless quantity R. Although the temporal effect affects the MSD of FLRW and even changes regimes of FLRW, it does not affect the relationship between the dimensionless MSD and dimensionless quantity R on all possible length scales.

  2. Thermal field theory in a layer: Applications of thermal field theory methods to the propagation of photons in a two-dimensional electron sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply the thermal field theory methods to study the propagation of photons in a plasma layer, that is a plasma in which the electrons are confined to a two-dimensional plane sheet. We calculate the photon self-energy and determine the appropriate expression for the photon propagator in such a medium, from which the properties of the propagating modes are obtained. The formulas for the photon dispersion relations and polarization vectors are derived explicitly in some detail for some simple cases of the thermal distributions of the charged particle gas, and appropriate formulas that are applicable in more general situations are also given.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of the passive scalar field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, N.; Tomita, Y.; Kuroda, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fully developed thermal field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow of air that was carried out. The iso-flux condition is imposed on the walls so that the local mean temperature linearly increases in the streamwise direction. The computation was executed on 1,589,248 grid points by using a spectral method. The statistics obtained include rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat fluxes and other higher order correlations. They are compared mainly with the DNS data obtained by Kim and Moin (1987) and Kim (1987) in a higher Reynolds number flow with isothermal walls. Agreement between these two results is generally good. Each term in the budget equations of temperature variance, its dissipation rate and turbulent heat fluxes is also calculated in order to establish a data base of convective heat transfer for thermal turbulence modeling

  4. Dual cascade time-of-flight mass spectrometer basing on electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, L. G.; Goloskokov, Yu. V.; Karetskaya, S.P.; Mit', A.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the report [1] we have suggested the scheme of time-of-flight spectrometer containing two electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional field that doesn't depend on one of the Cartesian coordinates). In the articles [2,3] there have been found conditions for obtaining high quality of time-of-flight and spatial focusing. One of basic advantages of this scheme - is availability of intermediate stigmatic image. In the plane where this image is it's possible to place controlled diaphragm that limits ion scatter along the energy if the scatter is too large. With the help of this diaphragm at the spectrometer you can register mass spectrum with the selected energy. Good focusing quality allows reducing of initial ion energy by this increasing the time of their flight and thus analyzers resolving ability. Ion source and receiver are spaced at rather a long distances. This can be useful to solve some practical tasks

  5. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics of uniform ion plasma in electrostatic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdieh, M. H.; Gavili, A.

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamics of ion extraction from uniform quasi-neutral plasma, in electrostatic field has been simulated numerically. Experimentally, tunable pulsed lasers produce non-uniform plasma through stepwise photo-excitation and photo-ionization or multi-photo-ionization processes. Poisson's equation was solved simultaneously with the equations of mass, and momentum, assuming the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for electrons. In the calculation, the initial density profile at the boundaries has been assumed to be very steep for the ion plasma. In these calculations dynamics of electric potential and the ions density were assessed. The ion extraction time was also estimated from the calculation. The knowledge of spatial distribution of the ions across the cathode is very important for the practical purposes. In this simulation, the spatial distribution of the ion current density across the cathode as well as its temporal distribution was calculated

  6. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Generalized synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition by convolutional neural network with joint use of two-dimensional principal component analysis and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ce; Jiang, Xue; Liu, Xingzhao

    2017-10-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN), as a vital part of the deep learning research field, has shown powerful potential for automatic target recognition (ATR) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, the high complexity caused by the deep structure of CNN makes it difficult to generalize. An improved form of CNN with higher generalization capability and less probability of overfitting, which further improves the efficiency and robustness of the SAR ATR system, is proposed. The convolution layers of CNN are combined with a two-dimensional principal component analysis algorithm. Correspondingly, the kernel support vector machine is utilized as the classifier layer instead of the multilayer perceptron. The verification experiments are implemented using the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition database, and the results validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Luo, Zhengtang, E-mail: keztluo@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-04-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and ∼2298 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  9. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek; Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian; Luo, Zhengtang

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm 2  V −1  s −1 and ∼2298 cm 2  V −1  s −1 respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  10. Q-deformed Grassmann field and the two-dimensional Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrij, A.I.; Shadura, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we construct the exact representation of the Ising partition function in form of the SL q (2,R)-invariant functional integral for the lattice free q-fermion field theory (q=-1). It is shown that the proposed method of q-fermionization allows one to re-express the partition function of the eight vertex model in external field through the functional integral with four-fermion interaction. For the construction of these representation we define a lattice (l,q,s)-deformed Grassmann bi spinor field and extend the Berezin integration rules for this field. At q = - 1, l = s 1 we obtain the lattice q-fermion field which allows to fermionize the two-dimensional Ising model. We show that Gaussian integral over (q,s)-Grassmann variables is expressed through the (q,s)-deformed Pfaffian which is equal to square root of the determinant of some matrix at q = ± 1, s = ±1. (author). 39 refs

  11. Reentrant high-magnetic field superconductivity in a clean two-dimensional superconductor with shallow band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Alexei E.; Song, Kok Wee

    We investigate the superconducting instability in the magnetic field for a clean two-dimensional multiple-band superconductor in the vicinity of the Lifshitz transition when one of the bands is very shallow. Due to a small number of carriers in this band, the quasiclassical Werthamer-Helfand approximation breaks down and Landau quantization has to be taken into account. We found that the transition temperature Tc 2 (H) has giant oscillations and is resonantly enhanced at the magnetic fields corresponding to full occupancy of the Landau levels in the shallow band. This enhancement is especially pronounced for the lowest Landau level. As a consequence, the reentrant superconducting regions in the temperature-field phase diagram emerge at low temperatures near the magnetic fields at which the chemical potential matches the Landau levels. These regions may be disconnected from the main low-field superconducting region. The specific behavior depends on the relative strength of the intraband and interband coupling constants and the effect is most pronounced when the interband coupling dominates. The Zeeman spin splitting reduces sizes of the reentrant regions and changes their location in the parameter space. The predicted behavior may realize in the gate-tuned FeSe monolayer. This work was supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, under Award No. DEAC0298CH1088.

  12. Electric-field switching of two-dimensional van der Waals magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengwei; Shan, Jie; Mak, Kin Fai

    2018-05-01

    Controlling magnetism by purely electrical means is a key challenge to better information technology1. A variety of material systems, including ferromagnetic (FM) metals2-4, FM semiconductors5, multiferroics6-8 and magnetoelectric (ME) materials9,10, have been explored for the electric-field control of magnetism. The recent discovery of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals magnets11,12 has opened a new door for the electrical control of magnetism at the nanometre scale through a van der Waals heterostructure device platform13. Here we demonstrate the control of magnetism in bilayer CrI3, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductor in its ground state12, by the application of small gate voltages in field-effect devices and the detection of magnetization using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) microscopy. The applied electric field creates an interlayer potential difference, which results in a large linear ME effect, whose sign depends on the interlayer AFM order. We also achieve a complete and reversible electrical switching between the interlayer AFM and FM states in the vicinity of the interlayer spin-flip transition. The effect originates from the electric-field dependence of the interlayer exchange bias.

  13. Optical nonlinearities associated to applied electric fields in parabolic two-dimensional quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.M.; Morales, A.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as the linear and nonlinear corrections to the refractive index are calculated in a disc shaped quantum dot under the effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. The exact solutions for the two-dimensional motion of the conduction band electrons are used as the basis for a perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of a static applied electric field. In general terms, the variation of one of the different potential energy parameters – for a fixed configuration of the remaining ones – leads to either blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks as well as to distinct rates of change for their amplitudes. -- Highlights: • Optical absorption and corrections to the refractive in quantum dots. • Electric and magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square potentials. • Perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of the electric field. • Induced blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks are studied. • Evolution of rates of change for amplitudes of resonant peaks

  14. Optical nonlinearities associated to applied electric fields in parabolic two-dimensional quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.M., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-11-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as the linear and nonlinear corrections to the refractive index are calculated in a disc shaped quantum dot under the effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. The exact solutions for the two-dimensional motion of the conduction band electrons are used as the basis for a perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of a static applied electric field. In general terms, the variation of one of the different potential energy parameters – for a fixed configuration of the remaining ones – leads to either blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks as well as to distinct rates of change for their amplitudes. -- Highlights: • Optical absorption and corrections to the refractive in quantum dots. • Electric and magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square potentials. • Perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of the electric field. • Induced blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks are studied. • Evolution of rates of change for amplitudes of resonant peaks.

  15. Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Maha

    1991-01-01

    The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  16. Wide-field two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Lidai; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Maslov, Konstantin; Engelbach, John A.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While one-dimensional multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here, we present the development of two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10 × 10 mm2 microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from ≥100 µm to 29 µm and achieved an imaging time of 36 seconds over a 10 × 10 mm2 field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 minutes to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24322226

  17. Field computation for two-dimensional array transducers with limited diffraction array beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi

    2005-10-01

    A method is developed for calculating fields produced with a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer. This method decomposes an arbitrary 2D aperture weighting function into a set of limited diffraction array beams. Using the analytical expressions of limited diffraction beams, arbitrary continuous wave (cw) or pulse wave (pw) fields of 2D arrays can be obtained with a simple superposition of these beams. In addition, this method can be simplified and applied to a 1D array transducer of a finite or infinite elevation height. For beams produced with axially symmetric aperture weighting functions, this method can be reduced to the Fourier-Bessel method studied previously where an annular array transducer can be used. The advantage of the method is that it is accurate and computationally efficient, especially in regions that are not far from the surface of the transducer (near field), where it is important for medical imaging. Both computer simulations and a synthetic array experiment are carried out to verify the method. Results (Bessel beam, focused Gaussian beam, X wave and asymmetric array beams) show that the method is accurate as compared to that using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula and agrees well with the experiment.

  18. Dipolar local field in homogeneously magnetized quasi-two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Estevez-Rams, E

    2009-01-01

    A formalism to calculate the dipolar local field in homogeneously magnetized quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals is comprehensively presented. Two fundamental tests for this formalism are accomplished: the transition from the Q2D quantities to the corresponding 3D ones; and the recovering of the macroscopic quantities of the 3D continuum theory. The additive separation between lattice and shape contributions to the local field allows an unambiguous interpretation of the respective effects. Calculated demagnetization tensors for square and circular lateral geometries of dipole layers show that for a single crystal layer an extremely thin film, but still with a finite thickness, is a better physical representation than a strictly 2D plane. Distinct close-packed structures are simulated and calculations of the local field at the nodes of the stacked 2D lattices allow one to establish the number of significantly coupled dipole layers, depending on the ratio between the interlayer distance and the 2D lattice constant. The conclusions drawn are of interest for the study of the dipolar interaction in magnetic ultrathin films and other nanostructured materials, where magnetic nanoparticles are embedded in non-magnetic matrices.

  19. Investigations on field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finge, T.; Riederer, F.; Grap, T.; Knoch, J. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, M.R. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Infineon Technologies, Villach (Austria); Kallis, K. [Intelligent Microsystems Chair, TU Dortmund University (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    In the present article, experimental and theoretical investigations regarding field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials are presented. First, the properties of contacts between a metal and 2D material are discussed. To this end, metal-to-graphene contacts as well to transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are studied. Whereas metal-graphene contacts can be tuned with an appropriate back-gate, metal-TMD contacts exhibit strong Fermi level pinning showing substantially limited maximum possible drive current. Next, tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) field-effect transistors are presented. Employing buried-triple-gate substrates allows tuning source, channel and drain by applying appropriate gate voltages so that the device can be reconfigured to work as n-type, p-type and as so-called band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistor on the same WSe{sub 2} flake. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Chern-Simons field theory of two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a fermion Chern-Simons field theory describing two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level. This theory is constructed with a complete set of states, and the lowest-Landau-level constraint is enforced through a δ functional described by an auxiliary field λ. Unlike the field theory constructed directly with the states in the lowest Landau level, this theory allows one, utilizing the physical picture of open-quote open-quote composite fermion,close-quote close-quote to study the fractional quantum Hall states by mapping them onto certain integer quantum Hall states; but, unlike its application in the unconstrained theory, such a mapping is sensible only when interactions between electrons are present. An open-quote open-quote effective mass,close-quote close-quote which characterizes the scale of low energy excitations in the fractional quantum Hall systems, emerges naturally from our theory. We study a Gaussian effective theory and interpret physically the dressed stationary point equation for λ as an equation for the open-quote open-quote mass renormalization close-quote close-quote of composite fermions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Mesoscopic Field-Effect-Induced Devices in Depleted Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachsoliani, N.; Platonov, S.; Wieck, A. D.; Ludwig, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoelectronic devices embedded in the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) of a GaAs /(Al ,Ga )As heterostructure enable a large variety of applications ranging from fundamental research to high-speed transistors. Electrical circuits are thereby commonly defined by creating barriers for carriers by the selective depletion of a preexisting 2DES. We explore an alternative approach: we deplete the 2DES globally by applying a negative voltage to a global top gate and screen the electric field of the top gate only locally using nanoscale gates placed on the wafer surface between the plane of the 2DES and the top gate. Free carriers are located beneath the screen gates, and their properties can be controlled by means of geometry and applied voltages. This method promises considerable advantages for the definition of complex circuits by the electric-field effect, as it allows us to reduce the number of gates and simplify gate geometries. Examples are carrier systems with ring topology or large arrays of quantum dots. We present a first exploration of this method pursuing field effect, Hall effect, and Aharonov-Bohm measurements to study electrostatic, dynamic, and coherent properties.

  2. Vector Fields on Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

  3. Embedding Approach to Modeling Electromagnetic Fields in a Complex Two-Dimensional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Tijhuis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is presented to combine the response of a two-dimensionally inhomogeneous dielectric object in a homogeneous environment with that of an empty inhomogeneous environment. This allows an efficient computation of the scattering behavior of the dielectric cylinder with the aid of the CGFFT method and a dedicated extrapolation procedure. Since a circular observation contour is adopted, an angular spectral representation can be employed for the embedding. Implementation details are discussed for the case of a closed 434 MHz microwave scanner, and the accuracy and efficiency of all steps in the numerical procedure are investigated. Guidelines are proposed for choosing computational parameters such as truncation limits and tolerances. We show that the embedding approach does not increase the CPU time with respect to the forward problem solution in a homogeneous environment, if only the fields on the observation contour are computed, and that it leads to a relatively small increase when the fields on the mesh are computed as well.

  4. Massive quantum field theory in two-dimensional Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, T.S.; Christensen, S.M.; Fulling, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The stress tensor of a massive scalar field, as an integral over normal modes (which are not mere plane waves), is regularized by covariant point separation. When the expectation value in a Parker-Fulling adiabatic vacuum state is expanded in the limit of small curvature-to-mass ratios, the series coincides in each order with the Schwinger-DeWitt-Christensen proper-time expansion. The renormalization ansatz suggested by these expansions (which applies to arbitrary curvature-to-mass ratios and arbitrary quantum state) can be implemented at the integrand level for practical computations. The renormalized tensor (1) passes in the massless limit, for appropriate choice of state, to the known vacuum stress of a massless field, (2) agrees with the explicit results of Bernard and Duncan for a special model, and (3) has a nonzero vacuum expectation value in the two-dimensional ''Milne universe'' (flat space in hyperbolic coordinates). Following Wald, we prove that the renormalized tensor is conserved and point out that there is no arbitrariness in the renormalization procedure. The general approach of this paper is applicable to four-dimensional models

  5. Extensions of conformal symmetry in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, C.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Conformal symmetry extensions in a two-dimensional quantum field theory are the main theme of the work presented in this thesis. After a brief exposition of the formalism for conformal field theory, the motivation for studying extended symmetries in conformal field theory is presented in some detail. Supersymmetric extensions of conformal symmetry are introduced. An overview of the algebraic superconformal symmetry is given. The relevance of higher-spin bosonic extensions of the Virasoro algebra in relation to the classification program for so-called rational conformal theories is explained. The construction of a large class of bosonic extended algebras, the so-called Casimir algebras, are presented. The representation theory of these algebras is discussed and a large class of new unitary models is identified. The superspace formalism for O(N)-extended superconformal quantum field theory is presented. It is shown that such theories exist for N ≤ 4. Special attention is paid to the case N = 4 and it is shown that the allowed central charges are c(n + ,n - ) = 6n + n - /(n + ,n - ), where n + and n - are positive integers. A different class of so(N)-extended superconformal algebras is analyzed. The representation theory is studied and it is established that certain free field theories provide realizations of the algebras with level S = 1. Finally the so-called BRST construction for extended conformal algebras is considered. A nilpotent BRST charge is constructed for a large class of algebras, which contains quadratically nonlinear algebras that fall outside the traditional class if finitely generated Lie (super)algebras. The results are especially relevant for the construction of string models based on extended conformal symmetry. (author). 118 refs.; 7 tabs

  6. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  7. Coulomb interactions in dense two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Szucheng.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest model of a two-dimensional system ignores the Coulomb interactions between the electrons. In this approximation, the electrons occupy the Landau levels, broadened by impurities and irregularities in the lattice. This independent electron approximation has usually been used to discuss observations for electron densities ρ and magnetic fields B where bar ν > 1 (bar ν triple-bond the number of Landau levels occupied). The most famous example is the theory of the integral Quantum Hall effect. However, when bar ν 1, electron-electron interactions should become important through the mixing of Landau levels. This thesis describes calculations for bar ν > 1 on phenomena which should be sensitive to electron-electron interactions: Wigner crystallization, the stability of the Landau levels under electron-electron interactions, the existence of quasiparticles and quasiholes, and the densities of states. The main results obtained concern: (1) The values of ρ and B where crystallization should occur when bar ν > 1. (2) The effect of electron-electron interactions in broadening the individual Landau levels, and in distributing the amplitudes for the excitation of independent electrons over many Landau levels. (3) The existence of quasiparticles and quasiholes whose lifetime is infinite near the Fermi level

  8. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  9. Contact research strategy for emerging molybdenum disulfide and other two-dimensional field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered two-dimensional (2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs have been widely isolated, synthesized, and characterized recently. Numerous 2D materials are identified as the potential candidates as channel materials for future thin film technology due to their high mobility and the exhibiting bandgaps. While many TMD filed-effect transistors (FETs have been widely demonstrated along with a significant progress to clearly understand the device physics, large contact resistance at metal/semiconductor interface still remain a challenge. From 2D device research point of view, how to minimize the Schottky barrier effects on contacts thus reduce the contact resistance of metals on 2D materials is very critical for the further development of the field. Here, we present a review of contact research on molybdenum disulfide and other TMD FETs from the fundamental understanding of metal-semiconductor interfaces on 2D materials. A clear contact research strategy on 2D semiconducting materials is developed for future high-performance 2D FETs with aggressively scaled dimensions.

  10. Microbunching instability in a chicane: Two-dimensional mean field treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bassi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the microbunching instability in a bunch compressor by a parallel code with some improved numerical algorithms. The two-dimensional charge/current distribution is represented by a Fourier series, with coefficients determined through Monte Carlo sampling over an ensemble of tracked points. This gives a globally smooth distribution with low noise. The field equations are solved accurately in the lab frame using retarded potentials and a novel choice of integration variables that eliminates singularities. We apply the scheme with parameters for the first bunch compressor system of FERMI@Elettra, with emphasis on the amplification of a perturbation at a particular wavelength and the associated longitudinal bunch spectrum. Gain curves are in rough agreement with those of the linearized Vlasov system at intermediate wavelengths, but show some deviation at the smallest wavelengths treated and show the breakdown of a coasting beam assumption at long wavelengths. The linearized Vlasov system is discussed in some detail. A new 2D integral equation is derived which reduces to a well-known 1D integral equation in the coasting beam case.

  11. Two-dimensional receptive-field organization in striate cortical neurons of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Bonds, A B

    1994-01-01

    The two-dimensional organization of receptive fields (RFs) of 44 cells in the cat visual cortex and four cells from the cat LGN was measured by stimulation with either dots or bars of light. The light bars were presented in different positions and orientations centered on the RFs. The RFs found were arbitrarily divided into four general types: Punctate, resembling DOG filters (11%); those resembling Gabor filters (9%); elongate (36%); and multipeaked-type (44%). Elongate RFs, usually found in simple cells, could show more than one excitatory band or bifurcation of excitatory regions. Although regions inhibitory to a given stimulus transition (e.g. ON) often coincided with regions excitatory to the opposite transition (e.g. OFF), this was by no means the rule. Measurements were highly repeatable and stable over periods of at least 1 h. A comparison between measurements made with dots and with bars showed reasonable matches in about 40% of the cases. In general, bar-based measurements revealed larger RFs with more structure, especially with respect to inhibitory regions. Inactivation of lower cortical layers (V-VI) by local GABA injection was found to reduce sharpness of detail and to increase both receptive-field size and noise in upper layer cells, suggesting vertically organized RF mechanisms. Across the population, some cells bore close resemblance to theoretically proposed filters, while others had a complexity that was clearly not generalizable, to the extent that they seemed more suited to detection of specific structures. We would speculate that the broadly varying forms of cat cortical receptive fields result from developmental processes akin to those that form ocular-dominance columns, but on a smaller scale.

  12. Research in string theory and two dimensional conformal field theory: Progress report for period April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedan, D.H.; Martinec, E.J.; Shenker, S.H.

