Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics.
Chung, Hoi Sung; Khalil, Munira; Smith, Adam W; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2007-06-01
We have developed a Fourier transform two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectrometer to probe chemical reactions and biophysical processes triggered by a nanosecond temperature jump (T jump). The technical challenges for such a spectrometer involve (1) synchronization of a nanosecond T-jump laser and femtosecond laser system, (2) overcoming the decreased signal-to-noise ratio from low repetition rate data acquisition, and (3) performing an interferometric measurement through a sample with a density and index of refraction that varies with time delay after the T jump. The first challenge was overcome by synchronizing the two lasers to a clock derived from the Ti:sapphire oscillator, leading to timing accuracy of 2 ns for delays up to 50 ms. The data collection time is reduced by using undersampling with the improved signal-to-noise ratio obtained from a balanced detection scheme with a dual stripe array detector. Transient dispersed vibrational echo and 2D IR spectroscopy are applied to N-methylacetamide and ubiquitin, as examples, and the spectral responses by a temperature elevation and by structural changes of the protein are compared. The synchronization of 2D IR spectroscopy with a nanosecond temperature jump without losing its sensitivity at a low repetition rate opens a new applicability of the nonlinear spectroscopy to probe a variety of molecular structure changes induced by a nanosecond perturbation.
Transient Topology Optimization of Two-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2008-01-01
A tapering device coupling two monomodal waveguides is designed with the topology optimization method based on transient wave propagation. The gradient-based optimization technique is applied to predict the material distribution in the tapering area such that the squared output displacement (a...
Numerical modeling of transient two-dimensional viscoelastic waves
Lombard, Bruno
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical modeling of transient mechanical waves in linear viscoelastic solids. Dissipation mechanisms are described using the Zener model. No time convolutions are required thanks to the introduction of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time differential equations. By appropriately choosing the Zener parameters, it is possible to accurately describe a large range of materials, such as solids with constant quality factors. The evolution equations satisfied by the velocity, the stress, and the memory variables are written in the form of a first-order system of PDEs with a source term. This system is solved by splitting it into two parts: the propagative part is discretized explicitly, using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, and the diffusive part is then solved exactly. Jump conditions along the interfaces are discretized by applying an immersed interface method. Numerical experiments of wave propagation in viscoelastic and fluid media show the efficiency of this nu...
Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2013-11-01
High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.
Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Monclús
2013-11-01
Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.
Full two-dimensional transient solutions of electrothermal aircraft blade deicing
Masiulaniec, K. C.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Dewitt, K. J.; Leffel, K. L.
1985-01-01
Two finite difference methods are presented for the analysis of transient, two-dimensional responses of an electrothermal de-icer pad of an aircraft wing or blade with attached variable ice layer thickness. Both models employ a Crank-Nicholson iterative scheme, and use an enthalpy formulation to handle the phase change in the ice layer. The first technique makes use of a 'staircase' approach, fitting the irregular ice boundary with square computational cells. The second technique uses a body fitted coordinate transform, and maps the exact shape of the irregular boundary into a rectangular body, with uniformally square computational cells. The numerical solution takes place in the transformed plane. Initial results accounting for variable ice layer thickness are presented. Details of planned de-icing tests at NASA-Lewis, which will provide empirical verification for the above two methods, are also presented.
Two-dimensional finite-element temperature variance analysis
Heuser, J. S.
1972-01-01
The finite element method is extended to thermal analysis by forming a variance analysis of temperature results so that the sensitivity of predicted temperatures to uncertainties in input variables is determined. The temperature fields within a finite number of elements are described in terms of the temperatures of vertices and the variational principle is used to minimize the integral equation describing thermal potential energy. A computer calculation yields the desired solution matrix of predicted temperatures and provides information about initial thermal parameters and their associated errors. Sample calculations show that all predicted temperatures are most effected by temperature values along fixed boundaries; more accurate specifications of these temperatures reduce errors in thermal calculations.
PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.
1987-03-01
PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.
Two-dimensional temperature determination in sooting flames by filtered Rayleigh scattering
Hoffman, D.; Münch, K.-U.; Leipertz, A.
1996-04-01
We present what to our knowledge are the first filtered Rayleigh scattering temperature measurements and use them in sooting flame. This new technique for two-dimensional thermography in gas combustion overcomes some of the major disadvantages of the standard Rayleigh technique. It suppresses scattered background light from walls or windows and permits detection of two-dimensional Rayleigh intensity distributions of the gas phase in the presence of small particles by spectral filtering of the scattered light.
Dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional lattice at non-zero temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Anne-Louise G.; Bruun, Georg
2012-01-01
We examine density-ordered and superfluid phases of fermionic dipoles in a two-dimensional square lattice at nonzero temperature. The critical temperature of the density-ordered phases is determined and is shown to be proportional to the coupling strength for strong coupling. We calculate...
Nayfeh, A. H.; Sun, J.
1974-01-01
An investigation is described of the effect of transverse mean-velocity and temperature gradients on sound attenuation in acoustically treated two-dimensional ducts. The results show that cooling the duct walls leads to channeling the sound toward the walls for both downstream and upstream propagation. The effect of mean-temperature gradients on the attenuation rates of the lowest three modes can be as important as the effect of mean-velocity gradients.
Two-dimensional salt and temperature DNA denaturation analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rizzi, Giovanni; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2017-01-01
. The results demonstrate that concentration melting provides an attractive alternative to temperature melting in on-chip DNA denaturation experiments and further show that the magnetoresistive platform is attractive due to its low cross-sensitivity to temperature and liquid composition....... temperature as well as salt concentration. The salt concentration melting curves were found to be more reliable than temperature melting curves. We performed a two-dimensional mapping of the melting profiles of a target to probes targeting its wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) variants in the temperature...
Ultra-low-temperature cooling of two-dimensional electron gas
Xia, J. S.; Adams, E. D.; Shvarts, V.; Pan, W.; Stormer, H. L.; Tsui, D. C.
2000-05-01
A new design has been used for cooling GaAs/Al xGa 1- xAs sample to ultra-low-temperatures. The sample, with electrical contacts directly soldered to the sintered silver powder heat exchangers, was immersed in liquid 3He, which was cooled by a PrNI 5 nuclear refrigerator. The data analysis shows that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) was cooled to 4.0 mK at the refrigerator base temperature Tb of 2.0 mK. The design with heat exchanger cooling is applicable to any ultra-low-temperature transport measurements of 2DEG system.
Temperature dependence of universal fluctuations in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model.
Palma, G
2006-04-01
We compute exact analytical expressions for the skewness and kurtosis in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model. These quantities correspond to the third and fourth normalized moments of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnetization of the model. From their behavior, we conclude that they depend explicitly on the system temperature even in the thermodynamic limit, and hence the PDF itself must depend on it. Our results correct the hypothesis called universal fluctuations, they confirm and extend previous results which showed a T dependence of the PDF, including perturbative expansions within the XY model up to first order in temperature.
Two-dimensional temperature analysis of nuclear fireballs using digitized film
Slaughter, Robert C.; Peery, Tyler R.; McClory, John W.
2015-01-01
Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have begun digitizing technical films spanning the atmospheric nuclear testing operations conducted by the United States from 1945 through 1962. Each atmospheric nuclear test was filmed by Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., using between 20 to 40 cameras per test. These technical film test data represent a primary source for advancing the knowledge of nuclear weapon output as well as the understanding of nonnuclear high-temperature gases. This manuscript outlines the procedures followed in order to perform two-dimensional temperature calculations for early time nuclear fireballs using digitized film. The digitized optical densities of the film were converted into irradiance on the film that was then used to determine an effective power temperature. The events Wasp Prime and Tesla of Operation Teapot were analyzed using this technique. Film temperature results agreed within uncertainties with historic data collected by calorimeters. Results were also validated by comparison to a thermal heat flux solution that utilizes historic thermal yield values to normalize radiant flux. Additionally, digital imaging and remote sensing image generation was used to demonstrate that the two-dimensional temperature calculation was self-consistent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Takeda
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this review, we demonstrate a real-time time-frequency two-dimensional (2D pump-probe imaging spectroscopy implemented on a single shot basis applicable to excited-state dynamics in solid-state organic and biological materials. Using this technique, we could successfully map ultrafast time-frequency 2D transient absorption signals of β-carotene in solid films with wide temporal and spectral ranges having very short accumulation time of 20 ms per unit frame. The results obtained indicate the high potential of this technique as a powerful and unique spectroscopic tool to observe ultrafast excited-state dynamics of organic and biological materials in solid-state, which undergo rapid photodegradation.
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
This report describes the user's manual for 'HPTAM,' a two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model. HPTAM is described in detail in the UNM-ISNPS-3-1995 report which accompanies the present manual. The model offers a menu that lists a number of working fluids and wall and wick materials from which the user can choose. HPTAM is capable of simulating the startup of heat pipes from either a fully-thawed or frozen condition of the working fluid in the wick structure. The manual includes instructions for installing and running HPTAM on either a UNIX, MS-DOS or VMS operating system. Samples for input and output files are also provided to help the user with the code.
Two-dimensional fibre grating packaging design for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement
Mokhtar, M. R.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.
2010-09-01
This paper demonstrates a novel two-dimensional sensor packaging design to facilitate the use of fibre grating-based sensors for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement. The width and height of a sensor package were optimized to induce dissimilar responses from two co-located fibre gratings within the sensor head. Through an appropriate calibration of both the strain and temperature coefficients of the individual fibre gratings used, both strain and temperature can be accurately determined and their individual components separated by measuring the shift in their respective Bragg wavelengths. This approach can not only ensure the robustness of the sensor head, but also offer the necessary level of control over the differences between the coefficients, which allows for maximizing the accuracy of the strain and temperature values determined from the sensor itself.
Tupikov, Y.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Burmistrov, I. S.
2015-01-01
We report first thermodynamic measurements of the temperature derivative of chemical potential (d{\\mu}/dT) in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. In order to test the technique we have chosen Schottky gated GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions and detected experimentally in this 2D system quantum magnetooscillations of d{\\mu}/dT. We also present a Lifshits-Kosevitch type theory for the d{\\mu}/dT magnetooscillations in 2D systems and compare the theory with experimental data. The magnetic field depe...
Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moffatt, Robert [Stanford U.
2016-01-01
In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.
Room-temperature exciton-polaritons with two-dimensional WS$_2$
Flatten, Lucas C; Coles, David M; Trichet, Aurelien A P; Powell, Alex W; Taylor, Robert A; Warner, Jamie H; Smith, Jason M
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit strong optical transitions with significant potential for optoelectronic devices. In particular they are suited for cavity quantum electrodynamics in which strong coupling leads to polariton formation as a root to realisation of inversionless lasing, polariton condensationand superfluidity. Demonstrations of such strongly correlated phenomena to date have often relied on cryogenic temperatures, high excitation densities and were frequently impaired by strong material disorder. At room-temperature, experiments approaching the strong coupling regime with transition metal dichalcogenides have been reported, but well resolved exciton-polaritons have yet to be achieved. Here we report a study of monolayer WS$_2$ coupled to an open Fabry-Perot cavity at room-temperature, in which polariton eigenstates are unambiguously displayed. In-situ tunability of the cavity length results in a maximal Rabi splitting of $\\hbar \\Omega_{\\rm{Rabi}} = 70$ meV, exceeding the e...
Two-dimensional mathematical model of a reciprocating room-temperature Active Magnetic Regenerator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;
2008-01-01
heat exchanger. The model simulates the different steps of the AMR refrigeration cycle and evaluates the performance in terms of refrigeration capacity and temperature span between the two heat exchangers. The model was used to perform an analysis of an AMR with a regenerator made of gadolinium...... and water as the heat transfer fluid. The results show that the AMR is able to obtain a no-load temperature span of 10.9 K in a 1 T magnetic field with a corresponding work input of 93.0 kJ m−3 of gadolinium per cycle. The model shows significant temperature differences between the regenerator and the heat...... transfer fluid during the AMR cycle. This indicates that it is necessary to use two-dimensional models when a parallel-plate regenerator geometry is used....
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, 'HPTAM,' was developed to simulate the transient operation of fully-thawed heat pipes and the startup of heat pipes from a frozen state. The model incorporates: (a) sublimation and resolidification of working fluid; (b) melting and freezing of the working fluid in the porous wick; (c) evaporation of thawed working fluid and condensation as a thin liquid film on a frozen substrate; (d) free-molecule, transition, and continuum vapor flow regimes, using the Dusty Gas Model; (e) liquid flow and heat transfer in the porous wick; and (f) thermal and hydrodynamic couplings of phases at their respective interfaces. HPTAM predicts the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus at the liquid-vapor interface and the radial location of the working fluid level (liquid or solid) in the wick. It also includes the transverse momentum jump condition (capillary relationship of Pascal) at the liquid-vapor interface and geometrically relates the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus to the volume fraction of vapor in the wick. The present model predicts the capillary limit and partial liquid recess (dryout) in the evaporator wick, and incorporates a liquid pooling submodel, which simulates accumulation of the excess liquid in the vapor core at the condenser end.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
S Pamuk; N Pamuk
2014-01-01
In this paper, we obtain the particular exact solutions of the two-dimensional heat and mass transfer equation with power-law temperature-dependent thermal con- ductivity using the Adomian's decomposition method...
Mustapha Maliki; Nadia Laredj; Karim Bendani; Hanifi Missoum
2017-01-01
This paper reports on a transient heat, air and moisture transfer (HAM) model. The governing partial-differential equations are simultaneously solved for temperature and capillary pressure through multi-layered porous media, including the non-linear transfer and storage properties of materials. Using partial differential equations functions, some thermo-physical properties of porous media are converted into coefficients depending on temperature and capillary pressure. Major features of the mo...
Tunable room temperature terahertz sources based on two dimensional plasma instability in GaN HEMTs
El Fatimy, A.; Suemitsu, T.; Otsuji, T.; Dyakonova, N.; Knap, W.; Meziani, Y. M.; Vandenbrouk, S.; Madjour, K.; Théron, D.; Gaquiere, Ch; Prystawko, P.; Skierbiszewski, C.
2009-11-01
In this work, we report on room temperature terahertz radiation from sub-micron size GaN/AlGaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). They could successfully replace the standard Fourier Transform spectrometer source and were investigated with a standard Si-bolometer as a detector. The relatively broad (~1THz) emission line was observed. The maxima were found to be tunable by the gate voltage between 0.75 and 2.1 THz. The observed emission was interpreted as due to the current driven plasma waves instability in the two-dimensional electron gas. The emitted power from a single device reached 150 nW, showing possible application of these transistors as compact sources for terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.
Tunable room temperature terahertz sources based on two dimensional plasma instability in GaN HEMTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fatimy, A El; Suemitsu, T; Otsuji, T; Knap, W [Research Institute of Electrical Communication (RIEC), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, 980-8577, Sendai (Japan); Dyakonova, N [Groupe d' Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR CNRS 5650, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Meziani, Y M [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Vandenbrouk, S; Madjour, K; Theron, D; Gaquiere, Ch [Institut d' Electronique et de Microelectronique du Nord, UMR CNRS 8520, 59655 Villeneuve d' Acsq (France); Prystawko, P; Skierbiszewski, C, E-mail: a.elfatimy@riec.tohoku.ac.j, E-mail: ElFatimyA@cardiff.ac.u [Institutes of High Pressure Physics, PAS, Unipress, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)
2009-11-15
In this work, we report on room temperature terahertz radiation from sub-micron size GaN/AlGaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). They could successfully replace the standard Fourier Transform spectrometer source and were investigated with a standard Si-bolometer as a detector. The relatively broad ({approx}1THz) emission line was observed. The maxima were found to be tunable by the gate voltage between 0.75 and 2.1 THz. The observed emission was interpreted as due to the current driven plasma waves instability in the two-dimensional electron gas. The emitted power from a single device reached 150 nW, showing possible application of these transistors as compact sources for terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.
Rathjen, K. A.
1977-01-01
A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight trajectory or can optionally be calculated external to the code and then entered as input data. The code computes the network conduction and convection links, as well as capacitance values, given basic geometrical and mesh sizes, for four generations (leading edges, cooled panels, X-24C structure and slabs). Input and output formats are presented and explained. Sample problems are included. A brief summary of the hybrid analytical-numerical technique, which utilizes eigenvalues (thermal frequencies) and eigenvectors (thermal mode vectors) is given along with aerodynamic heating equations that have been incorporated in the code and flow charts.
Room-temperature exciton-polaritons with two-dimensional WS2
Flatten, L. C.; He, Z.; Coles, D. M.; Trichet, A. A. P.; Powell, A. W.; Taylor, R. A.; Warner, J. H.; Smith, J. M.
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit strong optical transitions with significant potential for optoelectronic devices. In particular they are suited for cavity quantum electrodynamics in which strong coupling leads to polariton formation as a root to realisation of inversionless lasing, polariton condensation and superfluidity. Demonstrations of such strongly correlated phenomena to date have often relied on cryogenic temperatures, high excitation densities and were frequently impaired by strong material disorder. At room-temperature, experiments approaching the strong coupling regime with transition metal dichalcogenides have been reported, but well resolved exciton-polaritons have yet to be achieved. Here we report a study of monolayer WS2 coupled to an open Fabry-Perot cavity at room-temperature, in which polariton eigenstates are unambiguously displayed. In-situ tunability of the cavity length results in a maximal Rabi splitting of ħΩRabi = 70 meV, exceeding the exciton linewidth. Our data are well described by a transfer matrix model appropriate for the large linewidth regime. This work provides a platform towards observing strongly correlated polariton phenomena in compact photonic devices for ambient temperature applications.
Collin, William R; Nuñovero, Nicolas; Paul, Dibyadeep; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Zellers, Edward T
2016-04-29
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with a temperature-programmed microfabricated thermal modulator (μTM) is demonstrated. The 0.78 cm(2), 2-stage μTM chip with integrated heaters and a PDMS coated microchannel was placed in thermal contact with a solid-state thermoelectric cooler and mounted on top of a bench scale GC. It was fluidically coupled through heated interconnects to an upstream first-dimension ((1)D) PDMS-coated capillary column and a downstream uncoated capillary or second-dimension ((2)D) PEG-coated capillary. A mixture of n-alkanes C6-C10 was separated isothermally and the full-width-at-half-maximum (fwhm) values of the modulated peaks were assessed as a function of the computer-controlled minimum and maximum stage temperatures of μTM, Tmin and Tmax, respectively. With Tmin and Tmax fixed at -25 and 100°C, respectively, modulated peaks of C6 and C7 had fwhm valuesthermal modulator. Replacing the PDMS phase in the μTM with a trigonal-tricationic room temperature ionic liquid eliminated the bleed observed with the PDMS, but also reduced the capacity for several test compounds. Regardless, the demonstrated capability to independently temperature program this low resource μTM enhances its versatility and its promise for use in bench-scale GC×GC systems.
Numerical Modeling of Two-Dimensional Temperature Dynamics Across Ice-Wedge Polygons
Garayshin, Viacheslav V.
The ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska have been forming for many millennia, when the ground cracked and the cracks were filled with snowmelt water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. A deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough begins to form above the ice wedge. The forming trough creates a local temperature anomaly in the surrounding ground, and the permafrost located immediately under the trough starts degrading further. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper at the trough area further degrading the permafrost. In this thesis we present a computational approach to study the seasonal temperature dynamics of the ground surrounding an ice wedge and ground subsidence associated with ice wedge degradation. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics was developed and will be presented. The model includes heat conduction and quasi-static mechanical equilibrium equations, a visco-elastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for temperature, ground displacement and ground porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model employs temperature and moisture content data collected from a field experiment at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) sites in Barrow, Alaska. The model describes seasonal dynamics of temperature and the long-term ground motion near the ice wedges and helps to explain destabilization of the ice wedges north of Alaska's Brooks
Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki
2012-12-01
NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2016-05-01
Progress in describing thermodynamic phase transitions in quantum systems is obtained by noticing that the Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a three-dimensional tensor network, the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension D . The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. The isometries are optimized variationally, taking into account full tensor environment, to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO. The algorithm is applied to the isotropic quantum compass model on an infinite square lattice near a symmetry-breaking phase transition at finite temperature. From the linear susceptibility in the symmetric phase and the order parameter in the symmetry-broken phase, the critical temperature is estimated at Tc=0.0606 (4 ) J , where J is the isotropic coupling constant between S =1/2 pseudospins.
Yogeshwar, P.; Tezkan, B.
2017-01-01
Thick sedimentary sequences are deposited in the central area of the Azraq basin in Jordan consisting mostly of hyper-saline clay and various evaporates. These sediment successions form the 10 km × 10 km large Azraq mudflat and are promising archives for a palaeoclimatical reconstruction. Besides palaeoclimatical research, the Azraq area is of tremendous importance to Jordan due to groundwater and mineral resources. The heavy exploitation of groundwater has lead to a drastic decline of the water table and drying out of the former Azraq Oasis. Two 7 and 5 km long transects were investigated from the periphery of the mudflat across its center using a total of 150 central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The scope of the survey was to detect the thickness of sedimentary deposits along both transects and to provide a basis for future drilling activities. We derive a two-dimensional model which can explain the TEM data for all soundings along each profile simultaneously. Previously uncertain depths of geological boundaries were determined along both transects. Particularly the thickness of the deposited mudflat sediments was identified and ranges from 40 m towards the periphery down to approximately 130 m at the deepest location. Besides that, the depth and lateral extent of a buried basalt layer was identified. In the basin center the groundwater is hyper-saline. The lateral extent of the saline water body was determined precisely along both transects. In order to investigate the detectability of the basement below the high conductive mudflat sediments an elaborate two-dimensional modeling study was performed. Both, the resistivity and depth of the basement were varied systematically. The basement resistivity cannot be determined precisely in most zones and may range roughly between 1 and 100 Ωm without deteriorating the misfit. In contrast to that, the depth down to the basement is detected accurately in most zones and along both transects. Varying
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.
1992-08-01
LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boričić Zoran
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns with unsteady two-dimensional temperature laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer of incompressible fluid. It is assumed that induction of outer magnetic field is function of longitudinal coordinate with force lines perpendicular to the body surface on which boundary layer forms. Outer electric filed is neglected and magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower then one i.e. considered problem is in inductionless approximation. Characteristic properties of fluid are constant because velocity of flow is much lower than speed of light and temperature difference is small enough (under 50ºC . Introduced assumptions simplify considered problem in sake of mathematical solving, but adopted physical model is interesting from practical point of view, because its relation with large number of technically significant MHD flows. Obtained partial differential equations can be solved with modern numerical methods for every particular problem. Conclusions based on these solutions are related only with specific temperature MHD boundary layer problem. In this paper, quite different approach is used. First new variables are introduced and then sets of similarity parameters which transform equations on the form which don't contain inside and in corresponding boundary conditions characteristics of particular problems and in that sense equations are considered as universal. Obtained universal equations in appropriate approximation can be solved numerically once for all. So-called universal solutions of equations can be used to carry out general conclusions about temperature MHD boundary layer and for calculation of arbitrary particular problems. To calculate any particular problem it is necessary also to solve corresponding momentum integral equation.
Atomistic Analysis of Room Temperature Quantum Coherence in Two-Dimensional CdSe Nanostructures.
Pal, Sougata; Nijjar, Parmeet; Frauenheim, Thomas; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2017-03-02
Recent experiments on CdSe nanoplatelets synthesized with precisely controlled thickness that eliminates ensemble disorder have allowed accurate measurement of quantum coherence at room temperature. Matching exactly the CdSe cores of the experimentally studied particles and considering several defects, we establish the atomistic origins of the loss of coherence between heavy and light hole excitations in two-dimensional CdSe and CdSe/CdZnS core/shell structures. The coherence times obtained using molecular dynamics based on tight-binding density functional theory are in excellent agreement with the measured values. We show that a long coherence time is a consequence of both small fluctuations in the energy gap between the excited state pair, which is much less than thermal energy, and a slow decay of correlation between the energies of the two states. Anionic defects at the core/shell interface have little effect on the coherence lifetime, while cationic defects strongly perturb the electronic structure, destroying the experimentally observed coherence. By coupling to the same phonon modes, the heavy and light holes synchronize their energy fluctuations, facilitating long-lived coherence. We further demonstrate that the electronic excitations are localized close to the surface of these narrow nanoscale systems, and therefore, they couple most strongly to surface acoustic phonons. The established features of electron-phonon coupling and the influence of defects, surfaces, and core/shell interfaces provide important insights into quantum coherence in nanoscale materials in general.
Ihara, I.; Yamada, H.; Takahashi, M.
2011-01-01
A non-contact method with a laser-ultrasonic technique for measuring two-dimensional temperature distribution on a material surface is presented. The method consists of a laser-ultrasonic measurement of a one-dimensional temperature distribution on a material surface and its two-dimensional area mapping. The surface temperature is basically determined from a temperature dependence of the velocity of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a material surface. One-dimensional surface temperature distributions are determined by an inverse analysis consisting of a SAW measurement and a finite difference calculation. To obtain a two-dimensional distribution of surface temperature on a material surface, SAW measurements within the area of a square on the surface are performed by a pulsed laser scanning with a galvanometer system. The inverse analysis is then applied to each of the SAW data to determine the surface temperature distribution in a certain direction, and the obtained one-dimensional distributions are combined to construct a two-dimensional distribution of surface temperature. It has been demonstrated from the experiment with a heated aluminum plate that the temperature distributions of the area of a square on the aluminium surface determined by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those measured using an infrared camera.
Statistics of velocity and temperature fluctuations in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Zhang, Yang; Huang, Yong-Xiang; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yu-Lu; Lu, Zhi-Ming; Qiu, Xiang; Zhou, Quan
2017-08-01
We investigate fluctuations of the velocity and temperature fields in two-dimensional (2D) Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) convection by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) over the Rayleigh number range 106≤Ra≤1010 and for a fixed Prandtl number Pr=5.3 and aspect ratio Γ =1 . Our results show that there exists a counter-gradient turbulent transport of energy from fluctuations to the mean flow both locally and globally, implying that the Reynolds stress is one of the driving mechanisms of the large-scale circulation in 2D turbulent RB convection besides the buoyancy of thermal plumes. We also find that the viscous boundary layer (BL) thicknesses near the horizontal conducting plates and near the vertical sidewalls, δu and δv, are almost the same for a given Ra, and they scale with the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers as ˜Ra-0.26±0.03 and ˜Re-0.43±0.04 . Furthermore, the thermal BL thickness δθ defined based on the root-mean-square (rms) temperature profiles is found to agree with Prandtl-Blasius predictions from the scaling point of view. In addition, the probability density functions of turbulent energy ɛu' and thermal ɛθ' dissipation rates, calculated, respectively, within the viscous and thermal BLs, are found to be always non-log-normal and obey approximately a Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution first introduced to characterize rare fluctuations in a confined turbulent flow and critical phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Maliki
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on a transient heat, air and moisture transfer (HAM model. The governing partial-differential equations are simultaneously solved for temperature and capillary pressure through multi-layered porous media, including the non-linear transfer and storage properties of materials. Using partial differential equations functions, some thermo-physical properties of porous media are converted into coefficients depending on temperature and capillary pressure. Major features of the model are multi-dimensional and transient coupling of heat, air and moisture transport. The coupled equations are solved using the COMSOL Multiphysics time-dependent solver. This solver enables HAM (Heat, Air, Moisture modeling in porous media. Besides, the good agreements obtained with a 2D benchmark suggest that the model can be used to assess the hygrothermal performance of building envelope components. This paper concludes that the total heat flux in the insulated wall represents only the quarter of that crossing the uninsulated concrete roof. On the other hand, the concrete having the lowest water vapour permeability of all used materials allows maintaining the vapour pressure levels close to the initial value (103 Pa. This induces a situation of interstitial condensation within the concrete of the roof. Being able to evaluate the hygrothermal behaviour, the proposed model may turn out to be a valuable tool to solve other building problems.
Liu, S Y; Lei, X. L.; Horing, Norman J. M.
2011-01-01
Considering screeening of electron scattering interactions in terms of the finite-temperature STLS theory and solving the linearized Boltzmann equation (with no appeal to a relaxation time approximation), we present a theoretical analysis of the low-temperature Seebeck effect in two-dimensional semiconductors with dilute electron densities. We find that the temperature ($T$) dependencies of the diffusion and phonon-drag thermoelectric powers ($S_d$ and $S_g$) can no longer be described by the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hancke, Kasper; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten
2014-01-01
The effects of temperature and light on both oxygen (O2) production and gross photosynthesis were resolved in a benthic microalgae community by combining two-dimensional (2D) imaging of O2 and variable chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Images revealed a photosynthetically active community with ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Christopher Phillip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2005-01-01
Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Christopher P.
2005-12-15
Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.
Growth and decay of a two-dimensional oxide quasicrystal: High-temperature in situ microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foerster, Stefan [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Flege, Jan Ingo; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen (Germany); Zollner, Eva Maria; Schumann, Florian Otto; Hammer, Rene; Bayat, Alireza; Schindler, Karl-Michael [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Widdra, Wolf [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)
2017-01-15
The recently discovered two-dimensional oxide quasicrystal (OQC) derived from BaTiO{sub 3} on Pt(111) is the first material in which a spontaneous formation of an aperiodic structure at the interface to a periodic support has been observed. Herein, we report in situ low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) studies on the fundamental processes involved in the OQC growth. The OQC formation proceeds in two steps via of an amorphous two-dimensional wetting layer. At 1170 K the long-range aperiodic order of the OQC develops. Annealing in O{sub 2} induces the reverse process, the conversion of the OQC into BaTiO{sub 3} islands and bare Pt(111), which has been monitored by in situ LEEM. A quantitative analysis of the temporal decay of the OQC shows that oxygen adsorption on bare Pt patches is the rate limiting step of this dewetting process. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Anna, Jessica M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D
2013-09-26
Excited state dynamics in LH2 complexes of two purple bacterial species were studied by broad-band two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The optical response was measured in the 500-600 nm spectral region on the 0-400 fs time scale. Global target analysis of two-dimensional (2D) transient spectra revealed the main energy transfer pathways between carotenoid S2, 1Bu(-) and S1 states and bacteriochlorophyll Qx state. Global analysis ascertained the evolutionary and vibration-associated spectra, which also indicated the presence of a higher-lying vibrational level in the carotenoid S1 state. The estimation of the spectral overlap between the 1Bu(-) state and the Qx state indicated a significant contribution of the 1Bu(-) state to the overall S2-to-Qx excitation energy transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Pei-Song, E-mail: hepeisong@th.btbu.edu.cn; Zhao, Jia; Geng, Ai-Cong; Xu, Deng-Hui; Hu, Rong
2013-11-01
We prove that in a two-dimensional homogeneous boson system with Rashba spin–orbit coupling, Bose–Einstein condensate with plane-wave order is unstable at finite temperature. The calculations are based on a nonlinear sigma model scheme. The density wave contributions to the thermal deletions are divergent in the infrared limit. The behavior of the divergence is different from that without spin–orbit coupling.
Temperature and velocity field of the two-dimensional transverse hot-air jet in a freestream flow.
Tatom, J. W.; Cooper, M. A.; Hayden, T. K.
1972-01-01
Experimental investigation of the low subsonic, two-dimensional transverse hot-air jet. In the study jet-to-freestream angles of 90, 120, 135, and 150 deg and jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 5, 10, and 20 were investigated. In the tests the jet velocity and temperature fields were measured using a temperature-compensated hot-wire anemometer. Photographs of the flowfield were also made. The tests results are compared with the available data and analysis. Results indicate a relatively minor deflection of the freestream by the jet and the presence of a large separated flow region behind the jet.
Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Beigley, J; Rohwer, E
2017-08-04
Heavy petroleum fractions are produced during crude and synthetic crude oil refining processes and they need to be upgraded to useable products to increase their market value. Usually these fractions are upgraded to fuel products by hydrocracking, hydroisomerization and hydrogenation processes. These fractions are also upgraded to other high value commercial products like lubricant oils and waxes by distillation, hydrogenation, and oxidation and/or blending. Oxidation of hydrogenated heavy paraffinic fractions produces high value products that contain a variety of oxygenates and the characterization of these heavy oxygenates is very important for the control of oxidation processes. Traditionally titrimetric procedures are used to monitor oxygenate formation, however, these titrimetric procedures are tedious and lack selectivity toward specific oxygenate classes in complex matrices. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a way of increasing peak capacity for the comprehensive analysis of complex samples. Other groups have used HT-GC×GC to extend the carbon number range attainable by GC×GC and have optimised HT-GC×GC parameters for the separation of aromatics, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as sulphur-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions. HT-GC×GC column combinations for the separation of oxygenates in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions are optimised in this study. The advantages of the HT-GC×GC method in the monitoring of the oxidation reactions of heavy paraffinic fraction samples are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhishuo Huang
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Neither of the two typical two-dimensional materials, graphene and single layer MoS 2 , are good enough for developing semiconductor logical devices. We calculated the electron mobility of 14 two-dimensional semiconductors with composition of MX 2 , where M (=Mo, W, Sn, Hf, Zr and Pt are transition metals, and Xs are S, Se and Te. We approximated the electron phonon scattering matrix by deformation potentials, within which long wave longitudinal acoustical and optical phonon scatterings were included. Piezoelectric scattering in the compounds without inversion symmetry is also taken into account. We found that out of the 14 compounds, WS 2 , PtS 2 and PtSe 2 are promising for logical devices regarding the possible high electron mobility and finite band gap. Especially, the phonon limited electron mobility in PtSe 2 reaches about 4000 cm 2 ·V - 1 ·s - 1 at room temperature, which is the highest among the compounds with an indirect bandgap of about 1.25 eV under the local density approximation. Our results can be the first guide for experiments to synthesize better two-dimensional materials for future semiconductor devices.
Wu, Wan-ye; Wu, Kun; Li, Guo-ying
2015-02-01
The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study the aggregation behavior of acid-soluble collagen solutions (0.2, 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1)) during the heating process of 10-70 degrees C. It was found that the fluorescence excited at 292 and 282 nm (delta lamda=9 nm) belongs to the tyrosine (Tyr) residues which participate in forming hydrogen bonds or not, respectively. The two dimensional correlation analysis with the temperature varying showed that with the temperature increased (10-30 degrees C) hydrogen bonds among collagen molecular with Tyr residues formed in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) collagen solution, while the higher aggregations of collagen molecular and hydrophobic micro-domains appeared in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions. With approaching the denatured temperature of collagen (36-38 degrees C), the hydrophobic micro-domain and aggregates seemed to be broken in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions, however the hydrogen bonds in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) were stable. Above the denaturation temperature of collagen, the triple-helix structure of collagen molecular in solution of each concentration tended to be loose. In the heating process of 45-70 degrees C, this trend was more obvious.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Toufik Zebbiche; ZineEddine Youbi
2007-01-01
When the stagnation temperature of a perfect gas increases, the specific heats and their ratio do not remain constant any more and start to vary with this temperature. The gas remains perfect, its state equation remains always valid, except it will name in more calorically imperfect gas or gas at High Temperature. The goal of this research is to trace the profiles of the supersonic plug nozzle when this stagnation temperature is taken into account, lower than the threshold of dissociation of the molecules, by using the new formula of the Prandtl Meyer function, and to have for each exit Mach number, several nozzles shapes by changing the value of this temperature. A study on the error given by the PG (perfect gas) model compared to our model at high temperature is presented. The comparison is made with the case of a calorically perfect gas aiming to give a limit of application of this model. The application is for the air.
Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone
2016-01-01
Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.
Ren, Guo-Dong; Guo, Ai-Ling; Geng, Fang; Ma, Mei-Hu; Huang, Qun; Wu, Xiao-Fen
2012-07-01
The conformation changes of Apo-Ovotransferrin and Holo-Ovotransferrin were studied with the heat treatment 25-95 degrees C by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analyzer. The results of one-dimensional infrared spectroscopy showed that with the increase in temperature, the peak at 3 300 cm(-1) of Apo-Ovo-transferrin shifted more than that of Holo-Ovotransferrin. The peak at 3 300 cm(-1) derived from stretching vibrations of N-H and O-H indicates that iron-binding enhanced the role of hydrogen bonds and resistance to heat. The changing order of the secondary structure of ovotransferrin was determined by analyzing two-dimensional infrared spectra,witch is beta-sheet>amide II >-CH2 - bending vibration. In addition, it was found that the cross-peaks at 1 652 and 1 688 cm(-1) are different in synchronous and asynchronous counter maps by comparing Apo-Ovotransferrin with Holo-Ovotransferrin. It was suggested that the temperature made less impact on the alpha-helix in Holo-Ovotransferrin than on that in Apo-Ovotransferrin, however, the beta-turn in Holo-Ovotransferrin was more sensitive to temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuehua Shen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Temperature, especially temperature distribution, is one of the most fundamental and vital parameters for theoretical study and control of various industrial applications. In this paper, ultrasonic thermometry to reconstruct temperature distribution is investigated, referring to the dependence of ultrasound velocity on temperature. In practical applications of this ultrasonic technique, reconstruction algorithm based on least square method is commonly used. However, it has a limitation that the amount of divided blocks of measure area cannot exceed the amount of effective travel paths, which eventually leads to its inability to offer sufficient temperature information. To make up for this defect, an improved reconstruction algorithm based on least square method and multiquadric interpolation is presented. And then, its reconstruction performance is validated via numerical studies using four temperature distribution models with different complexity and is compared with that of algorithm based on least square method. Comparison and analysis indicate that the algorithm presented in this paper has more excellent reconstruction performance, as the reconstructed temperature distributions will not lose information near the edge of area while with small errors, and its mean reconstruction time is short enough that can meet the real-time demand.
Supersonic Two-Dimensional Minimum Length Nozzle Design at High Temperature. Application for Air
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Toufik Zebbiche; ZineEddine Youbi
2007-01-01
When the stagnation temperature of a perfect gas increases, the specific heat ratio does not remain constant any more, and start to vary with this temperature. The gas remains perfect, its state equation remains always valid, except it will name in more calorically imperfect gas or gas at High Temperature. The goal of this work is to trace the profiles of the supersonic Minimum Length Nozzle with centered expansion when the stagnation temperature is taken into account, lower than the threshold of dissociation of the molecules and to have for each exit Mach number several nozzles shapes by changing the value of the temperature. The method of characteristics is used with a new form of the Prandtl Meyer function at high temperature. The resolution of the obtained equations is done by the second order of finite differences method by using the predictor corrector algorithm. A study on the error given by the perfect gas model compared to our model is presented. The comparison is made with a calorically perfect gas for goal to give a limit of application of this model.The application is for the air.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang Li
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Dynamic mapping of an object’s local temperature distribution may offer valuable information for failure analysis, system control and improvement. In this letter we present a computerized measurement system which is equipped with a hybrid, low-noise mechanical-electrical multiplexer for real-time two-dimensional (2D mapping of surface temperatures. We demonstrate the performance of the system on a device embedded with 32 pieces of built-in Cr-Pt thin-film thermocouples arranged in a 4 × 8 matrix. The system can display a continuous 2D mapping movie of relative temperatures with a time interval around 1 s. This technique may find applications in a variety of practical devices and systems.
Okada, Arifumi; Nakata, Yohei; Minou, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Kadono, Kohei
2016-12-01
By scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigated two-dimensional (2D) structures of melamine formed on Au(111) surfaces by solvent evaporation. By increasing the evaporation temperature, the well-known ordered honeycomb 2D molecular phase, in which all molecules are linked by hydrogen bonding, changes to four coexisting phases, i.e., a 2D network consisting of linear segments, 1D molecular rows, and hexagonal and distorted hexagonal structures. The first two phases are sometimes observed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) on metallic substrates other than Au. The last two phases have lattice parameters close to those of the well-known honeycomb structure. The structural change observed in this study is attributed to local temperature and concentration distributions of the solution and substrate surface during solvent evaporation. From the results, we found that the molecular nanostructures can be tailored by the solvent evaporation method with small changes in temperature.
Two dimensional RMHD modeling of effective ion temperatures in recent ZR argon experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giuliani, J. L., E-mail: john.giuliani@nrl.navy.mil; Thornhill, J. W., E-mail: john.giuliani@nrl.navy.mil; Dasgupta, A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Apruzese, J. P. [Engility Corp., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Moore, N. W.; Lamppa, D. C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)
2014-12-15
Radiation magnetohydrodynamic r-z simulations are performed of recent Ar shots on the refurbished Z generator to examine the effective ion temperature as determined from the observed line width of the He-γ line. While many global radiation properties can be matched to experimental results, the Doppler shifts due to velocity gradients at stagnation cannot reproduce the large experimentally determined width corresponding to an effective ion temperature of 50 keV. Ion viscous heating or magnetic bubbles are considered, but understanding the width remains an unsolved challenge.
Yatsuyanagi, Yuichi
2016-01-01
The drift term appearing in an anaylitically obtained kinetic equation for a point vortex system is evidenced numerically. It is revealed that the local temperature in a region where the vortices are frequently transported by the diffusion and the drift terms characterizes system temperature and its sign is definitely negative. Simulation results clearly show a ransport process of the vortices by the diffusion term (outside the clumps) and the drift term (inside the clumps), which gives a key mechanism of the self-organization, i.e., condensation of the same-sign vortices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘成森; 王艳辉; 王德真
2005-01-01
One important parameter for the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) process is the target temperature obtained during the surface modification. Because the power input to the target being implanted can be large, its temperature is quite high. The target temperature prediction is useful, whether the high temperature is required in the experiment.In addition, there is likely to be temperature variation across the target surface, which can lead to locally different surface properties. In this paper, we have presented a model to predict and explain the temperature distribution on a hemispherical bowl-shaped vessel during plasma source ion implantation. A two-dimensional fluid model to derive both the ion flux to the target and the energy imparted to the substrate by the ions in the plasma sheath simulation is employed. The calculated energy input and radiative heat loss are used to predict the temperature rise and variation inside the sample in the thermal model. The shape factor of the target for radiation is taken into account in the radiative energy loss. The influence of the pulse duration and the pulsing frequency on the temperature distribution is investigated in detail. Our work shows that at high pulsing frequencies the temperature of the bowl will no longer rise with the increase of the pulsing frequency.