    1988-12-01

    The present contract supported work by Daniel H. Frieden, Emil J, Martinec and Stephen H. Shenker (principal investigators), Research Associates, and graduate students in theoretical physics at the University of Chicago. Research has been conducted in areas of string theory and two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theory. The ultimate objectives have been: to expose the fundamental structure of string theory so as to eventually make possible effective nonperturbative calculations and thus a comparison of sting theory with experiment, the complete classification of all two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theories thus giving a complete description of all classical ground states of string and of all possible two (and 1 + 1) dimensional critical phenomena, and the development of methods to describe, construct and solve two dimensional field theories. Work has also been done on skyrmion and strong interaction physics

  13. Quantum theory of longitudinal dielectric response properties of a two-dimensional plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, N.J.M.; Yildiz, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic and nonlocal longitudinal dielectric response properties of a two-dimensional Landau-quantized plasma is carried out, using a thermodynamic Green's function formulation of the RPA with a two-dimensional thermal Green's function for electron propagation in a magnetic field developed in closed form. The longitudinal-electrostatic plasmon dispersion relation is discussed in the low wave-number regime with nonlocal corrections, and Bernstein mode structure is studied for arbitrary wavenumber. All regimes of magnetic field strength and statistics are investigated. The class of integrals treated here should have broad applicability in other two-dimensional and finite slab plasma studies.The two-dimensional static shielding law in a magnetic field is analyzed for low wavenumber, and for large distances we find V (r) approx. = Q/k 2 2 r 3 . The inverse screening length k 0 =2πe 2 partial rho/ partialxi (rho= density, xi= chemical potential) is evaluated in all regimes of magnetic field strength and all statistical regimes. k 0 exhibits violent DHVA oscillatory behavior in the degenerate zero-temperature case at higher field strengths, and the shielding is complete when xi =r'hω/subc/ but there is no shielding when xi does not = r'hω/subc/. A careful analysis confirms that there is no shielding at large distances in the degenerate quantum strong field limit h3π/subc/>xi. Since shielding does persist in the nondegenerate quantum strong field limit hω/subc/>KT, there should be a pronounced change in physical properties that depend on shielding if the system is driven through a high field statistical transition. Finally, we find that the zero field two-dimensional Friedel--Kohn ''wiggle'' static shielding phenomenon is destroyed by the dispersal of the zero field continuum of electron states into the discrete set of Landau-quantized orbitals due to the imposition of the magnetic field

  14. Two-dimensional Topology of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gott, J. Richard, III

    2002-05-01

    We study the topology of the publicly available data released by the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey team (2dF GRS). The 2dF GRS data contain over 100,000 galaxy redshifts with a magnitude limit of bJ=19.45 and is the largest such survey to date. The data lie over a wide range of right ascension (75° strips) but only within a narrow range of declination (10° and 15° strips). This allows measurements of the two-dimensional genus to be made. We find that the genus curves of the north Galactic pole (NGP) and south Galactic pole (SGP) are slightly different. The NGP displays a slight meatball shift topology, whereas the SGP displays a bubble-like topology. The current SGP data also have a slightly higher genus amplitude. In both cases, a slight excess of overdense regions is found over underdense regions. We assess the significance of these features using mock catalogs drawn from the Virgo Consortium's Hubble volume ΛCDM z=0 simulation. We find that differences between the NGP and SGP genus curves are only significant at the 1 σ level. The average genus curve of the 2dF GRS agrees well with that extracted from the ΛCDM mock catalogs. We also use the simulations to assess how the current incompleteness of the survey (the strips are not completely filled in) affects the measurement of the genus and find that we are not sensitive to the geometry; there are enough data in the current sample to trace the isolated high- and low-density regions. We compare the amplitude of the 2dF GRS genus curve to the amplitude of the genus curve of a Gaussian random field that we construct to have the same power spectrum as the 2dF GRS. In previous three-dimensional analyses, it was found that the genus curve of observed samples was lower than the Gaussian random field curve, presumably because of high-order correlations present in the data. However, we find that the 2dF GRS genus curve has an amplitude that is slightly higher than that of the power-spectrum-matched Gaussian

  15. Pairing in a two-dimensional two-band very anisotropic model in the mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazakas, A.B.; Pitis, R.

    1993-09-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed: there are two kinds of sites, with one electronic state per site; tunneling takes place only in one direction; the interaction involves only electrons on different sites. The existence of a phase transition involving interband pairing of electrons is discussed in the mean field approximation. (author)

  16. Mean-field description of ultracold bosons on disordered two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, Pierfrancesco; Massel, Francesco; Penna, Vittorio; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    In the present communication, we describe the properties induced by disorder on an ultracold gas of bosonic atoms loaded into a two-dimensional optical lattice with global confinement ensured by a parabolic potential. Our analysis is centred on the spatial distribution of the various phases, focusing particularly on the superfluid properties of the system as a function of external parameters and disorder amplitude. In particular, it is shown how disorder can suppress superfluidity, while partially preserving the system coherence. (fast track communication)

  17. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Analysis of electrical-field-dependent Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy in a two-dimensional ferromagnetic monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shi, Mengchao; Lu, Jiwu; Anantram, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the impacts of the electric field on the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and intrinsic ferromagnetism of the recently discovered two-dimensional ferromagnetic chromium tri-iodide (Cr I3 ) monolayer, by combining density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. By taking advantage of the counterbalancing effects of anisotropic symmetric exchange energy and antisymmetric exchange energy, it is shown that the intrinsic ferromagnetism can be manipulated by externally applied off-plane electric fields. The results quantitatively reveal the impacts of off-plane electric field on the lattice structure, magnetic anisotropy energy, symmetric and antisymmetric exchange energies, Curie temperature, magnetic hysteresis, and coercive field. The physical mechanism of all-electrical control of magnetism proposed here is useful for creating next-generation magnetic device technologies based on the recently discovered two-dimensional ferromagnetic crystals.

  19. Two-dimensional atom localization based on coherent field controlling in a five-level M-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Li, Jinjiang; Sun, Xiudong

    2017-12-11

    We study two-dimensional sub-wavelength atom localization based on the microwave coupling field controlling and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) effect. For a five-level M-type atom, introducing a microwave coupling field between two upper levels and considering the quantum interference between two transitions from two upper levels to lower levels, the analytical expression of conditional position probability (CPP) distribution is obtained using the iterative method. The influence of the detuning of a spontaneously emitted photon, Rabi frequency of the microwave field, and the SGC effect on the CPP are discussed. The two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization with high-precision and high spatial resolution is achieved by adjusting the detuning and the Rabi frequency, where the atom can be localized in a region smaller thanλ/10×λ/10. The spatial resolution is improved significantly compared with the case without the microwave field.

  20. Two-dimensional atom localization via two standing-wave fields in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongtao; Wang Hui; Wang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the two-dimensional (2D) localization of an atom in a four-level Y-type atomic system. By applying two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atoms can be localized at some special positions, leading to the formation of sub-wavelength 2D periodic spatial distributions. The localization peak position and number as well as the conditional position probability can be controlled by the intensities and detunings of optical fields.

  1. Two-dimensional transient far-field analysis for the excess temperature from an arbitrary source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, A.J.; Long, E.C.

    1978-07-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the two-dimensional time-dependent advective diffusion equation governing the distribution of excess temperature in a river of uniform width, depth, and downstream flow. The solution is also applicable to a straight coastline with uniform longshore flow. Exact solutions are obtained for a point heat source and a particular line heat source, while an approximate representation is given for an arbitrary time-varying heat source. These solutions are incorporated into a computer program which calculates excess temperature and time rate-of-change of excess temperature in a river or coast as a result of waste heat discharged from various transient sources.

  2. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  3. Elementary excitations and quasi-two-dimensional behaviour in a GaAs field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, M.; Sernelius, B.E.; Berggren, K.F.

    1983-09-01

    The elementary excitation modes in a narrow channel of conducting electrons in a special GaAs FET are evaluated within the RPA-approximation. The system is found to be quasi-two-dimensional when the width of the channel is small, i.e. there are collective excitations with a dispersion very close to the strictly 2D form. In addition to the low-lying quasi-2D-mode there are higher collective modes associated with the sub-band structure of the device. (author)

  4. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer p. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero...... except for the case where p for the inner magnet is one minus p for the outer magnet. Also the force is shown never to be balancing. The torque is shown to be zero unless the inner magnet p is equal to minus the outer magnet p. Thus there can never be a force and a torque in the same system....

  5. Slip-line field analysis of metal flow during two dimensional forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, R.G.; Khataan, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of computation and a computer software package were developed for solving problems of two dimensional plastic flow between symmetrical dies of any specified shape. The load required to initiate plastic flow, the stress and velocity distributions in the plastic region of the metal, and the pressure distribution acting on the die are determined. The method can be used to solve any symmetrical plane strain flow problem regardless of the complexity of the die. The accurate solution obtained by this efficient method can provide valuable help to forging die designers. (Author) [pt

  6. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  7. Field in field technique in two-dimensional planning for whole brain irradiation; Tecnica field in field em planejamentos bidimensionais para irradiacao de cerebro total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-11-01

    Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)

  8. Combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields on electromagnetically induced transparency of a two-dimensional quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Gh.; Shojaeian Kish, S.; Avazpour, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the electromagnetically induced transparency of a hydrogenic impurity confined in a two-dimensional quantum dot are investigated. To do this the probe absorption, group velocity and refractive index of the medium in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields are discussed. It is found that, electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system and its frequency, transparency window and group velocity of the probe field strongly depend on the external fields. In comparison with atomic system, one may control the electromagnetically induced transparency and the group velocity of light in nano structures with the dot size and confinement potential.

  9. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...... fields by means of stochastic relaxation implemented via the Gibbs sampler....

  10. Study of two-dimensional transient cavity fields using the finite-difference time-domain technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisp, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    This work is intended to be a study into the application of the finite-difference time-domain, or FD-TD technique, to some of the problems faced by designers of equipment used in modern accelerators. In particular it discusses using the FD-TD algorithm to study the field distribution of a simple two-dimensional cavity in both space and time. 18 refs

  11. Study of two-dimensional transient cavity fields using the finite-difference time-domain technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    This work is intended to be a study into the application of the finite-difference time-domain, or FD-TD technique, to some of the problems faced by designers of equipment used in modern accelerators. In particular it discusses using the FD-TD algorithm to study the field distribution of a simple two-dimensional cavity in both space and time. 18 refs.

  12. Effect of disorder on the density of states of a two-dimensional electron gas under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacie, S.; Meziani, Y.M.; Chaubet, C.; Jouault, B.; Raymond, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the density of states (DOS) of a two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field, using a multiple scattering method, in the ultraquantum limit. We have considered doped and disordered 2D systems. The results of the scattering method are compared with direct simulations of disordered samples. Using the DOS, we have studied the metal-insulator transition and the magnetic freeze-out including a comparison with experimental results

  13. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  14. Calculation of nonstationary two-dimensional temperature field in a tube wall in burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheev, V.M.; Pykhtina, T.V.; Yur'ev, Yu.S.

    1977-01-01

    Numerically solved is a nonstationary two-dimensional equation of heat conduction for a tube wall of fuel element simulator with arbitrary energy release. The tube is heat-insulated from the outside. The vapour-liquid mixture flows inside the tube. The burnout is realized, when the heat transfer coefficient corresponds to the developed boiling in one part of the tube, and to the deteriorated regime in the other part of it. The thermal losses are regarded on both ends of the tube. Given are the statement of the problem, the algorithm of the solution, the results of the test adjusting problem. Obtained is the satisfactory agreement of calculated fixed temperature with experimental one

  15. The direct field boundary impedance of two-dimensional periodic structures with application to high frequency vibration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Robin S; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Large sections of many types of engineering construction can be considered to constitute a two-dimensional periodic structure, with examples ranging from an orthogonally stiffened shell to a honeycomb sandwich panel. In this paper, a method is presented for computing the boundary (or edge) impedance of a semi-infinite two-dimensional periodic structure, a quantity which is referred to as the direct field boundary impedance matrix. This terminology arises from the fact that none of the waves generated at the boundary (the direct field) are reflected back to the boundary in a semi-infinite system. The direct field impedance matrix can be used to calculate elastic wave transmission coefficients, and also to calculate the coupling loss factors (CLFs), which are required by the statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach to predicting high frequency vibration levels in built-up systems. The calculation of the relevant CLFs enables a two-dimensional periodic region of a structure to be modeled very efficiently as a single subsystem within SEA, and also within related methods, such as a recently developed hybrid approach, which couples the finite element method with SEA. The analysis is illustrated by various numerical examples involving stiffened plate structures.

  16. Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Young-Jin; Choi, Yeongyu; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for reducing the response time of a fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell by using two-dimensional confinement of the liquid crystals. Through both numerical calculations and experiments, we show that the switching speed can be increased by several fold in a fringe-field switching cell by simply using a rubbing angle of zero, which causes virtual walls to be built when an electric field is applied between the interdigitated electrodes and the common electrode, w...

  17. The Use of Sparse Direct Solver in Vector Finite Element Modeling for Calculating Two Dimensional (2-D) Magnetotelluric Responses in Transverse Electric (TE) Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihaa Roodhiyah, Lisa’; Tjong, Tiffany; Nurhasan; Sutarno, D.

    2018-04-01

    The late research, linear matrices of vector finite element in two dimensional(2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) responses modeling was solved by non-sparse direct solver in TE mode. Nevertheless, there is some weakness which have to be improved especially accuracy in the low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) which is not achieved yet and high cost computation in dense mesh. In this work, the solver which is used is sparse direct solver instead of non-sparse direct solverto overcome the weaknesses of solving linear matrices of vector finite element metod using non-sparse direct solver. Sparse direct solver will be advantageous in solving linear matrices of vector finite element method because of the matrix properties which is symmetrical and sparse. The validation of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element has been done for a homogen half-space model and vertical contact model by analytical solution. Thevalidation result of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element shows that sparse direct solver is more stable than non-sparse direct solver in computing linear problem of vector finite element method especially in low frequency. In the end, the accuracy of 2D MT responses modelling in low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) has been reached out under the efficient allocation memory of array and less computational time consuming.

  18. Simplified Representation of Vector Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    1999-01-01

    Vector field visualization remains a difficult task. Although many local and global visualization methods for vector fields such as flow data exist, they usually require extensive user experience on setting the visualization parameters in order to produce images communicating the desired insight. We

  19. One-and two-dimensional topological charge distributions in stochastic optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The presentation on topological charge distributions in stochastic optical fields concludes that by using a combination of speckle fields one can produce inhomogeneous vortex distributions that allow both analytical calculations and numerical...

  20. Development of two-dimensional velocity field measurement using particle tracking velocimetry on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)

  1. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  2. Two-dimensional electrodynamic structure of the normal glow discharge in an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surzhikov, S. T., E-mail: surg@ipmnet.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Results are presented from numerical simulations of an axisymmetric normal glow discharge in molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen in an axial magnetic field. The charged particle densities and averaged azimuthal rotation velocities of electrons and ions are studied as functions of the gas pressure in the range of 1–5 Torr, electric field strength in the range of 100–600 V/cm, and magnetic field in the range of 0.01–0.3 T. It is found that the axial magnetic field does not disturb the normal current density law.

  3. Mass spectrum of the two dimensional lambdaphi4-1/4phi2-μphi quantum field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbrie, J.Z.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that r-particle irreducible kernels in the two-dimensional lambdaphi 4 -1/4phi 2 -μphi quantum field theory have (r+1)-particle decay for vertical stroke μ vertical stroke 2 << 1. As a consequence there is an upper mass gap and, in the subspace of two-particle states, a bound state. The proof extends Spencer's expansion to handle fluctuations between the two wells of the classical potential. A new method for resumming the low temperature cluster expansion is introduced. (orig.)

  4. Tunable Majorana corner states in a two-dimensional second-order topological superconductor induced by magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2018-05-01

    A two-dimensional second-order topological superconductor exhibits a finite gap in both bulk and edges, with the nontrivial topology manifesting itself through Majorana zero modes localized at the corners, i.e., Majorana corner states. We investigate a time-reversal-invariant topological superconductor in two dimensions and demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field could transform it into a second-order topological superconductor. A detailed analysis reveals that the magnetic field gives rise to mass terms which take distinct values among the edges, and Majorana corner states naturally emerge at the intersection of two adjacent edges with opposite masses. With the rotation of the magnetic field, Majorana corner states localized around the boundary may hop from one corner to a neighboring one and eventually make a full circle around the system when the field rotates by 2 π . In the end, we briefly discuss physical realizations of this system.

  5. Simultaneous negative refraction and focusing of fundamental frequency and second-harmonic fields by two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, 453007 Xinxiang, Henan (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Simultaneous negative refraction for both the fundamental frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) fields in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals have been found through both the physical analysis and exact numerical simulation. By combining such a property with the phase-matching condition and strong second-order susceptibility, we have designed a SH lens to realize focusing for both the FF and SH fields at the same time. Good-quality non-near field images for both FF and SH fields have been observed. The physical mechanism for such SH focusing phenomena has been disclosed, which is different from the backward SH generation as has been pointed out in the previous investigations. In addition, the effect of absorption losses on the phenomena has also been discussed. Thus, potential applications of these phenomena to biphotonic microscopy technique are anticipated.

  6. High performance top-gated ferroelectric field effect transistors based on two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongzheng; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Yuankun; Liao, Lei; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Jianlu; Hu, Weida

    2017-01-01

    High quality ultrathin two-dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheets (NSs) are synthesized, and the ZnO NS ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) are demonstrated based on the P(VDF-TrFE) polymer film used as the top gate insulating layer. The ZnO NSs exhibit a maximum field effect mobility of 588.9 cm2/Vs and a large transconductance of 2.5 μS due to their high crystalline quality and ultrathin two-dimensional structure. The polarization property of the P(VDF-TrFE) film is studied, and a remnant polarization of >100 μC/cm2 is achieved with a P(VDF-TrFE) thickness of 300 nm. Because of the ultrahigh remnant polarization field generated in the P(VDF-TrFE) film, the FeFETs show a large memory window of 16.9 V and a high source-drain on/off current ratio of more than 107 at zero gate voltage and a source-drain bias of 0.1 V. Furthermore, a retention time of >3000 s of the polarization state is obtained, inspiring a promising candidate for applications in data storage with non-volatile features.

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR EVOLUTION CODE INCLUDING ARBITRARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. PRECISION IMPROVEMENT AND INCLUSION OF TURBULENCE AND ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linghuai; Sofia, Sabatino; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Ventura, Paolo; Penza, Valentina; Bi Shaolan

    2009-01-01

    In the second paper of this series we pursue two objectives. First, in order to make the code more sensitive to small effects, we remove many approximations made in Paper I. Second, we include turbulence and rotation in the two-dimensional framework. The stellar equilibrium is described by means of a set of five differential equations, with the introduction of a new dependent variable, namely the perturbation to the radial gravity, that is found when the nonradial effects are considered in the solution of the Poisson equation. Following the scheme of the first paper, we write the equations in such a way that the two-dimensional effects can be easily disentangled. The key concept introduced in this series is the equipotential surface. We use the underlying cause-effect relation to develop a recurrence relation to calculate the equipotential surface functions for uniform rotation, differential rotation, rotation-like toroidal magnetic fields, and turbulence. We also develop a more precise code to numerically solve the two-dimensional stellar structure and evolution equations based on the equipotential surface calculations. We have shown that with this formulation we can achieve the precision required by observations by appropriately selecting the convergence criterion. Several examples are presented to show that the method works well. Since we are interested in modeling the effects of a dynamo-type field on the detailed envelope structure and global properties of the Sun, the code has been optimized for short timescales phenomena (down to 1 yr). The time dependence of the code has so far been tested exclusively to address such problems.

  8. Vector form Intrinsic Finite Element Method for the Two-Dimensional Analysis of Marine Risers with Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Guo, Xueli; Guo, Haiyan

    2018-06-01

    Robust numerical models that describe the complex behaviors of risers are needed because these constitute dynamically sensitive systems. This paper presents a simple and efficient algorithm for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of marine risers. The proposed approach uses the vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) method, which is based on vector mechanics theory and numerical calculation. In this method, the risers are described by a set of particles directly governed by Newton's second law and are connected by weightless elements that can only resist internal forces. The method does not require the integration of the stiffness matrix, nor does it need iterations to solve the governing equations. Due to these advantages, the method can easily increase or decrease the element and change the boundary conditions, thus representing an innovative concept of solving nonlinear behaviors, such as large deformation and large displacement. To prove the feasibility of the VFIFE method in the analysis of the risers, rigid and flexible risers belonging to two different categories of marine risers, which usually have differences in modeling and solving methods, are employed in the present study. In the analysis, the plane beam element is adopted in the simulation of interaction forces between the particles and the axial force, shear force, and bending moment are also considered. The results are compared with the conventional finite element method (FEM) and those reported in the related literature. The findings revealed that both the rigid and flexible risers could be modeled in a similar unified analysis model and that the VFIFE method is feasible for solving problems related to the complex behaviors of marine risers.

  9. Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K. S.; Gabay, M.; Jaccard, D.; Shibuya, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2006-05-01

    Correlated oxides display a variety of extraordinary physical properties including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. In these materials, strong electronic correlations often lead to competing ground states that are sensitive to many parameters-in particular the doping level-so that complex phase diagrams are observed. A flexible way to explore the role of doping is to tune the electron or hole concentration with electric fields, as is done in standard semiconductor field effect transistors. Here we demonstrate a model oxide system based on high-quality heterostructures in which the ferroelectric field effect approach can be studied. We use a single-crystal film of the perovskite superconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3 as the superconducting channel and ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 as the gate oxide. Atomic force microscopy is used to locally reverse the ferroelectric polarization, thus inducing large resistivity and carrier modulations, resulting in a clear shift in the superconducting critical temperature. Field-induced switching from the normal state to the (zero resistance) superconducting state was achieved at a well-defined temperature. This unique system could lead to a field of research in which devices are realized by locally defining in the same material superconducting and normal regions with `perfect' interfaces, the interface being purely electronic. Using this approach, one could potentially design one-dimensional superconducting wires, superconducting rings and junctions, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) or arrays of pinning centres.

  10. Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-05-15

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  11. Isomorphism of critical and off-critical operator spaces in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Niccoli, G. [Univ. de Cergy-Pontoise (France). LPTM

    2007-12-15

    For the simplest quantum field theory originating from a non-trivial fixed point of the renormalization group, the Lee-Yang model, we show that the operator space determined by the particle dynamics in the massive phase and that prescribed by conformal symmetry at criticality coincide. (orig.)

  12. Two-dimensional quasi-neutral description of particles and fields above discrete auroral arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. L.; Chiu, Y. T.; Cornwall, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Models are presented for particle distributions, electric fields and currents in an adiabatic treatment of auroral electrostatic potential distributions in order to describe the quiet-time evening auroral arcs featuring both upward and return currents. The models are consistent with current continuity and charge balance requirements for particle populations controlled by adiabatic invariants and quasi-neutrality in the magnetosphere. The effective energy of the cool electron population is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the latitudinal breadth of the auroral electrostatic potential structure and the extent of the penetration of the accelerating potential into the ionosphere. Another finding is that the energy of any parallel potential drop in the lowest few thousand kilometers of the field line is of the same order of magnitude as the thermal energy of the cool electrons. Additional predictions include density cavities along field lines that support large potential drops, and density enhancements along field lines at the edge of an inverted V with a small potential drop.

  13. Two dimensional analytical considerations of large magnetic and electric fields in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Loeb, A.