Two-dimensional acoustic attenuation mapping of high-temperature interstitial ultrasound lesions
Tyréus, Per Daniel; Diederich, Chris
2004-02-01
Acoustic attenuation change in biological tissues with temperature and time is a critical parameter for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy treatment planning and applicator design. Earlier studies have not fully explored the effects on attenuation of temperatures (75-95 °C) and times (5-15 min) common in interstitial ultrasound treatments. A scanning transmission ultrasound attenuation measurement system was devised and used to measure attenuation changes due to these types of thermal exposures. To validate the approach and to loosely define expected values, attenuation changes in degassed ex vivo bovine liver, bovine brain and chicken muscle were measured after 10 min exposures in a water bath to temperatures up to 90 °C. Maximum attenuation increases of approximately seven, four and two times the values at 37 °C were measured for the three tissue models at 5 MHz. By using the system to scan over lesions produced using interstitial ultrasound applicators, 2D contour maps of attenuation were produced. Attenuation profiles measured through the centrelines of lesions showed that attenuation was highest close to the applicator and decreased with radial distance, as expected with decreasing thermal exposure. Attenuation values measured in profiles through lesions were also shown to decrease with reduced power to the applicator. Attenuation increases in 2D maps of interstitial ultrasound lesions in ex vivo chicken breast, bovine liver and bovine brain were correlated with visible tissue coagulation. While regions of visible coagulation corresponded well to contours of attenuation increase in liver and chicken, no lesion was visible under the same experimental conditions in brain, due primarily to the heterogeneity of the tissue. Acoustic and biothermal simulations were employed to show that attenuation models taking into account these attenuation changes at higher temperatures and longer times were better able to fit experimental data than previous models. These
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaindl, Robert A.; Hagele, D.; Carnahan, M. A.; Chemla, D. S.
2008-09-11
We report a comprehensive experimental study and detailed model analysis of the terahertz (THz) dielectric response and density kinetics of excitons and unbound electron-hole pairs in GaAs quantum wells. A compact expression is given, in absolute units, for the complex-valued THz dielectric function of intra-excitonic transitions between the 1s and higher-energy exciton and continuum levels. It closely describes the THz spectra of resonantly generated excitons. Exciton ionization and formation are further explored, where the THz response exhibits both intra-excitonic and Drude features. Utilizing a two-component dielectric function, we derive the underlying exciton and unbound pair densities. In the ionized state, excellent agreement is found with the Saha thermodynamic equilibrium, which provides experimental verification of the two-component analysis and density scaling. During exciton formation, in turn, the pair kinetics is quantitatively described by a Saha equilibrium that follows the carrier cooling dynamics. The THz-derived kinetics is, moreover, consistent with time-resolved luminescence measured for comparison. Our study establishes a basis for tracking pair densities via transient THz spectroscopy of photoexcited quasi-2D electron-hole gases.
Tizei, Luiz H. G.
2016-04-21
We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.
Kießig, Birgit; Schäfer, Roland; von Löhneysen, Hilbert
2014-01-01
We report on the application of a feedback-controlled electromigration technique for the formation of nanometre-sized gaps in mesoscopic gold wires and rings. The effect of current density and temperature, linked via Joule heating, on the resulting gap size is investigated. Our experiments include in situ measurements of the evolution of the electrical resistance and of the structure of the device during electromigration. Experimentally, a good thermal coupling to the substrate turned out to be crucial to reach electrode spacings below 10 nm and to avoid overall melting of the nanostructures. This finding is supported by numerical calculations of the current-density and temperature profiles for structure layouts subjected to electromigration. The numerical method can be used for optimizing the layout so as to predetermine the location where electromigration leads to the formation of a gap.
Two-Dimensional Metrology with Flatbed Scanners at Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)
2000-07-01
We study the capability of the commercial flatbed scanner as a measuring instrument of two-coordinate sample both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. We describes simple procedure to calibrate the scanner, and the most adequate standard configuration to carry out the measurements. To illustrate the procedure, we measure the relative positions of the conductors in a cross-section of a superconducting magnet of CERN. (Author) 8 refs.
Van Gorder, Robert A.
2016-05-01
Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.
Lansing, F. L.
1980-01-01
A numerical procedure was established using the finite-difference technique in the determination of the time-varying temperature distribution of a tubular solar collector under changing solar radiancy and ambient temperature. Three types of spatial discretization processes were considered and compared for their accuracy of computations and for selection of the shortest computer time and cost. The stability criteria of this technique were analyzed in detail to give the critical time increment to ensure stable computations. The results of the numerical analysis were in good agreement with the analytical solution previously reported. The numerical method proved to be a powerful tool in the investigation of the collector sensitivity to two different flow patterns and several flow control mechanisms.
Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.
2007-04-01
A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.
Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D
2013-06-01
We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.
The low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jin-Feng; Mao Wei; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue
2008-01-01
To reveal the internal physics of the low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, we present a theoretical study of the strong dependence of 2DEG mobility on Al content and thickness of AlGaN barrier layer. The theoretical results are compared with one of the highest measured of 2DEG mobility reported for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The 2DEG mobility is modelled as a combined effect of the scattering mechanisms including acoustic deformation-potential, piezoelectric, ionized background donor, surface donor, dislocation, alloy disorder and interface roughness scattering. The analyses of the individual scattering processes show that the dominant scattering mechanisms are the alloy disorder scattering and the interface roughness scattering at low temperatures. The variation of 2DEG mobility with the barrier layer parameters results mainly from the change of 2DEG density and distribution. It is suggested that in AlGaN/GaN samples with a high Al content or a thick AlGaN layer, the interface roughness scattering may restrict the 2DEG mobility significantly, for the AlGan/GaN interface roughness increases due to the stress accumulation in AlGaN layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bishay, A.G. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gamal, S., E-mail: samyelgamal@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)
2011-05-15
Three sets (A, B and C) of two-dimensional island platinum films (2D-I(Pt)Fs) were prepared via the thermal evaporation technique, where the substrates are corning 7059 glass slides. The mass thickness (d{sub m}) of the films of different sets is 5, 10 and 20 A, respectively. The Pt films were exposed to {gamma}-rays from {sup 137}Cs (0.662 MeV) radiation source of dose rate 0.5 Gy/min. and the different doses are 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 Gy. The dependence of the surface resistivity ({rho}) on temperature over the range of 100-300 K was undertaken at different d{sub m} and doses then the temperature coefficient of surface resistivity ({alpha}) was deduced. It was found that; (i) for particular d{sub m} and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as the dose increases (ii) for particular dose and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as d{sub m} increases (iii) for particular dose and d{sub m}, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as T increases. Qualitative interpretation for the results was offered on the ground that the electrons transfer among islands takes place by the activated tunneling mechanism and the {gamma}-irradiation has changed the shape of islands from spherical to prolate spheroid.
Im, Kyuhyun; Park, Hae-Woong; Lee, Sekyung; Chang, Taihyun
2009-05-22
In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has been used increasingly for the analysis of synthetic polymers. A 2D-LC analysis provides richer information than a single chromatography analysis at the cost of longer analysis time. The time required for a comprehensive 2D-LC analysis is essentially proportional to the analysis time of the second dimension separation. Many of 2D-LC analyses of synthetic polymers have employed size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the second-dimension analysis due to the relatively short analysis time in addition to the wide use in the polymer analysis. Nonetheless, short SEC columns are often used for 2D-LC analyses to reduce the separation time, which inevitably deteriorates the resolution. In this study, we demonstrated that high temperature SEC can be employed as an efficient second-LC in the 2D-LC separation of synthetic polymers. By virtue of high temperature operation (low solvent viscosity and high diffusivity of the polymer molecules), a normal length SEC column can be used at high flow rate with little loss in resolution.
Wang, Lanfang; Song, Chuang; Shi, Yi; Dang, Liyun; Jin, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Lu, Qingyi; Gao, Feng
2016-04-11
Two-dimensional nanosheets with high specific surface areas and fascinating physical and chemical properties have attracted tremendous interests because of their promising potentials in both fundamental research and practical applications. However, the problem of developing a universal strategy with a facile and cost-effective synthesis process for multi-type ultrathin 2 D nanostructures remains unresolved. Herein, we report a generalized low-temperature fabrication of scalable multi-type 2 D nanosheets including metal hydroxides (such as Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Cd(OH)2, and Mg(OH)2), metal oxides (such as ZnO and Mn3O4), and layered mixed transition-metal hydroxides (Ni-Co LDH, Ni-Fe LDH, Co-Fe LDH, and Ni-Co-Fe layered ternary hydroxides) through the rational employment of a green soft-template. The synthesized crystalline inorganic nanosheets possess confined thickness, resulting in ultrahigh surface atom ratios and chemically reactive facets. Upon evaluation as electrode materials for pseudocapacitors, the Ni-Co LDH nanosheets exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1087 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and excellent stability, with 103% retention after 500 cycles. This strategy is facile and scalable for the production of high-quality ultrathin crystalline inorganic nanosheets, with the possibility of extension to the preparation of other complex nanosheets.
Boursier, Laure; Souchon, Vincent; Dartiguelongue, Cyril; Ponthus, Jérémie; Courtiade, Marion; Thiébaut, Didier
2013-03-08
The development of efficient conversion processes requires extended knowledge on vacuum gas oils (VGOs). Among these processes, hydrocracking is certainly one of the best suited to meet the increasing demand on high quality diesel fuels. Most of refractory and inhibiting compounds towards hydrocracking and especially nitrogen containing compounds are contained in a fraction of the VGO called the resin fraction, which corresponds to the most polar fraction of a VGO obtained by liquid chromatography (LC) fractionation on a silica column. However, the lack of resolution observed through existing analytical methods does not allow a detailed characterization of these fractions. A recent study showed that comprehensive high temperature two-dimensional gas chromatography (HT-GC×GC) methods could be optimized in order to elute heavy compounds. This method was implemented for the analysis of VGO resin fractions and complete elution was reached. Firstly, the method was validated through repeatability, accuracy, linearity and response factors calculations. Four VGO resin fractions were analyzed and their HT-GC×GC simulated distillation curves were compared to their GC simulated distillation (GC-SimDist) curves. This comparison showed that the method allows complete elution of most of the analyzed VGO resin fractions. However, a detailed characterization of these fractions is not yet obtained due to the very large number of heteroatomic and aromatic species that a flame ionization detector can detect. Current work aims at increasing the selectivity of GC×GC by using heteroatom selective detectors in order to improve the characterization of such products.
Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Li, Xiao; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas
2016-01-01
So far, several transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC)-based two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) have been discovered, all of them based on a tetragonal lattice. However, in 2D crystals, the hexagonal rather than the tetragonal symmetry is the most common motif. Here, based on first principles calculations, we propose a class of stable 2D TMDCs of composition MX2(M =Mo ,W ;X =S ,Se ,Te ) with a hexagonal lattice. They are all in the same stability range as other 2D TMDC allotropes that have been demonstrated experimentally, and they are identified to be practical 2D TIs with large band gaps ranging from 41 to 198 meV, making them suitable for applications at room temperature. Besides, in contrast to tetragonal 2D TMDCs, their hexagonal lattice will greatly facilitate the integration of theses novel TI state van der Waals crystals with other hexagonal or honeycomb materials and thus provide a route for 2D material-based devices for wider nanoelectronic and spintronic applications. The nontrivial band gaps of both WS e2 and WT e2 2D crystals are 198 meV, which are larger than that in any previously reported TMDC-based TIs. These large band gaps entirely stem from the strong spin orbit coupling strength within the d orbitals of Mo/W atoms near the Fermi level. Our findings broaden the scientific and technological impact of both 2D TIs and TMDCs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: Robert.VanGorder@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)
2015-09-15
In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, “Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self
Baiutti, F.; Logvenov, G.; Gregori, G.; Cristiani, G.; Wang, Y.; Sigle, W.; van Aken, P. A.; Maier, J.
2015-10-01
The exploitation of interface effects turned out to be a powerful tool for generating exciting material properties. Such properties include magnetism, electronic and ionic transport and even superconductivity. Here, instead of using conventional homogeneous doping to enhance the hole concentration in lanthanum cuprate and achieve superconductivity, we replace single LaO planes with SrO dopant planes using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (two-dimensional doping). Electron spectroscopy and microscopy, conductivity measurements and zinc tomography reveal such negatively charged interfaces to induce layer-dependent superconductivity (Tc up to 35 K) in the space-charge zone at the side of the planes facing the substrate, where the strontium (Sr) profile is abrupt. Owing to the growth conditions, the other side exhibits instead a Sr redistribution resulting in superconductivity due to conventional doping. The present study represents a successful example of two-dimensional doping of superconducting oxide systems and demonstrates its power in this field.
Whitehead, Jared P
2011-01-01
Rigorous upper limits on the vertical heat transport in two dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries are derived from the Boussinesq approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The Nusselt number Nu is bounded in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra according to $Nu \\leq 0.2295 Ra^{5/12}$ uniformly in the Prandtl number Pr. This Nusselt number scaling challenges some theoretical arguments regarding the asymptotic high Rayleigh number heat transport by turbulent convection.
Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen
2015-04-01
Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a huge carbon pool, specifically in boreal ecosystems. Warming-induced release of large amounts of CO2 from the soil carbon pool might become a significant exacerbating feedback to global warming, if decomposition rates of boreal soils were more sensitive to increased temperatures. Despite a large number of studies dedicated to the topic, it has proven difficult to elucidate how the organo-chemical composition of SOM influences its decomposition, or its quality as a substrate for microbial metabolism. A great part of this challenge results from our inability to achieve a detailed characterization of the complex composition of SOM on the level of molecular structural moieties. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a common tool to characterize SOM. However, SOM is a very complex mixture and the chemical shift regions distinguished in the 13C NMR spectra often represent many different molecular fragments. For example, in the carbohydrates region, signals of all monosaccharides present in many different polymers overlap. This overlap thwarts attempts to identify molecular moieties, resulting in insufficient information to characterize SOM composition. We applied two-dimensional (2D) NMR to characterize SOM with highly increased resolution. We directly dissolved finely ground litters and forest floors'fibric and humic horizons'of both coniferous and deciduous boreal forests in dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed the resulting solution with a 2D 1H-13C NMR experiment. In the 2D planes of these spectra, signals of CH groups can be resolved based on their 13C and 1H chemical shifts, hence the resolving power and information content of these NMR spectra is hugely increased. The 2D spectra indeed resolved overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra, so that hundreds of distinct CH groups could be observed and many molecular fragments could be identified. For instance, in the aromatics region, signals from individual lignin units could
Baiutti, F; Logvenov, G; Gregori, G; Cristiani, G; Wang, Y; Sigle, W; van Aken, P A; Maier, J
2015-10-20
The exploitation of interface effects turned out to be a powerful tool for generating exciting material properties. Such properties include magnetism, electronic and ionic transport and even superconductivity. Here, instead of using conventional homogeneous doping to enhance the hole concentration in lanthanum cuprate and achieve superconductivity, we replace single LaO planes with SrO dopant planes using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (two-dimensional doping). Electron spectroscopy and microscopy, conductivity measurements and zinc tomography reveal such negatively charged interfaces to induce layer-dependent superconductivity (Tc up to 35 K) in the space-charge zone at the side of the planes facing the substrate, where the strontium (Sr) profile is abrupt. Owing to the growth conditions, the other side exhibits instead a Sr redistribution resulting in superconductivity due to conventional doping. The present study represents a successful example of two-dimensional doping of superconducting oxide systems and demonstrates its power in this field.
Calandra, Matteo; Zoccante, Paolo; Mauri, Francesco
2015-02-20
In two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors, at low doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. By performing first-principles calculations beyond density functional theory, we prove that this effect accounts for the unconventional doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and of the magnetic susceptibility measured in Li(x)ZrNCI. Finally, we discuss what are the conditions for a maximal T(c) enhancement in weakly doped two-dimensional semiconductors.
Leggate, Huw; Turner, Miles
2016-09-01
We discuss a two-dimensional implementation of the particle-in-cell algorithm with Monte Carlo collisions. This implementation is designed for multiprocessor environments in which each processor is assumed to offer vector capabilities and multiple execution threads. An appropriate implementation therefore combines OpenMP to exploit multithreading with MPI to coupled computing nodes. This approach promises to achieve accelerations of a least a factor of several hundred, relative to to a simple serial implementation. However, the complexity involved also offers many opportunities for error, and makes correctness demonstrations especially desirable. In this presentation we discuss the characteristics of this parallel implementation, and we describe a suite of verification tests that collectively create a strong presumption that the code is correct. Work supported by the EUROfusion consortium.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. R. pardasani
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.
Transient Temperature Analysis of Slab in Erdemir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
(U)nal Camdali; Murat Tunc; Sedat Sisbot
2008-01-01
A transient thermal model was developed for slab furnaces in Eregli Iron and Steel Worlds (Erdemir) in Turkey and the model was solved using the FlexPDE computer program. This program uses the finite element method. Program codes were written to solve the temperature distribution of slabs that are put into furnace at 25℃ and removed at about 1 250℃. To obtain the optimum slab exit temperature variation, the necessary air temperature inside the furnace was calculated to be 1 390℃. The slab temperature versus time and the temperature variation inside the slab were depicted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drichko, Natalia [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); 1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: drichko@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Dumm, Michael; Faltermeier, Daniel; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Merino, Jaime [Dept. de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Greco, Andres [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Ingenieria y Agrimensura e Instituto de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Rosario (Argentina)
2007-09-01
We explore the effects of electronic correlations in quasi-two-dimensional BEDT-TTF-based organic conductors with half, quarter and 1/5-filled bands. Close to the Mott transition but still on the metallic side, quasiparticles are observed in the 1/2-filled systems only at temperatures well below 100 K, with a considerable growth of the Drude-like contribution. In contrast, the 1/4-filled conductors show a zero-frequency conduction peak already at room temperature which increases slightly upon cooling. Basically no change with temperature is observed for the Drude contribution of the 1/5-filled compound. Optical studies allow us to investigate the formation of quasiparticles at low temperature for systems of different filling. The strongest effect is observed in 1/2-filled compounds, it becomes weaker in 1/4 filled, while in the 1/5-filled compound no change of the Dude-peak on temperature is seen.
Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals
Punk, Matthias
2016-11-01
We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.
Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film
Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji
2015-11-01
Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.
Lin Zhang, Jia; Hong Liang Zhang, Kelvin; Qiang Zhong, Jian; Chao Niu, Tian; Chen, Wei
2012-02-01
Atomic scale investigation of temperature-dependent two-dimensional (2 D) crystallization processes of fullerene-C60 on pentacene-covered Ag(111) surface has been carried out by in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) experiments. To evaluate the effect of molecule-substrate interfacial interactions on the 2 D crystallization of C60: pentacene binary system, we also carried out the same self-assembly experiments of C60 on monolayer pentacene covered graphite substrate. It is revealed that temperature-dependent structural transition of various ordered C60 nanoassemblies is strongly influenced by the molecule-Ag(111) interfacial interactions, and further mediated by the weak C60-pentacene intermolecular interactions. In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) has been used to evaluate the nature of the intermolecular interactions between C60 and pentacene films.
Noad, Hilary; Spanton, Eric M.; Nowack, Katja C.; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Minu; Merz, Tyler A.; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Vailionis, Arturas; Hwang, Harold Y.; Moler, Kathryn A.
2016-11-01
Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature Tc≳ 10 % higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on twin boundaries; therefore, we propose that the orientation of the tetragonal unit cell with respect to the doped plane affects Tc. Our results suggest that the anisotropic dielectric properties of SrTiO3 are important for its superconductivity and need to be considered in any theory of the mechanism of the superconductivity.
Choi, M J; Park, H K; Yun, G S; Nam, Y B; Choe, G H; Lee, W; Jardin, S
2016-01-01
The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.
Dutriez, Thomas; Courtiade, Marion; Thiébaut, Didier; Dulot, Hugues; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Vial, Jérôme; Hennion, Marie-Claire
2009-04-03
In a tense energetic context, the characterization of heavy petroleum fractions becomes essential. Conventional comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2D-GC or GCxGC) is widely used for middle distillates analysis, but only a few applications are devoted to these heavier fractions. In this paper, it is shown how the optimization of GCxGC separation allowed the determination of suitable high-temperature (HT) conditions, adjusting column properties and operating conditions. 2D separations were evaluated using 2D separation criteria and a new concept of 2D asymmetry (As(2D)). New HT conditions allowed the extension of GCxGC range of applications to heavier hydrocarbons, up to nC(60). A first application of high-temperature two-dimensional gas chromatography (HT-2D-GC) to a full vacuum gas oil (VGO) feed stock is described. Comparisons with other standardized methods illustrate the high potential of HT-2D-GC for heavy fractions analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yunzhong; Bovet, N.; Kasama, Takeshi
2014-01-01
Well-controlled sub-unit-cell layer-bylayer epitaxial growth of spinel alumina is achieved at room temperature on a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrate. By tailoring the interface redox reaction, 2D electron gases with mobilities exceeding 3000 cm 2 V−1 s−1 are achieved at this no...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djouder, M., E-mail: djouder-madjid@ummto.dz; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)
2016-01-15
Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, M. J., E-mail: mjchoi@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. K. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jardin, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-01-15
The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (T{sub e}) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity I{sub ECE} ∝ T{sub e} in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat T{sub e} assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (T{sub e,rel}) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karelina, Anna
2004-02-18
In this work the anisotropy of the pinning forces of vortices in a-b plane of high temperature-supraconductors was examined. For this purpose vibrating reed with two degrees of freedom of the oscillation was constructed. The pinning forces were examined in single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The experiments with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that at temperatures lower than 78 K the vortices are in a nonequilibrium state. This leads to a flux creep and to a drift of the resonance frequency with time. This prevents the comparison of resonance curves in different directions of oscillations. In Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals the vortices are in more stable state, but the measurements of the resonance curves in different directions show no indication of the four-fold symmetry. At temperatures below 60 K a strong hysteresis of the resonance frequency and the resonance-oscillation amplitude was found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals as a function of the magnetic field. (orig.)
Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng
2016-05-01
In this study, room-temperature spin-glass behaviors were observed in flake-like oriented attached hematite (α-Fe2O3) and iron phosphate hydroxide hydrate (Fe5(PO4)4(OH)3·2H2O) single crystals. Remarkably, their coercivity (HC) values were found to be almost invariable at various given temperatures from 5 to 300 K. The spin topographic map in these flakes was assumed as superparamagnetic (SPM) "islands" isolated by spin glass (SG)-like "bridges". A spin-glass model was then proposed to demonstrate the spin frustration within these "bridges", which were formed by the staggered atomic planes in the uneven surfaces belonging to different attached nanoparticles. Under the spatial limitation and coupling shield of these "bridges", the SPM "islands" were found to be collectively frozen to form a superspin glass (SSG) state below 80 K in weak applied magnetic fields; whereas, when strong magnetic fields were applied, the magnetic coupling of these "islands" would become superferromagnetic (SFM) through tunneling superexchange, so that, these SFM spins could antiferromagnetically couple with the SG-like "bridges" to yield pronounced exchange bias (EB) effect.
Kim, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Young-Ahn; Kim, Jinseo; Park, Jucheol; Ahn, Seungbae; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Kim, Jeong Won; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Seo, Hyungtak
2015-10-27
The photochemical tunability of the charge-transport mechanism in metal-oxide semiconductors is of great interest since it may offer a facile but effective semiconductor-to-metal transition, which results from photochemically modified electronic structures for various oxide-based device applications. This might provide a feasible hydrogen (H)-radical doping to realize the effectively H-doped metal oxides, which has not been achieved by thermal and ion-implantation technique in a reliable and controllable way. In this study, we report a photochemical conversion of InGaZnO (IGZO) semiconductor to a transparent conductor via hydrogen doping to the local nanocrystallites formed at the IGZO/glass interface at room temperature. In contrast to thermal or ionic hydrogen doping, ultraviolet exposure of the IGZO surface promotes a photochemical reaction with H radical incorporation to surface metal-OH layer formation and bulk H-doping which acts as a tunable and stable highly doped n-type doping channel and turns IGZO to a transparent conductor. This results in the total conversion of carrier conduction property to the level of metallic conduction with sheet resistance of ∼16 Ω/□, room temperature Hall mobility of 11.8 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-1), the carrier concentration at ∼10(20) cm(-3) without any loss of optical transparency. We demonstrated successful applications of photochemically highly n-doped metal oxide via optical dose control to transparent conductor with excellent chemical and optical doping stability.
Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D
2016-08-01
The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.
Significance of Transients in Soil Temperature Series
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of observation scale on the estimation of soil thermal properties. Transients are usually filtered out and ignored when classical Fourier approaches are used to deconstruct and model temperature time series. It was hypothesized that examination of such transients may be more important in identifying and quantifying short-term perturbations in internal soil heat transfer induced by agronomic disturbances.Data-logged temperatures were collected at 10-minute intervals from thermistor probes installed at 10 and 25 cm depths in isolated areas of two grassed plots. One plot (6T) had been treated twice with 6 Mg ha-1 composted turkey litter as received. The other plot (NPK) was fertilized at the same time with NPK fertilizer. Various methods were used to analyze the series to obtain apparent soil thermal diffusivity (D-value) at various time scales. Results supported the hypothesis that short-term differences in internal soil heat transfer between the 6T and NPK plots were more manifest and effectively captured by estimated D-values calculated from the monthly and daily partial series. The 6T plot had higher soil organic matter content than the NPK plot and had lower apparent soil thermal diffusivity. Diurnal soil temperature amplitudes,required to calculate the mean D-values from partial series, were more effectively obtained using a temperature change rate method. The more commonly used Fourier analysis tended to be effective for this purpose when the partial series reasonably presented well-defined diurnal patterns of increasing and decreasing temperatures.
Jia, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xi-Feng; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian
2017-04-01
Improving plasma uniformity during plasma processing in the microelectronics industry is of critical importance to the quality of etching or deposition. Compared to continuous wave (CW) plasmas, pulsed plasmas have drawn much attention with the introduction of additional pulse parameters, which would be helpful to improve the plasma properties. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to investigate a pulsed radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) sustained in SiH4/N2/O2 mixture at fixed operating conditions of 70V rf power, 300 mTorr (40 Pa) gas pressure and an SiH4/N2/O2 gas ratio of 2.5/92.5/5. First, we study the temporal dynamics of densities of the electron, positive ion and negative ion, at different positions in the pulsed CCP. Under the operation conditions, charged particles, instead of neutral particles, may basically respond to the applied modulated power. The electron density in the bulk could approach a quasi-steady value by the end of the activeglow. However, the achievement of a quasi-steady state of plasma like that in the CW condition not only depends on enough activeglow time of the pulse discharge but also relies on the observed position in the discharge. In addition, we investigate the impact of pulse parameters on plasma characteristics, showing that the radial inhomogeneity of plasma caused by the edge effect can be effectively suppressed by controlling the duty cycle (DC) rather than the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Improvement of the plasma uniformity in pulsed discharge is due to the competition between the edge effects during the activeglow and diffusion of charged species during the afterglow. Moreover, the electron density undergoes a local minimum value in the temporal profile before it rises sharply beyond that of CW discharge, since production of electrons is less than loss by the spatial movement at the very beginning of one pulse. Also, there appears to be a peak value of ion bombardment energy at
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Belanger, R.; Venus, D.
2017-02-01
A two-dimensional (2D) percolation transition in Fe/W(110) ultrathin magnetic films occurs when islands in the second atomic layer percolate and resolve a frustrated magnetic state to produce long-range in-plane ferromagnetic order. Novel measurements of percolation using the magnetic susceptibility χ (θ ) as the films are deposited at a constant temperature, allow the long-range percolation transition to be observed as a sharp peak consistent with a critical phase transition. The measurements are used to trace the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase boundary between the T =0 percolation magnetic transition and the thermal Curie magnetic transition of the undiluted film. A quantitative comparison to critical scaling theory is made by fitting the functional form of the phase boundary. The fitted parameters are then used in theoretical expressions for χ (T ) in the critical region of the paramagnetic state to provide an excellent, independent representation of the experimental measurements.
Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia
2013-12-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) in recognizing the authenticity and purity of fishmeal (FM) and meat and bone meal (MBM), which are both complex mixtures with high similarity. Twenty FM samples and 20 MBM samples were obtained and examined. Temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained using a Spectrum 400 spectrometer from 20 °C to 60 °C with an interval of 10 °C. Wavelet transform (Daubechies 5 wavelet with five levels) and baseline correction were applied to the temperature-dependent spectra in the wave range of 6000-5400 cm(-1). A 2D-COS synchronous map was calculated and scaled to the range between -1 and 1. A correlation coefficient was employed to quantitatively evaluate the visual differences of synchronous maps. The results show minor differences in NIR spectral absorbency of FM and MBM, and such differences are caused by appropriate temperature perturbation and enlarged by the 2D-COS method. The sensitive wave range is found in the area of 5800-5400 cm(-1). FM and MBM have observable pattern differences in the synchronous maps. Further quantitative evaluation of synchronous maps confirms correct recognizing results. Temperature-dependent 2D-COS is capable of recognizing the authenticity and purity of highly similar FM and MBM samples.
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru
2015-02-01
Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under cold climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral region of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST region immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.
Xiao, Jin; Huang, Jindi; Zhong, Qifan; Li, Fachuang; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Jie
2016-08-01
A real-time mathematical model for the two-dimensional temperature field of petroleum coke calcination in vertical shaft calciner was developed based on computational fluid dynamics. In the modeling process, the petroleum coke discharging process was described by the solid viscous flow, the dynamic heat flux boundary condition was adopted to specify the heat transfer between the flue wall and the gas in the flue, and the Arrhenius equation was used to characterize the pyrolysis process of petroleum coke. The model was validated with both measurement data and data from the literature. The effects of discharge rate per pot, volatile content of green coke, and excess air coefficient on the temperature field of the vertical shaft calciner were investigated with the use of the developed model. The following reasonable operating conditions were obtained: the discharge rate per pot should be less than 90 kg/h, the volatile content of green coke should be in the range of 9-11%, and the excess air coefficient should be in the range of 1.10-1.20. In this work, the governing equations were discretized by using the finite volume method, and the discrete linear equations were solved by using sparse matrix package UMFPACK. The model calculating process takes about less than 15 s. Therefore, the model is beneficial in realizing real-time online temperature detection of petroleum coke calcination in a vertical shaft calciner.
Strozzi, Camille; Sotton, Julien; Mura, Arnaud; Bellenoue, Marc
2009-12-01
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is an advanced operating mode for automotive engines. The self-ignition mechanisms that occur within the combustion chamber exhibit extreme temperature dependence. Therefore, the thorough understanding of corresponding phenomena requires the use of diagnostic methods featuring a sufficient thermal sensitivity, applicable in severe conditions similar to those encountered within engines. In this respect, toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to the inert compression flow generated within an optical rapid compression machine (RCM). A relatively simple diagnostic system is retained: a single wavelength excitation device (266 nm) and a single (filtered) collection system. This diagnostic system is associated with an image processing strategy specifically adapted to RCM devices. Despite the severe conditions under consideration (40 bar, 700-950 K), the method allows us to obtain relatively large two-dimensional temperature fields that display a level of description seldom achieved in such devices. In particular the temperature gradients, which play a crucial role in HCCI combustion processes, can be estimated. The present experimental results confirm the good reliability and accuracy of the method. The information gathered with this toluene PLIF method puts in evidence its high potentialities for the study of aero-thermal-reactive processes as they take place in real engine conditions. The retained strategy also brings new possibilities of non-intrusive analysis for flows practically encountered within industrial devices.
Chen, Yi-Hui; Tian, Hui-Lin; Li, Ji-Heng; Li, Guo-Ying
2012-06-01
The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study a denaturing process of uncross-linked collagen and cross-linked collagen during varying temperature. It was found that the intensity of typically characteristic absorptions of collagen decreased and its peak shifted to low frequency, The amide II central absorbance peak moved to a lower frequency by about 10 cm(-1), which indicated that the inter-chain hydrogen bonds which stabilized the triple helix conformation of collagen were disrupted during thermal denaturation, resulting in a conformational change. The intensity of auto-peak at 1 515 cm(-1) was maximum, which suggested that the temperature had a big impact on amide II. In comparison with uncross-linked collagen, the intensity of cross-peaks of cross-linked collagen was weaker, which demonstrated that the effect of temperature on the structure of cross-linked collagen was smaller, and the thermal stability properties of collagen solution could be improved by cross-linking. While the order of second structure changes of cross-linked collagen was different. These fundamental data should provide available information for understanding the relationship between the structure and function of cross-linked collagen.
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The electrical properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures using high temperature (HT) AlN interlayers (ITs) grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated.It is found that the electrical properties (electron mobility and sheet carrier density) are improved compared with those in the conventional AlGaN/GaN heterostructures without HT AlN ITs,and the improved 2DEG properties result in the reduction of the sheet resistance.The results from high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements show that HT AlN ITs increase the in-plane compressive strain in the upper GaN layer,which enhances the piezoelectric polarization in it and consequently causes increasing of 2DEG density at the AlGaN/GaN interface.Meanwhile,the compressive strain induced by HT AlN ITs leads to a less tensile strain in AlGaN barrier layer and causes positive and negative effects on the sheet carrier density of 2DEG,which counteract each other.The HT AlN ITs reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN and AlGaN layers and smooth the interface between them,thus increasing the electric mobility of 2DEG by weakening the alloy-related interface roughness and scattering.In addition,the surface morphology of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is improved by the insertion of HT AlN ITs.The reason for the improved properties is discussed in this paper.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
莫则尧; 符尚武
2003-01-01
Two dimensional three temperatures energy equation is a kind of very impor-tant partial differential equation. In general, we discrete such equation with full implicit nine points stencil on Lagrange structured grid and generate a non-linear sparse algebraic equation including nine diagonal lines. This paper will discuss the iterative solver for such non-linear equations. We linearize the equations by fixing the coefficient matrix, and iteratively solve the linearized algebraic equation with Krylov subspace iterative method. We have applied the iterative method presented in this paper to the code Lared-Ⅰ for numerical simulation of two dimensional threetemperatures radial fluid dynamics, and have obtained efficient results.
Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
(U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)
2004-01-01
Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.
Zhou, Chenggang; Landau, D. P.; Schulthess, Thomas C.
2006-01-01
By considering the appropriate finite-size effect, we explain the connection between Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a field and the early renormalization group calculation for the bicritical point in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We found that the long length scale physics of the Monte Carlo simulations is indeed captured by the anisotropic nonlinear $\\sigma$ model. Our Monte Carlo data and analysis confirm that the bicritical point in two dime...
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE FIELD IN ACTIVE THRUST MAGNETIC BEARING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Shouqun; Geng Haipeng; Guo Keqian
2005-01-01
A transient temperature field model in a thrust magnetic bearing is built in which the heat resources come mainly from the eddy-current loss of solid cores and the copper loss of coils. The transient temperature field, system temperature rise and the thermo-equilibrium state during the rotor starting-up are calculated considering only the copper loss and the eddy-current loss. The numerical results indicate that the temperatures in coils and in magnets rise rapidly, their thermo-equilibrium states are formed within a short time. The temperatures in a thrust-disk and in a rotor rise slowly, their thermo-equilibrium states are formed after a long period time. The temperatures of the thrust-disk and the rotor are far higher than the temperatures of coils and/or magnets after the thermo-equilibrium state has come into being.
Transient Temperature in a Growing Solid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. L. Ahuja
1968-10-01
Full Text Available Using two parameter quadratic temperature profile in conjunction with the heat balance integral method, approximate solutions for the freezing of a semi infinite slab and inward freezing of a circular cylinder are investigated, with the assumption that the freezing takes place at the surface of the solidifying medium according to Newton's law of cooling. Comparison with the existing solutions on the former problem shows good agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, E. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Goffman, M.F. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Arribere, A. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Cruz, F. de la (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Schneemeyer, L.F. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))
1994-02-01
The critical current in the c direction of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8] is shown to increase with temperature in low temperature ZFC measurements. The results are consistent with a loss of the c direction long range phase correlation, induced by the temperature dependent critical current flowing in the ab planes. As a result of this and the loss of the long range correlation induced by thermal disorder, the low temperature electrical resistance of the ZFC critical state is finite at low temperatures, becomes zero and is finite again at higher temperature. (orig.)
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
Ge(001)-(<2 1>, <0 3>)-Pb(<2 1>, <0 6>)↔Pb: Low-temperature two-dimensional phase transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Zeysing, J.H.;
2001-01-01
The Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3))-Pb surface reconstruction with a lead coverage of 5/3 monolayer is on the borderline between the low-coverage covalently-bonded and high-coverage metallic lead overlayers. This gives rise to an unusual low-temperature phase transition with concomitant changes in the bonding...... configuration. Both the room-temperature and low-temperature phases of this system were investigated by surface x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3)) phase is best described by a model with dynamically flipping germanium dimers underneath a distorted Pb(111......) overlayer with predominantly metallic properties. In the low-temperature Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 6)) phase the dimers are static and the interaction between adsorbate and substrate and within the adsorbate is stronger than at room temperature. These results suggest that the phase transition is of order...
Determination of transient fluid temperature using the inverse method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaremkiewicz Magdalena
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an inverse method to obtain accurate measurements of the transient temperature of fluid. A method for unit step and linear rise of temperature is presented. For this purpose, the thermometer housing is modelled as a full cylindrical element (with no inner hole, divided into four control volumes. Using the control volume method, the heat balance equations can be written for each of the nodes for each of the control volumes. Thus, for a known temperature in the middle of the cylindrical element, the distribution of temperature in three nodes and heat flux at the outer surface were obtained. For a known value of the heat transfer coefficient the temperature of the fluid can be calculated using the boundary condition. Additionally, results of experimental research are presented. The research was carried out during the start-up of an experimental installation, which comprises: a steam generator unit, an installation for boiler feed water treatment, a tray-type deaerator, a blow down flashvessel for heat recovery, a steam pressure reduction station, a boiler control system and a steam header made of martensitic high alloy P91 steel. Based on temperature measurements made in the steam header using the inverse method, accurate measurements of the transient temperature of the steam were obtained. The results of the calculations are compared with the real temperature of the steam, which can be determined for a known pressure and enthalpy.
Cellular neural network analysis for two-dimensional bioheat transfer equation.
Niu, J H; Wang, H Z; Zhang, H X; Yan, J Y; Zhu, Y S
2001-09-01
The cellular neural network (CNN) method is applied to solve the Pennes bioheat transfer equation, and its feasibility is demonstrated. Numerical solutions were obtained for a cellular neural network for a two-dimensional steady-state temperature field obtained from focused and unfocused ultrasound heat sources. Transient-state temperature fields were also studied and compared with experimental results obtained elsewhere. The cellular neural networks' key features of asynchronous parallel processing, continuous-time dynamics and local interaction enable real-time temperature field estimation for clinical hyperthermia.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Study on a transient optical fiber high temperature measurement system
Cai, Lulu; Liu, Yusha; Wang, Yutian
2009-07-01
High temperature is one of the most important parameters in the fields of scientific research and industrial production. At present, thermocouple, thermo resistive and radiance thermometer are already technologically mature which can be adopted to measure the general temperature, but when it comes to the transient high temperature that changes pretty quickly in wretched conditions, those traditional pyrometers can not meet the requirements any more. In this paper, we designed a transient optical high temperature measurement system. First, design of the temperature measurement probe. The system took blackbody cavity sensor together with optical fiber to receive the measured signal, here, the integrated emissivity model of the blackbody cavity was established and the optimum structure parameters were confirmed. Secondly, design of the entire temperature measurement system. A contact-noncontact measurement method was applied, which is to make the blackbody cavity and the measured high-temperature source contact, the fiber probe and the blackbody cavity noncontact, as a result, the error caused by contact measurement is overcame and the precision is guaranteed at the same time. In addition, a fiber grating was introduced as the wavelength filter device which can realize the dynamic filter of narrow-band signals and reduce the impact of background light. Thirdly, signal processing. In this part, we applied labVIEW software and wavelet analysis method. All of the signal acquisition and processing were realized in the labVIEW environment. Through calling matlab in labVIEW, the signals from optical fiber detector were wavelet denoised and decomposed, thus the temperature information was extracted, and the temperature value was obtained. On basis of wavelet transformation, the paper adopted the 4dB wavelet with horizontal scale of 5 to realize the feature extraction and noise removal, parts of the signals before and after the wavelet noise removal were given and analyzed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Harsan Ma
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We report emerging photoluminescence (PL of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO systems. A strong blue PL emerges in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO/LAO/STO which doesn’t show in LAO/STO. PL band in bilayer-2DEGs includes both nearly temperature independent Auger recombination and temperature dependent free electron trapping while it crossovers from Auger recombination to single carrier trapping in LAO/STO. The PL signal of free electron trapping appears at high temperatures and it is much stronger than Auger recombination in the conducting channel in bilayer 2DEGs. This observation shows that high mobility carriers dominate the carrier dynamics in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO superlattices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noad, Hilary; Spanton, Eric M.; Nowack, Katja C.; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Minu; Merz, Tyler A.; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Vailionis, Arturas; Hwang, Harold Y.; Moler, Kathryn A.
2016-11-28
Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature T-c greater than or similar to 10% higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on twin boundaries; therefore, we propose that the orientation of the tetragonal unit cell with respect to the doped plane affects T-c. Our results suggest that the anisotropic dielectric properties of SrTiO3 are important for its superconductivity and need to be considered in any theory of the mechanism of the superconductivity.
Butera, P
2003-01-01
For the study of Ising models of general spin S on the square lattice, we have combined our recently extended high-temperature expansions with the low-temperature expansions derived some time ago by Enting, Guttmann and Jensen. We have computed for the first time various critical parameters and improved the estimates of others. Moreover the properties of hyperscaling and of universality (spin S independence) of exponents and of various dimensionless amplitude combinations have been verified accurately. Assuming the validity of the lattice-lattice scaling, from our estimates of critical amplitudes for the square lattice we have also obtained estimates of the corresponding amplitudes for the spin S Ising model on the triangular, honeycomb, and kagome` lattices.
Two-dimensional orbital-like magnetic order in the high-temperature La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 superconductor.
Balédent, V; Fauqué, B; Sidis, Y; Christensen, N B; Pailhès, S; Conder, K; Pomjakushina, E; Mesot, J; Bourges, P
2010-07-09
In high-temperature copper oxide superconductors, a novel magnetic order associated with the pseudogap phase has been identified in two different cuprate families over a wide region of temperature and doping. We report here the observation below 120 K of a similar magnetic ordering in the archetypal cuprate La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 (LSCO) system for x=0.085. In contrast with the previous reports, the magnetic ordering in LSCO is only short range with an in-plane correlation length of ∼10 A and is bidimensional (2D). Such a less pronounced order suggests an interaction with other electronic instabilities. In particular, LSCO also exhibits a strong tendency towards stripes ordering at the expense of the superconducting state.
Xia, Huihui; Xu, Zhenyu; Kan, Ruifeng; He, Yabai; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Guangle
2015-09-01
The principle of gas temperature and concentration measurement based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is introduced. Combining Computed Tomography (CT) with TDLAS, herein referred to as Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT), reconstructs temperature and concentration distribution which are assumed as Gaussian function or paraboloid function. A pair of water absorption lines (7153.722 cm-1 and 7153.748 cm-1 and 7154.354 cm-1) is selected to measure temperature by means of two-line technique. Radon transform is used to calculate projections of different path for reconstructing temperature distribution based on filtered backprojection algorithm. With a general normalization process, water vapor concentration distribution can be obtained simultaneously. The reconstruction results agree well with the original model. In consideration of laboratory verification and experimental condition, the TDLAT data consist of 13 projection angles and 11 parallel rays at each angle is discussed in this article, obtaining distribution map with a resolution of 20 × 20. Although the reconstruction value of the edge deviates a little from the original parameters, this method achieves relatively satisfactory outcome in general. The reconstruction error roughly increases with decreasing projection angles and parallel rays, additionally, the reconstruction accuracy is more dependent on the parallel ray number at each angle than the projection angle number. Appropriate grid partition is also important in reconstruction study, the optimal grid partition is 30 × 30 or near this magnitude when the system contains totally 18 projection angles and 27 parallel rays at each angle. This work proposes a feasible formula for reconstruction research with a small amount of projections and rays, theoretically, laying a foundation for experimental validation in the future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bjelić Mišo B.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation models of welding processes allow us to predict influence of welding parameters on the temperature field during welding and by means of temperature field and the influence to the weld geometry and microstructure. This article presents a numerical, finite-difference based model of heat transfer during welding of thin sheets. Unfortunately, accuracy of the model depends on many parameters, which cannot be accurately prescribed. In order to solve this problem, we have used simulated annealing optimization method in combination with presented numerical model. This way, we were able to determine uncertain values of heat source parameters, arc efficiency, emissivity and enhanced conductivity. The calibration procedure was made using thermocouple measurements of temperatures during welding for P355GH steel. The obtained results were used as input for simulation run. The results of simulation showed that represented calibration procedure could significantly improve reliability of heat transfer model. [National CEEPUS Office of Czech Republic (project CIII-HR-0108-07-1314 and to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (project TR37020
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities
Constantinou, Navid C
2010-01-01
Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Rajesh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past a vertical plate with ramped wall temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The fluid is gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative flux in the energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using an implicit finite-difference method of the Crank-Nicolson type, which is stable and convergent. The velocity profiles are compared with the available theoretical solution and are found to be in good agreement. Numerical results for the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, the local and average skin friction, the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. This work has wide application in chemical and power engineering and also in the study of vertical air flow into the atmosphere. The present results can be applied to an important class of flows in which the driving force for the flow is provided by combination of the thermal and chemical species diffusion effects.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGill Stephen A.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.
Palma, G.; Niedermayer, F.; Rácz, Z.; Riveros, A.; Zambrano, D.
2016-08-01
The zero-temperature, classical X Y model on an L ×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution ΦL(y ) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of ΦL(y ) , and the limit distribution ΦL →∞(y ) =Φ0(y ) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections ΦL(y ) -Φ0(y ) ≈a1(L ) Φ1(y ) +a2(L ) Φ2(y ) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a1(L ) scales as ln(L /L0) /L2 and the shape correction function Φ1(y ) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ1(y ) =[yΦ0(y ) +Φ0'(y ) ] ' . Thus, Φ1(y ) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a2(L ) ∝1 /L2 and one finds that a2Φ2(y ) ≪a1Φ1(y ) already for small system size (L >10 ). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the X Y model at low temperatures, including T =0 .
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-06
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads
Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.
The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2016-01-15
To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.
Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting from Transient Ambient Temperature Gradients
Moser, André; Erd, Metin; Kostic, Milos; Cobry, Keith; Kroener, Michael; Woias, Peter
2012-06-01
We examine a thermoelectric harvester that converts electrical energy from the naturally occurring temperature difference between ambient air and large thermal storage capacitors such as building walls or the soil. For maximum power output, the harvester design is implemented in two steps: source matching of the thermal and electrical interfaces to the energy source (system level) followed by load matching of the generator to these interfaces (subsystem level). Therefore, we measure thermal source properties such as the temperature difference, the air velocity, and the cutoff frequency in two application scenarios (road tunnel and office building). We extend a stationary model of the harvester into the time domain to account for transient behavior of the source. Based on the model and the source measurements, we perform the source and load matching. The resulting harvester consists of a pin fin heat sink with a thermal resistance of 6.2 K/W and a cutoff frequency 2.5 times greater than that of the source, a thermoelectric generator, and a DC/DC step-up converter starting at a total temperature difference of only Δ T = 1.2 K. In a final road tunnel field test, this optimized harvester converts 70 mJ of electrical energy per day without any direct solar irradiation. The energy provided by the harvester enables 415 data transmissions from a wireless sensor node per day.
Gui, Daxiang; Zheng, Tao; Xie, Jian; Cai, Yawen; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao
2016-12-19
A highly stable layered zirconium phosphate, (NH4)2[ZrF2(HPO4)2] (ZrP-1), was synthesized by an ionothermal method and contains an extremely dense two-dimensional hydrogen-bond network that is thermally stable up to 573 K, leading to combined ultrahigh water-assisted proton conductivities of 1.45 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 363 K/95% relative humidity and sustainable anhydrous proton conductivity of 1.1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 503 K.
Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region
Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif
2016-04-01
Since many years MAM and GFZ in co-operation with Kocaeli University (KU) operate fluid monitoring stations around the Sea of Marmara. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) these networks were jointly evaluated for the first time. The on-land fluid monitoring networks continuously monitor the following parameters: soil radon (21 sites), temperature and conductivity of thermal springs (9 sites) operated by MAM covering the whole Marmara region; fluid pressure and water level/temperature (8 sites) within ARNET operated by GFZ/KU. ARNET is a combined seismological/hydrogeological monitoring network covering the Armutlu peninsula located SE of Istanbul. Additional to the geothermal wells and springs - our main target to detect transients of potentially seismo-tectonic origin - three shallow groundwater wells (tenth of meters deep) are being operated to identify and quantify seasonal variations, and meteorological influences like rainfall and snowmelt. But it turned out that these shallow aquifer systems showed very stable conditions with very small annual temperature amplitudes (0.2 - 0.3°C). One of these shallow monitoring wells is located just south of Lake Iznik (in the village of Sölöz) very close to the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Water level showed a steady decreasing trend since June 2012. This trend resulted in a data gap starting in January 2014, when the water level dropped below the sensor position. After adjusting the sensor position, positive spikes in the borehole temperature were recorded in June and August 2014, and again in 2015. The spikes are characterised by a sharp temperature increase followed by a decay lasting several days until the pre-event temperature was reached again. Since the spikes occurred on two independent logger systems, and since they lasted several days, a
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prokhorenko V.I.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.
Wu, Jin-Hui; Yang, Rui-Feng; Wang, Gao
2012-07-01
To improve the accuracy of the transient temperature detection system, transient temperature inversion processing algorithms was proposed based on spectrum analysis of speckle pattern interferometry. The interference fringes were formed by speckle interferometry in the system, and due to transient temperature changes that cause the material strain, the speckle interference pattern changes. The interference fringes on the measured surface were obtained by the area array CCD collection before and after deformation. The corresponding spectrum density function will change with the changes in the transient temperature, and the amplitude changes of center wavelength were inverted by the speckle pattern interferometry. Through detecting and calculating the ratio of the amplitude of the center wavelength, the transient temperature can be obtained by spectrum analysis. In the analysis and calculation for the function of transient temperature and material strain, material strain and interference fringes, the amplitude and phase function of the transient temperature change and interference fringes were derived, providing the necessary conditions for detecting spectral density function temperature. The experiment used 660 nm laser diode and SI6600 type area CCD detector. By extracting the offset of the center wavelength from the spectrum distribution function, the calculation and calibration data were compared to the data obtained with the traditional method of interference temperature detection, and the result showed that the detection accuracy can achieve 0.3%. Compared to traditional direct detection of interference fringes changes, the accuracy improved nearly three times by the method.
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G
2015-06-22
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
Thermoelectric energy harvesting from small ambient temperature transients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moser, Andre
2012-07-01
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a key technology, used, for instance, in structural health monitoring, building automation systems, or traffic surveillance. Supplying power to a network of spatially distributed sensor nodes, especially at remote locations, is a large challenge: power grids are reliable but costly to install, whereas batteries provide a high flexibility in the installation but have a limited lifetime. This dilemma can be overcome by micro energy harvesting which offers both: reliability and flexibility. Micro energy harvesters are able to convert low grade ambient energy into useful electrical energy and thus provide power for wireless sensor networks or other electronic devices - in-situ, off-grid, and with an almost unlimited lifetime. Thermal energy is an omnipresent source of ambient energy: The day-night-cycle of the sun causes a temperature variation in the ambient air as well as arbitrary solids (soil, building walls, etc.). Unlike the air, solids have a large thermal inertia which dampens the temperature variation. This physical process leads to a temperature difference {Delta}T = T{sub air} - T{sub solid} between air and solid that can be converted directly into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Thermal and electrical interfaces are necessary to connect the TEG to the thermal energy source (T{sub air}, T{sub solid}) and the electrical load (WSN). Reliable operation of the WSN may only be ensured if the harvester provides sufficient electrical energy, i.e. operates at its maximum power point. The goal of this thesis is to study, design, and test thermoelectric harvesters generating electrical energy from small ambient temperature transients in order to self-sufficiently power a WSN. Current research into thermoelectric energy harvesting, especially analytical modeling and application in the field are treated insufficiently. Therefore, a time-dependent analytical model of the harvester's output power is set
Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.
Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen
2011-06-01
Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶璋; 王婧辰; 陈禹锡; 高玉魁
2016-01-01
目的 通过二维面探X射线衍射法测试高温合金GH4169的残余应力.方法 由于GH4169是Ni基高温合金,Ni合金在Cr靶下有较强衍射峰,因此采用Cr靶来测试GH4169合金的残余应力.二维面探仪有500个探测头,均匀分布在一个面上,根据每一个探测器测得的衍射角变化,就能得到500个方向上的应变值,再根据应力与应变之间的关系,就可以计算出材料的残余应力.结果 GH4169合金的德拜环只有一个衍射峰,而且衍射峰的强度随着角度α的变化而变化.这说明该材料的应力取向不均匀,存在较为明显的织构.该材料表面主应力方向上的残余应力测试值为-968 MPa,误差为62 MPa;切向上的残余应力测试值为24 MPa,误差为43 MPa.由于测试的GH4169合金是经过喷丸处理的,主应力方向上受残余压应力,而其测试结果 确为负值,说明此次测试结果 可信.结论 通过二维面探X射线衍射方法 测试材料残余应力从原理和实际操作上都是可行的,并成功测试出GH4169合金的残余应力.经喷丸处理后的GH4169材料受残余压应力的作用,且应力分布不均匀,存在较为明显的织构.%Objective To measure the residual stress of GH4169, a kind of high temperature alloy, using two-dimensional de-tector method. Methods Because GH4169 is a high temperature nickel base alloy which has a strong diffraction peak under the Cr target, this paper used Cr target to obtain the residual stress of GH4169 alloy. Using 500 detection heads uniformly distributed on a surface to measure diffraction angle changes, the portable X-ray machine could get the values of strain in 500 directions. Accord-ing to the relationship between stress and strain, the residual stress of the material could be calculated. Results The Debye ring of GH4169 alloy hasd only one diffraction peak and its intensity changed with the changes of angle alpha. This result showed that the stress orientation of the material
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
Two-dimensional nonlinear nonequilibrium kinetic theory under steady heat conduction.
Hyeon-Deuk, Kim
2005-04-01
The two-dimensional steady-state Boltzmann equation for hard-disk molecules in the presence of a temperature gradient has been solved explicitly to second order in density and the temperature gradient. The two-dimensional equation of state and some physical quantities are calculated from it and compared with those for the two-dimensional steady-state Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation and information theory. We have found that the same kind of qualitative differences as the three-dimensional case among these theories still appear in the two-dimensional case.
Transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed laser
Li, Ji; Zhang, Zhengfang; Liu, Dengying
1999-06-01
In this paper the transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed high energy laser is simulated by numerical method, especially around the theoretical homogeneous boiling point(THBP). The relationship between temperature rising rate and laser fluence is obtained; and under different temperature rising rate the distributions of temperature in liquid and metal around the THBP are obtained. With numerical simulation the relation between the temperature rising rate and laser parameters (fluence and pulse width) is known and so in the future the rapid transient boiling phenomenon could be studied and analyzed.
Transient Temperature of Liquid on Micro Metal Layer Heated by Pulsed Laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiJi; ZhangZhengfangtffu
1999-01-01
In this paper the transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed high energy laser is simulated by numerical method ,especially around the theoretical homogeneous boiling point (THBP),The relationship between temperature rising rate and laser fluence is obtained;and under different temperature rising rate the distributions of temperature in liquid and metal around the THBP are obtained.With numerical simulation the relation between the temperature rising rate and laser parameters(fluence and pulse width)is known and so in the future the rapid transient boiling phenomenon could be studed and analyzed.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
Corner wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model
Lipowski, Adam
1998-07-01
We study the interfacial behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model at the corner of weakened bonds. Monte Carlo simulations results show that the interface is pinned to the corner at a lower temperature than a certain temperature Tcw at which it undergoes a corner wetting transition. The temperature Tcw is substantially lower than the temperature of the ordinary wetting transition with a line of weakened bonds. A solid-on-solid-like model is proposed, which provides a supplementary description of the corner wetting transition.
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
Numerical simulation on influence of bonding temperature in transient liquid phase bonding
Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Raja, M. Karthick
2016-05-01
In this article, numerical simulation of transient liquid phase bonding of ceramic/metal joint has been carried out by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. To increase the wettability, aluminium sheet was used as an interlayer. Hence, numerical simulation of TLP bonding process is done by varying the bonding temperature. Transient thermal analysis had been carried out for each cases and temperature distribution was predicted by the developed numerical model. From the simulation studies, it is found that the decrease in bonding temperature enhances favourable temperature distribution and eventually improves the joint efficiency of graphite/copper joints.
Investigating protein structure and folding with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
Baiz, Carlos; Peng, Chunte; Reppert, Michael; Jones, Kevin; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2012-02-01
We present a new technique to quantitatively determine the secondary structure composition of proteins in solution based on ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. The percentage of residues in alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and unstructured conformations is extracted from a principal component analysis of the measured amide-I 2DIR spectra. We benchmark the method against a library of commercially-available proteins by comparing the predicted structure compositions with the x-ray crystal structures. The new technique offers sub-picosecond time resolution, and can be used to study systems that are difficult to study with conventional methods such as gels, intrinsically disordered peptides, fibers, and aggregates. We use the technique to investigate the structural changes and timescales associated with folding and denaturing of small proteins via equilibrium and transient temperature-jump 2DIR spectroscopy.
Two-dimensional model of elastically coupled molecular motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Hong-Wei; Wen Shu-Tang; Chen Gai-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao; Cao Zhong-Xing; Li Wei
2012-01-01
A flashing ratchet model of a two-headed molecular motor in a two-dimensional potential is proposed to simulate the hand-over-hand motion of kinesins.Extensive Langevin simulations of the model are performed.We discuss the dependences of motion and efficiency on the model parameters,including the external force and the temperature.A good qualitative agreement with the expected behavior is observed.
Extraction of plant proteins for two-dimensional electrophoresis
Granier, Fabienne
1988-01-01
Three different extraction procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of plant proteins are compared: (i) extraction of soluble proteins with a nondenaturing Tris-buffer, (ii) denaturing extraction in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated temperature allowing the solubilization of membrane proteins in addition to a recovery of soluble proteins, and (iii) a trichloroacetic acid-acetone procedure allowing the direct precipitation of total proteins.
Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi
2016-12-01
The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Peters, M.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.
1995-01-01
The conditions are examined under which optical thickness (tau) corrections to electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements of electron temperature (T-e) can be neglected. By means of simple algebra it is demonstrated that for measurements of T-e transients the ECE radiation temperature (T-rad) ca
Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.
Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S
2015-06-23
Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes
Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.
2017-04-01
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.
Magnetization of two-dimensional superconductors with defects
Kashurnikov, V A; Zyubin, M V
2002-01-01
The new method for modeling the layered high-temperature superconductors magnetization with defects, based on the Monte-Carlo algorithm, is developed. Minimization of the free energy functional of the vortex two-dimensional system made it possible to obtain the equilibrium vortex density configurations and calculate the magnetization of the superconductor with the arbitrary defects distribution in the wide range of temperatures. The magnetic induction profiles and magnetic flux distribution inside the superconductor, proving the applicability of the Bean model, are calculated
Temperature and distortion transients in gas tungsten-arc weldments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.
1979-10-01
An analysis and test program to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas tungsten-arc welding process has been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to develop techniques to determine and control the various welding parameters and weldment conditions so as to result in optimum weld response characteristics. These response characteristics include depth of penetration, weld bead configuration, weld bead sink and roll, distortion, and cracking sensitivity. The results are documented of that part of the program devoted to analytical and experimental investigations of temperatures, weld bead dimensions, and distortions for moving gas tungsten-arc welds applied to Alloy 600 plates.
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L
2010-01-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory
Zak, M.
1979-01-01
The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories
Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2014-03-01
Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.
Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities
Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.
1994-05-01
We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Local kinetic effects in two-dimensional plasma turbulence.
Servidio, S; Valentini, F; Califano, F; Veltri, P
2012-01-27
Using direct numerical simulations of a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell model, kinetic processes are investigated in a two-dimensional turbulent plasma. In the turbulent regime, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion distribution function. These patterns of non-Maxwellian features are concentrated in space nearby regions of strong magnetic activity: the distribution function is modulated by the magnetic topology, and can elongate along or across the local magnetic field. These results open a new path on the study of kinetic processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature anisotropy, commonly observed in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Analysis Method of Transient Temperature Field for Fuel Tank of High-Altitude Large UAV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qing Ai; Liang Chen; Xiaojing Xu; Shiyu Liu; Zhenwen Hu; Xinlin Xia
2016-01-01
Based on the analysis of factors affecting transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank and coupled heat transfer mechanism, a mathematical model of transient coupled heat transfer, including the dynamic change of fuel quality, the internal heat transfer, the external aerodynamic convection and the radiation heat transfer, is established. Taking the aerodynamic convection and radiation heat transfer outside the tank as the third kinds of thermal boundary conditions for the thermal analysis of the fuel tank, calculation of internal and external coupling heat of fuel tank is decoupled. Thermal network method combined with hierarchical dynamic grid is used to deal with the fuel consumption, and carry on the heat transfer analysis of the fuel tank. The numerical method for the transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank is established. Through the simulation calculation, the transient temperature distribution of the fuel tank under different flight conditions is obtained, and the influence of the fuel mass and the external thermal environment on the temperature field is analyzed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo;
2016-01-01
A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment, was investiga...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo
2016-01-01
A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment, was investiga......A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment......, was investigated on commercial polymer parts. Two points length measurements were performed before the stabilization of the temperature and length at standard conditions was estimated. The experiments consisted of synchronized measurements of length and temperature of the part over several minutes during...
A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor
Kirana, Firman Ahmad; Husein, Irzaman Sulaiman
2016-01-01
We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process. PMID:27774102
A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Firman Ahmad Kirana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Man, Elena Anamaria; Schaltz, Erik; Rosendahl, Lasse
2015-01-01
to 1000 °C with a load variation range value between [0.22 – 8.13] Ω. A total of ten thermocouples are placed in the setup with the purpose of measuring the temperature in specific points between the heater and the heat sink. Based on the readings, the temperature on the hot and cold side of the modules...... will be shown during the transient and steady-state thermal conditions....
Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics
Lyubich, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra
2004-08-01
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Molecular-dynamics simulation of two-dimensional thermophoresis
Paredes; Idler; Hasmy; Castells; Botet
2000-11-01
A numerical technique is presented for the thermal force exerted on a solid particle by a gaseous medium between two flat plates at different temperatures, in the free molecular or transition flow. This is a two-dimensional molecular-dynamics simulation of hard disks in a inhomogeneous thermal environment. All steady-state features exhibited by the compressible hard-disk gas are shown to be consistent with the expected behaviors. Moreover the thermal force experienced by a large solid disk is investigated, and compared to the analytical case of cylinders moving perpendicularly to the constant temperature gradient for an infinite Knudsen number and in an infinite medium. We show precise examples of how this technique can be used simply to investigate more difficult practical problems, in particluar the influence of nonlinear gradients for large applied differences of temperature, of proximity of the walls, and of smaller Knudsen numbers.
Two Dimensional Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis for a Packed Bed Regenerator Used in a Reheating Furnace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chien-Nan Lin
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Packed bed is widely used for different industries and technologies, such as heat exchangers, heat recovery, thermal energy storage and chemical reactors. In modern steel industry, packed bed regenerator is widely utilized in the reheating furnace to increase the furnace efficiency. This study established a two dimensional numerical model to simulate a packed bed used in regenerative furnaces. The physical properties of fluids and packed stuffing (such as density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat are considered as functions of temperature to adapt the large temperature variation in operation. The transient temperature profiles of the flue gas, packed bed, and air during the heating and regeneration period are examined for various switching time (30, 60, 120, and 240 s. The results reveal that, during the heating period, the spanwise averaged heat transfer coefficient is decreased along the longitudinal downstream direction, while during the regeneration period, the opposite trend is true. Moreover, the regenerator thermal effectiveness is decreased by increasing the switching time.
Nadarajah, Nalina; Allen, D Grant; Fulthorpe, Roberta R
2007-06-01
The effect of temperature fluctuations on bacterial community structure and function in lab-scale sequencing batch reactors treating bleached kraft mill effluent was investigated. An increase in temperature from 30 to 45 degrees C caused shifts in both bacterial community structure and function. Triplicate reactors were highly similar for 40 days following startup. After the temperature shift, their community structure and function started to diverge from each other and from the control. A multi-response permutation procedure confirmed that the variability in community structure between transient and control reactors were greater than that among the triplicate transient reactors. The fact that these disturbances manifest themselves in different ways in apparently identical reactors suggests a high degree of variability between replicate systems.
On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1975-01-01
The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....