    1985-08-01

    A simple model in two dimensions is developed and solved analytically taking into account the electric and magnetic fields in laser procuded plasmas. The electric potential in this model is described by a nonlinear differential equation. The stationary solution of this model is consistent for -0.1 less than or equal to psi 6 v/cm]/[B/MGauss] approx. 1

  14. Quantization of an electromagnetic field in two-dimensional photonic structures based on the scattering matrix formalism ( S-quantization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Kaliteevski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Based on the scattering matrix formalism, we have developed a method of quantization of an electromagnetic field in two-dimensional photonic nanostructures ( S-quantization in the two-dimensional case). In this method, the fields at the boundaries of the quantization box are expanded into a Fourier series and are related with each other by the scattering matrix of the system, which is the product of matrices describing the propagation of plane waves in empty regions of the quantization box and the scattering matrix of the photonic structure (or an arbitrary inhomogeneity). The quantization condition (similarly to the onedimensional case) is formulated as follows: the eigenvalues of the scattering matrix are equal to unity, which corresponds to the fact that the set of waves that are incident on the structure (components of the expansion into the Fourier series) is equal to the set of waves that travel away from the structure (outgoing waves). The coefficients of the matrix of scattering through the inhomogeneous structure have been calculated using the following procedure: the structure is divided into parallel layers such that the permittivity in each layer varies only along the axis that is perpendicular to the layers. Using the Fourier transform, the Maxwell equations have been written in the form of a matrix that relates the Fourier components of the electric field at the boundaries of neighboring layers. The product of these matrices is the transfer matrix in the basis of the Fourier components of the electric field. Represented in a block form, it is composed by matrices that contain the reflection and transmission coefficients for the Fourier components of the field, which, in turn, constitute the scattering matrix. The developed method considerably simplifies the calculation scheme for the analysis of the behavior of the electromagnetic field in structures with a two-dimensional inhomogeneity. In addition, this method makes it possible to obviate

  15. Crystal-field tuning of photoluminescence in two-dimensional materials with embedded lanthanide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ding; Chen, Weiyin; Zeng, Mengqi; Xue, Haifeng; Chen, Yunxu; Xiao, Yao; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Lei [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Sang, Xiahan; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xiao, Kai [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Lanthanide (Ln) group elements have been attracting considerable attention owing to the distinct optical properties. The crystal-field surroundings of Ln ions in the host materials can determine their energy level splitting, which is of vital importance to tailor their optical properties. 2D MoS{sub 2} single crystals were utilized as the host material to embed Eu{sup 3+} and energy-level splitting was achieved for tuning its photoluminescence (PL). The high anisotropy of the 2D host materials makes them distort the degenerate orbitals of the Ln ions more efficiently than the symmetrical bulk host materials. A significant red-shift of the PL peak for Eu{sup 3+} was observed. The strategy for tailoring the energy level splitting of Ln ions by the highly designable 2D material crystal field provides a new method to extend their optical properties. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Numerical study of two dimensional disordered systems in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Debnarayan

    2000-01-01

    We study here 2d tight-binding disordered model in an external magnetic field. By numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, we characterize the eigenstates by Generalized Inverse Participation Ratio (GIPR). The properties of the eigenstates have been studied in case of random flux model as well as with the strength of disorder. Simple theoretical arguments are given in support of the numerical observation. Finally, we have also studied the multifractality of the eigenstates. All these study may shed light on the eigenstates in the center of the band in case of Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE). (author)

  17. Direct Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Currents in Thin Films from Magnetic-Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Levin, Eitan; Zeldov, Eli

    2017-12-01

    An accurate determination of microscopic transport and magnetization currents is of central importance for the study of the electric properties of low-dimensional materials and interfaces, of superconducting thin films, and of electronic devices. Current distribution is usually derived from the measurement of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field above the surface of the sample, followed by numerical inversion of the Biot-Savart law. The inversion is commonly obtained by deriving the current stream function g , which is then differentiated in order to obtain the current distribution. However, this two-step procedure requires filtering at each step and, as a result, oversmooths the solution. To avoid this oversmoothing, we develop a direct procedure for inversion of the magnetic field that avoids use of the stream function. This approach provides enhanced accuracy of current reconstruction over a wide range of noise levels. We further introduce a reflection procedure that allows for the reconstruction of currents that cross the boundaries of the measurement window. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  18. Adiabatic, chaotic and quasi-adiabatic charged particle motion in two-dimensional magnetic field reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    For a number of problems in the Plasma Astrophysics it is necessary to know the laws, which govern the non adiabatic charged particle dynamics in strongly curves magnetic field reversals. These are, e.q., the kinetic theory of the microscopic and macroscopicstability of current sheets in collionless plasma, of microturbulence, causing anomalous resistivity and dissipating currents, the problem of spontaneous reconnection, the formation of non Maxwellian distribution functions, particle acceleration and the use of particles as a diagnostic tool ('tracers'). To find such laws we derived from the differential equations of motion discrete mappings. These mappings allow an investigation of the motion after the break down of the adiabaticity of the magnetic moment. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Functional techniques in quantum field theory and two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C. Farina de.

    1985-03-01

    Functional methods applied to Quantum Field Theory are studied. It is shown how to construct the Generating Functional using three of the most important methods existent in the literature, due to Feynman, Symanzik and Schwinger. The Axial Anomaly is discussed in the usual way, and a non perturbative method due to Fujikawa to obtain this anomaly in the path integral formalism is presented. The ''Roskies-Shaposnik-Fujikawa's method'', which makes use of Fujikawa's original idea to solve bidimensional models, is introduced in the Schwinger's model, which, in turn, is applied to obtain the exact solution of the axial model. It is discussed briefly how different regularization procedures can affect the theory in question. (author)

  20. Trapping, percolation, and anomalous diffusion of particles in a two-dimensional random field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, M.; Apelian, C.; Elliott, F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyze the advection of particles in a velocity field with Hamiltonian H(x,y) = bar V 1 y-bar V 2 x + W 1 (y) - W 2 (x), where W i , i=1,2, are random functions with stationary, independent increments. In the absence of molecular diffusion, the particle dynamics are sensitive to the streamline topology, which depends on the mean-to-fluctuations ratio p=max(|bar V 1 |/bar U;|bar V 2 |/bar U), with bar U = [|W' 1 | 2 ] 1/2 = rms fluctuations. The model is exactly solvable for p≥1 and well suited for Monte Carlo simulations for all p. Statistics are considered of streamlines for p=0, deriving power laws for the escape probability and the length of escaping trajectories for a box of size L much-gt 1. Also obtained is a characterization of the statistical topography of the Hamiltonian. The large-scale transport is studied of advected particles with p > 0. For 0 -v/2 [x(t) - (x(t))] and t -v/2 [y(t) - (y(t))]. The large-scale motions are Fickian (v=1) or superdiffusive (v=3/2) with a non-Gaussian coarse-grained probability, according to the direction of the mean velocity relative to the underlying lattice. These results are obtained analytically for p≥1 and extended to the regime 0 1 , bar V 2 ) for which stagnation regions in the flow exist. The results are compared with existing predictions on the topology of streamlines based on percolation theory and with mean-field calculations of effective diffusivities. 29 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Electrical-field-induced magnetic Skyrmion ground state in a two-dimensional chromium tri-iodide ferromagnetic monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shi, Mengchao; Mo, Pinghui; Lu, Jiwu

    2018-05-01

    Using fully first-principles non-collinear self-consistent field density functional theory (DFT) calculations with relativistic spin-orbital coupling effects, we show that, by applying an out-of-plane electrical field on a free-standing two-dimensional chromium tri-iodide (CrI3) ferromagnetic monolayer, the Néel-type magnetic Skyrmion spin configurations become more energetically-favorable than the ferromagnetic spin configurations. It is revealed that the topologically-protected Skyrmion ground state is caused by the breaking of inversion symmetry, which induces the non-trivial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and the energetically-favorable spin-canting configuration. Combining the ferromagnetic and the magnetic Skyrmion ground states, it is shown that 4-level data can be stored in a single monolayer-based spintronic device, which is of practical interests to realize the next-generation energy-efficient quaternary logic devices and multilevel memory devices.

  2. A new microscope optics for laser dark-field illumination applied to high precision two dimensional measurement of specimen displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naoki; Kamimura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    With conventional light microscopy, precision in the measurement of the displacement of a specimen depends on the signal-to-noise ratio when we measure the light intensity of magnified images. This implies that, for the improvement of precision, getting brighter images and reducing background light noise are both inevitably required. For this purpose, we developed a new optics for laser dark-field illumination. For the microscopy, we used a laser beam and a pair of axicons (conical lenses) to get an optimal condition for dark-field observations. The optics was applied to measuring two dimensional microbead displacements with subnanometer precision. The bandwidth of our detection system overall was 10 kHz. Over most of this bandwidth, the observed noise level was as small as 0.1 nm/radicalHz.

  3. A Semi-implicit Numerical Scheme for a Two-dimensional, Three-field Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Jeong, Jaejoon

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of two-phase flow is modeled, depending on the purpose, by either homogeneous model, drift flux model, or separated flow model, Among these model, in the separated flow model, the behavior of each flow phase is modeled by its own governing equation, together with the interphase models which describe the thermal and mechanical interactions between the phases involved. In this study, a semi-implicit numerical scheme for two-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field is derived. The work is an extension to the previous study for the staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme in one-dimensional geometry (KAERI/TR-3239/2006). The two-dimensional extension is performed by specifying a relevant governing equation set and applying the related finite differencing method. The procedure for employing the semi-implicit scheme is also described in detail. Verifications are performed for a 2-dimensional vertical plate for a single-phase and two-phase flows. The calculations verify the mass and energy conservations. The symmetric flow behavior, for the verification problem, also confirms the momentum conservation of the numerical scheme

  4. A two dimensional finite difference time domain analysis of the quiet zone fields of an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Kunz, Karl S.; Steich, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of anechoic chamber performance is a difficult problem. Electromagnetic anechoic chambers exist for a wide range of frequencies but are typically very large when measured in wavelengths. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of anechoic chambers is possible with current computers but at frequencies lower than most chamber design frequencies. However, two dimensional FDTD (2D-FTD) modeling enables much greater detail at higher frequencies and offers significant insight into compact anechoic chamber design and performance. A major subsystem of an anechoic chamber for which computational electromagnetic analyses exist is the reflector. First, an analysis of the quiet zone fields of a low frequency anechoic chamber produced by a uniform source and a reflector in two dimensions using the FDTD method is presented. The 2D-FDTD results are compared with results from a three dimensional corrected physical optics calculation and show good agreement. Next, a directional source is substituted for the uniform radiator. Finally, a two dimensional anechoic chamber geometry, including absorbing materials, is considered, and the 2D-FDTD results for these geometries appear reasonable.

  5. Asymptotic behavior of the elastic form factor in two-dimensional scalar field theory of the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapchev, V.

    1976-01-01

    In the framework of the two-dimensional scalar quantum theory of the bag model of Chodos et al a definition of the physical field and a general scheme for constructing a physical state are given. Some of the difficulties associated with such an approach are exposed. Expressions for the physical current and the elastic form factor are given. The calculation of the latter is restricted at first to the approximation in which the mapping from a bag of changing shape to a fixed domain is realized only by a term which is a diagonal, bilinear function of the creation and annihilation operators. This is done for the case of a one-mode and an infinite-mode bag theory. By computing the form factor in an exact one-mode bag model it is shown that the logarithmic falloff of the asymptotic term is the same as the one in the approximation. On the basis of this a form for the asymptotic behavior of the form factor is suggested which may be correct for the general two-dimensional scalar bag theory

  6. The inversion layer of electric fields and electron phase-space-hole structure during two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.

  7. Self-running and self-floating two-dimensional actuator using near-field acoustic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keyu; Gao, Shiming; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping

    2016-09-01

    Non-contact actuators are promising technologies in metrology, machine-tools, and hovercars, but have been suffering from low energy efficiency, complex design, and low controllability. Here we report a new design of a self-running and self-floating actuator capable of two-dimensional motion with an unlimited travel range. The proposed design exploits near-field acoustic levitation for heavy object lifting, and coupled resonant vibration for generation of acoustic streaming for non-contact motion in designated directions. The device utilizes resonant vibration of the structure for high energy efficiency, and adopts a single piezo element to achieve both levitation and non-contact motion for a compact and simple design. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed actuator can reach a 1.65 cm/s or faster moving speed and is capable of transporting a total weight of 80 g under 1.2 W power consumption.

  8. An Al₂O₃ Gating Substrate for the Greater Performance of Field Effect Transistors Based on Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Qin, Shiqiao; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wang, Guang; Tan, Yuan; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Xueao

    2017-09-22

    We fabricated 70 nm Al₂O₃ gated field effect transistors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials and characterized their optical and electrical properties. Studies show that the optical contrast of monolayer graphene on an Al₂O₃/Si substrate is superior to that on a traditional 300 nm SiO₂/Si substrate (2.4 times). Significantly, the transconductance of monolayer graphene transistors on the Al₂O₃/Si substrate shows an approximately 10-fold increase, due to a smaller dielectric thickness and a higher dielectric constant. Furthermore, this substrate is also suitable for other 2D materials, such as WS₂, and can enhance the transconductance remarkably by 61.3 times. These results demonstrate a new and ideal substrate for the fabrication of 2D materials-based electronic logic devices.

  9. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: A fast two-dimensional J-resolved experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuqing; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin, E-mail: linyq@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong, E-mail: linyq@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin, Yung-Ya [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising.

  10. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yongshun; Zheng, Guimei; Feng, Cunqian; Tang, Jun

    2017-10-26

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs) under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU) and mutual coupling (MC). GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA) based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM). The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  11. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU and mutual coupling (MC. GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM. The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  12. Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-11

    We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.

  13. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  14. Analytic and numeric Green's functions for a two-dimensional electron gas in an orthogonal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2006-01-01

    We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems

  15. Vector fields on nonorientable surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Barza

    2003-01-01

    X, and the space of vector fields on X are proved by using a symmetrisation process. An example related to the normal derivative on the border of the Möbius strip supports the nontriviality of the concepts introduced in this paper.

  16. On vector fields having properties of Reeb fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hajduk, Boguslaw; Walczak, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    We study constructions of vector fields with properties which are characteristic to Reeb vector fields of contact forms. In particular, we prove that all closed oriented odd-dimensional manifold have geodesible vector fields.

  17. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  18. Cyclotron resonance study of the two-dimensional electron layers and double layers in tilted magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncharuk, Natalya; Smrčka, Ludvík; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 590-593 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems /15./. Nara, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : single layer * double layer * two-dimensional electron system * cyclotron resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2004

  19. Evidence of a field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario in a two-dimensional spin-dimer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutsch, U; Wolf, B; Wessel, S; Postulka, L; Tsui, Y; Jeschke, H O; Opahle, I; Saha-Dasgupta, T; Valentí, R; Brühl, A; Remović-Langer, K; Kretz, T; Lerner, H-W; Wagner, M; Lang, M

    2014-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) systems with continuous symmetry lack conventional long-range order because of thermal fluctuations. Instead, as pointed out by Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless (BKT), 2D systems may exhibit so-called topological order driven by the binding of vortex-antivortex pairs. Signatures of the BKT mechanism have been observed in thin films, specially designed heterostructures, layered magnets and trapped atomic gases. Here we report on an alternative approach for studying BKT physics by using a chemically constructed multilayer magnet. The novelty of this approach is to use molecular-based pairs of spin S=½ ions, which, by the application of a magnetic field, provide a gas of magnetic excitations. On the basis of measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat on a so-designed material, combined with density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we conclude that these excitations have a distinct 2D character, consistent with a BKT scenario, implying the emergence of vortices and antivortices.

  20. Two-dimensional spatial survey of the plasma potential and electric field in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetushka, A.; Karkari, S.K.; Bradley, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emissive and Langmuir probe techniques have been used to obtain two-dimensional (2D) spatial maps of the plasma potential V p , electric field E, and ion trajectories in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge. The magnetron was pulsed at a frequency of 100 kHz, with a 50% duty cycle and operated at an argon pressure of 0.74 Pa. The pulse wave form was characterized by three distinct phases: the 'overshoot', 'reverse', and 'on' phases. In the 'on' phase of the pulse, when the cathode voltage is driven to -670 V, the 2D spatial distribution of V p has a similar form to that in dc magnetron, with significant axial and radial electric fields in the bulk plasma, accelerating ions to the sheath edge above the cathode racetrack region. During the 'overshoot' phase (duration 200 ns), V p is raised to values greater than +330 V, more than 100 V above the cathode potential, with E pointing away from the target. In the 'reverse' phase V p has a value of +45 V at all measured positions, 2 V more positive than the target potential. In this phase there is no electric field present in the plasma. In the bulk of the plasma, the results from Langmuir probe and the emissive probe are in good agreement, however, in one particular region of the plasma outside the radius of the cathode, the emissive probe measurements are consistently more positive (up to 45 V in the 'on' time). This discrepancy is discussed in terms of the different frequency response of the probes and their perturbation of the plasma. A simple circuit model of the plasma-probe system has been proposed to explain our results. A brief discussion of the effect of the changing plasma potential distribution on the operation of the magnetron is given

  1. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  2. Problems of vector Lagrangians in field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A vector Lagrange approach to the Dirac spinor field and the relationship between the vector Lagrangians for the spinor and electromagnetic fields are considered. A vector Lagrange approach for the system of interacting electromagnetic B=(B μ υ)=(E-bar,H-bar) and spinor Ψ fields is constructed. New Lagrangians (scalar and vector) for electromagnetic field in terms of field strengths are found. The foundations of two new QED models are formulated

  3. Vector fields and gravity on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of discretization of vector field on Regge lattice is considered. Our approach is based on geometrical interpretation of the vector field as the field of infinitesimal coordinate transformation. A discrete version of the vector field action is obtained as a particular case of the continuum action, and it is shown to have the true continuum limit

  4. Two-dimensional, average velocity field across the Asal Rift, Djibouti from 1997-2008 RADARSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, J.; Doubre, C.; Peltzer, G.

    2009-12-01

    Located at the western end of the Aden ridge, the Asal Rift is the first emerged section of the ridge propagating into Afar, a region of intense volcanic and tectonic activity. We construct a two-dimensional surface velocity map of the 200x400 km2 region covering the rift using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data acquired from ascending and descending passes of the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent troposphere conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. We combine the ascending and descending pass LOS velocity fields with the Arabia-Somalia pole of rotation adjusted to regional GPS velocities (Vigny et al., 2007) to compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal, GPS-parallel components of the velocity over the rift. The vertical velocity field shows a ~40 km wide zone of doming centered over the Fieale caldera associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. Differential movement between shoulders and floor is accommodated by creep at 6 mm/yr on Fault γ and 2.7 mm/yr on Fault E. The horizontal field shows that the two shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift to the plate motion rate of ~11 mm/yr. Part of the opening is concentrated on faults γ (5 mm/yr) and E (4 mm/yr) and about 4 mm/yr is distributed between Fault E and Fault H in the southern part of the rift. The observed velocity field along a 60 km-long profile across the eastern part of the rift can be explained with a 2D mechanical model involving a 5-9 km-deep, vertical dyke expanding horizontally at a rate of 5 cm/yr, a 2 km-wide, 7 km-deep sill expanding vertically at 1cm/yr, and down-dip and opening of faults γ and E. Results from 3D rift models describing along-strike velocity decrease away from the Goubbet Gulf and the effects of a pressurized magma chamber will be

  5. High breakdown voltage quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 field-effect transistors with a boron nitride field plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jinho; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Kang, In Ho; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun

    2018-03-01

    We have demonstrated a β-Ga2O3 metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with a high off-state breakdown voltage (344 V), based on a quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 field-plated with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Both the β-Ga2O3 and h-BN were mechanically exfoliated from their respective crystal substrates, followed by dry-transfer onto a SiO2/Si substrate for integration into a high breakdown voltage quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 MESFETs. N-type conducting behavior was observed in the fabricated β-Ga2O3 MESFETs, along with a high on/off current ratio (>106) and excellent current saturation. A three-terminal off-state breakdown voltage of 344 V was obtained, with a threshold voltage of -7.3 V and a subthreshold swing of 84.6 mV/dec. The distribution of electric fields in the quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 MESFETs was simulated to analyze the role of the dielectric h-BN field plate in improving the off-state breakdown voltage. The stability of the field-plated β-Ga2O3 MESFET in air was confirmed after storing the MESFET in ambient air for one month. Our results pave the way for unlocking the full potential of β-Ga2O3 for use in a high-power nano-device with an ultrahigh breakdown voltage.

  6. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  7. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Pham, Dang-Lan [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software Town, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: hoanglv@hcmup.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity.

  8. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Pham, Dang-Lan; Le, Van-Hoang

    2013-01-01

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity

  9. Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...

  10. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  11. Signed zeros of Gaussian vector fields - density, correlation functions and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Foltin, G

    2003-01-01

    We calculate correlation functions of the (signed) density of zeros of Gaussian distributed vector fields. We are able to express correlation functions of arbitrary order through the curvature tensor of a certain abstract Riemann Cartan or Riemannian manifold. As an application, we discuss one- and two-point functions. The zeros of a two-dimensional Gaussian vector field model the distribution of topological defects in the high-temperature phase of two-dimensional systems with orientational degrees of freedom, such as superfluid films, thin superconductors and liquid crystals.

  12. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Introduction to Vector Field Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

  14. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  15. Atom-field interaction in the single-quantum limit in a two dimensional travelling-wave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Sun Hyun; Chough, Young Tak; An, Kyung Won

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of an atom with two dimensional travelling-wave cavity modes in the strong coupling region, with the quantized atomic center of mass motion taken into account. Analytic and numerical calculation shows that the atom in two independent pairs of travelling wave modes can be made to interact only with a particular travelling mode by matching the initial momentum and the detuning of the cavities. We also numerically investigate the atomic momentum deflection in the cavities

  16. High magnetic field magnetoresistance anomalies in the charge density wave state of the quasi-two dimensional bronze KMo6O{17}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, H.; Dumas, J.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Vignolles, D.

    2005-12-01

    We report high magnetic field magnetoresistance measurements performed in pulsed fields up to 55 T on the quasi-two dimensional charge density wave conductor KMo{6}O{17}. Magnetoresistance curves show several anomalies below 28 T. First order transitions to smaller gap states take place at low temperature above 30 T. A phase diagram T(B) has been obtained. The angular dependence of the anomalies is reported.

  17. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  18. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Hanson, Steen G

    2012-04-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative examples with relevance for optics are given.

  19. Nonactivated transport of ultradilute two-dimensional hole systems in GaAs field-effect transistors: Interaction versus disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Very strongly interacting high-purity two-dimensional (2D) electron systems at temperatures T→0 demonstrate certain nonactivated insulating behaviors that are absent in more disordered systems. By measuring in dark the T dependence of the conductivity of ultrahigh-quality 2D holes with charge densities down to 7×108 cm-2, an approximate power-law behavior is identified. Moreover, the exponent exhibits a linearly decreasing density dependence which suggests an interaction-driven nature. Such an electron state is fragile to even a slight increase of disorder, which causes a crossover from nonactivated to activated conduction. The nonactivated conduction may well be a universal interaction-driven signature of an electron state of strongly correlated (semiquantum) liquid.

  20. Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R; Irvine, William T M

    2016-12-30

    We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.

  1. Monrelativistic particle in a magnetic field in two-dimensional Lobachevsky space, the cylindrical coordinates and the Poincare half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiyu, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation in the two-dimensional Riemannian space of negative curvature, the hyperbolic Lobachevsky plane, in the presence of an external magnetic field, which is an analog of a uniform magnetic field in the Minkowski space, are constructed. The description uses the cylindrical and quasi-Cartesian coordinates. The quasi-Cartesian coordinates determine the Poincare half-plane. In the both coordinate systems, the Schrodinger equation is solved exactly, the wave functions are constructed. A generalized formula for energy levels is found, which describes the quantized motion of a particle in a magnetic field in the Lobachevsky plane. (authors)

  2. Two-dimensional superconducting state of monolayer Pb films grown on GaAs(110) in a strong parallel magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekihara, Takayuki; Masutomi, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Tohru

    2013-08-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) superconductivity was studied by magnetotransport measurements on single-atomic-layer Pb films on a cleaved GaAs(110) surface. The superconducting transition temperature shows only a weak dependence on the parallel magnetic field up to 14T, which is higher than the Pauli paramagnetic limit. Furthermore, the perpendicular-magnetic-field dependence of the sheet resistance is almost independent of the presence of the parallel field component. These results are explained in terms of an inhomogeneous superconducting state predicted for 2D metals with a large Rashba spin splitting.

  3. Multi-task Vector Field Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Chiyuan; Ye, Jieping; He, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously and identifying the shared information among tasks. Most of existing MTL methods focus on learning linear models under the supervised setting. We propose a novel semi-supervised and nonlinear approach for MTL using vector fields. A vector field is a smooth mapping from the manifold to the tangent spaces which can be viewed as a directional derivative of functions on the manifold. We argue that vector fields provide a natural way to exploit the geometric structure of data as well as the shared differential structure of tasks, both of which are crucial for semi-supervised multi-task learning. In this paper, we develop multi-task vector field learning (MTVFL) which learns the predictor functions and the vector fields simultaneously. MTVFL has the following key properties. (1) The vector fields MTVFL learns are close to the gradient fields of the predictor functions. (2) Within each task, the vector field is required to be as parallel as possible which is expected to span a low dimensional subspace. (3) The vector fields from all tasks share a low dimensional subspace. We formalize our idea in a regularization framework and also provide a convex relaxation method to solve the original non-convex problem. The experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  4. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  5. The Interplay of Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction and Landau Level Broadening on a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammag, Rayda; Villagonzalo, Cristine

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional electron gas in a tilted magnetic field with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) was studied. The RSOI is accredited to the asymmetry of the heterostructure where the two-dimensional electron gas is found. The effects of the disorder-attributed Landau level broadening and the RSOI on the spin splitting were identified by simulating the density of states which was assumed to take a Gaussian shape. Increased Landau level broadening obscures the spin splitting and increases the overlap between spin states resulting to stout Gaussian peaks. On the other hand, stronger RSOI amplifies the splitting and lessens the overlap between spin states of the Landau levels. The splitting, however, results to stouter peaks. The similarity in the RSOI and Landau level broadening effects can be explained by recognizing that the asymmetry of the heterostructure is in itself a form of structural disorder.

  6. Vector fields and differential operators: noncommutative case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.

    1997-01-01

    A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed previously. In this paper an outline is given of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of differential operators as well as its (algebraic) Fock space realization. Co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives will also be discussed

  7. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  8. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  9. Vortex pair production and decay of a two-dimensional supercurrent by a quantum-field-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iengo, R.; Jug, G.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of the decay of a supercurrent through homogeneous nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs in a two-dimensional (2D) like superconductor or superfluid by means of a quantum electrodynamic formulation for the decay of the 2D vacuum. The case in which both externally driven current and Magnus force are present is treated exactly, taking the vortex activation energy and its inertial mass as independent parameters. Quantum dissipation is included through the formulation introduced by Caldeira and Leggett. The most relevant consequence of quantum dissipation is the elimination of the threshold for vortex production due to the Magnus force. In the dissipation-dominated case, corresponding formally to the limit of zero intertial mass, an exact formula for the pair production rate is given. If however the inertial mass is strictly zero we find that vortex production is inhibited by a quantum effect related to the Magnus force. The possibility of including vortex pinning is investigated by means of an effective harmonic potential. While an additional term in the vortex activation energy can account for the effect of a finite barrier in the direction perpendicular to the current, pinning along the current depresses the role of the Magnus force in the dissipation-dominated dynamics, except for the above-mentioned quantum effect. A possible description of vortex nucleation due to the combined effects of temperature and externally driven currents is also presented along with an evaluation of the resulting voltage drop

  10. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  11. Euclidean fields: vector mesons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffelholz, J.

    1979-01-01

    Free transverse vector fields of mass >= 0 are studied. The model is related to the usual free vector meson and electromagnetic quantum field theories by extension of the field operators from transverse to arbitrary test functions. The one-particle states in transverse gauge and their localization are described. Reflexion positivity is proved and derived are free Feynman-Kac-Nelson formulas. An Euclidean approach to a photon field in a spherical world using dilatation covariance and inversions is given

  12. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO 6O 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Hervé; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo 6O 17 . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations.

  13. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO{sub 6}O{sub 17}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Herve; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-04-30

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations.

  14. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO6O17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Herve; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo 6 O 17 . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations

  15. Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

  16. Vector fields satisfying the barycenter property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Manseob

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that if a vector field X has the C1 robustly barycenter property then it does not have singularities and it is Axiom A without cycles. Moreover, if a generic C1-vector field has the barycenter property then it does not have singularities and it is Axiom A without cycles. Moreover, we apply the results to the divergence free vector fields. It is an extension of the results of the barycenter property for generic diffeomorphisms and volume preserving diffeomorphisms [1].

  17. Study of Landau spectrum for a two-dimensional random magnetic field; Etude du spectre de Landau pour un champ magnetique aleatoire en dimension deux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtlehner, C. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-09-24

    This thesis deals with the two-dimensional problem of a charged particle coupled to a random magnetic field. Various situations are considered, according to the relative importance of the mean value of field and random component. The last one is conceived as a distribution of magnetic impurities (punctual vortex), having various statistical properties (local or non-local correlations, Poisson distribution, etc). The study of this system has led to two distinct situations: - the case of the charged particle feeling the influence of mean field that manifests its presence in the spectrum of broadened Landau levels; - the disordered situation in which the spectrum can be distinguished from the free one only by a low energy Lifshits behaviour. Additional properties are occurring in the limit of `strong` mean field, namely a non-conventional low energy behaviour (in contrast to Lifshits behaviour) which was interpreted in terms of localized states. (author) 78 refs.

  18. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of structures of a suspension comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoling; Min Yong; Ma Tianyu; Luo Wei; Yan Mi

    2009-01-01

    The structures of suspensions comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in magnetic fields are studied using two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetic interaction among magnetic particles, magnetic field strength, and concentrations of both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles are considered as key influencing factors in the present work. The results show that chain-like clusters of magnetic particles are formed along the field direction. The size of the clusters increases with increasing magnetic interaction between magnetic particles, while it keeps nearly unchanged as the field strength increases. As the concentration of magnetic particles increases, both the number and size of the clusters increase. Moreover, nonmagnetic particles are found to hinder the migration of magnetic ones. As the concentration of nonmagnetic particles increases, the hindrance on migration of magnetic particles is enhanced

  19. Versatile generation of optical vector fields and vector beams using a non-interferometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Santosh; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2012-05-07

    We present a versatile, non-interferometric method for generating vector fields and vector beams which can produce all the states of polarization represented on a higher-order Poincaré sphere. The versatility and non-interferometric nature of this method is expected to enable exploration of various exotic properties of vector fields and vector beams. To illustrate this, we study the propagation properties of some vector fields and find that, in general, propagation alters both their intensity and polarization distribution, and more interestingly, converts some vector fields into vector beams. In the article, we also suggest a modified Jones vector formalism to represent vector fields and vector beams.

  20. Visualization and quantification of four steps in magnetic field induced two-dimensional ordering of superparamagnetic submicron particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajula, Gnana Prakash; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2010-01-01

    , resolved growth steps (condensation, polarization, co-linearity and concatenation), the average chain growth rate, and inter-particle interaction length were calculated in the presence of a 120 G external magnetic field using optical microscopy and ‘in-house' developed image analysis software......We hereby report a methodology that permits a quantitative investigation of the temporal self-organization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the presence of an external magnetic field. The kinetics of field-induced self-organization into linear chains, time-dependent chain-size distribution...

  1. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. Remarks on the paper ''Two-dimensional quantum field theories involving massless particles'' by N.Nakanishi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.Ts.

    1978-01-01

    Some critical remarks on the paper by N.Nakanishi ''Tso-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories Involving Massless Particles'' are presented. It is stated that because of the obtained commutation relations the massless scalar fields of the theory connot have the asymptotic behaviour assumed by N.Nakanishi. The contradiction, appearing in the proof of the irreducibility of the scalar field, is demonstrated. Therefore, the theory constructed by Nakanishi, in which an attempt is made to formulate it with the help of one scalar field and correspondingly with one topological charge, is contradictory. It is shown that the statistics of the solutions is not fixed and the solutions satisfying Bose or Fermi statistics differ by constant operator factors

  3. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10 4 T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities

  4. Commensurability oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas subject to strong in-plane magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, Mar (2016), s. 108-113 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lateral superlattices * commensurability oscillations * in-plane magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2016

  5. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The objective of the Ph.D. project is to initiate a classification of bifurcations of meromorphic vector fields and to clarify their relation to circle packings. Technological applications are to image analysis and to effective grid generation using discrete conformal mappings. The two branches...... of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles...... as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic vector fields. Restricting...

  6. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  7. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  8. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  9. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  10. Two-dimensional magnetic field evolution measurements and plasma flow speed estimates from the coaxial thruster experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Gerwin, R.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Scheuer, J.T.; Hoyt, R.P.; Henins, I.

    1994-01-01

    Local, time-dependent magnetic field measurements have been made in the Los Alamos coaxial thruster experiment (CTX) [C. W. Barnes et al., Phys. Fluids B 2, 1871 (1990); J. C. Fernandez et al., Nucl. Fusion 28, 1555 (1988)] using a 24 coil magnetic probe array (eight spatial positions, three axis probes). The CTX is a magnetized, coaxial plasma gun presently being used to investigate the viability of high pulsed power plasma thrusters for advanced electric propulsion. Previous efforts on this device have indicated that high pulsed power plasma guns are attractive candidates for advanced propulsion that employ ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma stream flow through self-formed magnetic nozzles. Indirect evidence of magnetic nozzle formation was obtained from plasma gun performance and measurements of directed axial velocities up to v z ∼10 7 cm/s. The purpose of this work is to make direct measurement of the time evolving magnetic field topology. The intent is to both identify that applied magnetic field distortion by the highly conductive plasma is occurring, and to provide insight into the details of discharge evolution. Data from a magnetic fluctuation probe array have been used to investigate the details of applied magnetic field deformation through the reconstruction of time-dependent flux profiles. Experimentally observed magnetic field line distortion has been compared to that predicted by a simple one-dimensional (1-D) model of the discharge channel. Such a comparison is utilized to estimate the axial plasma velocity in the thruster. Velocities determined in this manner are in approximate agreement with the predicted self-field magnetosonic speed and those measured by a time-of-flight spectrometer

  11. Methods for the Determination of Currents and Fields in Steady Two-Dimensional MHD Flow With Tensor Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1965-12-01

    Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given

  12. Methods for the Determination of Currents and Fields in Steady Two-Dimensional MHD Flow With Tensor Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1965-12-15

    Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given.

  13. Analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2013-01-01

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  14. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  15. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  16. Massive vector fields and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1977-04-01

    A massive vector field inside the event horizon created by the static sources located outside the black hole is investigated. It is shown that the back reaction of such a field on the metric near r = 0 cannot be neglected. The possibility of the space-time structure changing near r = 0 due to the external massive field is discussed

  17. A Basic Experiment on Two-Dimensional Force of HTSC-Bulk in DC Magnetic-Field

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 欣二郎; 松田, 茂雄; 松本, 洋和

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTSC) bulk can levitate stably on a track which consists of permanent magnets of the same polarity. This is because HTSC-bulk has a pinning force which keeps from vertical displacement due to the weight. We have proposed a new LSM theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing force in using armature travelling-magnetic-field instead of permanent magnets. However, the lift force enough to levitate the vehicle on the ground ...

  18. Online monitoring of the two-dimensional temperature field in a boiler furnace based on acoustic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiping; Shen, Guoqing; An, Liansuo; Niu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Online monitoring of the temperature field is crucial to optimally adjust combustion within a boiler. In this paper, acoustic computed tomography (CT) technology was used to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. The physical principles behind acoustic CT, acoustic signals and time delay estimation were studied. Then, the technique was applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. Acoustic CT technology was used to monitor the temperature field of the cross-section in the boiler furnace, and the temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. The linear sweeping frequency signal was adopted as the sound source signal, whose sweeping frequency ranged from 500 to 3000 Hz with a sweeping cycle of 0.1 s. The generalized cross-correlation techniques with PHAT and ML were used as the time delay estimation method when the boiler was in different states. Its actual operation indicated that the monitored images accurately represented the combustion state of the boiler, and the acoustic CT system was determined to be accurate and reliable. - Highlights: • An online monitoring approach to monitor temperature field in a boiler furnace. • The paper provides acoustic CT technology to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. • The temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. • The technique is applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. • The monitored images accurately represent the combustion state of the boiler

  19. Development of high-resolution two-dimensional magnetic field measurement system by use of printed-circuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimitsu, Moe; Qinghong, Cao; Sawada, Asuka; Hatano, Hironori; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; TS-Group Team

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new-types of high-resolution magnetic probe array for our new magnetic reconnection experiments: TS-3U (ST, FRC: R =0.2m, 2017-) and TS-4U (ST, FRC: R =0.5m, 2018-), using the advanced printed-circuit technology. They are equipped with all three-components of magnetic pick-up coils whose size is 1-5mm x 3mm. Each coil is composed of two-sided coil pattern with line width of 0.05mm. We can install two or three printed arrays in a single glass (ceramic) tube for two or three component measurements. Based on this new probe technique, we started high-resolution and high-accuracy measurement of the current sheet thickness and studied its plasma parameter dependence. We found that the thickness of current sheet increases inversely with the guide toroidal field. It is probably determined by the ion gyroradius in agreement with the particle simulation by Horiuchi etc. While the reconnection speed is steady under low guide field condition, it is observed to oscillate in the specific range of guide field, suggesting transition from the quasi-steady reconnection to the intermittent reconnection. Cause and mechanism for intermittent reconnection will be discussed using the current sheet dissipation and dynamic balance between plasma inflow and outflow. This work supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05750, 15K14279 and 17H04863.

  20. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  1. Comparative study of the free-surface boundary condition in two-dimensional finite-difference elastic wave field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Haiqiang; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference (FD) method is a powerful tool in seismic wave field modelling for understanding seismic wave propagation in the Earth's interior and interpreting the real seismic data. The accuracy of FD modelling partly depends on the implementation of the free-surface (i.e. traction-free) condition. In the past 40 years, at least six kinds of free-surface boundary condition approximate schemes (such as one-sided, centred finite-difference, composed, new composed, implicit and boundary-modified approximations) have been developed in FD second-order elastodynamic simulation. Herein we simulate seismic wave fields in homogeneous and lateral heterogeneous models using these free-surface boundary condition approximate schemes and evaluate their stability and applicability by comparing with corresponding analytical solutions, and then quantitatively evaluate the accuracies of different approximate schemes from the misfit of the amplitude and phase between the numerical and analytical results. Our results confirm that the composed scheme becomes unstable for the V s /V p ratio less than 0.57, and suggest that (1) the one-sided scheme is only accurate to first order and therefore introduces serious errors for the shorter wavelengths, other schemes are all of second-order precision; (2) the new composed, implicit and boundary-modified schemes are stable even when the V s /V p ratio is less than 0.2; (3) the implicit and boundary-modified schemes are able to deal with laterally varying (heterogeneous) free surface; (4) in the corresponding stability range, the one-sided scheme shows remarkable errors in both phase and amplitude compared to analytical solution (which means larger errors in travel-time and reflection strength), the other five approximate schemes show better performance in travel-time (phase) than strength (amplitude)

  2. STM/STS Measurements of Two-Dimensional Electronic States in Magnetic Fields at Epitaxially Grown InAs(111)A Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Y; Kanisawa, K; Kojima, H; Kambara, H; Hirayama, Y; Tarucha, S; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The local density of states (LDOS) at the epitaxially grown InAs surface on a GaAs substrate was studied at very low temperatures in magnetic fields up to 6 T by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We observed a series of peaks, associated with Landau quantization of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES), in the tunnel spectra just above the subband energy (-80 meV) of the 2DES. The intervals between the peaks are consistent with the estimation from the effective mass of the 2DES at the InAs surface. In a wider energy range, another type of oscillation which was independent of magnetic field was also observed. This oscillation can be explained by the energy dependence of the transmission probability of the tunneling current through the Schottky barrier formed at the interface between the InAs film and GaAs substrate

  3. Orbital effect for the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor in a parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study the orbital destructive effect against superconductivity in a parallel magnetic field in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO or LOFF) phase at zero temperature in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) conductor. We demonstrate that at zero temperature a special parameter, λ =l⊥(H ) /d , is responsible for strength of the orbital effect, where l⊥(H ) is a typical "size" of the quasiclassical electron orbit in a magnetic field and d is the interplane distance. We discuss applications of our results to the existing experiments on the FFLO phase in the organic Q2D conductors κ -(ET) 2Cu (NCS) 2 and κ -(ET) 2Cu [N (CN) 2] Cl .

  4. Quasi-Two-Dimensional h-BN/β-Ga2O3 Heterostructure Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Mastro, Michael A; Tadjer, Marko J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    β-gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure-based quasi-two-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were demonstrated by integrating mechanical exfoliation of (quasi)-two-dimensional materials with a dry transfer process, wherein nanothin flakes of β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN were utilized as the channel and gate dielectric, respectively, of the MISFET. The h-BN dielectric, which has an extraordinarily flat and clean surface, provides a minimal density of charged impurities on the interface between β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN, resulting in superior device performances (maximum transconductance, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and threshold voltage) compared to those of the conventional back-gated configurations. Also, double-gating of the fabricated device was demonstrated by biasing both top and bottom gates, achieving the modulation of the threshold voltage. This heterostructured wide-band-gap nanodevice shows a new route toward stable and high-power nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Local density of states in two-dimensional topological superconductors under a magnetic field: Signature of an exterior Majorana bound state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Tanaka, Yukio

    2018-04-01

    We study quasiparticle states on a surface of a topological insulator (TI) with proximity-induced superconductivity under an external magnetic field. An applied magnetic field creates two Majorana bound states: a vortex Majorana state localized inside a vortex core and an exterior Majorana state localized along a circle centered at the vortex core. We calculate the spin-resolved local density of states (LDOS) and demonstrate that the shrinking of the radius of the exterior Majorana state, predicted in R. S. Akzyanov et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 125428 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.125428, under a strong magnetic field can be seen in LDOS without smeared out by nonzero-energy states. The spin-resolved LDOS further reveals that the spin of the exterior Majorana state is strongly spin-polarized. Accordingly, the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are found to be spin-polarized as well. In order to detect the exterior Majorana states, however, the Fermi energy should be closed to the Dirac point to avoid contributions from continuum levels. We also study a different two-dimensional topological-superconducting system where a two-dimensional electron gas with the spin-orbit coupling is sandwiched between an s -wave superconductor and a ferromagnetic insulator. We show that the radius of an exterior Majorana state can be tuned by an applied magnetic field. However, on the contrary to the results at a TI surface, neither the exterior Majorana state nor the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are spin-polarized. We conclude that the spin polarization of the Majorana state is attributed to the spin-polarized Landau level, which is characteristic for systems with the Dirac-like dispersion.

  6. Vector supersymmetry in topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieres, F.; Grimstrup, J.; Pisar, T.; Schweda, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple derivation of vector supersymmetry transformations for topological field theories of Schwarz- and Witten-type. Our method is similar to the derivation of BRST-transformations from the so-called horizontality conditions or Russian formulae. We show that this procedure reproduces in a concise way the known vector supersymmetry transformations of various topological models and we use it to obtain some new transformations of this type for 4d topological YM-theories in different gauges. (author)

  7. The field-induced laws of thermodynamic properties in the two-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Qiurong; Chen Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Green's function method is applied to investigate the two-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with the exchange and single-ion anisotropies. In the presence of the magnetic field, the effects of the anisotropies and field on the thermodynamic properties are obtained within the random phase approximation combining with Anderson-Callen approximation. The field-induced laws are found for the thermodynamic properties. Field dependences of heights of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum fit well to power laws. The linear increase at high fields is shown for positions of the susceptibility maximum and specific heat maximum. A power law at low fields occurs for the position of the susceptibility maximum. At the positions of the maxima, the magnetization and internal energy display the power-law increase and linear decrease with the field, respectively. The exponents of the power laws are dependent of the anisotropies, as well as the slopes of the linear laws. Our results do not support the 2/3 power law which was obtained by the Landau theory.

  8. The Two-Dimensional Gabor Function Adapted to Natural Image Statistics: A Model of Simple-Cell Receptive Fields and Sparse Structure in Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxley, P N

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Gabor function is adapted to natural image statistics, leading to a tractable probabilistic generative model that can be used to model simple cell receptive field profiles, or generate basis functions for sparse coding applications. Learning is found to be most pronounced in three Gabor function parameters representing the size and spatial frequency of the two-dimensional Gabor function and characterized by a nonuniform probability distribution with heavy tails. All three parameters are found to be strongly correlated, resulting in a basis of multiscale Gabor functions with similar aspect ratios and size-dependent spatial frequencies. A key finding is that the distribution of receptive-field sizes is scale invariant over a wide range of values, so there is no characteristic receptive field size selected by natural image statistics. The Gabor function aspect ratio is found to be approximately conserved by the learning rules and is therefore not well determined by natural image statistics. This allows for three distinct solutions: a basis of Gabor functions with sharp orientation resolution at the expense of spatial-frequency resolution, a basis of Gabor functions with sharp spatial-frequency resolution at the expense of orientation resolution, or a basis with unit aspect ratio. Arbitrary mixtures of all three cases are also possible. Two parameters controlling the shape of the marginal distributions in a probabilistic generative model fully account for all three solutions. The best-performing probabilistic generative model for sparse coding applications is found to be a gaussian copula with Pareto marginal probability density functions.

  9. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  10. Dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model in an oscillating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Keskin and Ertaş (2009) presented a study of the magnetic properties of a mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model within an oscillating magnetic field. They employed dynamic mean-field calculations to find the dynamic phase transition temperatures, the dynamic compensation points of the model and to present the dynamic phase diagrams. In this work, we extend the study and investigate the dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional (2D) mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a hexagonal lattice in an oscillating magnetic field within the framework of dynamic mean-field calculations. The dynamic hysteresis curves are obtained for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and remanent magnetizations are also investigated. The results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a qualitatively good agreement is found. Finally, the dynamic phase diagrams depending on the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field in the plane of the reduced temperature versus magnetic field amplitude is examined and it is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than for lower values.

  11. Representation and display of vector field topology in fluid flow data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1989-01-01

    The visualization of physical processes in general and of vector fields in particular is discussed. An approach to visualizing flow topology that is based on the physics and mathematics underlying the physical phenomenon is presented. It involves determining critical points in the flow where the velocity vector vanishes. The critical points, connected by principal lines or planes, determine the topology of the flow. The complexity of the data is reduced without sacrificing the quantitative nature of the data set. By reducing the original vector field to a set of critical points and their connections, a representation of the topology of a two-dimensional vector field that is much smaller than the original data set but retains with full precision the information pertinent to the flow topology is obtained. This representation can be displayed as a set of points and tangent curves or as a graph. Analysis (including algorithms), display, interaction, and implementation aspects are discussed.

  12. Optical currents in vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superimposing waves in the arrangements of twowave superposition on the characteristics of the microparticle's motion has been analyzed. The prospects of studying temporal coherence using the proposed approach are made. For th....... For the first time, we have shown experimentally the possibility of diagnostics the optical currents in liquids caused by polarization characteristics of an optical field alone, using test metallic particles of nanoscale....

  13. Chain end distribution of block copolymer in two-dimensional microphase-separated structure studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ryojun; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2009-10-01

    The chain end distribution of a block copolymer in a two-dimensional microphase-separated structure was studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In the monolayer of poly(octadecyl methacrylate)-block-poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PODMA-b-PiBMA), the free end of the PiBMA subchain was directly observed by SNOM, and the spatial distributions of the whole block and the chain end are examined and compared with the convolution of the point spread function of the microscope and distribution function of the model structures. It was found that the chain end distribution of the block copolymer confined in two dimensions has a peak near the domain center, being concentrated in the narrower region, as compared with three-dimensional systems.