Analysis of transient temperature field of the laminate composite membrane in space environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The on-orbit transient temperature of reflector laminate film was analyzed by using finite element method (FEM) . Numerical simulation was used by FEM software ANSYS. Results reveal that the temperature levels of the laminate composite membrane alternate greatly in the orbital period, which is about ±80℃. This range exceeds the material's operating temperature level. So it is necessary to put effective thermal control into effect to the laminate composite membrane. There is temperature gradient in the thickness direction of the laminate composite membrane: there is a light change in Kevlar/Epoxy layer. The temperature of the laminate composite membrane is obviously lower than the seam's temperature. Results provide reference to the thermal control of the inflatable reflector with high precision requirement.
Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy
Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.
Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-01-01
In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-12-01
The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-01-01
We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
Experimental evidence for a two-dimensional quantized Hall insulator
Hilke, M.; Shahar, D.; Song, S. H.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.; Monroe, Don
1998-10-01
The general theoretical definition of an insulator is a material in which the conductivity vanishes at the absolute zero of temperature. In classical insulators, such as materials with a band gap, vanishing conductivities lead to diverging resistivities. But other insulators can show more complex behaviour, particularly in the presence of a high magnetic field, where different components of the resistivity tensor can display different behaviours: the magnetoresistance diverges as the temperature approaches absolute zero, but the transverse (Hall) resistance remains finite. Such a system is known as a Hall insulator. Here we report experimental evidence for a quantized Hall insulator in a two-dimensional electron system-confined in a semiconductor quantum well. The Hall resistance is quantized in the quantum unit of resistance h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e the electronic charge. At low fields, the sample reverts to being a normal Hall insulator.
Predicting the Reliability of Ceramics Under Transient Loads and Temperatures With CARES/Life
Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.
2003-01-01
A methodology is shown for predicting the time-dependent reliability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The methodology takes into account the changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e., changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). This capability has been added to the NASA CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code. The code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.
Development of two-dimensional hot pool model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, H. D
2000-05-01
During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coast-down. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHX{sub s}, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHX{sub s} and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, in this study two-dimensional hot pool model is developed instead of existing one-dimensional model to predict the hot pool coolant temperature and velocity distribution more accurately and is applied to the SSC-K code.
Hall, Michael L.; Doster, Joseph M.
1986-01-01
Many proposed space reactor designs employ heat pipes as a means of conveying heat. Previous researchers have been concerned with steady state operation, but the transient operation is of interest in space reactor applications due to the necessity of remote startup and shutdown. A model is being developed to study the dynamic behavior of high temperature heat pipes during startup, shutdown and normal operation under space environments. Model development and preliminary results for a hypothetical design of the system are presented.
Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago A Sobral
Full Text Available The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.
Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.
Sobral, Thiago A; Gomes, Marcelo A F; Machado, Núbia R; Brito, Valdemiro P
2015-01-01
The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.
Two-dimensional thermal modeling of power monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's)
Fan, Mark S.; Christou, Aris; Pecht, Michael G.
1992-01-01
Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional temperature distributions for a typical GaAs MMIC circuit are conducted, aiming at understanding the heat conduction process of the circuit chip and providing temperature information for device reliability analysis. The method used is to solve the two-dimensional heat conduction equation with a control-volume-based finite difference scheme. In particular, the effects of the power dissipation and the ambient temperature are examined, and the criterion for the worst operating environment is discussed in terms of the allowed highest device junction temperature.
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sug, J. Y. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Choi, S. Y. [Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
We study the optical quantum transition line shapes and the optical quantum transition linewidths in relation to the magnetic-field-dependent properties of an electron-deformation potential phonon interaction system. We consider two systems - one is subject to right circularly oscillating external fields and the other is subject to left circularly-oscillatory external fields. We investigated theoretically the temperature dependence of the quantum optical transition of qusi-2-dimensional Landau splitting ystem in CdS, GaN and ZnO.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoller, R.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Mansur, L.K.
1990-01-01
A theoretical model has been developed using the reaction rate theory of radiation effects to explain experimental results that showed higher than expected values of irradiation creep at low temperatures in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The customary assumption that the point defect concentrations are at steady state was not made; rather, the time dependence of the vacancy and interstitial concentrations and the creep rate were explicitly calculated. For temperatures below about 100 to 200{degree}C, the time required for the vacancy concentration to reach steady state exceeds the duration of the experiment. For example, if materials parameters typical of austenitic stainless steel are used, the calculated vacancy transient dose at 100{degree}C is about 100 dpa. At 550{degree}C this transient is over by 10{sup {minus}8} dpa. During the time that the vacancy population remains lower than its steady state value, dislocation climb is increased since defects of primarily one type are being absorbed. Using the time-dependent point defect concentrations, the dislocation climb velocity has been calculated as a function of time and a climb-enabled glide creep model had been invoked. The extended transient time for the vacancies leads to high creep rates at low temperatures. In agreement with the experimental observations, a minimum in the temperature dependence of creep is predicted at a temperature between 50 and 350{degree}C. The temperature at which the minimum occurs decreases as the irradiation dose increases. Predicted values of creep at 8 dpa are in good agreement with the results of the ORR-MFE-6J/7J experiment.
Interval analysis of transient temperature field with uncertain-but-bounded parameters
Wang, Chong; Qiu, ZhiPing
2014-10-01
Based on the traditional finite volume method, a new numerical technique is presented for the transient temperature field prediction with interval uncertainties in both the physical parameters and initial/boundary conditions. New stability theory applicable to interval discrete schemes is developed. Interval ranges of the uncertain temperature field can be approximately yielded by two kinds of parameter perturbation methods. Different order Neumann series are adopted to approximate the interval matrix inverse. By comparing the results with traditional Monte Carlo simulation, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and methods.
Improved analysis of transient temperature data from permanent down-hole gauges (PDGs)
Zhang, Yiqun; Zheng, Shiyi; Wang, Qi
2017-08-01
With the installation of permanent down-hole gauges (PDGs) during oil field development, large volumes of high resolution and continuous down-hole information are obtainable. The interpretation of these real-time temperature and pressure data can optimize well performance, provide information about the reservoir and continuously calibrate the reservoir model. Although the dynamic temperature data have been interpreted in practice to predict flow profiling and provide characteristic information of the reservoir, almost all of the approaches rely on established non-isothermal models which depend on thermodynamic parameters. Another problem comes from the temperature transient analysis (TTA), which is underutilized compared with pressure transient analysis (PTA). In this study, several model-independent methods of TTA were performed. The entire set of PDG data consists of many flow events. By utilizing the wavelet transform, the exact points of flow-rate changes can be located. The flow regime changes, for example, from early time linear flow to later time pseudo-radial flow, among every transient period with constant flow-rate. For the early time region (ETR) that is caused by flow-rate change operations, the TTA, along with the PTA can greatly reduce the uncertainties in flow regime diagnosis. Then, the temperature variations during ETR were examined to infer the true reservoir temperature history, and the relationships between the wavelet detailed coefficients and the flow-rate changes were analysed. For the scenarios with constant reservoir-well parameters, the detailed flow-rate history can be generated by calculating the coefficient of relationship in advance. For later times, the flow regime changes to pseudo-radial flow. An analytical solution was introduced to describe the sand-face temperature. The formation parameters, such as permeability and skin factor, were estimated with the previously calculated flow-rate. It is necessary to analyse temperature
Extension of Lithium Ion Cell Model to Include Transient and Low-Temperature Behaviour
Dudley, G.
2014-08-01
Current-interruption resistance measurements have been analysed in detail allowing the ESTEC lithium ion cell electrical/thermal model to be extended to allow modelling of cell voltage in response to imposed current changes at low temperatures and short time scales where activation polarisation becomes important. Whilst an unnecessary complication in most cases, this extension is needed under certain circumstances such as the simulation of Mars rover batteries forced to operate at low temperature and possible effects of battery voltage transients on battery-bus power subsystems. Comparison with test data show that the model is capable of giving a good fit in these circumstances.
Measured Two-Dimensional Ice-Wedge Polygon Thermal Dynamics
Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Robert
2016-04-01
necessarily found in areas of higher MAGT. Active layer thickness does not appear to be correlated to mean annual air temperature but rather is a function of summer air temperature or thawing degree-days. While the refreezing of the active layer initiated at nearly the same time for all locations and polygons, we find differences in the proportion of top-down versus bottom-up freezing and the length of time required to complete the refreezing process. Examination of the daily temperature dynamics using interpolated two-dimensional temperature fields reveal that during the summer, the predominate temperature gradient is vertical while the isotherms tend to follow the topography. However, as the active layer begins to refreeze and snow accumulates, the thermal regime diverges. The fall shows an increased temperature gradient horizontally with landscape positions containing higher soil moisture and/or snow depth (low centers and troughs) cooling more slowly than the adjacent ground (rims and high centers). This two-dimensional effect is greatest as the active layer refreezes and persists until mid-winter, by which time the temperature gradients are again mostly vertical and the isotherms follow the topography. Our findings demonstrate the complexity and two-dimensionality of the temperature dynamics in these landscapes.
Zhang, Yuyan; Sun, Shasha; Guo, Quanli; Yang, Degong; Sun, Dongtao
2016-11-01
In the high speed sliding electrical contact with large current, the temperature of contact area rises quickly under the coupling action of the friction heating, the Joule heating and electric arc heating. The rising temperature seriously affects the conductivity of the components and the yield strength of materials, as well affects the contact state and lead to damage, so as to shorten the service life of the contact elements. Therefore, there is vital significance to measure the temperature accurately and investigate the temperature effect on damage of rail surface. Aiming at the problem of components damage in high speed sliding electrical contact, the transient heat effect on the contact surface was explored and its influence and regularity on the sliding components damage was obtained. A kind of real-time temperature measurement method on rail surface of high speed sliding electrical contact is proposed. Under the condition of 2.5 kA current load, based on the principle of infrared radiation non-contact temperature sensor was used to measure the rail temperature. The dynamic distribution of temperature field was obtained through the simulation analysis, further, the connection between temperature changes and the rail surface damage morphology, the damage volume was analyzed and established. Finally, the method to reduce rail damage and improve the life of components by changing the temperature field was discussed.
Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy
Fayer, Michael
2011-03-01
The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific
Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials
Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter
2017-02-01
Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging
Mahé, Laure; Dutriez, Thomas; Courtiade, Marion; Thiébaut, Didier; Dulot, Hugues; Bertoncini, Fabrice
2011-01-21
Extending the knowledge on sulfur-containing compounds is crucial for the petroleum industry because they contribute to atmospheric pollution by combustion. Most of them are concentrated in heavy petroleum cuts, such as vacuum gas oils (VGOs). However, the resolution of the existing analytical methods does not allow a quantitative speciation of S-compounds contained in VGOs. Therefore, a high temperature GC×GC chromatograph hyphenated to a SCD was implemented in this study to obtain a quantitative S-compounds speciation. Firstly, various thermally stable stationary phases, in particular the new ionic liquid IL59 and Mega Wax-HT, were investigated in 1D-GC as a way to reduce the number of columns sets to be used in GC×GC. Consequently, several normal and reversed configurations of these columns were selected and tested in GC×GC. Then, a decision method was applied to facilitate the choice of the best combination of columns. Finally, the most adapted methods led to an innovative group type quantification and to a quantitative distribution of heavy sulfur species contained in a VGO sample. These results represent a major step towards the study of S-compounds in heavy petroleum cuts.
Dynamic Properties of Two-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We propose a two-dimensional model of polydisperse granular mixtures with a power-law size distribution in the presence of stochastic driving. A fractal dimension D is introduced as a measurement of the inhomogeneity of the size distribution of particles. We define the global and partial granular temperatures of the multi-component mixture. By direct simulation Monte Carlo, we investigate how the inhomogeneity of the size distribution influences the dynamic properties of the mixture, focusing on the granular temperature, dissipated energy, velocity distribution, spatial clusterization, and collision time. We get the following results: a single granular temperature does not characterize a multi-component mixture and each species attains its own "granular temperature"; The velocity deviation from Gaussian distribution becomes more and more pronounced and the partial density of the assembly is more inhomogeneous with the increasing value of the fractal dimension D; The global granular temperature decreases and average dissipated energy per particle increases as the value of D augments.
Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal
2006-07-01
The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.
Two-dimensional investigation of forced bubble oscillation under microgravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HONG Ruoyu; Masahiro KAWAJI
2003-01-01
Recent referential studies of fluid interfaces subjected to small vibration under microgravity conditions are reviewed. An experimental investigation was carried out aboard the American Space Shuttle Discovery. Two-dimensional (2-D) modeling and simulation were conducted to further understand the experimental results. The oscillation of a bubble in fluid under surface tension is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm was used to solve the partial differential equations on an Eulerian mesh in a 2-D coordinate. Free surfaces were represented with the volume of fluid (VOF) obtained by solving a kinematic equation. Surface tension was modeled via a continuous surface force (CSF) algorithm that ensures robustness and accuracy. A new surface reconstruction scheme, alternative phase integration (API) scheme, was adopted to solve the kinematic equation, and was compared with referential schemes. Numerical computations were conducted to simulate the transient behavior of an oscillating gas bubble in mineral oil under different conditions. The bubble positions and shapes under different external vibrations were obtained numerically. The computed bubble oscillation amplitudes were compared with experimental data.
Aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration
Lua, K. B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, X. H.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.
2016-12-01
This paper reports a fundamental investigation on the aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration in forward flight. Of particular interest are the effects of phase angle (φ) and center-to-center distance (L) between the front wing and the rear wing on the aerodynamic force generation at a Reynolds number of 5000. Both experimental and numerical methods were employed. A force sensor was used to measure the time-history aerodynamic forces experienced by the two wings and digital particle image velocimetry was utilized to obtain the corresponding flow structures. Both the front wing and the rear wing executed the same simple harmonic motions with φ ranging from -180° to 180° and four values of L, i.e., 1.5c, 2c, 3c, and 4c (c is the wing chord length). Results show that at fixed L = 2c, tandem wings perform better than the sum of two single wings that flap independently in terms of thrust for phase angle approximately from -90° to 90°. The maximum thrust on the rear wing occurs during in-phase flapping (φ = 0°). Correlation of transient thrust and flow structure indicates that there are generally two types of wing-wake interactions, depending on whether the rear wing crosses the shear layer shed from the front wing. Finally, increasing wing spacing has similar effect as reducing the phase angle, and an approximate mathematical model is derived to describe the relationship between these two parameters.
Nonlinear transport in a two dimensional holographic superconductor
Zeng, Hua Bi; Tian, Yu; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei
2016-06-01
The problem of nonlinear transport in a two-dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both the near- and nonequilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near-equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting nonequilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Increasing the amplitude of the applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium nonsuperconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In the lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of the superconducting gap, which results in a nonmonotonic field-dependent nonlinear conductivity.
Flat Chern band in a two-dimensional organometallic framework.
Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng
2013-03-01
By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a "romance of flatland" could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.
Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl
2014-03-01
We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.
Nonlinear Transport in a Two Dimensional Holographic Superconductor
Zeng, Hua Bi; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei
2016-01-01
The problem of nonlinear transport in a two dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both near- and non-equilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting non-equilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Keeping increasing the amplitude of applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium non-superconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of superconducting gap, which results in a non-monotonic field dependent nonlinear conductivity.
Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.
Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V
2016-12-27
Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.
Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging
Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana
2013-06-01
Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.
Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.
Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming
2013-04-04
Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.
Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model
Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael
2016-04-01
The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.
Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites
Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
2016-06-01
We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.
Current fluctuations in a two dimensional model of heat conduction
Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Garrido, Pedro L.; Hurtado, Pablo I.
2011-03-01
In this work we study numerically and analytically current fluctuations in the two-dimensional Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model of heat conduction. For that purpose, we use a recently introduced algorithm which allows the direct evaluation of large deviations functions. We compare our results with predictions based on the Hydrodynamic Fluctuation Theory (HFT) of Bertini and coworkers, finding very good agreement in a wide interval of current fluctuations. We also verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation which depends exclusively on the magnitude of the current vector, not on its orientation. This confirms the recently introduced Isometric Fluctuation Relation (IFR), which results from the time-reversibility of the dynamics, and includes as a particular instance the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem in this context but adds a completely new perspective on the high level of symmetry imposed by timereversibility on the statistics of nonequilibrium fluctuations.
Analytical prediction and field validation of transient temperature field in asphalt pavements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈嘉祺; 李亮; 汪浩
2015-01-01
This work presented the development and validation of an analytical method to predict the transient temperature field in the asphalt pavement. The governing equation for heat transfer was based on heat conduction radiation and convection. An innovative time-dependent function was proposed to predict the pavement surface temperature with solar radiation and air temperature using dimensional analysis in order to simplify the complex heat exchange on the pavement surface. The parameters for the time-dependent pavement surface temperature function were obtained through the regression analysis of field measurement data. Assuming that the initial pavement temperature distribution was linear and the influence of the base course materials on the temperature of the upper asphalt layers was negligible, a close-form analytical solution of the temperature in asphalt layers was derived using Green’s function. Finally, two numerical examples were presented to validate the model solutions with field temperature measurements. Analysis results show that the solution accuracy is in agreement with field data and the relative errors at a shallower depth are greater than those at a deeper one. Although the model is not sensitive to dramatic changes in climatic factors near the pavement surface, it is applicable for predicting pavement temperature field in cloudless days.
Short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional scattering media by natural element method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping
2014-04-01
The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer (TRT) in two-dimensional semitransparent media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. The least-squares (LS) weighted residuals approach is employed to spatially discretize the transient radiative heat transfer equation. First, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LSNEM solutions to TRT are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Effects of the incident angle on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Afterward, the accuracy of this algorithm for the case of the refractive index mismatched boundary is studied. Finally, the LSNEM is extended to study the TRT in a two-dimensional semitransparent medium with refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. The effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness, scattering phase function, and refractive index on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated. Several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.
ITER-W monoblocks under high pulse number transient heat loads at high temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewenhoff, Th., E-mail: T.Loewenhoff@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Linke, J., E-mail: J.Linke@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pintsuk, G., E-mail: G.Pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pitts, R.A., E-mail: Richard.Pitts@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pla No. 2 – T B3 7/01, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)
2015-08-15
In the context of using a full-tungsten (W) divertor for ITER, thermal shock resistance has become even more important as an issue that may potentially influence the long term performance. To address this issue a unique series of experiments has been performed on ITER-W monoblock mock ups in three EU high heat flux facilities: GLADIS (neutral beam), JUDITH 2 (electron beam) and Magnum-PSI (plasma beam). This paper discusses the JUDITH 2 experiments. Two different base temperatures, 1200 °C and 1500 °C, were chosen superimposed by ∼18,000/100,000 transient events (Δt = 0.48 ms) of 0.2 and 0.6 GW/m{sup 2}. Results showed a stronger surface deterioration at higher base temperature, quantified by an increase in roughening. This is intensified if the same test is done after preloading (exposure to high temperature without transients), especially at higher base temperature when the material recrystallizes.
Heat exchanger temperature response for duty-cycle transients in the NGNP/HTE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division
2009-03-12
Control system studies were performed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) interfaced to the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) plant. Temperature change and associated thermal stresses are important factors in determining plant lifetime. In the NGNP the design objective of a 40 year lifetime for the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) in particular is seen as a challenge. A control system was designed to minimize temperature changes in the IHX and more generally at all high-temperature locations in the plant for duty-cycle transients. In the NGNP this includes structures at the reactor outlet and at the inlet to the turbine. This problem was approached by identifying those high-level factors that determine temperature rates of change. First are the set of duty cycle transients over which the control engineer has little control but which none-the-less must be addressed. Second is the partitioning of the temperature response into a quasi-static component and a transient component. These two components are largely independent of each other and when addressed as such greater understanding of temperature change mechanisms and how to deal with them is achieved. Third is the manner in which energy and mass flow rates are managed. Generally one aims for a temperature distribution that minimizes spatial non-uniformity of thermal expansion in a component with time. This is can be achieved by maintaining a fixed spatial temperature distribution in a component during transients. A general rule of thumb for heat exchangers is to maintain flow rate proportional to thermal power. Additionally the product of instantaneous flow rate and heat capacity should be maintained the same on both sides of the heat exchanger. Fourth inherent mechanisms for stable behavior should not be compromised by active controllers that can introduce new feedback paths and potentially create under-damped response. Applications of these principles to the development of a plant control strategy for
Double-Humped Transverse Density Profile in Two-Dimensional Chute Flow with Rough Sidewalls
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Guo-Qi; ZHANG Xun-Sheng; BAO De-Song; TANG Xiao-Wei
2006-01-01
@@ We study a two-dimensional granular rapid flow with rough sidewalls stuck with the same size discs by molecular dynamics simulation. A transient state of the double-humped density profile in the flowing process has been found, which appears and moves as travelling wave and is the same as the phenomena in the recent experiments [Acta Phys. Sin. 53 (2004) 3389 (in Chinese)].
Yang, H. F.; Hu, X. K.; Liebing, N.; Böhnert, T.; Costa, J. D.; Tarequzzaman, M.; Ferreira, R.; Sievers, S.; Bieler, M.; Schumacher, H. W.
2017-06-01
We report absolute temperature measurements in a buried nanostructure with a sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. For this purpose, we take advantage of the temperature dependence of the resistance of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) as detected by a fast sampling oscilloscope. After calibrating the measurement setup using steady-state electric heating, we are able to quantify temperature changes in the MTJ induced by femtosecond optical heating of the metal contact lying several 100 nm above the MTJ. We find that a femtosecond pulse train with an average power of 400 mW and a repetition rate of 76 MHz leads to a constant temperature increase of 80 K and a temporally varying temperature change of 2 K in the MTJ. The maximum temperature change in the MTJ occurs 4 ns after the femtosecond laser pulses hit the metal contact, which is supported by simulations. Our work provides a scheme to quantitatively study local temperatures in nanoscale structures and might be important for the testing of nanoscale thermal transport simulations.