  14. X-ray and visible light transmission as two-dimensional, full-field moisture-sensing techniques: A preliminary comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two independent high-resolution moisture-sensing techniques, x-ray absorption and light transmission, have been developed for use in two-dimensional, thin-slab experimental systems. The techniques yield full-field measurement capabilities with exceptional resolution of moisture content in time and space. These techniques represent powerful tools for the experimentalist to investigate processes governing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured and nonfractured porous media. Evaluation of these techniques has been accomplished by direct comparison of data obtained by means of the x-ray and light techniques as well as comparison with data collected by gravimetric and gamma-ray densitometry techniques. Results show excellent agreement between data collected by the four moisture-content measurement techniques. This program was established to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  15. The optical analogy for vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops the optical analogy for a general vector field. The optical analogy allows the examination of certain aspects of a vector field that are not otherwise readily accessible. In particular, in the cases of a stationary Eulerian flow v of an ideal fluid and a magnetostatic field B, the vectors v and B have surface loci in common with their curls. The intrinsic discontinuities around local maxima in absolute values of v and B take the form of vortex sheets and current sheets, respectively, the former playing a fundamental role in the development of hydrodyamic turbulence and the latter playing a major role in heating the X-ray coronas of stars and galaxies.

  16. Polynomial Vector Fields in One Complex Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    In recent years Adrien Douady was interested in polynomial vector fields, both in relation to iteration theory and as a topic on their own. This talk is based on his work with Pierrette Sentenac, work of Xavier Buff and Tan Lei, and my own joint work with Kealey Dias.......In recent years Adrien Douady was interested in polynomial vector fields, both in relation to iteration theory and as a topic on their own. This talk is based on his work with Pierrette Sentenac, work of Xavier Buff and Tan Lei, and my own joint work with Kealey Dias....

  17. Vector Fields European user group meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The "Vector Fields European user group meeting" will take place at CERN on 26 and 27 September 2007. Within this framework two workshops are organized at the CERN Training Centre: 24 September 2007
 Modelling Magnets with Opera 25 September 2007
Modelling of Charged Particle Beam Devices with Opera If you are interested in attending the workshop or the user group meeting please contact Julie Shepherd (Vector Fields) or Pierre Baehler (CERN) directly at: Julie.Shepherd@vectorfields.co.uk, +44 (0) 1865 854933 or +44 (0) 1865 370151 Pierre.Baehler@cern.ch, 75016 / 160156.

  18. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  19. ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find

  20. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2012-02-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components.

  1. Linearization of germs of hyperbolic vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonckaert, P; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JZ

    2003-01-01

    We develop a normal form to express asymptotically a conjugacy between a germ of resonant vector field and its linear part. We show that such an asymptotic expression can be written in terms of functions of the Logarithmic Mourtada type. To cite this article: P Bonckaert et al., C. R. Acad. Sci.

  2. Null vectors in superconformal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chaoshang

    1993-01-01

    The superspace formulation of the N=1 superconformal field theory and superconformal Ward identities are used to give a precise definition of fusion. Using the fusion procedure, superconformally covariant differential equations are derived and consequently a complete and straightforward algorithm for finding null vectors in Verma modules of the Neveu-Schwarz algebra is given. (orig.)

  3. Normal equivariant forms of vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bringas, F.

    1992-07-01

    We prove a theorem of linearization of type Siegel and a theorem of normal forms of type Poincare-Dulac for germs of holomorphic vector fields in the origin of C 2 , Γ -equivariants, where Γ is a finite subgroup of GL (2,C). (author). 5 refs

  4. Numerical analysis for two-dimensional compressible and two-phase flow fields of air-water in Eulerian grid framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su

    2008-01-01

    Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated

  5. Mapping Two-Dimensional Deformation Field Time-Series of Large Slope by Coupling DInSAR-SBAS with MAI-SBAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping deformation field time-series, including vertical and horizontal motions, is vital for landslide monitoring and slope safety assessment. However, the conventional differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR technique can only detect the displacement component in the satellite-to-ground direction, i.e., line-of-sight (LOS direction displacement. To overcome this constraint, a new method was developed to obtain the displacement field time series of a slope by coupling DInSAR based small baseline subset approach (DInSAR-SBAS with multiple-aperture InSAR (MAI based small baseline subset approach (MAI-SBAS. This novel method has been applied to a set of 11 observations from the phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR sensor onboard the advanced land observing satellite (ALOS, spanning from 2007 to 2011, of two large-scale north–south slopes of the largest Asian open-pit mine in the Northeast of China. The retrieved displacement time series showed that the proposed method can detect and measure the large displacements that occurred along the north–south direction, and the gradually changing two-dimensional displacement fields. Moreover, we verified this new method by comparing the displacement results to global positioning system (GPS measurements.

  6. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  7. Screening vector field modifications of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

    2013-01-01

    A screening mechanism for conformal vector–tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed

  8. ``Massless'' vector field in de Sitter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J.-P.; Rouhani, S.; Takook, M. V.

    2008-03-01

    We proceed to the quantization of the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space. This work is the natural continuation of a previous article devoted to the quantization of the dS massive vector field [J. P. Gazeau and M. V. Takook, J. Math. Phys. 41, 5920 (2000); T. Garidi et al., ibid. 43, 6379 (2002).] The term ``massless'' is used by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS lightcone whereas ``massive'' refers to those dS fields which unambiguously contract to Minkowskian massive fields at zero curvature. Due to the combined occurrences of gauge invariance and indefinite metric, the covariant quantization of the massless vector field requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group. We work with the gauge fixing corresponding to the simplest Gupta-Bleuler structure. The field operator is defined with the help of coordinate-independent de Sitter waves (the modes). The latter are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical approaches. The physical states characterized by the divergencelessness condition are, for instance, easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function.

  9. ''Massless'' vector field in de Sitter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J.-P.; Rouhani, S.; Takook, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    We proceed to the quantization of the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space. This work is the natural continuation of a previous article devoted to the quantization of the dS massive vector field [J. P. Gazeau and M. V. Takook, J. Math. Phys. 41, 5920 (2000); T. Garidi et al., ibid. 43, 6379 (2002).] The term ''massless'' is used by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS lightcone whereas ''massive'' refers to those dS fields which unambiguously contract to Minkowskian massive fields at zero curvature. Due to the combined occurrences of gauge invariance and indefinite metric, the covariant quantization of the massless vector field requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group. We work with the gauge fixing corresponding to the simplest Gupta-Bleuler structure. The field operator is defined with the help of coordinate-independent de Sitter waves (the modes). The latter are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical approaches. The physical states characterized by the divergencelessness condition are, for instance, easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function

  10. A measurement system for two-dimensional DC-biased properties of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, M.; Matsuo, H.

    2003-01-01

    So far, the DC-biased magnetic properties have been measured in one dimension (scalar). However, these scalar magnetic properties are not enough to clarify the DC-biased magnetic properties because the scalar magnetic properties cannot exactly take into account the phase difference between the magnetic flux density B vector and the magnetic filed strength H vector. Thus, the magnetic field strength H and magnetic flux density B in magnetic materials must be measured as vector quantities (two-dimensional), directly. We showed the measurement system using a single-sheet tester (SST) to clarify the two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties. This system excited AC in Y-direction and DC in X-direction. This paper shows the measurement system using an SST and presents the measurement results of two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties when changing the DC exciting voltage and the iron loss

  11. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Maroto, A.L.; Jareño, S.J. Núñez [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-13

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with k{sup 2}≪Hma, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with k{sup 2}≫Hma, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order c{sub s}{sup 2}≃k{sup 2}/m{sup 2}a{sup 2}. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate one scalar-tensor and two vector-tensor perturbations in the metric. Also in the wave regime, we find that a non-vanishing anisotropic stress is present in the perturbed energy-momentum tensor giving rise to a gravitational slip of order (Φ−Ψ)/Φ∼c{sub s}{sup 2}. Moreover in this regime the amplitude of the tensor to scalar ratio of the scalar-tensor modes is also h/Φ∼c{sub s}{sup 2}. This implies that small-scale density perturbations are necessarily associated to the presence of gravity waves in this model. We compare their spectrum with the sensitivity of present and future gravity waves detectors.

  12. Exact Landau levels in two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a perpendicular magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Degang

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-dimensional electron system in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a perpendicular magnetic field. Defining two suitable boson operators and using the unitary transformations we are able to obtain the exact Landau levels in the range of all the parameters. When the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are equal, a new analytical solution for the vanishing Zeeman energy is found, where the orbital and spin wavefunctions of the electron are separated. It is also shown that in this case the Zeeman and spin-orbit splittings are independent of the Landau level index n. Due to the Zeeman energy, new crossing between the eigenstates vertical bar n, k, s = 1, σ) and vertical bar n + 1, k, s' = -1, σ') is produced at a certain magnetic field for larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This degeneracy leads to a resonant spin Hall conductance if it happens at the Fermi level. (letter to the editor)

  13. A two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber array prototype for small-field verification: characterization and first clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla-González, Luis; Vicedo, Aurora; Roselló, Joan V; Gómez, Faustino; González-Castaño, Diego M; Gago-Arias, Araceli; Pazos, Antonio; Zapata, Martín; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design, characterization and first clinical tests of an in-house developed two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber prototype for the verification of small radiotherapy fields and treatments containing such small fields as in radiosurgery, which consists of 2 mm × 2 mm pixels arranged on a 16×8 rectangular grid. The ionization medium is isooctane. The characterization of the device included the study of depth, field-size and dose-rate dependences, which are sufficiently moderate for a good operation at therapy radiation levels. However, the detector presents an important anisotropic response, up to ≃ 12% for front versus near-lateral incidence, which can impact the verification of full treatments with different incidences. In such a case, an anisotropy correction factor can be applied. Output factors of small square fields measured with the device show a small systematic over-response, less than 1%, when compared to unshielded diode measurements. An IMRT radiosurgery treatment has been acquired with the liquid-filled ionization chamber device and compared with film dosimetry by using the gamma method, showing good agreement: over 99% passing rates for 1.2% and 1.2 mm for an incidence-per-incidence analysis; 100% passing rates for tolerances 1.8% and 1.8 mm when the whole treatment is analysed and the anisotropy correction factor is applied. The point dose verification for each incidence of the treatment performed with the liquid-filled ionization chamber agrees within 1% with a CC01 ionization chamber. This prototype has shown the utility of this kind of technology for the verification of small fields/treatments. Currently, a larger device covering a 5 cm × 5 cm area is under development. (paper)

  14. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  15. Properties of invariant modelling and invariant glueing of vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Invariant modelling and invariant glueing of both continuous (rates and accelerations) and descrete vector fields, gradient and divergence cases are considered. The following appendices are discussed: vector fields in crystals, crystal disclinations, topological charges and their fields

  16. Antisymmetric tensor generalizations of affine vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    Tensor generalizations of affine vector fields called symmetric and antisymmetric affine tensor fields are discussed as symmetry of spacetimes. We review the properties of the symmetric ones, which have been studied in earlier works, and investigate the properties of the antisymmetric ones, which are the main theme in this paper. It is shown that antisymmetric affine tensor fields are closely related to one-lower-rank antisymmetric tensor fields which are parallelly transported along geodesics. It is also shown that the number of linear independent rank- p antisymmetric affine tensor fields in n -dimensions is bounded by ( n + 1)!/ p !( n - p )!. We also derive the integrability conditions for antisymmetric affine tensor fields. Using the integrability conditions, we discuss the existence of antisymmetric affine tensor fields on various spacetimes.

  17. Effects of the Reynolds number on two-dimensional dielectrophoretic motions of a pair of particles under a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Mo; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan; Maniyeri, Ranjith Maniyeri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations to explore the effect of the Reynolds number on the Dielectrophoretic (DEP) motion of a pair of freely suspended particles in an unbounded viscous fluid under an external uniform electric field. Accordingly, the electric potential is obtained by solving the Maxwell'00s equation with a great sudden change in the electric conductivity at the particle-fluid interface and then the Maxwell stress tensor is integrated to determine the DEP force exerted on each particle. The fluid flow and particle movement, on the other hand, are predicted by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations together with the kinetic equations. Numerical simulations are carried out using a finite volume approach, composed of a sharp interface method for the electric potential and a direct-forcing immersed-boundary method for the fluid flow. Through the simulations, it is found that both particles with the same sign of the conductivity revolve and eventually align themselves in a line with the electric field. With different signs, to the contrary, they revolve in the reverse way and eventually become lined up at a right angle with the electric field. The DEP motion also depends significantly on the Reynolds number defined based on the external electric field for all the combinations of the conductivity signs. When the Reynolds number is approximately below Re cr ≈ 0.1, the DEP motion becomes independent of the Reynolds number and thus can be exactly predicted by the no-inertia solver that neglects all the inertial and convective effects. With increasing Reynolds number above the critical number, on the other hand, the particles trace larger trajectories and thus take longer time during their revolution to the eventual in-line alignment.

  18. Effects of the Reynolds number on two-dimensional dielectrophoretic motions of a pair of particles under a uniform electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Mo; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Maniyeri, Ranjith Maniyeri [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations to explore the effect of the Reynolds number on the Dielectrophoretic (DEP) motion of a pair of freely suspended particles in an unbounded viscous fluid under an external uniform electric field. Accordingly, the electric potential is obtained by solving the Maxwell'00s equation with a great sudden change in the electric conductivity at the particle-fluid interface and then the Maxwell stress tensor is integrated to determine the DEP force exerted on each particle. The fluid flow and particle movement, on the other hand, are predicted by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations together with the kinetic equations. Numerical simulations are carried out using a finite volume approach, composed of a sharp interface method for the electric potential and a direct-forcing immersed-boundary method for the fluid flow. Through the simulations, it is found that both particles with the same sign of the conductivity revolve and eventually align themselves in a line with the electric field. With different signs, to the contrary, they revolve in the reverse way and eventually become lined up at a right angle with the electric field. The DEP motion also depends significantly on the Reynolds number defined based on the external electric field for all the combinations of the conductivity signs. When the Reynolds number is approximately below Re{sub cr} ≈ 0.1, the DEP motion becomes independent of the Reynolds number and thus can be exactly predicted by the no-inertia solver that neglects all the inertial and convective effects. With increasing Reynolds number above the critical number, on the other hand, the particles trace larger trajectories and thus take longer time during their revolution to the eventual in-line alignment.

  19. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  20. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  1. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertzer, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Schertzer@enpc.fr; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia, E-mail: Ioulia.Tchiguirinskaia@enpc.fr [University Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, Hydrology Meteorology and Complexity HM& Co, Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-12-15

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  2. Conformation of single block copolymer chain in two-dimensional microphase-separated structure studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ryojun; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2009-05-21

    The localization and orientation of the symmetric diblock copolymer chain in a quasi-two-dimensional microphase-separated structure were studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In the monolayer of poly(isobutyl methacrylate)-block-poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (PiBMA-b-PODMA), the individual PiBMA subchains were directly observed by SNOM, and the center of mass (CM) and orientational angle relative to the phase interface were examined at the single chain level. It was found that the position of the CM and the orientation of the PiBMA subchain in the lamellar structure were dependent on the curvature of the PiBMA/PODMA interface. As the interface was bent toward the objective chain, the block chain preferred the CM position closer to the domain center, and the conformation was strongly oriented perpendicularly to the domain interface. With increase of the curvature, the steric hindrance among the block chain increases, resulting in the stretched conformation.

  3. Modeling of anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Ballistic transport characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene are explored through quantum transport simulations. We focus on the effects of the channel crystal orientation and the channel length scaling on device performances. Especially, the role of degenerate conduction band (CB) valleys in monolayer HfS{sub 2} is comprehensively analyzed. Benchmarking monolayer HfS{sub 2} with phosphorene MOSFETs, we predict that the effect of channel orientation on device performances is much weaker in monolayer HfS{sub 2} than in phosphorene due to the degenerate CB valleys of monolayer HfS{sub 2}. Our simulations also reveal that at 10 nm channel length scale, phosphorene MOSFETs outperform monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs in terms of the on-state current. However, it is observed that monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs may offer comparable, but a little bit degraded, device performances as compared with phosphorene MOSFETs at 5 nm channel length.

  4. Studies on the polycrystalline silicon/SiO2 stack as front surface field for IBC solar cells by two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuai; Jia Rui; Tao Ke; Hou Caixia; Sun Hengchao; Li Yongtao; Yu Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells can achieve a very high efficiency due to its less optical losses. But IBC solar cells demand for high quality passivation of the front surface. In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon/SiO 2 stack structure as front surface field to passivate the front surface of IBC solar cells is proposed. The passivation quality of this structure is investigated by two dimensional simulations. Polycrystalline silicon layer and SiO 2 layer are optimized to get the best passivation quality of the IBC solar cell. Simulation results indicate that the doping level of polycrystalline silicon should be high enough to allow a very thin polycrystalline silicon layer to ensure an effective passivation and small optical losses at the same time. The thickness of SiO 2 should be neither too thin nor too thick, and the optimal thickness is 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the lateral transport properties of electrons are investigated, and the simulation results indicate that a high doping level and conductivity of polycrystalline silicon can improve the lateral transportation of electrons and then the cell performance. (paper)

  5. Application of adjustment calculus in the nodeless Trefftz method for a problem of two-dimensional temperature field of the boiling liquid flowing in a minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.

  6. The vector structure of active magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are needed to show the form of the strains introduced into the fields above the surface of the Sun. The longitudinal component alone does not provide the basic information, so that it has been necessary in the past to use the filamentary structure observed in H sub alpha to supplement the longitudinal information. Vector measurements provide the additional essential information to determine the strains, with the filamentary structure available as a check for consistency. It is to be expected, then, that vector measurements will permit a direct mapping of the strains imposed on the magnetic fields of active regions. It will be interesting to study the relation of those strains to the emergence of magnetic flux, flares, eruptive prominences, etc. In particular we may hope to study the relaxation of the strains via the dynamical nonequilibrium.

  7. Efficient morse decompositions of vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoning; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Laramee, Robert S; Zhang, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Existing topology-based vector field analysis techniques rely on the ability to extract the individual trajectories such as fixed points, periodic orbits, and separatrices that are sensitive to noise and errors introduced by simulation and interpolation. This can make such vector field analysis unsuitable for rigorous interpretations. We advocate the use of Morse decompositions, which are robust with respect to perturbations, to encode the topological structures of a vector field in the form of a directed graph, called a Morse connection graph (MCG). While an MCG exists for every vector field, it need not be unique. Previous techniques for computing MCG's, while fast, are overly conservative and usually results in MCG's that are too coarse to be useful for the applications. To address this issue, we present a new technique for performing Morse decomposition based on the concept of tau-maps, which typically provides finer MCG's than existing techniques. Furthermore, the choice of tau provides a natural tradeoff between the fineness of the MCG's and the computational costs. We provide efficient implementations of Morse decomposition based on tau-maps, which include the use of forward and backward mapping techniques and an adaptive approach in constructing better approximations of the images of the triangles in the meshes used for simulation.. Furthermore, we propose the use of spatial tau-maps in addition to the original temporal tau-maps. These techniques provide additional trade-offs between the quality of the MCGs and the speed of computation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique with various examples in the plane and on surfaces including engine simulation data sets.

  8. Gauge structure of neutral-vector field theory. [Massive vector fields, massless limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, R; Yokoyama, [Hiroshima univ., Takehara (Japan). Research Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1975-03-01

    General aspects of gauge structure of neutral-vector field theory are investigated from an extended standpoint, where massive vector fields are treated in a form corresponding to the electromagnetic fields in a general gauge formalism reported previously. All results obtained are shown to have unique massless limits. It is shown that a generalized q-number gauge transformation for fields makes the theory invariant in cooperation with a simultaneous transformation for relevant gauge parameters. A method of differentiation with respect to a gauge variable is found to clarify some essential features of the gauge structure. Two possible types of gauge structure also emerge correspondingly to the massless case. A neutral-vector field theory proposed in a preceding paper is included in the present framework as the most preferable case.

  9. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  10. Evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil: comparison of the two-dimensional fast spin echo techniques and the three-dimensional fast field echo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast field echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FS-PD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p chondromalacia patella.

  11. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface before and after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Dermal exposure can represent a significant health risk in settings involving potential contact with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, there is limited work on the ability of PAHs in contaminated soil to reach the skin surface via desorption from the soil. We evaluated PAH desorption from a field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface (C18 extraction disk) as a measure of potential dermal exposure as a function of soil loading (5-100 mg dry soil cm(-2)), temperature (20-40°C), and soil moisture content (2-40%) over periods up to 16d. The efficacy of bioremediation in removing the most readily desorbable PAH fractions was also evaluated. Desorption kinetics were described well by an empirical two-compartment kinetic model. PAH mass desorbed to the C18 disk kept increasing at soil loadings well above the estimated monolayer coverage, suggesting mechanisms for PAH transport to the surface other than by direct contact. Such mechanisms were reinforced by observations that desorption occurred even with dry or moist glass microfiber filters placed between the C18 disk and the soil. Desorption of all PAHs was substantially reduced at a soil moisture content corresponding to field capacity, suggesting that transport through pore air contributed to PAH transport to the C18 disk. The lower molecular weight PAHs had greater potential to desorb from soil than higher molecular weight PAHs. Biological treatment of the soil in a slurry-phase bioreactor completely eliminated PAH desorption to the C18 disks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface before and after bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Dermal exposure can represent a significant health risk in settings involving potential contact with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, there is limited work on the ability of PAHs in contaminated soil to reach the skin surface via desorption from the soil. We evaluated PAH desorption from a field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface (C18 extraction disk) as a measure of potential dermal exposure as a function of soil loading (5 to 100 mg dry soil/cm2), temperature (20 °C to 40 °C), and soil moisture content (2% to 40%) over periods up to 16 d. The efficacy of bioremediation in removing the most readily desorbable PAH fractions was also evaluated. Desorption kinetics were described well by an empirical two-compartment kinetic model. PAH mass desorbed to the C18 disk kept increasing at soil loadings well above the estimated monolayer coverage, suggesting mechanisms for PAH transport to the surface other than by direct contact. Such mechanisms were reinforced by observations that desorption occurred even with dry or moist glass microfiber filters placed between the C18 disk and the soil. Desorption of all PAHs was substantially reduced at a soil moisture content corresponding to field capacity, suggesting that transport through pore air contributed to PAH transport to the C18 disk. The lower molecular weight PAHs had greater potential to desorb from soil than higher molecular weight PAHs. Biological treatment of the soil in a slurry-phase bioreactor completely eliminated PAH desorption to the C18 disks. PMID:22704210

  13. Engineering topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Based on a perturbative approach, we propose a simple and efficient method to engineer the topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. The topological edge states in the microstructures can be constructed and varied by altering the parameters of the microstructure according to the field-energy distributions of the Bloch states at the related Bloch wave vectors. The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by exact numerical calculations through three concrete examples. Our method makes the topological edge states "designable."

  14. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Chen, Mirela; Butscher, Adrian; Solomon, Justin; Guibas, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    , and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal

  15. Intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghababaei Samani, Keivan; Zarei, Mina

    2005-01-01

    The problem of intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces is investigated. Explicit results are obtained for Euclidean plane, Minkowski plane, Poincare half plane (AdS 2 ), de Sitter plane (dS 2 ), sphere, and torus. It is shown that the intertwining operator is related to the Killing vector fields and the isometry group of corresponding space. It is shown that the intertwined potentials are closely connected to the integral curves of the Killing vector fields. Two problems are considered as applications of the formalism presented in the paper. The first one is the problem of Hamiltonians with equispaced energy levels and the second one is the problem of Hamiltonians whose spectrum is like the spectrum of a free particle

  16. Conformal Vector Fields on Doubly Warped Product Manifolds and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. El-Sayied

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to study and explore conformal vector fields on doubly warped product manifolds as well as on doubly warped spacetime. Then we derive sufficient conditions for matter and Ricci collineations on doubly warped product manifolds. A special attention is paid to concurrent vector fields. Finally, Ricci solitons on doubly warped product spacetime admitting conformal vector fields are considered.

  17. n-Characteristic Vector Fields of Contact Manifoldss

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Babak

    2017-01-01

    In present paper we define and study $n$-characteristic vector fields. We present definition of Tanaka-Webster connection, then use it for studying the behavior of $n$-characteristic vector fields. Also we show some results about of these vector fields by Tanaka-Webster connection.

  18. On a class of vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimzian G. Islamov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a simple postulate “The displacement field of the vacuum is a normalized electric field”, is equivalent to three parametric representation of the displacement field of the vacuum: $$ u(x;t = P(x \\cos k(xt + Q(x \\sin k(xt. $$ Here $t$ — time; $k(x$ — frequency vibrations at the point of three-dimensional Euclidean space; $P(x, Q(x$ — a pair of stationary orthonormal vector fields; $(k,P, Q$ — parameter list of the displacement field. In this case, the normalization factor has dimension $T^{-2}$. The speed of the displacement field $$ v(x;t = \\frac{\\partial u(x;t}{\\partial t} = k(x(Q(x \\cos k(xt - P(x \\sin k(xt. $$ The electric field corresponding to this distribution of the displacement field of vacuum, is given by the formula $$ E(x;t = -\\frac{\\partial v(x;t}{\\partial t} = k^2(xu(x;t. $$ Moreover, the magnetic induction $$ B(x;t = \\mathop{\\mathrm{rot }} v(x; t. $$ These constructions are used in the determination of local and global solutions of Maxwell's equations describing the dynamics of electromagnetic fields.

  19. Introduction into a two-dimensional model of the photochemistry of the stratosphere of precipitations of galactic and solar protons: case of the present terrestrial magnetic field and of field reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brard, D.

    1982-11-01

    In the aim of studying the climatic variations related to the reversal of the geomagnetic field, an analysis has been made of the effects of precipitations of galactic and solar protons, on oxide of nitrogen (NOsub(x) and NO) and ozone. Modifications are introduced into the one- and two-dimensional models which take into account the structure of the magnetic field. In situ measurements after the solar event of August 1972 enable changes due to the solar cycles to be introduced and the use of a 2D model to be justified [fr

  20. Generation of arbitrary vector fields based on a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Danfeng; Gu, Bing; Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping

    2016-02-22

    We present an arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization based on the combination of a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors on the Poincaré sphere. It is shown that the created vector field is only dependent on the latitude angle 2χ but is independent on the longitude angle 2ψ on the Poincaré sphere. By adjusting the latitude angle 2χ, which is related to two identical waveplates in a common path interferometric arrangement, one could obtain arbitrary type of vector fields. Experimentally, we demonstrate the generation of such kind of vector fields and confirm the distribution of state of polarization by the measurement of Stokes parameters. Besides, we investigate the tight focusing properties of these vector fields. It is found that the additional degree of freedom 2χ provided by arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization and to engineer the focusing field.

  1. Two-dimensional calculation by finite element method of velocity field and temperature field development in fast reactor fuel assembly. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1985-11-01

    A package of updated computer codes for velocity and temperature field calculations for a fast reactor fuel subassembly (or its part) by the finite element method is described. Isoparametric triangular elements of the second degree are used. (author)

  2. Gauge anomaly with vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori

    2018-03-01

    Imposing the conservation equation of the vector current for a fermion of spin 1/2 at the quantum level, a gauge anomaly for the fermion coupling with non-Abelian vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space is expressed in tensorial form. The anomaly consists of terms that resemble the chiral U(1) anomaly and the commutator terms that disappear if the axial-vector field is Abelian.

  3. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  4. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis with Synthesized Two-Dimensional Images versus Full-Field Digital Mammography for Population Screening: Outcomes from the Verona Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Francesca; Zorzi, Manuel; Brunelli, Silvia; Romanucci, Giovanna; Rella, Rossella; Cugola, Loredana; Bricolo, Paola; Fedato, Chiara; Montemezzi, Stefania; Houssami, Nehmat

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To examine the outcomes of a breast cancer screening program based on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus synthesized two-dimensional (2D) mammography compared with those after full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Materials and Methods This prospective study included 16 666 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years who were recruited in April 2015 through March 2016 for DBT plus synthetic 2D screening in the Verona screening program. A comparison cohort of women screened with FFDM (n = 14 423) in the previous year was included. Screening detection measures for the two groups were compared by calculating the proportions associated with each outcome, and the relative rates (RRs) were estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results Cancer detection rate (CDR) for DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging was 9.30 per 1000 screening examinations versus 5.41 per 1000 screening examinations with FFDM (RR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 2.29). CDR was significantly higher in patients screened with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging than in those screened with FFDM among women classified as having low breast density (RR, 1.53; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.10) or high breast density (RR, 2.86; 95% CI: 1.42, 6.25). The positive predictive value (PPV) for recall was almost doubled with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging: 23.3% versus 12.9% of recalled patients who were screened with FFDM (RR, 1.81; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.47). The recall rate was similar between groups (RR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.06), whereas the recall rate with invasive assessment was higher for DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging than for FFDM (RR, 1.93; 95% CI: 1.31, 2.03). The mean number of screening studies interpreted per hour was significantly lower for screening examinations performed with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging (38.5 screens per hour) than with FFDM (60 screens per hour) (P < .001). Conclusion DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging increases CDRs with recall rates comparable to those of FFDM. DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging

  5. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  6. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  7. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  8. Comments on conformal Killing vector fields and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.; Siklos, S.T.C.

    1982-01-01

    We give a comprehensive analysis of those vacuums for flat and conformally flat space-times which can be defined by timelike, hypersurface-orthogonal, conformal Killing vector fields. We obtain formulas for the difference in stress-energy density between any two such states and display the correspondence with the renormalized stress tensors. A brief discussion is given of the relevance of these results to quantum-mechanical measurements made by noninertial observers moving through flat space

  9. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  10. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  11. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  12. Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-09-15

    We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing.

  13. Fingerprints of field-induced Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition in quasi-two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg magnets Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 and Cu(tn)Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranová, Lucia; Orendáčová, Alžbeta; Čižmár, Erik; Tarasenko, Róbert; Tkáč, Vladimír; Orendáč, Martin; Feher, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Organo-metallic compounds Cu(en)(H 2 O) 2 SO 4 (en=C 2 H 8 N 2 ) and Cu(tn)Cl 2 (tn=C 3 H 10 N 2 ) representing S=1/2 quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets with an effective intra-layer exchange coupling J/k B ≈3 K, have been examined by specific heat measurements at temperatures down to nominally 50 mK and magnetic fields up to 14 T. A comparative analysis of magnetic specific heat in zero magnetic field revealed nearly identical contribution of short-range magnetic correlations and significant differences were observed at lowest temperatures. A phase transition to long-range order was observed in Cu(en)(H 2 O) 2 SO 4 at T C =0.9 K while hidden in Cu(tn)Cl 2 . A response of both compounds to the application of magnetic field has rather universal features characteristic for a field-induced Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition theoretically predicted for ideal two-dimensional magnets. - Highlights: • Magnetic specific heat of Cu(en)(H 2 O) 2 SO 4 (1) and Cu(tn)Cl 2 (2) was analysed. • In zero magnetic field, (1) and (2) behave as quasi-two-dimensional magnets. • We observed universal thermodynamic response of (1) and (2) to applied field. • Features of field-induced Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition were detected.

  14. Robust point matching via vector field consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set.

  15. A two-dimensional fully analytical model with polarization effect for off-state channel potential and electric field distributions of GaN-based field-plated high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Zhang Jin-Feng; Liu Hong-Xia; Yang Lin-An; Zhang Kai; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Chen Yong-He; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Yang Cui; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-dimensional (2D) fully analytical model with consideration of polarization effect for the channel potential and electric field distributions of the gate field-plated high electron mobility transistor (FP-HEMT) on the basis of 2D Poisson's solution. The dependences of the channel potential and electric field distributions on drain bias, polarization charge density, FP structure parameters, AlGaN/GaN material parameters, etc. are investigated. A simple and convenient approach to designing high breakdown voltage FP-HEMTs is also proposed. The validity of this model is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical simulations with Silvaco—Atlas. The method in this paper can be extended to the development of other analytical models for different device structures, such as MIS-HEMTs, multiple-FP HETMs, slant-FP HEMTs, etc. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  17. Identification of cardiac rhythm features by mathematical analysis of vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tamara N; Brooks, Dana H; Triedman, John K

    2005-01-01

    Automated techniques for locating cardiac arrhythmia features are limited, and cardiologists generally rely on isochronal maps to infer patterns in the cardiac activation sequence during an ablation procedure. Velocity vector mapping has been proposed as an alternative method to study cardiac activation in both clinical and research environments. In addition to the visual cues that vector maps can provide, vector fields can be analyzed using mathematical operators such as the divergence and curl. In the current study, conduction features were extracted from velocity vector fields computed from cardiac mapping data. The divergence was used to locate ectopic foci and wavefront collisions, and the curl to identify central obstacles in reentrant circuits. Both operators were applied to simulated rhythms created from a two-dimensional cellular automaton model, to measured data from an in situ experimental canine model, and to complex three-dimensional human cardiac mapping data sets. Analysis of simulated vector fields indicated that the divergence is useful in identifying ectopic foci, with a relatively small number of vectors and with errors of up to 30 degrees in the angle measurements. The curl was useful for identifying central obstacles in reentrant circuits, and the number of velocity vectors needed increased as the rhythm became more complex. The divergence was able to accurately identify canine in situ pacing sites, areas of breakthrough activation, and wavefront collisions. In data from human arrhythmias, the divergence reliably estimated origins of electrical activity and wavefront collisions, but the curl was less reliable at locating central obstacles in reentrant circuits, possibly due to the retrospective nature of data collection. The results indicate that the curl and divergence operators applied to velocity vector maps have the potential to add valuable information in cardiac mapping and can be used to supplement human pattern recognition.

  18. Parallel Vector Fields and Einstein Equations of Gravity | Mahara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we prove that no nontrivial timelike or spacelike parallel vector field exists in a region where the gravitational field created by macroscopic bodies and governed by Einstein's equations does not vanish. In other words, we prove that the existence of such vector fields in a region implies the vanishing of the ...

  19. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  20. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  1. Lagrangian vector field and Lagrangian formulation of partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Lagrangian formulation of a system of second order quasilinear partial differential equations. Specifically we construct a Lagrangian vector field such that the flows of the vector field satisfy the original system of partial differential equations.

  2. The Curl of a Vector Field: Beyond the Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Kimberly Jordan; Choi, Youngna

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that there is some discrepancy in the teaching of vector calculus in mathematics courses and other applied fields. The curl of a vector field is one topic many students can calculate without understanding its significance. In this paper, we explain the origin of the curl after presenting the standard mathematical…

  3. Space-times carrying a quasirecurrent pairing of vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, R.; Ianus, S.

    1977-01-01

    A quasirecurrent pairing of vector fields(X 1 ,X 2 ,) defined previously by Rosca (C.R. Acad. Sci. 282 (1976)) is investigated on a space-time in two cases: (1) X 1 is spacelike and X 2 is timelike; (2) X 1 is null and X 2 is spacelike. The physical interpretation of these vector fields is given. (author)

  4. Avoiding ergodicity and turbulence in R3 vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancochea, J.M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Gonzalez-Gascon, F.

    2003-01-01

    We show that analytic R 3 vector fields having the property of being transversal to either analytic functions or foliations F 2 , or parallel to a foliation, are free from ergodicity and turbulence. The absence of turbulence and ergodicity via induced vector fields is also proven

  5. 电场、磁场对二维无序系统电子输运的影响%Influence of Electric Field and Magnetic Field on Transport Properties of Two-dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙; 孙素涛; 白志明

    2017-01-01

    研究了电场、磁场作用下,二维无序杂质系统电导的物理性质.电场的作用削弱了系统电导的“台阶”量子效应,随着中间散射区域尺寸的增大,系统电导随电子能量的变化振荡加剧;系统电导随着磁场的变化表现出周期性振荡行为,其振荡的剧烈程度随外部电压的增大而变小;受杂质散射的影响,系统电导随无序杂质质量分数的增大而减小.%On the action of electric field and magnetic field,the phenomenon of quantized conductance in a two-dimensional system with disordered impurities is investigated.The electric field decreases the conductance and reduced its"step"quantum effect.The increase of the size of the intermediate scattering area intensifies the oscillation of the conductance varying with the electron energy.The conductance exhibits periodic oscillation with the external magnetic field,and the intensity of the oscillation becomes smaller with the increase of the electric field.With the increase of the impurity concentration,the conductance decreases.

  6. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D.; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  7. Design of 2D time-varying vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.

  8. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  9. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  10. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-12-01

    The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  11. Classification of complex polynomial vector fields in one complex variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil; Dias, Kealey

    2010-01-01

    This paper classifies the global structure of monic and centred one-variable complex polynomial vector fields. The classification is achieved by means of combinatorial and analytic data. More specifically, given a polynomial vector field, we construct a combinatorial invariant, describing...... the topology, and a set of analytic invariants, describing the geometry. Conversely, given admissible combinatorial and analytic data sets, we show using surgery the existence of a unique monic and centred polynomial vector field realizing the given invariants. This is the content of the Structure Theorem......, the main result of the paper. This result is an extension and refinement of Douady et al. (Champs de vecteurs polynomiaux sur C. Unpublished manuscript) classification of the structurally stable polynomial vector fields. We further review some general concepts for completeness and show that vector fields...

  12. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Chen, Mirela

    2010-09-21

    Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  14. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  15. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  16. Gaussian vector fields on triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, John H

    2016-01-01

    proven to be very useful to resolve the complex interplay between in-plane ordering of membranes and membrane conformations. In the present work we have developed a procedure for realistic representations of Gaussian models with in-plane vector degrees of freedoms on a triangulated surface. The method...

  17. The divergence theorem for unbounded vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Thierry; Pfeffer, Washek F.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of Lebesgue integration, we derive the divergence theorem for unbounded vector. elds that can have singularities at every point of a compact set whose Minkowski content of codimension greater than two is. nite. The resulting integration by parts theorem is applied to removable sets of holomorphic and harmonic functions.

  18. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenli; Wei, Rong; Lin, Jinda; Wang, Yuzhu; Dong, Richang; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  19. Interpolation of vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Zhu, Y M; Rapacchi, S; Robini, M; Croisille, P; Luo, J H

    2011-01-01

    There has recently been increased interest in developing tensor data processing methods for the new medical imaging modality referred to as diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). This paper proposes a method for interpolating the primary vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI, with the particularity of achieving interpolation and denoising simultaneously. The method consists of localizing the noise-corrupted vectors using the local statistical properties of vector fields, removing the noise-corrupted vectors and reconstructing them by using the thin plate spline (TPS) model, and finally applying global TPS interpolation to increase the resolution in the spatial domain. Experiments on 17 human hearts show that the proposed method allows us to obtain higher resolution while reducing noise, preserving details and improving direction coherence (DC) of vector fields as well as fiber tracking. Moreover, the proposed method perfectly reconstructs azimuth and elevation angle maps.

  20. The index of a vector field under blow ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seade, J.

    1991-08-01

    A useful technique when studying the behaviour of holomorphic vector fields around their isolated singularities is that of blowing up the singular points. On the other hand, the most basic invariant of a vector field with isolated singularities is its local index, as defined by Poincare and Hopf. It is thus natural to ask how does the index of a vector field behaves under blowing ups? The purpose of this work is to study and answer this question, by taking a rather general point of view and bearing in mind that complex manifolds have a powerful birational invariant, the Todd genus. 20 refs

  1. Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1996-01-01

    We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

  2. Gigantic magnetoelectric effect caused by magnetic-field-induced canted antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition in quasi-two-dimensional Ca2CoSi2O7 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, M.; Tozawa, J.; Akahoshi, D.; Kuwahara, H.

    2009-05-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and dielectric properties of Ca2CoSi2O7 crystal. The dielectricity and magnetism of Ca2CoSi2O7 are strongly coupled below a canted antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN). Magnetic fields induce electric polarization below TN. Interestingly, the magnetic-field-induced electric polarization is detected even without poling electric fields. Below TN, a canted antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition is induced by magnetic fields. The large magnetocapacitance is observed around TN. The origin of the large magnetocapacitance is due to the magnetic-field-induced the canted antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition.

  3. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  4. Reciprocity relationships in vector acoustics and their application to vector field calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Thomas J; Smith, Kevin B

    2017-08-01

    The reciprocity equation commonly stated in underwater acoustics relates pressure fields and monopole sources. It is often used to predict the pressure measured by a hydrophone for multiple source locations by placing a source at the hydrophone location and calculating the field everywhere for that source. A similar equation that governs the orthogonal components of the particle velocity field is needed to enable this computational method to be used for acoustic vector sensors. This paper derives a general reciprocity equation that accounts for both monopole and dipole sources. This vector-scalar reciprocity equation can be used to calculate individual components of the received vector field by altering the source type used in the propagation calculation. This enables a propagation model to calculate the received vector field components for an arbitrary number of source locations with a single model run for each vector field component instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic solutions for a range-independent environment and with numerical solutions for a range-dependent environment using a parabolic equation model.

  5. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  6. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  7. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  8. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  9. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  10. Validation of SplitVectors Encoding for Quantitative Visualization of Large-Magnitude-Range Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen

    2017-06-01

    We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.

  11. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  12. Lipschitz estimates for convex functions with respect to vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Magnani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Lipschitz continuity estimates for a class of convex functions with respect to Hörmander vector fields. These results have been recently obtained in collaboration with M. Scienza, [22].

  13. 2D Vector Field Simplification Based on Robustness

    KAUST Repository

    Skraba, Primoz; Wang, Bei; Chen, Guoning; Rosen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Vector field simplification aims to reduce the complexity of the flow by removing features in order of their relevance and importance, to reveal prominent behavior and obtain a compact representation for interpretation. Most existing simplification

  14. Conservation laws and two-dimensional black holes in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. B.

    1993-05-01

    A very general class of Lagrangians which couple scalar fields to gravitation and matter in two spacetime dimensions is investigated. It is shown that a vector field exists along whose flow lines the stress-energy tensor is conserved, regardless of whether or not the equations of motion are satisfied or if any Killing vectors exist. Conditions necessary for the existence of Killing vectors are derived. A new set of two-dimensional (2D) black-hole solutions is obtained for one particular member within this class of Lagrangians, which couples a Liouville field to 2D gravity in a novel way. One solution of this theory bears an interesting resemblance to the 2D string-theoretic black hole, yet contains markedly different thermodynamic properties.

  15. Invariant hyperplanes and Darboux integrability of polynomial vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiang

    2002-01-01

    This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we provide an upper bound for the number of invariant hyperplanes of the polynomial vector fields in n variables. This result generalizes those given in Artes et al (1998 Pac. J. Math. 184 207-30) and Llibre and Rodriguez (2000 Bull. Sci. Math. 124 599-619). The second part gives an extension of the Darboux theory of integrability to polynomial vector fields on algebraic varieties

  16. Creation of a new vector field and focusing engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Chen, Jing; Li, Yongnan; Ding, Jianping; Guo, Cheng-Shan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-01-01

    Recently many methods have been proposed to create the vector fields, due to the academic interest and a variety of attractive applications such as for particle acceleration, optical trapping, particle manipulation, and fluorescence imaging. For the most of the created vector fields, the spatial distribution in states of polarization (SoPs) is dependent of azimuthal angle only. It is very interesting and crucial that if we can introduce the radial controlling freedom, which undoubtedly opens ...

  17. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along the ultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. If attenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler

  18. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns therein is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients, i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field, and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares

  19. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J.

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J ) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J2=-J1/2 for a rectangular lattice and J2=-J1 for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  20. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  1. Controllability of linear vector fields on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Tirao, J.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper, we shall deal with a linear control system Σ defined on a Lie group G with Lie algebra g. The dynamic of Σ is determined by the drift vector field which is an element in the normalizer of g in the Lie algebra of all smooth vector field on G and by the control vectors which are elements in g considered as left-invariant vector fields. We characterize the normalizer of g identifying vector fields on G with C ∞ -functions defined on G into g. For this class of control systems we study algebraic conditions for the controllability problem. Indeed, we prove that if the drift vector field has a singularity then the Lie algebra rank condition is necessary for the controllability property, but in general this condition does not determine this property. On the other hand, we show that the rank (ad-rank) condition is sufficient for the controllability of Σ. In particular, we extend the fundamental Kalman's theorem when G is an Abelian connected Lie group. Our work is related with a paper of L. Markus and we also improve his results. (author). 7 refs

  2. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  3. Search for a nematic phase in the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 by NMR in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Kweon, J. J.; Choi, E. S.; Zhou, H. D.; Svistov, L. E.; Reyes, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of CuCrO2 was studied with an alternative method of simultaneous Cu NMR and electric polarization techniques with the primary goal of demonstrating that, regardless of cooling history of the sample, the magnetic phase with specific helmet-shaped NMR spectra associated with interplanar disorder possesses electric polarization. Our result unequivocally confirms the assumption of Sakhratov et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 094410 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.094410] that the high-field low-temperature phase is in fact a three-dimensional (3D) polar phase characterized by a 3D magnetic order with tensor order parameter. In comparison with the results obtained in pulsed fields, a modified phase diagram is introduced defining the upper boundary of the first-order transition from the 3D spiral to the 3D polar phase.

  4. TIMTEM - a digital program for the calculation of two-dimensional, non-linear temperature fields of reactor components of complex structure taking into account inhomogeneity and anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Weidner, J.