Tuning of Feedback Decoupling Controller for Two-Dimensional Heat Plate by Using VRFT Method
Matsunaga, Nobutomo; Nakano, Masahiko; Okajima, Hiroshi; Kawaji, Shigeyasu
In manufacturing processes, inappropriate thermal distribution, which is observed in both steady and transient states of the thermal plant, leads to inferior quality. For a plant with strong thermal interaction, decoupling control is effective in precisely tuning the control system. We proposed the decoupling controller based on the temperature-difference feedback model. However, no parameter-identification method of thermal interaction has been presented so far. Traditionally, iterative tuning by trial and error has been used to tune the controller parameters. In the case of an industrial plant, the tuning time would be long because of the large time constants of the plant. Recently, the virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT) method, which can be used for off-line tuning of the controller parameters using a set of I/O data, has been studied to examine the possibility of shortening the tuning time. In this paper, a VRFT method for the feedback decoupling controller is proposed for a two-dimensional heat plate by taking consideration the thermal interaction property. The effectiveness of this VRFT method is evaluated by performing an experimental simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available After a postulated design basis accident leads high temperature gas cooled reactor to emergency shutdown, steam generator still remains with high temperature level and needs to be cooled down by a precooling before reactor restarts with clearing of fault. For the large difference of coolant temperature between inlet and outlet of steam generator in normal operation, the temperature distribution on the components of steam generator is very complicated. Therefore, the temperature descending rate of the components in steam generator needs to be limited to avoid the potential damage during the precooling stage. In this paper, a pebble-bed high temperature gas cooled reactor is modeled by thermal-hydraulic system analysis code and several postulated precooling injection transients are simulated and compared to evaluate their effects, which will provide support for the precooling design. The analysis results show that enough precooling injection is necessary to satisfy the precooling requirements, and larger mass flow rate of precooling water injection will accelerate the precooling process. The temperature decrease of steam generator is related to the precooling injection scenarios, and the maximal mass flow rate of the precooling injection should be limited to avoid the excessively quick temperature change of the structures in steam generator.
The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG CHI
2013-01-01
In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.
Calculation of the electrical of induction heating coils in two dimensional axissymmetric geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nerg, J.; Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland). Department of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Electrical Engineering
1997-12-31
The effect of the workpiece temperature on the electrical parameters of a plane, spiral inductor is discussed. The effect of workpiece temperature on the electrical efficiency, power transfer to the workpiece and electromagnetic distortion are also presented. Calculation is performed in two dimensional axissymmetric geometry using a FEM program. (orig.) 5 refs.
Strength and reliability of low temperature transient liquid phase bonded Cu-Sn-Cu interconnects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Mads; Söhl, Stefan; Eisele, Ronald
2017-01-01
as a potential technology that could enable the realization of stacks with better thermal performance and reliability than those can be achieved using conventional soldering techniques. Low temperature TLP bonded CuSnCu samples are fabricated, and the strength of the achieved bonds is measured by shear testing......As power electronic devices have tendencies to operate at higher temperatures and current densities, the demand for reliable and efficient packaging technologies are ever increasing. This paper reports the studies on application of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of CuSnCu systems...... for achieving a strong and high temperature resistant bond. Finally, initial results from a thermal cycling test are presented and it is concluded that the achieved TLP bonding is a promising candidate for the fabrication of reliable interconnects in power electronics....
TEMP: a computer code to calculate fuel pin temperatures during a transient. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bard, F E; Christensen, B Y; Gneiting, B C
1980-04-01
The computer code TEMP calculates fuel pin temperatures during a transient. It was developed to accommodate temperature calculations in any system of axi-symmetric concentric cylinders. When used to calculate fuel pin temperatures, the code will handle a fuel pin as simple as a solid cylinder or as complex as a central void surrounded by fuel that is broken into three regions by two circumferential cracks. Any fuel situation between these two extremes can be analyzed along with additional cladding, heat sink, coolant or capsule regions surrounding the fuel. The one-region version of the code accurately calculates the solution to two problems having closed-form solutions. The code uses an implicit method, an explicit method and a Crank-Nicolson (implicit-explicit) method.
Parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient and its temperature dependence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zheng; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Qin Jun-Rui; Liu Rong-Rong
2012-01-01
Using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation,parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient (SET) current of a single transistor and its temperature dependence are studied.We quantify the contributions of different current components in a SET current pulse,and it is found that the proportion of parasitic bipolar amplification in total collected charge is about 30％ in both 130-nm and 90-nm technologies.The temperature dependence of parasitic bipolar amplification and the mechanism of the SET pulse are also investigated and quantified.The results show that the proportion of charge induced by parasitic bipolar increases with rising temperature,which illustrates that the parasitic bipolar amplification plays an important role in the charge collection of a single transistor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Anamaria Man
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior of the electrical and thermal parameters of thermoelectric generators (TEGs. The focus is on the required wait-time between measurements in order to reduce measurement errors which may appear until the system reaches steady-state. By knowing this waiting time, the total characterization time can also be reduced. The experimental characterization process is performed on a test rig known as TEGeta, which can be used to assess the output characteristics of TEG modules under different load values and temperature conditions. The setup offers the possibility to control the hot side temperature up to 1000 °C with a load variation range value between 0.22–8.13 Ω. A total of ten thermocouples are placed in the setup with the purpose of measuring the temperature in specific points between the heater and the heat sink. Based on the readings, the temperature on the hot and cold side of the modules can be extrapolated. This study provides quantitative data on the minimum waiting time of the temperatures in the surrounding system to reach equilibrium. Laboratory tests are performed on a calcium-manganese oxide module at temperatures between 400 and 800 °C to explore the high temperatures features of the setup.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
) analysis has been proven as a useful tool to exploit the detailed and visualized information about the fluid flows; and hence it can be helpful for predicting local climate inside the electronic enclosures. In this study, the temperature and moisture distributions inside an idealized electronic enclosure...... with some heat producing components are investigated. It is shown how the enclosure material can influence local climate inside the enclosure using transient numerical simulations. The effect of heat transfer coefficient and wall thickness of the enclosure is also investigated. The enclosure material...
A High-Temperature Transient Hot-Wire Thermal Conductivity Apparatus for Fluids
Perkins, R. A.; Roder, H. M.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.
1991-01-01
A new apparatus for measuring both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of fluids at temperatures from 220 to 775 K at pressures to 70 MPa is described. The instrument is based on the step-power-forced transient hot-wire technique. Two hot wires are arranged in different arms of a Wheatstone bridge such that the response of the shorter compensating wire is subtracted from the response of the primary wire. Both hot wires are 12.7 µm diameter platinum wire and are simultaneously use...
Development of a Two-Dimensional Implicit Interior Ballistics Code
1980-01-01
the universal gas constant, W is the gas molecular weight, u m and n is the covolume factor, which is composition dependent . Following Gough (Ref...c is dependent on the gas composition but not temperature. v The static enthalpy is then h = p e + p The specific heat at constant pressure is...Gun Interior Ballistics Transient Combustion Time- dependent Adaptive Grid 20, ABST’RACT (Cazrt&au:e _. .. ._._ lliO 11 ~ llltld ldenllly by block
Chirdon, William M.; Patil, Abhijeet P.
2011-10-01
An oscillating boundary temperature (OBT) method is proposed to simultaneously determine transient thermal properties including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, internal heat generation, and volumetric heat capacity for exothermic solids and semi-solids over a narrow, controlled temperature range by using internal temperature measurements of the thermal wave. A comparison of this method and a transient hot-wire (THW) method is conducted in the presence of heat generation using physical properties which change over time. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The OBT method is potentially useful for the analysis of exothermic solid or semi-solid materials such as hydrating (freshly mixed) cement and concrete, polymers and composites undergoing polymerization reactions, and biological tissues.
On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.
2014-11-01
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.
Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system
Kim, Se-Hun
2016-10-01
The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreev V.I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the use of a numerical method the calculation of finite cylinders into account the dependence of physical and mechanical properties of the material on temperature. If we have two-dimensional temperature field characteristics of the material depends on two coordinates. - r and z from which follows that the problem of thermoelasticity is also a two-dimensional. Using the numerical method allows to solve the problem for any state of the cylinder (plane stress or plane strain and consider arbitrary boundary conditions at its ends.
On the equivalence between stochastic baker's maps and two-dimensional spin systems
Lindgren, K.
2010-05-01
We show that there is a class of stochastic bakers transformations that is equivalent to the class of equilibrium solutions of two-dimensional spin systems with finite interaction. The construction is such that the equilibrium distribution of the spin lattice is identical to the invariant measure in the corresponding bakers transformation. We illustrate the equivalence by deriving two stochastic bakers maps representing the Ising model at a temperature above and below the critical temperature, respectively. A calculation of the invariant measure and the free energy in the baker system is then shown to be in agreement with analytic results of the two-dimensional Ising model.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates
The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs
De, Sanchari
2014-01-01
In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2007-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...
Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.
Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong
2009-01-01
By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.
Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon
2014-12-19
Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol(-1). The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening.
Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunrong Zhu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.
Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazel A. Oxenford
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future.
Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados.
Oxenford, Hazel A; Vallès, Henri
2016-01-01
Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world's coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kyung Ho; Park, Jeong Eun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-10-15
This paper covers a verification plan of the results of heat transfer analysis in the MACSTOR/KN-400 on a transient state basis. The transient state reflects several natural environment parameters such as solar loads and daily temperature variations. These factors seriously affect analysis results in terms of concrete temperature and temperature gradients. There are two objectives to verifying the heat analysis results under transient state. First, there is the need to meet the request of the regular body to confirm that concrete temperature stays below the level of the design criteria. Second, it is necessary to recognize how much conservative the analysis is. In actual operating conditions, concrete temperature would be reduced by less conservative conditions.
Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics
Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ying, E-mail: 13110290008@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, Xiangying, E-mail: 13110190068@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Jiping, E-mail: jphuang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yushan, E-mail: niyushan@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2016-04-22
For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial — switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect. - Highlights: • Established the unsteady-state temperature dependent transformation thermotics. • A thermal concentrator with switchable functionality. • An effective-medium design for experimental realization.
Room temperature screening of thermal conductivity by means of thermal transient measurements
García-Cañadas, Jorge; Cheng, Shudan; Márquez-García, Lourdes; Prest, Martin J.; Akbari-Rahimabadi, Ahmad; Min, Gao
2016-10-01
A proof of concept of the possibility to estimate thermal conductivity of bulk disc samples at room temperature by means of thermal decays is demonstrated. An experimental set-up was designed and fabricated, which is able to perform thermal transient measurements by using a specially designed multifunctional probe that has the ability to measure temperature at its tip. Initially, the probe is heated by a heater coil located in its interior until the tip temperature reaches a steady state. Then, the probe is contacted with a disc sample which produces a temperature decay until a new state is reached. The difference between the initial and final states temperatures shows a correlation with the thermal conductivity of the sample. Employing a calibration equation, obtained using reference materials, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Reasonably good random and systematic errors (<13% and ~9% respectively) are obtained. Theoretical simulations performed using COMSOL show a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. This new method involves an inexpensive and simple set-up which can be especially useful for thermal conductivity screening and high-throughput measurements.
Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; QIANG Tian
2009-01-01
We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).
Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway
2012-09-01
ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located
RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang
2006-01-01
The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Quantum-corrected two-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz black hole entropy
Anacleto, M A; Brito, F A; Mota-Silva, J C
2015-01-01
In this paper we focus on the Halmiton-Jacobi method to determine the temperature and the entropy of a two-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz black hole by using the generalized uncertainty principles (GUP). We also address the product of horizons, mainly concerning the event, Cauchy, cosmological and virtual horizons.
Quantum-Corrected Two-Dimensional Horava-Lifshitz Black Hole Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Anacleto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We focus on the Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine several thermodynamic quantities such as temperature, entropy, and specific heat of two-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz black holes by using the generalized uncertainty principles (GUP. We also address the product of horizons, mainly concerning the event, Cauchy, and cosmological and virtual horizons.
Short-range magnetic order in two-dimensional cobalt-ferrite nanoparticle assemblies
Georgescu, M; Viota, J.L.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.
2008-01-01
Magnetic order in two-dimensional islands of spherical 21 nm cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles is studied by magnetic force microscopy and spectroscopy. Images obtained at a temperature of 105 K clearly reveal the presence of repulsive and attractive areas on top of the islands. Monte Carlo
Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.
Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S
2004-06-18
A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.
Feedback stabilisation of a two-dimensional pool-boiling system by modal control
van Gils, R.W.; Speetjens, M.F.M; Zwart, Heiko J.; Nijmeijer, H.
The present study concerns the feedback stabilisation of the unstable equilibria of a two-dimensional nonlinear pool-boiling system with essentially heterogeneous temperature distributions in the fluid-heater interface. Regulation of such equilibria has great potential for application in, for
DEFINITION STRESS INTENSITY COEFFICIENT TWO-DIMENSIONAL BODIES UNDER THERMAL LOAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shkril’ А.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the finite element scheme of the moment method (FEM implemented method of determining the coefficients of stress intensity (K in two-dimensional bodies under the action of temperature load. Results of test problems showed that the methods for determining the energy of K are more effeciency compared with the.
High-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical-trap source for cold lithium atoms
Tiecke, T.G.; Gensemer, S.D.; Ludewig, A.; Walraven, J.T.M.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT) as a beam source for cold Li-6 atoms. The source is side loaded from an oven operated at temperatures in the range 600 less than or similar to T less than or similar to 700 K. The performance is analyzed by loading the atoms into a
Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed
Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.
1989-01-01
In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,
Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Nizhankovskii
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Change of the chemical potential of electrons in a GaAs-AlGa1−As heterojunction was measured in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T at several temperatures from 2.17 to 12.3 K. A thermodynamic equation of state of two-dimensional electron gas well describes the experimental results.
A High-Temperature Transient Hot-Wire Thermal Conductivity Apparatus for Fluids.
Perkins, R A; Roder, H M; Nieto de Castro, C A
1991-01-01
A new apparatus for measuring both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of fluids at temperatures from 220 to 775 K at pressures to 70 MPa is described. The instrument is based on the step-power-forced transient hot-wire technique. Two hot wires are arranged in different arms of a Wheatstone bridge such that the response of the shorter compensating wire is subtracted from the response of the primary wire. Both hot wires are 12.7 µm diameter platinum wire and are simultaneously used as electrical heat sources and as resistance thermometers. A microcomputer controls bridge nulling, applies the power pulse, monitors the bridge response, and stores the results. Performance of the instrument was verified with measurements on liquid toluene as well as argon and nitrogen gas. In particular, new data for the thermal conductivity of liquid toluene near the saturation line, between 298 and 550 K, are presented. These new data can be used to illustrate the importance of radiative heat transfer in transient hot-wire measurements. Thermal conductivity data for liquid toluene, which are corrected for radiation, are reported. The precision of the thermal conductivity data is ± 0.3% and the accuracy is about ±1%. The accuracy of the thermal diffusivity data is about ± 5%. From the measured thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, we can calculate the specific heat, Cp , of the fluid, provided that the density is measured, or available through an equation of state.
Further two-dimensional code development for Stirling space engine components
Ibrahim, Mounir; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.
1990-01-01
The development of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components is described. Two-dimensional parallel plate models of an engine regenerator and a cooler were used to study heat transfer under conditions of laminar, incompressible oscillating flow. Substantial differences in the nature of the temperature variations in time over the cycle were observed for the cooler as contrasted with the regenerator. When the two-dimensional cooler model was used to calculate a heat transfer coefficient, it yields a very different result from that calculated using steady-flow correlations. Simulation results for the regenerator and the cooler are presented.
Non-monotonic magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems in the ballistic regime
Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Minkov, G. M.; Sherstobitov, A. A.; Pudalov, V. M.
2009-01-01
We report experimental observations of a novel magnetoresistance (MR) behavior of two-dimensional electron systems in perpendicular magnetic field in the ballistic regime, for k_BT\\tau/\\hbar>1. The MR grows with field and exhibits a maximum at fields B>1/\\mu, where \\mu is the electron mobility. As temperature increases the magnitude of the maximum grows and its position moves to higher fields. This effect is universal: it is observed in various Si- and GaAs- based two-dimensional electron sys...
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)
2014-11-15
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.
Nonlinear two-dimensional terahertz photon echo and rotational spectroscopy in the gas phase
Lu, Jian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Fleischer, Sharly; Nelson, Keith A
2016-01-01
Ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy utilizes correlated multiple light-matter interactions for retrieving dynamic features that may otherwise be hidden under the linear spectrum. Its extension to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, where a rich variety of material degrees of freedom reside, remains an experimental challenge. Here we report ultrafast two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy of gas-phase molecular rotors at room temperature. Using time-delayed terahertz pulse pairs, we observe photon echoes and other nonlinear signals resulting from molecular dipole orientation induced by three terahertz field-dipole interactions. The nonlinear time-domain orientation signals are mapped into the frequency domain in two-dimensional rotational spectra which reveal J-state-resolved nonlinear rotational dynamics. The approach enables direct observation of correlated rotational transitions and may reveal rotational coupling and relaxation pathways in the ground electronic and vibrational state.
Further studies of stall flutter and nonlinear divergence of two-dimensional wings
Dugundji, J.; Chopra, I.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation is made of the purely torsional stall flutter of a two-dimensional wing pivoted about the midchord, and also of the bending-torsion stall flutter of a two-dimensional wing pivoted about the quarterchord. For the purely torsional flutter case, large amplitude limit cycles ranging from + or - 11 to + or - 160 degrees were observed. Nondimensional harmonic coefficients were extracted from the free transient vibration tests for amplitudes up to 80 degrees. Reasonable nondimensional correlation was obtained for several wing configurations. For the bending-torsion flutter case, large amplitude coupled limit cycles were observed with torsional amplitudes as large as + or - 40 degrees. The torsion amplitudes first increased, then decreased with increasing velocity. Additionally, a small amplitude, predominantly torsional flutter was observed when the static equilibrium angle was near the stall angle.
Clapham, David E; Miller, Christopher
2011-12-06
The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔH(o): positive ΔH(o) for heat-activated and negative ΔH(o) for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔC(P). This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes.
Naghshine, Babak. B.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh
2017-02-01
Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.
Jianjun, Chen; Shuming, Chen; Bin, Liang; Biwei, Liu
2010-12-01
The effect of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on a single event transient (SET) has been studied in a 130 nm bulk silicon CMOS process based on 3D TCAD device simulations. The investigation shows that NBTI can result in the pulse width and amplitude of SET narrowing when the heavy ion hits the PMOS in the high-input inverter; but NBTI can result in the pulse width and amplitude of SET broadening when the heavy ion hits the NMOS in the low-input inverter. Based on this study, for the first time we propose that the impact of NBTI on a SET produced by the heavy ion hitting the NMOS has already been a significant reliability issue and should be of wide concern, and the radiation hardened design must consider the impact of NBTI on a SET.
Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides
Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng
2017-03-01
Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.
Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.
Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz
2016-05-11
Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.
Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation
Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.
2012-01-01
The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).
DISCRETE MODELLING OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID FOAMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qicheng Sun
2003-01-01
Liquid foam is a dense random packing of gas or liquid bubbles in a small amount of immiscible liquid containing surfactants. The liquid within the Plateau borders, although small in volume, causes considerable difficulties to the investigation of the spatial structure and physical properties of foams, and the situation becomes even more complicated as the fluid flows. To solve these problems, a discrete model of two-dimensional liquid foams on the bubble scale is proposed in this work. The bubble surface is represented with finite number of nodes, and the liquid within Plateau borders is discretized into lattice particles. The gas in bubbles is treated as ideal gas at constant temperatures. This model is tested by choosing an arbitrary shape bubble as the initial condition. This then automatically evolves into a circular shape, which indicates that the surface energy minimum routine is obeyed without calling external controlling conditions. Without inserting liquid particle among the bubble channels, periodic ordered and disordered dry foams are both simulated, and the fine foam structures are developed. Wet foams are also simulated by inserting fluid among bubble channels. The calculated coordination number, as a function of liquid fractions, agrees well with the standard values.
Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, G.E. [KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
1998-08-01
For laser intensities in the range of 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of order 10 {micro}sec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing.
Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU
2009-01-01
The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.
Transparent Conductive Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide Epitaxial Thin Films.
Halim, Joseph; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Cook, Kevin M; Lu, Jun; Smith, Cole R; Näslund, Lars-Åke; May, Steven J; Hultman, Lars; Gogotsi, Yury; Eklund, Per; Barsoum, Michel W
2014-04-08
Since the discovery of graphene, the quest for two-dimensional (2D) materials has intensified greatly. Recently, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) was discovered that is both conducting and hydrophilic, an uncommon combination. To date MXenes have been produced as powders, flakes, and colloidal solutions. Herein, we report on the fabrication of ∼1 × 1 cm(2) Ti3C2 films by selective etching of Al, from sputter-deposited epitaxial Ti3AlC2 films, in aqueous HF or NH4HF2. Films that were about 19 nm thick, etched with NH4HF2, transmit ∼90% of the light in the visible-to-infrared range and exhibit metallic conductivity down to ∼100 K. Below 100 K, the films' resistivity increases with decreasing temperature and they exhibit negative magnetoresistance-both observations consistent with a weak localization phenomenon characteristic of many 2D defective solids. This advance opens the door for the use of MXenes in electronic, photonic, and sensing applications.
Two-Dimensional Nucleation of Ice from Supercooled Water
Seeley, L. H.; Seidler, G. T.