    1975-05-01

    The digital program TIMTEM calculates twodimensional, nonlinear temperature fields of reactor components of complex structure; inhomogeneity and anisotropy are taken into account. Systems consisting of different materials and therefore having different temperature- and/or time-dependent material characteristics are allowed. Various local, time- and/or temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be considered, too, which may be locally different from each other or can be interconnected. (orig.) [de

  5. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Investigation of Electronic and Opto-Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional (2D) Layers of Copper Indium Selenide Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Dnyaneshwar

    Investigations performed in order to understand the electronic and optoelectronic properties of field effect transistors based on few layers of 2D Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) are reported. In general, field effect transistors (FETs), electric double layer field effect transistors (EDL-FETs), and photodetectors are crucial part of several electronics based applications such as tele-communication, bio-sensing, and opto-electronic industry. After the discovery of graphene, several 2D semiconductor materials like TMDs (MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 etc.), group III-VI materials (InSe, GaSe, and SnS2 etc.) are being studied rigorously in order to develop them as components in next generation FETs. Traditionally, thin films of ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide have been extensively studied and used in optoelectronics industry as photoactive component in solar cells. Thus, it is expected that atomically thin 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide can have optical properties that could potentially be more advantageous than its thin film counterpart and could find use for developing next generation nano devices with utility in opto/nano electronics. Field effect transistors were fabricated using few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes, which were mechanically exfoliated from bulk crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our FET transport characterization measurements indicate n-type behavior with electron field effect mobility microFE ≈ 36 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature when Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used as a back gate. We found that in such back gated field effect transistor an on/off ratio of 104 and a subthreshold swing ≈ 1 V/dec can be obtained. Our investigations further indicate that Electronic performance of these materials can be increased significantly when gated from top using an ionic liquid electrolyte [1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6)]. We found that electron field effect mobility microFE can be increased from

  7. Analytic computation of the quantum levels of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in the presence of a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, Victor M.; Pino, Ramiro [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-03-01

    In this article we review different techniques for computing the energy spectrum of 2 D hydrogenic donors and two-electron quantum dots in the presence of a constant, magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the electron. We compute the 1S, 2P- and 3D- energy levels via a scaled variational mixed-bases method. We compare our results with those obtained with the shifted 1/N method. [Spanish] En el presente articulo se exhiben distintos metodos para calcular el espectro de energia de donores hidrogenicos y puntos cuanticos con dos electrones en presencia de un campo magnetico constante perpendicular al plano del electron. Se calculan los niveles de energia 1S, 2P- y 3D- con ayuda del metodo variacional de bases mixtas con escalamiento. Comparamos nuestro resultados con los obtenidos con ayuda del metodo 1/N con corrimiento.

  8. Stable solutions of inflation driven by vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, Razieh [Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Mukohyama, Shinji [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Namba, Ryo [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Zhang, Ying-li, E-mail: iasraziehm@ust.hk, E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: namba@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: yingli@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Many models of inflation driven by vector fields alone have been known to be plagued by pathological behaviors, namely ghost and/or gradient instabilities. In this work, we seek a new class of vector-driven inflationary models that evade all of the mentioned instabilities. We build our analysis on the Generalized Proca Theory with an extension to three vector fields to realize isotropic expansion. We obtain the conditions required for quasi de-Sitter solutions to be an attractor analogous to the standard slow-roll one and those for their stability at the level of linearized perturbations. Identifying the remedy to the existing unstable models, we provide a simple example and explicitly show its stability. This significantly broadens our knowledge on vector inflationary scenarios, reviving potential phenomenological interests for this class of models.

  9. Stable solutions of inflation driven by vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Razieh; Mukohyama, Shinji; Namba, Ryo; Zhang, Ying-li

    2017-01-01

    Many models of inflation driven by vector fields alone have been known to be plagued by pathological behaviors, namely ghost and/or gradient instabilities. In this work, we seek a new class of vector-driven inflationary models that evade all of the mentioned instabilities. We build our analysis on the Generalized Proca Theory with an extension to three vector fields to realize isotropic expansion. We obtain the conditions required for quasi de-Sitter solutions to be an attractor analogous to the standard slow-roll one and those for their stability at the level of linearized perturbations. Identifying the remedy to the existing unstable models, we provide a simple example and explicitly show its stability. This significantly broadens our knowledge on vector inflationary scenarios, reviving potential phenomenological interests for this class of models.

  10. Two-dimensional steady-state thermal and hydraulic analysis code for prediction of detailed temperature fields around distorted fuel pin in LMFBR assembly: SPOTBOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1983-01-01

    SPOTBOW computer program has been developed for predicting detailed temperature and turbulent flow velocity fields around distorted fuel pins in LMFBR fuel assemblies, in which pin to pin and pin to wrapper tube contacts may occur. The present study started from the requirement of reactor core designers to evaluate local hot spot temperature due to the wire contact effect and the pin bowing effect on cladding temperature distribution. This code calculates for both unbaffled and wire-wrapped pin bundles. The Galerkin method and iterative procedure were used to solve the basic equations which govern the local heat and momentum transfer in turbulent fluid flow around the distorted pins. Comparisons have been made with cladding temperatures measured in normal and distorted pin bundle mockups to check the validity of this code. Predicted peak temperatures in the vicinity of wire contact point were somewhat higher than the measured values, and the shape of the peaks agreed well with measurement. The changes of cladding temperature due to the decrease of gap width between bowing pin and adjacent pin were predicted well

  11. An Application of Artificial Intelligence for the Joint Estimation of Amplitude and Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival of Far Field Sources Using 2-L-Shape Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy and efficient approach, based on artificial intelligence technique, is proposed to jointly estimate the amplitude, elevation, and azimuth angles of far field sources impinging on 2-L-shape array. In these proposed artificial intelligence techniques, the metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are used as global optimizers assisted with rapid local version of pattern search for optimization of the adaptive parameters. The performance metric is employed on a fitness evaluation function depending on mean square error which is optimum and requires single snapshot to converge. The proposed approaches are easy to understand, and simple to implement; the genetic algorithm specifically hybridized with pattern search generates fairly good results. The comparison of the given schemes is carried out with 1-L-shape array, as well as, with parallel-shape array and is found to be in good agreement in terms of accuracy, convergence rate, computational complexity, and mean square error. The effectiveness and efficiency of the given schemes are examined through Monte Carlo simulations and their inclusive statistical analysis.

  12. Adverse effects after radical external beam radiotherapy of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional dose-planning and a limited field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljung, G.; Haeggman, M.; Hansson, H.; Holmberg, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    Adverse effects were assessed after definitive limited field, 2-dimensional CT-planned radiation treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. In 66 surviving patients, out of a total of 176 treated patients, personal interviews were performed and self-administered questionnaires distributed. The average follow-up was 6.6 years. Adverse effects with regard to bowel function and micturition were investigated, and graded 0-4 with increasing severity and impact on performance status, essentially according to the RTOG toxicity scoring system. Sexual functions were registered on visual analogue scales. The majority of adverse effects were considered minor (grade 1) and did not require any treatment. Late adverse effects on bowel and bladder or urethra that required treatment (grade 2-4) were reported in up to 8% (n=5) of cases respectively. Late bowel side-effects that interfered with life style (grade 3-4) occurred in up to 3% (n=2) of patients; the majority were rectal complications. Corresponding urinary side-effects were registered in up to 6% (n=4) of the patients. Major surgical interventions were not required. Sexual functions were substantially affected in 60% of cases not administered endocrine treatment. Multivariate analyses could not identify patient or treatment risk factors related to complications. (orig.)

  13. Mapping the Information Trace in Local Field Potentials by a Computational Method of Two-Dimensional Time-Shifting Synchronization Likelihood Based on Graphic Processing Unit Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fang; Li, Xue-Zhu; Wan, You

    2017-12-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas. One drawback of non-linear algorithms is the heavy computational burden. In the present study, we proposed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implementation of an SL algorithm with optional 2-dimensional time-shifting. We tested the algorithm with both artificial data and raw LFP data. The results showed that this method revealed detailed information from original data with the synchronization values of two temporal axes, delay time and onset time, and thus can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of a neural network. Our results suggest that this GPU-accelerated method can be extended to other algorithms for processing time-series signals (like EEG and fMRI) using similar recording techniques.

  14. Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenglie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to…

  15. A Chargeless Complex Vector Matter Field in Supersymmetric Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Colatto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct and study a formulation of a chargeless complex vector matter field in a supersymmetric framework. To this aim we combine two nochiral scalar superfields in order to take the vector component field to build the chargeless complex vector superpartner where the respective field strength transforms into matter fields by a global U1 gauge symmetry. For the aim of dealing with consistent terms without breaking the global U1 symmetry we imposes a choice to the complex combination revealing a kind of symmetry between the choices and eliminates the extra degrees of freedom which is consistent with the supersymmetry. As the usual case the mass supersymmetric sector contributes as a complement to dynamics of the model. We obtain the equations of motion of the Proca’s type field for the chiral spinor fields and for the scalar field on the mass-shell which show the same mass as expected. This work establishes the first steps to extend the analysis of charged massive vector field in a supersymmetric scenario.

  16. Linearized interactions of scalar and vector fields with the higher spin field in AdSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The explicit form of linearized gauge and generalized 'Weyl invariant' interactions of scalar and general higher even spin fields in the AdS D space is reviewed. Also a linearized interaction of vector field with general higher even spin gauge field is obtained. It is shown that the gauge-invariant action of linearized vector field interacting with the higher spin field also includes the whole tower of invariant actions for couplings of the same vector field with the gauge fields of smaller even spin

  17. Joint two-dimensional observations of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields associated with auroral zone currents 1. Three-dimensional current flows associated with a substorm-intensified eastward electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Untiedt, J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional distributions of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields in the evening sector auroral oval have been simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array and the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (Stare) radars, respectively, on February 15, 1977. They were associated with varying, substorm-intensified, eastward electrojet current systems of the western, middle, and eastern segment of the eastward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm-intensified eastward electroject was a nearly pure Hall current driven by northward electric fields. The observed eastward increase of the current in the western segment of the electrojet was due to a gradual enhancement of the Hall conductivity. Here, the electrojet was fed by a broad sheet of net downward field-aligned current. During one period, the eastern-terminating part of the eastward electrojet diverged up the field lines in a rather local area because of a strong longitudinal decrease in the northward-directed electric field. On another occasion, it diverged northward within the ionosphere and joined the westward-flowing current because of a rotation of the northward electric field with increasing latitude through west- to southward. These two observed mechanisms of current divergence in the region where eastward and westward electrojects coexist may shed some new light on the controversy over the existence of upward field-aligned current flow in the Harang discontinuity

  18. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  19. Center type performance of differentiable vector fields in R2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabanal, Roland

    2007-08-01

    Let X : R 2 / D → R 2 be a differentiable vector field, where D is compact. If the eigenvalues of the jacobian matrix DX z are (nonzero) purely imaginary, for all z element of R 2 / D . Then, X + v has a center type performance at infinity, for some v element of R 2 . More precisely, X + v has a periodic trajectory Γ subset of R2/ D which is surrounding D such that in the unbounded component of (R 2 / D )/ Γ all the trajectories of X + v are nontrivial cycles. In the case of global vector fields Y : R 2 → R 2 with Y (0) = 0, we prove that such eigenvalue condition implies the topological equivalency of Y with the linear vector field (x, y) → (-y, x). (author)

  20. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  1. The Lie Bracket of Adapted Vector Fields on Wiener Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, B. K.

    1999-01-01

    Let W(M) be the based (at o element of M) path space of a compact Riemannian manifold M equipped with Wiener measure ν . This paper is devoted to considering vector fields on W(M) of the form X s h (σ )=P s (σ)h s (σ ) where P s (σ ) denotes stochastic parallel translation up to time s along a Wiener path σ element of W(M) and {h s } i sanelementof [0,1] is an adapted T o M -valued process on W(M). It is shown that there is a large class of processes h (called adapted vector fields) for which we may view X h as first-order differential operators acting on functions on W(M) . Moreover, if h and k are two such processes, then the commutator of X h with X k is again a vector field on W(M) of the same form

  2. Inferring Lower Boundary Driving Conditions Using Vector Magnetic Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James; MacNeice, Peter; Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Low-beta coronal MHD simulations of realistic CME events require the detailed specification of the magnetic fields, velocities, densities, temperatures, etc., in the low corona. Presently, the most accurate estimates of solar vector magnetic fields are made in the high-beta photosphere. Several techniques have been developed that provide accurate estimates of the associated photospheric plasma velocities such as the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms and the Poloidal/Toroidal Decomposition. Nominally, these velocities are consistent with the evolution of the radial magnetic field. To evolve the tangential magnetic field radial gradients must be specified. In addition to estimating the photospheric vector magnetic and velocity fields, a further challenge involves incorporating these fields into an MHD simulation. The simulation boundary must be driven, consistent with the numerical boundary equations, with the goal of accurately reproducing the observed magnetic fields and estimated velocities at some height within the simulation. Even if this goal is achieved, many unanswered questions remain. How can the photospheric magnetic fields and velocities be propagated to the low corona through the transition region? At what cadence must we observe the photosphere to realistically simulate the corona? How do we model the magnetic fields and plasma velocities in the quiet Sun? How sensitive are the solutions to other unknowns that must be specified, such as the global solar magnetic field, and the photospheric temperature and density?

  3. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  4. Characteristics of anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic, and external electric-field induced spin—orbit couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Song; Yan Yu-Zhen; Hu Liang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The various competing contributions to the anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic and external electric-field induced spin—orbit coupling were investigated theoretically. Based on a unified semiclassical theoretical approach, it is shown that the total anomalous Hall conductivity can be expressed as the sum of three distinct contributions in the presence of these competing spin—orbit interactions, namely an intrinsic contribution determined by the Berry curvature in the momentum space, an extrinsic contribution determined by the modified Bloch band group velocity and an extrinsic contribution determined by spin—orbit-dependent impurity scattering. The characteristics of these competing contributions are discussed in detail in the paper. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs

  6. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pourtois, Geoffrey [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Agarwal, Tarun [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Afzalian, Aryan [TSMC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Radu, Iuliana P. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Houssa, Michel [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  7. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  8. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  10. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  11. The local structure of a Liouville vector field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciriza, E.

    1990-05-01

    In this work we investigate the local structure of a Liouville vector field ξ of a Kaehler manifold (P,Ω) which vanishes on an isotropic submanifold Q of P. Some of the eigenvalues of its linear part at the singular points are zero and the remaining ones are in resonance. We show that there is a C 1 -smooth linearizing conjugation between the Liouville vector field ξ and its linear part. To do this we construct Darboux coordinates adapted to the unstable foliation which is provided by the Centre Manifold Theorem. We then apply recent linearization results due to G. Sell. (author). 11 refs

  12. Generalized Proca action for an Abelian vector field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allys, Erwan; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the most general theory for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, extending previous works on the subject to account for terms having trivial total derivative interactions for the longitudinal mode. In the flat spacetime (Minkowski) case, we obtain all the possible terms containing products of up to five first-order derivatives of the vector field, and provide a conjecture about higher-order terms. Rendering the metric dynamical, we covariantize the results and add all possible terms implying curvature

  13. Transient, two-dimensional, discrete-element, far-field model for thermal impact analysis of power plant discharges in coastal and offshore regions. Part I. General description of the mathematical model and the results of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.

    1975-02-01

    A far-field mathematical model is presented for numerical simulation of short-time (within tidal cycle) transient, two-dimensional temperature distributions in large coastal and offshore regions resulting from the condenser cooling water discharges of power plants. The Eulerian FLIDE (fluid-in-discrete-element) formulation employs the integral forms of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy in variable-sized discrete elements that span the specific flow region. The contributions of vertical variations of the velocity components and temperature are rigorously incorporated in the development of depth-averaged, two-dimensional energy transport fluxes by spatially integrating the conservation equations over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete elements. The general mathematical formulation considers completely arbitrary, transient oceanic flow conditions, which include periodic tidal, geostrophic, and wind-induced currents, as locally specified inputs to the model. The thermal impact of a hypothetical, multiunit generating station in a coastal region is analyzed where the oceanic flow conditions are assumed to be strictly periodic tidal currents within any appreciable net drift of sufficient duration to remove the heated effluent. The numerical simulation indicates that the periodic flow conditions cause considerable variations in the temperature distributions during the day and the tidal cycles, which result in severe recirculation and re-entrainment of the heated water between the intakes and the discharges of the different units. This leads to a gradual, long-term increase of the temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the discharge structures and also in the far-field zone. (U.S.)

  14. Vector fields in a tight laser focus: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatross, Justin; Berrondo, Manuel; Smith, Dallas; Ware, Michael

    2017-06-26

    We assess several widely used vector models of a Gaussian laser beam in the context of more accurate vector diffraction integration. For the analysis, we present a streamlined derivation of the vector fields of a uniformly polarized beam reflected from an ideal parabolic mirror, both inside and outside of the resulting focus. This exact solution to Maxwell's equations, first developed in 1920 by V. S. Ignatovsky, is highly relevant to high-intensity laser experiments since the boundary conditions at a focusing optic dictate the form of the focus in a manner analogous to a physical experiment. In contrast, many models simply assume a field profile near the focus and develop the surrounding vector fields consistent with Maxwell's equations. In comparing the Ignatovsky result with popular closed-form analytic vector models of a Gaussian beam, we find that the relatively simple model developed by Erikson and Singh in 1994 provides good agreement in the paraxial limit. Models involving a Lax expansion introduce a divergences outside of the focus while providing little if any improvement in the focal region. Extremely tight focusing produces a somewhat complicated structure in the focus, and requires the Ignatovsky model for accurate representation.

  15. Vector field statistical analysis of kinematic and force trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos

    2013-09-27

    When investigating the dynamics of three-dimensional multi-body biomechanical systems it is often difficult to derive spatiotemporally directed predictions regarding experimentally induced effects. A paradigm of 'non-directed' hypothesis testing has emerged in the literature as a result. Non-directed analyses typically consist of ad hoc scalar extraction, an approach which substantially simplifies the original, highly multivariate datasets (many time points, many vector components). This paper describes a commensurately multivariate method as an alternative to scalar extraction. The method, called 'statistical parametric mapping' (SPM), uses random field theory to objectively identify field regions which co-vary significantly with the experimental design. We compared SPM to scalar extraction by re-analyzing three publicly available datasets: 3D knee kinematics, a ten-muscle force system, and 3D ground reaction forces. Scalar extraction was found to bias the analyses of all three datasets by failing to consider sufficient portions of the dataset, and/or by failing to consider covariance amongst vector components. SPM overcame both problems by conducting hypothesis testing at the (massively multivariate) vector trajectory level, with random field corrections simultaneously accounting for temporal correlation and vector covariance. While SPM has been widely demonstrated to be effective for analyzing 3D scalar fields, the current results are the first to demonstrate its effectiveness for 1D vector field analysis. It was concluded that SPM offers a generalized, statistically comprehensive solution to scalar extraction's over-simplification of vector trajectories, thereby making it useful for objectively guiding analyses of complex biomechanical systems. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transitive Lie algebras of vector fields: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.

    2011-01-01

    This overview paper is intended as a quick introduction to Lie algebras of vector fields. Originally introduced in the late 19th century by Sophus Lie to capture symmetries of ordinary differential equations, these algebras, or infinitesimal groups, are a recurring theme in 20th-century research on

  17. Interactive exploratory visualization of 2D vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isenberg, Tobias; Everts, Maarten H.; Grubert, Jens; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    In this paper we present several techniques to interactively explore representations of 2D vector fields. Through a set of simple hand postures used on large, touch-sensitive displays, our approach allows individuals to custom design glyphs (arrows, lines, etc.) that best reveal patterns of the

  18. Desingularization strategies for three-dimensional vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Felipe Cano

    1987-01-01

    For a vector field #3, where Ai are series in X, the algebraic multiplicity measures the singularity at the origin. In this research monograph several strategies are given to make the algebraic multiplicity of a three-dimensional vector field decrease, by means of permissible blowing-ups of the ambient space, i.e. transformations of the type xi=x'ix1, 2s. A logarithmic point of view is taken, marking the exceptional divisor of each blowing-up and by considering only the vector fields which are tangent to this divisor, instead of the whole tangent sheaf. The first part of the book is devoted to the logarithmic background and to the permissible blowing-ups. The main part corresponds to the control of the algorithms for the desingularization strategies by means of numerical invariants inspired by Hironaka's characteristic polygon. Only basic knowledge of local algebra and algebraic geometry is assumed of the reader. The pathologies we find in the reduction of vector fields are analogous to pathologies in the pro...

  19. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  20. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  1. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  2. Off disk-center potential field calculations using vector magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, P.; Gary, G. Allen

    1989-01-01

    A potential field calculation for off disk-center vector magnetograms that uses all the three components of the measured field is investigated. There is neither any need for interpolation of grid points between the image plane and the heliographic plane nor for an extension or a truncation to a heliographic rectangle. Hence, the method provides the maximum information content from the photospheric field as well as the most consistent potential field independent of the viewing angle. The introduction of polarimetric noise produces a less tolerant extrapolation procedure than using the line-of-sight extrapolation, but the resultant standard deviation is still small enough for the practical utility of this method.

  3. Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1997-01-01

    During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that

  4. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  5. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  6. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  7. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinopoulou, Stavroula [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  8. Hall conductivity for two dimensional magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, J.; Ouvry, S.; Texier, C.

    1996-01-01

    A Kubo inspired formalism is proposed to compute the longitudinal and transverse dynamical conductivities of an electron in a plane (or a gas of electrons at zero temperature) coupled to the potential vector of an external local magnetic field, with the additional coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the electron to the local magnetic field (Pauli Hamiltonian). As an example, the homogeneous magnetic field Hall conductivity is rederived. The case of the vortex at the origin is worked out in detail. A perturbative analysis is proposed for the conductivity in the random magnetic impurity problem (Poissonian vortices in the plane). (author)

  9. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  10. Two-dimensional interpolation with experimental data smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejbal, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A method of two-dimensional interpolation with smoothing of time statistically deflected points is developed for processing of magnetic field measurements at the U-120M field measurements at the U-120M cyclotron. Mathematical statement of initial requirements and the final result of relevant algebraic transformations are given. 3 refs

  11. Magnetic monopole and vector field of the spin 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantyushin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of electrically charged particles in uniform magnetic field by time is considered. It is found out that additional force acting on eclectically charged particle from the spin 0 vector field side is proportional to the magnetic field. Proportion coefficient is equal to eg/4π (g - unknown parameter, determining of the rate and character of source non-preservation) - the analogue of constant thin structure α=e 2 /4π. Obtained results give evidence to suppose that for explanation of indicated experiments the monopole introduction is not essential

  12. Relativistic gravitation from massless systems of scalar and vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da.

    1979-01-01

    Under the laws of Einstein's gravitational theory, a massless system consisting of the diffuse sources of two fields is discussed. One fields is scalar, of long range, the other is a vector field of short range. A proportionality between the sources is assumed. Both fields are minimally coupled to gravitation, and contribute positive definitely to the time component of the energy momentum tensor. A class of static, spherically symmetric solutions of the equations is obtained, in the weak field limit. The solutions are regular everywhere, stable, and can represent large or small physical systems. The gravitational field presents a Schwarzschild-type asymptotic behavior. The dependence of the energy on the various parameters characterizing the system is discussed in some detail. (Author) [pt

  13. New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1993-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ''splatting'' scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ''flow volume'' of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity

  14. New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1993-05-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

  15. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  16. Lovelock vacua with a recurrent null vector field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2018), č. článku 044051. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10042S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lovelock gravity * recurrent null vector field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.97.044051

  17. Algebraic characterization of vector supersymmetry in topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.; Sasaki, C.A.G.; Sorella, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    An algebraic cohomological characterization of a class of linearly broken Ward identities is provided. The examples of the topological vector supersymmetry and of the Landau ghost equation are discussed in detail. The existence of such a linearly broken Ward identities turns out to be related to BRST exact anti-field dependent cocycles with negative ghost number, according to the cohomological reformulation of the Noether theorem given by M. Henneaux et al. (author)

  18. Algebraic characterization of vector supersymmetry in topological field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.; Sasaki, C.A.G. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S.P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1997-01-01

    An algebraic cohomological characterization of a class of linearly broken Ward identities is provided. The examples of the topological vector supersymmetry and of the Landau ghost equation are discussed in detail. The existence of such a linearly broken Ward identities turns out to be related to BRST exact anti-field dependent cocycles with negative ghost number, according to the cohomological reformulation of the Noether theorem given by M. Henneaux et al. (author). 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Lovelock vacua with a recurrent null vector field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2018), č. článku 044051. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10042S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lovelock gravity * recurrent null vector field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals. aps .org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.97.044051

  20. Rotation invariants of vector fields from orthogonal moments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, B.; Kostková, Jitka; Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Bujack, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 110-121 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Vector field * Total rotation * Invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Zernike moments * Numerical stability Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.582, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/flusser-0478329.pdf

  1. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  2. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  3. Interpreting the cross-sectional flow field in a river bank based on a genetic-algorithm two-dimensional heat-transport method (GA-VS2DH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoru; Shu, Longcang; Chen, Xunhong; Lu, Chengpeng; Wen, Zhonghui

    2016-12-01

    Interactions between surface waters and groundwater are of great significance for evaluating water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Heat as a tracer method is widely used in determination of the interactive exchange with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The flow in a river-bank cross-section occurs in vertical and lateral directions. In order to depict the flow path and its spatial distribution in bank areas, a genetic algorithm (GA) two-dimensional (2-D) heat-transport nested-loop method for variably saturated sediments, GA-VS2DH, was developed based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. VS2DH was applied to model a 2-D bank-water flow field and GA was used to calibrate the model automatically by minimizing the difference between observed and simulated temperatures in bank areas. A hypothetical model was developed to assess the reliability of GA-VS2DH in inverse modeling in a river-bank system. Some benchmark tests were conducted to recognize the capability of GA-VS2DH. The results indicated that the simulated seepage velocity and parameters associated with GA-VS2DH were acceptable and reliable. Then GA-VS2DH was applied to two field sites in China with different sedimentary materials, to verify the reliability of the method. GA-VS2DH could be applied in interpreting the cross-sectional 2-D water flow field. The estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity at the Dawen River and Qinhuai River sites are 1.317 and 0.015 m/day, which correspond to sand and clay sediment in the two sites, respectively.

  4. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  5. [INVITED] Magnetic field vector sensor by a nonadiabatic tapered Hi-Bi fiber and ferrofluid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layeghi, Azam; Latifi, Hamid

    2018-06-01

    A magnetic field vector sensor based on super-paramagnetic fluid and tapered Hi-Bi fiber (THB) in fiber loop mirror (FLM) is proposed. A two-dimensional detection of external magnetic field (EMF) is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically simulated by Jones matrix to analyze the physical operation in detail. A birefringence is obtained due to magnetic fluid (MF) in applied EMF. By surrounding the THB with MF, a tunable birefringence of MF affect the transmission of the sensor. Slow and fast axes of this obtained birefringence are determined by the direction of applied EMF. In this way, the transmission response of the sensor is depended on the angle between the EMF orientation and the main axes of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) in FLM. The wavelength shift and intensity shift versus EMF orientation show a sinusoidal behavior, while the applied EMF is constant. Also, the changes in the intensity of EMF in a certain direction results in wavelength shift in the sensor spectrum. The maximum wavelength sensitivity of 214 pm/mT is observed.

  6. Initial geomagnetic field model from Magsat vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Mead, G. D.; Lancaster, E. R.; Estes, R. H.; Fabiano, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    Magsat data from the magnetically quiet days of November 5-6, 1979, were used to derive a thirteenth degree and order spherical harmonic geomagnetic field model, MGST(6/80). The model utilized both scalar and high-accuracy vector data and fit that data with root-mean-square deviations of 8.2, 6.9, 7.6 and 7.4 nT for the scalar magnitude, B(r), B(theta), and B(phi), respectively. The model includes the three first-order coefficients of the external field. Comparison with averaged Dst indicates that zero Dst corresponds with 25 nT of horizontal field from external sources. When compared with earlier models, the earth's dipole moment continues to decrease at a rate of about 26 nT/yr. Evaluation of earlier models with Magsat data shows that the scalar field at the Magsat epoch is best predicted by the POGO(2/72) model but that the WC80, AWC/75 and IGS/75 are better for predicting vector fields.

  7. Localization of vector field on dynamical domain wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Higuchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the previous works (arXiv:1202.5375 and arXiv:1402.1346, the dynamical domain wall, where the four dimensional FRW universe is embedded in the five dimensional space–time, has been realized by using two scalar fields. In this paper, we consider the localization of vector field in three formulations. The first formulation was investigated in the previous paper (arXiv:1510.01099 for the U(1 gauge field. In the second formulation, we investigate the Dvali–Shifman mechanism (arXiv:hep-th/9612128, where the non-abelian gauge field is confined in the bulk but the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken on the domain wall. In the third formulation, we investigate the Kaluza–Klein modes coming from the five dimensional graviton. In the Randall–Sundrum model, the graviton was localized on the brane. We show that the (5,μ components (μ=0,1,2,3 of the graviton are also localized on the domain wall and can be regarded as the vector field on the domain wall. There are, however, some corrections coming from the bulk extra dimension if the domain wall universe is expanding.

  8. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  9. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  10. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  11. An example of a vector field with the oriented shadowing property

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhomirov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We consider shadowing properties for vector fields corresponding to different type of reparametrisations. We give an example of a vector field which has the oriented shadowing properties, but does not have the standard shadowing property.

  12. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Time-varying vector fields and their flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarpour, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a comprehensive and unified treatment of time-varying vector fields under a variety of regularity hypotheses, namely finitely differentiable, Lipschitz, smooth, holomorphic, and real analytic. The presentation of this material in the real analytic setting is new, as is the manner in which the various hypotheses are unified using functional analysis. Indeed, a major contribution of the book is the coherent development of locally convex topologies for the space of real analytic sections of a vector bundle, and the development of this in a manner that relates easily to classically known topologies in, for example, the finitely differentiable and smooth cases. The tools used in this development will be of use to researchers in the area of geometric functional analysis.

  14. Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with the Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite number of massive complex scalar fields on 2-dimensional spacetime, for which the usual anomaly-cancellation method is available. It is found that the total energy emitted from the horizon for the electromagnetic field is just (d-2) times that for a scalar field. The results support the picture that Hawking radiation can be regarded as an anomaly eliminator on horizons. Possible extensions and applications of the analysis are discussed

  15. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  16. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  17. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  18. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  19. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  20. Killing vector fields in three dimensions: a method to solve massive gravity field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Metin, E-mail: gurses@fen.bilkent.edu.t [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-10-21

    Killing vector fields in three dimensions play an important role in the construction of the related spacetime geometry. In this work we show that when a three-dimensional geometry admits a Killing vector field then the Ricci tensor of the geometry is determined in terms of the Killing vector field and its scalars. In this way we can generate all products and covariant derivatives at any order of the Ricci tensor. Using this property we give ways to solve the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG) introduced recently. In particular when the scalars of the Killing vector field (timelike, spacelike and null cases) are constants then all three-dimensional symmetric tensors of the geometry, the Ricci and Einstein tensors, their covariant derivatives at all orders, and their products of all orders are completely determined by the Killing vector field and the metric. Hence, the corresponding three-dimensional metrics are strong candidates for solving all higher derivative gravitational field equations in three dimensions.

  1. Efficient and Enhanced Diffusion of Vector Field for Active Contour Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqi; Sun, Lin; Liu, Shangwang

    2015-01-01

    Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an important external force field for active contour models. Various vector fields based on GVF have been proposed. However, these vector fields are obtained with many iterations and have difficulty in capturing the whole image area. On the other hand, the ability to converge to deep and complex concavity with these vector fields is also needed to improve. In this paper, by analyzing the diffusion equation of GVF, a normalized set is defined and a dynamically nor...

  2. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  3. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  4. Two-Dimensional Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J. J.; Roelofs, W. S. C.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Shehu, A.; Cramer, T.; Biscarini, F.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of carrier confinement on the charge-transport properties of organic field-effect transistors. Confinement is achieved experimentally by the use of semiconductors of which the active layer is only one molecule thick. The two-dimensional confinement of charge carriers provides

  5. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  6. VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS FROM THE IMAGING VECTOR MAGNETOGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Mickey, Don; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    First, we describe a general procedure to produce high-quality vector magnetograms using the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) at Mees Solar Observatory. Two IVM effects are newly discussed and taken into account: (1) the central wavelength of the Fabry-Perot is found to drift with time as a result of undiagnosed thermal or mechanical instabilities in the instrument; (2) the Stokes V-sign convention built into the IVM is found to be opposite to the conventional definition used in the study of radiative transfer of polarized radiation. At the spatial resolution 2'' x 2'', the Stokes Q, U, V uncertainty reaches ∼1 x 10 -3 to 5 x 10 -4 in time-averaged data over 1 hr in the quiet Sun. When vector magnetic fields are inferred from the time-averaged Stokes spectral images of FeI 6302.5 A, the resulting uncertainties are on the order of 10 G for the longitudinal fields (B || ), 40 G for the transverse field strength (B perpendicular ) and ∼9 0 for the magnetic azimuth (φ). The magnetic field inversion used in this work is the 'Triplet' code, which was developed and implemented in the IVM software package by the late B. J. LaBonte. The inversion code is described in detail in the Appendix. Second, we solve for the absolute value of the vertical electric current density, |J z |, accounting for the above IVM problems, for two different active regions. One is a single sunspot region (NOAA 10001 observed on 2002 June 20) while the other is a more complex, quadrupolar region (NOAA10030 observed on 2002 July 15). We use a calculation that does not require disambiguation of 180 0 in the transverse field directions. The |J z | uncertainty is on the order of ∼7.0 mA m -2 . The vertical current density increases with increasing vertical magnetic field. The rate of increase is about 1-2 times as large in the quadrupolar NOAA 10030 region as in the simple NOAA 10001, and it is more spatially variable over NOAA 10030 than over NOAA 10001.

  7. Helicons in uniform fields. II. Poynting vector and angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    The orbital and spin angular momenta of helicon modes have been determined quantitatively from laboratory experiments. The current density is obtained unambiguously from three dimensional magnetic field measurements. The only approximation made is to obtain the electric field from Hall Ohm's law which is usually the case for low frequency whistler modes. This allows the evaluation of the Poynting vector from which the angular momentum is obtained. Comparing two helicon modes (m = 0 and m = 1), one can separate the contribution of angular momentum of a rotating and non-rotating wave field. The orbital angular momentum is important to assess the wave-particle interaction by the transverse Doppler shift of rotating waves which has not been considered so far.

  8. HEIGHT VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.

  9. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  10. The intermittency of vector fields and random-number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. O.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Tutubalin, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We examine how well natural random-number generators can reproduce the intermittency phenomena that arise in the transfer of vector fields in random media. A generator based on the analysis of financial indices is suggested as the most promising random-number generator. Is it shown that even this generator, however, fails to reproduce the phenomenon long enough to confidently detect intermittency, while the C++ generator successfully solves this problem. We discuss the prospects of using shell models of turbulence as the desired generator.

  11. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  12. Autocorrelation based reconstruction of two-dimensional binary objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Barbosa, Y.; Castaneda, R.

    2005-10-01

    A method for reconstructing two-dimensional binary objects from its autocorrelation function is discussed. The objects consist of a finite set of identical elements. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the concept of class of element pairs, defined as the set of element pairs with the same separation vector. This concept allows to solve the redundancy introduced by the element pairs of each class. It is also shown that different objects, consisting of an equal number of elements and the same classes of pairs, provide Fraunhofer diffraction patterns with identical intensity distributions. However, the method predicts all the possible objects that produce the same Fraunhofer pattern. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  14. 2D Vector Field Simplification Based on Robustness

    KAUST Repository

    Skraba, Primoz

    2014-03-01

    Vector field simplification aims to reduce the complexity of the flow by removing features in order of their relevance and importance, to reveal prominent behavior and obtain a compact representation for interpretation. Most existing simplification techniques based on the topological skeleton successively remove pairs of critical points connected by separatrices, using distance or area-based relevance measures. These methods rely on the stable extraction of the topological skeleton, which can be difficult due to instability in numerical integration, especially when processing highly rotational flows. These geometric metrics do not consider the flow magnitude, an important physical property of the flow. In this paper, we propose a novel simplification scheme derived from the recently introduced topological notion of robustness, which provides a complementary view on flow structure compared to the traditional topological-skeleton-based approaches. Robustness enables the pruning of sets of critical points according to a quantitative measure of their stability, that is, the minimum amount of vector field perturbation required to remove them. This leads to a hierarchical simplification scheme that encodes flow magnitude in its perturbation metric. Our novel simplification algorithm is based on degree theory, has fewer boundary restrictions, and so can handle more general cases. Finally, we provide an implementation under the piecewise-linear setting and apply it to both synthetic and real-world datasets. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Multiresolution and Explicit Methods for Vector Field Analysis and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a request for a second renewal (3d year of funding) of a research project on the topic of multiresolution and explicit methods for vector field analysis and visualization. In this report, we describe the progress made on this research project during the second year and give a statement of the planned research for the third year. There are two aspects to this research project. The first is concerned with the development of techniques for computing tangent curves for use in visualizing flow fields. The second aspect of the research project is concerned with the development of multiresolution methods for curvilinear grids and their use as tools for visualization, analysis and archiving of flow data. We report on our work on the development of numerical methods for tangent curve computation first.

  16. Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)

  17. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  18. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  19. Vector condensate and AdS soliton instability induced by a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Li, Li-Fang; Wu, You

    2014-01-01

    We continue to study the holographic p-wave superconductor model in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a non-minimal coupling between the complex vector field and the Maxwell field. In this paper we work in the AdS soliton background which describes a conformal field theory in the confined phase and focus on the probe approximation. We find that an applied magnetic field can lead to the condensate of the vector field and the AdS soliton instability. As a result, a vortex lattice structure forms in the spatial directions perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. As a comparison, we also discuss the vector condensate in the Einstein-SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and find that in the setup of the present paper, the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field model is a generalization of the SU(2) model in the sense that the vector field has a general mass and gyromagnetic ratio

  20. A solution of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow using the finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two dimensional numerical modeling of the coupling electromagnetic-hydrodynamic phenomena in a conduction MHD pump using the Finite volume Method. Magnetohydrodynamic problems are, thus, interdisciplinary and coupled, since the effect of the velocity field appears in the magnetic transport equations, and the interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field appears in the momentum transport equations. The resolution of the Maxwell's and Navier Stokes equations is obtained by introducing the magnetic vector potential A, the vorticity z and the stream function y. The flux density, the electromagnetic force, and the velocity are graphically presented. Also, the simulation results agree with those obtained by Ansys Workbench Fluent software.

  1. Gauge theories of Yang-Mills vector fields coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, Stephen C.

    2003-01-01

    A non-Abelian class of massless/massive nonlinear gauge theories of Yang-Mills vector potentials coupled to Freedman-Townsend antisymmetric tensor potentials is constructed in four space-time dimensions. These theories involve an extended Freedman-Townsend-type coupling between the vector and tensor fields, and a Chern-Simons mass term with the addition of a Higgs-type coupling of the tensor fields to the vector fields in the massive case. Geometrical, field theoretic, and algebraic aspects of the theories are discussed in detail. In particular, the geometrical structure mixes and unifies features of Yang-Mills theory and Freedman-Townsend theory formulated in terms of Lie algebra valued curvatures and connections associated to the fields and nonlinear field strengths. The theories arise from a general determination of all possible geometrical nonlinear deformations of linear Abelian gauge theory for one-form fields and two-form fields with an Abelian Chern-Simons mass term in four dimensions. For this type of deformation (with typical assumptions on the allowed form considered for terms in the gauge symmetries and field equations), an explicit classification of deformation terms at first-order is obtained, and uniqueness of deformation terms at all higher orders is proven. This leads to a uniqueness result for the non-Abelian class of theories constructed here

  2. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  3. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  4. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  5. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  6. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  7. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  8. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  10. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  11. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  12. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  14. Vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer with field differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, S.; Tsunegi, S.; Kubota, H.; Yuasa, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) spectrometer with field differential detection. This technique differentiates the S-parameter by applying a small binary modulation field in addition to the DC bias field to the sample. By setting the modulation frequency sufficiently high, slow sensitivity fluctuations of the VNA, i.e., low-frequency components of the trace noise, which limit the signal-to-noise ratio of the conventional VNA-FMR spectrometer, can be effectively removed, resulting in a very clean FMR signal. This paper presents the details of the hardware implementation and measurement sequence as well as the data processing and analysis algorithms tailored for the FMR spectrum obtained with this technique. Because the VNA measures a complex S-parameter, it is possible to estimate the Gilbert damping parameter from the slope of the phase variation of the S-parameter with respect to the bias field. We show that this algorithm is more robust against noise than the conventional algorithm based on the linewidth.

  15. Derivative self-interactions for a massive vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose, E-mail: jose.beltran@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [CPT, Aix Marseille Université, UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Heisenberg, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.heisenberg@eth-its.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-10

    In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also with the transverse modes. The resulting interactions can then be straightforwardly generalized beyond the decoupling limit. We then proceed to a systematic construction of the interactions by using the Levi–Civita tensors. Both approaches lead to a finite family of allowed derivative self-interactions for the Proca field. This construction allows us to show that some higher order terms recently introduced as new interactions trivialize in 4 dimensions by virtue of the Cayley–Hamilton theorem. Moreover, we discuss how the resulting derivative interactions can be written in a compact determinantal form, which can also be regarded as a generalization of the Born-Infeld lagrangian for electromagnetism. Finally, we generalize our results for a curved background and give the necessary non-minimal couplings guaranteeing that no additional polarizations propagate even in the presence of gravity.

  16. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2013-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified...... with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit...

  17. Harmonic analysis on local fields and adelic spaces. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, D V; Parshin, A N

    2008-01-01

    We develop harmonic analysis on the objects of a category C 2 of infinite-dimensional filtered vector spaces over a finite field. This category includes two-dimensional local fields and adelic spaces of algebraic surfaces defined over a finite field. As the main result, we construct the theory of the Fourier transform on these objects and obtain two-dimensional Poisson formulae

  18. Charge density wave properties of the quasi two-dimensional purple molybdenum bronze KMo 6O 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaska, H.; Dumas, J.; Guyot, H.; Mallet, P.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Veuillen, J. Y.; Vignolles, D.

    2005-06-01

    The purple molybdenum bronze KMo 6O 17 is a quasi-two-dimensional compound which shows a Peierls transition towards a commensurate metallic CDW state. Electron spectroscopy (ARUPS), Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) as well as high magnetic field studies are reported. ARUPS studies corroborate the model of the hidden nesting and provide a value of the CDW vector in good agreement with other measurements. STM studies visualize the triple- q CDW in real space. This is consistent with other measurements of the CDW vector. STS studies provide a value of several 10 meV for the average CDW gap. High magnetic field measurements performed in pulsed fields up to 55 T establish that first order transitions to smaller gap states take place at low temperature. These transitions are ascribed to Pauli type coupling. A phase diagram summarizing all observed anomalies and transitions is presented.

  19. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined......This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...

  20. Non-gaussianity from the trispectrum and vector field perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.; Rodriguez, Yeinzon

    2010-01-01

    We use the δN formalism to study the trispectrum T ζ of the primordial curvature perturbation ζ when the latter is generated by vector field perturbations, considering the tree-level and one-loop contributions. The order of magnitude of the level of non-gaussianity in the trispectrum, τ NL , is calculated in this scenario and related to the order of magnitude of the level of non-gaussianity in the bispectrum, f NL , and the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g ζ . Such consistency relations will put under test this scenario against future observations. Comparison with the expected observational bound on τ NL from WMAP, for generic inflationary models, is done.

  1. Non-gaussianity from the trispectrum and vector field perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A., E-mail: cavalto@ciencias.uis.edu.c [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Rodriguez, Yeinzon, E-mail: yeinzon.rodriguez@uan.edu.c [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Narino, Cra 3 Este 47A-15, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2010-03-01

    We use the deltaN formalism to study the trispectrum T{sub z}eta of the primordial curvature perturbation zeta when the latter is generated by vector field perturbations, considering the tree-level and one-loop contributions. The order of magnitude of the level of non-gaussianity in the trispectrum, tau{sub NL}, is calculated in this scenario and related to the order of magnitude of the level of non-gaussianity in the bispectrum, f{sub NL}, and the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g{sub z}eta. Such consistency relations will put under test this scenario against future observations. Comparison with the expected observational bound on tau{sub NL} from WMAP, for generic inflationary models, is done.

  2. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  3. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  4. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  5. Mode selection in two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S; Zaslavskii, V Yu; Malkin, A M; Sergeev, A S; Thumm, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides are analysed. It is shown that the doubly periodic corrugation deposited on the dielectric surface in the form of two gratings with translational vectors directed perpendicular to each other ensures effective selection of modes along two coordinates at large Fresnel parameters. This result is obtained both by the method of coupled waves (geometrical optics approximation) and by the direct numerical simulations. Two-dimensional Bragg resonators make it possible to fabricate two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers and to provide generation of spatially coherent radiation in large-volume active media. (waveguides)

  6. General projective relativity and the vector-tensor gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    In the general projective relativity, the induced 4-dimensional metric is symmetric in three cases, and we obtain the vector-tensor, the scalar-tensor, and the scalar-vector-tensor theories of gravitation. In this work we examine the vector-tensor theory, similar to the Veblen's theory, but with a different physical interpretation

  7. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  8. Lovelock vacua with a recurrent null vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaggio, Marcello

    2018-02-01

    Vacuum solutions of Lovelock gravity in the presence of a recurrent null vector field (a subset of Kundt spacetimes) are studied. We first discuss the general field equations, which constrain both the base space and the profile functions. While choosing a "generic" base space puts stronger constraints on the profile, in special cases there also exist solutions containing arbitrary functions (at least for certain values of the coupling constants). These and other properties (such as the p p - waves subclass and the overlap with VSI, CSI and universal spacetimes) are subsequently analyzed in more detail in lower dimensions n =5 , 6 as well as for particular choices of the base manifold. The obtained solutions describe various classes of nonexpanding gravitational waves propagating, e.g., in Nariai-like backgrounds M2×Σn -2. An Appendix contains some results about general (i.e., not necessarily Kundt) Lovelock vacua of Riemann type III/N and of Weyl and traceless-Ricci type III/N. For example, it is pointed out that for theories admitting a triply degenerate maximally symmetric vacuum, all the (reduced) field equations are satisfied identically, giving rise to large classes of exact solutions.

  9. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  11. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  12. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  13. A model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in an AdS{sub 3} background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, R. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we study a model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in a three-dimensional anti-de Sitter background. We use a generalized Schroedinger picture in which the analogs of the Schroedinger operators of the particle are independent of both the time and the space coordinates in different representations. The spacetime independent operators of the particle induce the Lie algebra of Killing vector fields of the AdS{sub 3} spacetime. In this picture, we have a metamorphosis of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. (orig.)

  14. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  15. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  16. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  17. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  18. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  19. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  20. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.