2001-03-01
Heterogeneous nucleation is the initial formation of a stable phase from a metastable phase in the presence of a catalyzing surface. This ubiquitous process has consequences ranging from metallurgy to the formation of kidney stones. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice plays a central role in cloud formation, suggesting one possible connection between anthropogenic pollutants and global climate. A key topic in the theory of nucleation is the geometry of the critical nucleus. Standard nucleation theories generally predict a compact critical nucleus with a surface of roughly constant curvature. We report measurements of the temperature dependent nucleation rate of ice from water samples supporting aliphatic alcohol Langmuir films. We use classical nucleation theory to extract thermodynamic parameters from the measured nucleation rates. From these parameters we conclude that both the effective free energy barrier and the molecular kinetics of nucleation are dominated by the physics at the interface. Our results give self-consistent evidence that the geometry of the critical nucleus in this system is essentially two-dimensional.
A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin
2006-01-01
By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.
UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟
2003-01-01
In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.
Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.
1979-01-01
The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....
Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor
Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R
2016-01-01
We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.
Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion
Lavrov, P M
1999-01-01
We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.
Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.
Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Wen-Chao
2004-01-01
We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.
A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.
Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji
2012-02-05
Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.
Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra
2003-10-01
Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.
Transient temperature rise in a mouse due to low-frequency regional hyperthermia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trakic, Adnan; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)
2006-04-07
A refined nonlinear heat transfer model of a mouse has been developed to simulate the transient temperature rise in a neoplastic tumour and neighbouring tissue during regional hyperthermia using a 150 kHz inductive coil. In this study, we incorporate various bio-energetic enhancements to the heat transfer equation and numerical validations based on experimental findings for the mouse, in terms of nonlinear metabolic heat production, homeothermy, blood perfusion parameters, thermoregulation, psychological and physiological effects. The discretized bio-heat transfer equation has been validated with the commercial software FEMLAB on a canonical multi-sphere object before applying the scheme to the inhomogeneous mouse voxel phantom. The time-dependent numerical results of regional hyperthermia of mouse thigh have been compared with the available experimental temperature results with only a few small disparities. During the first 20 min of local unfocused heating, the temperature in the tumour and the surrounding tissue increased by around 7.5 deg. C. The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a validated electrothermal numerical scheme for inductive hyperthermia of a small mammal with the intention of expanding the model into a complete numerical solution involving ferromagnetic nanoparticles for targeted heating of tumours at low frequencies. In addition, the numerical scheme herein could assist in optimizing and tailoring of focused electromagnetic fields for hyperthermia.
Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.
1974-01-01
Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients in the geomagnetic tail field, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon: the conductivity increases rapidly with depth from 10 to the minus 9 power mhos/meter at the lunar surface to .0001 mhos/meter at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to .02 mhos/meter at 1000 km depth. A temperature profile is calculated from conductivity: temperature rises rapidly with depth to 1100 K at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to 1800 K at 1000 km depth. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock are estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements. Average speeds are determined to be about 50 km/sec for the magnetopause and 70 km/sec for the bow shock, although there are large variations in the measurements for any particular boundary crossing.
Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation
Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.
2016-01-01
International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...
Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation
T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University
1997-01-01
Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...
Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers
2016-06-15
polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan
2002-05-01
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.
Phi Long, Nguyen; Matsunaga, Yukihiro; Hanari, Toshihide; Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu
2016-10-01
Experiment of temperature measurement was performed to investigate the transient temperature characteristics of molten metal during laser cutting. The aim of this study was to establish a method for measuring the surface temperature variation near the molten pool correlated with changes in cutting parameters. The relationship between temperature inside the kerf cut and characteristic of the cut surface was investigated by using thermography and thermocouples. Results show strong correlations between the transient temperatures and the thermal image for different cutting conditions. In addition, two-color thermometer has been used to obtain radiation intensity emitted from the irradiating zone as a function of operating conditions. Experiments have shown that one can detect the cutting quality by characterization of the surface temperature during laser cutting process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Soon Park
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The failure probabilities of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV for low temperature over-pressurization (LTOP and cool-down transients are calculated in this study. For the cool-down transient, a pressure–temperature limit curve is generated in accordance with Section XI, Appendix G of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME code, from which safety margin factors are deliberately removed for the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Then, sensitivity analyses are conducted to understand the effects of some input parameters. For the LTOP transient, the failure of the RPV mostly occurs during the period of the abrupt pressure rise. For the cool-down transient, the decrease of the fracture toughness with temperature and time plays a main role in RPV failure at the end of the cool-down process. As expected, the failure probability increases with increasing fluence, Cu and Ni contents, and initial reference temperature-nil ductility transition (RTNDT. The effect of warm prestressing on the vessel failure probability for LTOP is not significant because most of the failures happen before the stress intensity factor reaches the peak value while its effect reduces the failure probability by more than one order of magnitude for the cool-down transient.
Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seba Sara Varghese
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.
Simulation of Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Vortex Systems in Random Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wei; SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo
2009-01-01
Dynamics in two-dimensional vortex systems with random pinning centres is investigated using molecular dy-namical simulations. The driving force and temperature dependences of vortex velocity are investigated. Below the critical depinning force Fc, a creep motion of vortex is found at low temperature. At forces slightly above Fc, a part of vortices flow in winding channels at zero temperature. In the vortex channel flow region, we ob-serve the abnormal behaviour of vortex dynamics: the velocity is roughly independent of temperature or even decreases with temperature at low temperatures. A phase diagram that describes different dynamics of vortices is presented.
Analytical study of the liquid phase transient behavior of a high temperature heat pipe
Roche, Gregory Lawrence
1988-09-01
The transient operation of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe is studied. The study was conducted in support of advanced heat pipe applications that require reliable transport of high temperature drops and significant distances under a broad spectrum of operating conditions. The heat pipe configuration studied consists of a sealed cylindrical enclosure containing a capillary wick structure and sodium working fluid. The wick is an annular flow channel configuration formed between the enclosure interior wall and a concentric cylindrical tube of fine pore screen. The study approach is analytical through the solution of the governing equations. The energy equation is solved over the pipe wall and liquid region using the finite difference Peaceman-Rachford alternating direction implicit numerical method. The continuity and momentum equations are solved over the liquid region by the integral method. The energy equation and liquid dynamics equation are tightly coupled due to the phase change process at the liquid-vapor interface. A kinetic theory model is used to define the phase change process in terms of the temperature jump between the liquid-vapor surface and the bulk vapor. Extensive auxiliary relations, including sodium properties as functions of temperature, are used to close the analytical system. The solution procedure is implemented in a FORTRAN algorithm with some optimization features to take advantage of the IBM System/370 Model 3090 vectorization facility. The code was intended for coupling to a vapor phase algorithm so that the entire heat pipe problem could be solved. As a test of code capabilities, the vapor phase was approximated in a simple manner.
Floating zone growth and magnetic properties of Y2C two-dimensional electride
Otani, Shigeki; Hirata, Kazuto; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki
2016-11-01
The floating zone method was used to obtain single crystals several mm in size of the low-temperature rhombohedral form of Y2C rather than its typical rocksalt-type cubic form. This was achieved through optimization of the chemical compositions of the starting materials with the aim of producing a two-dimensional electride material. The crystals obtained exhibited a paramagnetic temperature-dependence at 1.8-300 K, with no trace of any obvious magnetic ordering.
Transient measurement of temperature oscillation during noisy film boiling in superfluid helium II
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Peng
2001-01-01
［1］Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., Maximum and minimum heat flux and temperature fluctuation in film-boiling states in superfluid helium, Adv. Cryog. Eng., 1980, 25: 372.［2］Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., A sample configuration effect on the heat transfer from metal surfaces to pressurized He II, Proc. ICEC, 1980, 8: 217.［3］Schwerdtner, M. V., Stamm, G., Tosi, A. N. et al. The boiling-up process in He II. Optical measurements and visualization, Cryogenics, 1992, 32: 775.［4］Schwerdtner, M. V., Poppes, W., Schmidt, D. W., Distortion of temperature signals in He II due to probe geometry, and a new improved probe, Cryogenics, 1989, 29: 132.［5］Shimazaki, T., Murakami, M.?Iida, T., Second sound wave heat transfer, thermal boundary layer formation and boiling: highly transient heat transport phenomena in He II, Cryogenics, 1995, 35: 645.［6］Zhang, P., Study of physical mechanism of film boiling in He II, Doctoral dissertation, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China, 1998.［7］Arp, V., State equation of liquid helium-4 from 0.8 to 2.5K, J. Low Temp. Phys., 1990, 79: 93.［8］Zhang, P., Kimura, S., Murakami, M. et al., Non-planar and non-linear second sound wave in He II, Chinese Physics Letters, 2000, 17: 43.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić Radovan H.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is the result of research and operation modeling of the new systems for cooling of cutting tools based on thermoelectric module. A copper inlay with thermoelectric module on the back side was added to a standard turning tool for metal processing. For modeling and simulating the operation of thermoelectric module, finite element method was used as a method for successful solving the problems of inhomogeneous transient temperature field on the cutting tip of lathe knives. Developed mathematical model is implemented in the software package PAK-T through which numerical results are obtained. Experimental research was done in different conditions of thermoelectric module operation. Cooling of the hot module side was done by a heat exchanger based on fluid using automatic temperature regulator. After the calculation is done, numerical results are in good agreement with experimental. It can be concluded that developed mathematical model can be used successfully for modeling of cooling of cutting tools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32036
Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models
Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.
2004-01-01
One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.
Stall flutter and nonlinear divergence of a two-dimensional flat plate wing
Dugundji, J.; Aravamudan, K.
1976-01-01
Tests were conducted in a small wind tunnel to study the torsional stall flutter behavior of a two-dimensional flat-plate wing pivoted about the midchord. The nonlinear static divergence equilibrium properties of the wing were well predicted from the measured static moment characteristics. Large amplitude limit cycles ranging from plus or minus 11 degrees to plus or minus 100 degrees were observed. Stall flutter occurred above a critical value of a reduced frequency of about 2. Self-excitation occurred for initial angles of attack between 0 and 8 degrees. Nondimensional harmonic coefficients were extracted from the free transient vibration tests for amplitudes up to 80 degrees.
Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher order modes
Allison, Thomas K.
2017-02-01
We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.
Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher-order modes
Allison, Thomas K
2016-01-01
We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (CE-TAS), the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.
Thomas, C. K.; Selker, J. S.; Zeeman, M. J.
2011-12-01
We present a novel approach to observing the two-dimensional thermal structure of atmospheric near-surface turbulent and non-turbulent flows by measuring air temperatures in a vertical plane at a high resolution (0.25 m, every approximately 2 s) using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Air temperature observations obtained from a fiber optics array of approximate dimensions 8 by 8 m and sonic anemometer data from two levels were collected for a period of 23 days over a short grass field located in the flat bottom of a wide valley with moderate surface heterogeneity. In addition to evaluating the DTS technique to resolve the rapidly changing gradients and small-scale perturbations associated with turbulence in the atmosphere for convective and stable boundary layers, the objective was to analyze the space-time dynamics of transient cold-air pools in the stable boundary layer. The time response and precision of the fiber temperatures were adequate to resolve individual sub-meter sized turbulent and non-turbulent structures of time scales >= 3 s and enabled calculation of meaningful sensible heat fluxes when combined with vertical wind observations. The small turbulence scales associated with strong vertical shear and low measurement heights pose limitations to the technique. The top of the transient cold-air pool was highly non-stationary. The thermal structure of the near-surface air is generally a superposition of various perturbations of different time and length scales, whereas no preferred scales were identified. Vertical length scales for turbulence in the strongly stratified transient cold-air pool directly derived from the DTS data agreed well with buoyancy length scales parameterized using the vertical velocity variance and the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, while scales for weak stratification disagreed. The high-resolution DTS technique opens a new window into spatially sampling geophysical fluid flows including turbulent energy exchange with a broad
Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions
Schuman, Adam William
The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir
Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals
Gong, Cheng; Li, Lin; Li, Zhenglu; Ji, Huiwen; Stern, Alex; Xia, Yang; Cao, Ting; Bao, Wei; Wang, Chenzhe; Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Z. Q.; Cava, R. J.; Louie, Steven G.; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Xiang
2017-06-01
The realization of long-range ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals, combined with their rich electronic and optical properties, could lead to new magnetic, magnetoelectric and magneto-optic applications. In two-dimensional systems, the long-range magnetic order is strongly suppressed by thermal fluctuations, according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem; however, these thermal fluctuations can be counteracted by magnetic anisotropy. Previous efforts, based on defect and composition engineering, or the proximity effect, introduced magnetic responses only locally or extrinsically. Here we report intrinsic long-range ferromagnetic order in pristine Cr2Ge2Te6 atomic layers, as revealed by scanning magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. In this magnetically soft, two-dimensional van der Waals ferromagnet, we achieve unprecedented control of the transition temperature (between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) using very small fields (smaller than 0.3 tesla). This result is in contrast to the insensitivity of the transition temperature to magnetic fields in the three-dimensional regime. We found that the small applied field leads to an effective anisotropy that is much greater than the near-zero magnetocrystalline anisotropy, opening up a large spin-wave excitation gap. We explain the observed phenomenon using renormalized spin-wave theory and conclude that the unusual field dependence of the transition temperature is a hallmark of soft, two-dimensional ferromagnetic van der Waals crystals. Cr2Ge2Te6 is a nearly ideal two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet and so will be useful for studying fundamental spin behaviours, opening the door to exploring new applications such as ultra-compact spintronics.
Electronic, Vibrational and Thermoelectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Materials
Wickramaratne, Darshana
The discovery of graphene's unique electronic and thermal properties has motivated the search for new two-dimensional materials. Examples of these materials include the layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and metal mono-chalcogenides. The properties of the TMDCs (eg. MoS 2, WS2, TaS2, TaSe2) and the metal mono-chalcogenides (eg. GaSe, InSe, SnS) are diverse - ranging from semiconducting, semi-metallic and metallic. Many of these materials exhibit strongly correlated phenomena and exotic collective states such as exciton condensates, charge density waves, Lifshitz transitions and superconductivity. These properties change as the film thickness is reduced down to a few monolayers. We use first-principles simulations to discuss changes in the electronic and the vibrational properties of these materials as the film thickness evolves from a single atomic monolayer to the bulk limit. In the semiconducting TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) and monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS and InSe) we show confining these materials to their monolayer limit introduces large band degeneracies or non-parabolic features in the electronic structure. These changes in the electronic structure results in increases in the density of states and the number of conducting modes. Our first-principles simulations combined with a Landauer approach show these changes can lead to large enhancements up to an order of magnitude in the thermoelectric performance of these materials when compared to their bulk structure. Few monolayers of the TMDCs can be misoriented with respect to each other due to the weak van-der-Waals (vdW) force at the interface of two monolayers. Misorientation of the bilayer semiconducting TMDCs increases the interlayer van-der-Waals gap distance, reduces the interlayer coupling and leads to an increase in the magnitude of the indirect bandgap by up to 100 meV compared to the registered bilayer. In the semi-metallic and metallic TMDC compounds (TiSe2, Ta
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任国栋; 郭爱玲; 耿放; 马美湖; 黄群; 武小芬
2012-01-01
The conformation changes of Apo-Ovotransferrin and Holo-Ovotransferrin were studied with the heat treatment 25~ 95 ℃ by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT1R) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analyzer. The results of one-dimensional infrared spectroscopy showed that with the increase in temperature, the peak at 3 300 cm-1 of Apo-Ovotransferrin shifted more than that of Holo-Ovotransferrin. The peak at 3 300 cm-1 derived from stretching vibrations of N-H and O-H indicates that iron-binding enhanced the role of hydrogen bonds and resistance to heat The changing order of the secondary structure of ovotransferrin was determined by analyzing two-dimensional infrared spectra, witch is β-sheet＞amide Ⅱ >-CH2- bending vibratioa In addition, it was found that the cross-peaks at 1 652 and 1 688 cm-1 are different in synchronous and asynchronous counter maps by comparing Apo-Ovotransferrin with Holo-Ovotransferrin. It was suggested that the temperature made less impact on the
A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-15
A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks
Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si
2009-12-01
We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.
Pavlov, Maxim V
2014-12-08
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.
Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Augustus REJU
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces
Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue
2012-12-01
Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng
2016-01-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness
Uchihashi, Takashi
2017-01-01
Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1995-01-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....
Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2008-06-01
We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers
Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.
1995-05-01
A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.
Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun
2004-01-01
Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...
Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation
Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark
2004-01-01
Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.
Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.
Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold
2002-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.
Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes
Lopez-Ortega, A
2011-01-01
We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.
Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank
2014-01-01
We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...
Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu
2014-08-01
Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra, in terms of the average Euclidian distances between unknown samples and "extreme samples", and average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set, a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed. Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)), and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)) samples were prepared, respectively. The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk. The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples. Then, the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea, and adiulterated milk with melamine. The "extreme samples", average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances were determined. Finally, the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk. The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. The results obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Quan; Tian Qiang
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.
Two-dimensional Confinement of Heavy Fermions in Artificial Superlattices
Shishido, Hiroaki
2011-03-01
Low dimensionality and strong electron-electron Coulomb interactions are both key parameters for novel quantum states of condensed matter. A metallic system with the strongest electron correlations is reported in rare-earth and actinide compounds with f electrons, known as heavy-fermion compounds, where the effective mass of the conduction electrons are strikingly enhanced by the electron correlations up to some hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. We realized experimentally a two-dimensional heavy fermion system, adjusting the dimensionality in a controllable fashion. We grew artificial superlattices of CeIn 3 (m)/ LaIn 3 (n), in which m -layers of heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeIn 3 and n -layers of a non-magnetic isostructual compound LaIn 3 are stacked alternately, by a molecular beam epitaxy. By reducing the thickness of the CeIn 3 layers, the magnetic order was suppressed and the effective electron mass was further enhanced. The Néel temperature becomes zero at around m = 2 , concomitant with striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. Standard Fermi liquid behaviors are, however, recovered under high magnetic field. These behaviors imply new ``dimensional tuning'' towards a quantum critical point. We also succeeded to fabricate artificial superlattices of a heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn 5 and non-magnetic divalent Yb-compound YbCoIn 5 . Superconductivity survives even in CeCoIn 5 (3)/ YbCoIn 5 (5) films, while the thickness of CeCoIn 5 layer, 2.3 nm, is comparable to the c -axis coherence length ξc ~ 2 nm. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Mizukami, S. Yasumoto, M. Shimozawa, H. Kontani, T. Shibauchi, T. Terashima and Y. Matsuda.superconductivity is realized in the artificial superlattices. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Mizukami, S. Yasumoto, M. Shimozawa, H. Kontani, T
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy
Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper
We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen
1993-04-01
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))
1993-04-12
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity
Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems
Schaapman, Maaike Ruth
2004-01-01
This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting
Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D
1991-01-01
Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem
Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards
Fel, Leonid G.
2002-05-01
The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).
Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....
Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations
Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K
2011-01-01
We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.
Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps
Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique
2015-02-01
For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.
Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2010-01-01
A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...
Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets
Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.
2015-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent
Numerical blowup in two-dimensional Boussinesq equations
Yin, Zhaohua
2009-01-01
In this paper, we perform a three-stage numerical relay to investigate the finite time singularity in the two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation equations. The initial asymmetric condition is the middle-stage output of a $2048^2$ run, the highest resolution in our study is $40960^2$, and some signals of numerical blowup are observed.
Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.
Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay
2013-02-08
We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals.
Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas
Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.
2013-01-01
We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f
Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.
2016-01-01
Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...
Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory
Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D
1991-01-01
This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.
Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Black-Holes
Nappi, Chiara R.; Pasquinucci, Andrea
1992-01-01
We explore the thermodynamics of a general class of two dimensional dilatonic black-holes. A simple prescription is given that allows us to compute the mass, entropy and thermodynamic potentials, with results in agreement with those obtained by other methods, when available.
Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;
2010-01-01
The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...
Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies
Georgescu, M
2008-01-01
This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the
Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.
1988-06-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.
Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources
Melis, M
2004-01-01
We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.
Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies
Georgescu, M
2008-01-01
This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r
Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.
Wintner, Claude E.
1983-01-01
The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating
Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.
1995-01-01
The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi
Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems
Schaapman, Maaike Ruth
2004-01-01
This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of
Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells: Two-Dimensional Approximation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Sabu
2003-08-01
In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra
Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.
2006-01-01
We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t
Two Dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz Gravity
Kluson, J
2016-01-01
We study two-dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity from the Hamiltonian point of view. We determine constraints structure with emphasis on the careful separation of the second class constraints and global first class constraints. We determine number of physical degrees of freedom and also discuss gauge fixing of the global first class constraints.
Localization of Tight Closure in Two-Dimensional Rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kamran Divaani-Aazar; Massoud Tousi
2005-02-01
It is shown that tight closure commutes with localization in any two-dimensional ring of prime characteristic if either is a Nagata ring or possesses a weak test element. Moreover, it is proved that tight closure commutes with localization at height one prime ideals in any ring of prime characteristic.
Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Preneel
2005-07-01
Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.
New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neto, A H Castro [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Novoselov, K, E-mail: phycastr@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: konstantin.novoselov@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
Graphene is possibly one of the largest and fastest growing fields in condensed matter research. However, graphene is only one example in a large class of two-dimensional crystals with unusual properties. In this paper we briefly review the properties of graphene and look at the exciting possibilities that lie ahead.
Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems
Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik
2000-01-01
The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess
On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra
De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.
2000-01-01
The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp
Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics
Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r
SAR Processing Based On Two-Dimensional Transfer Function
Chang, Chi-Yung; Jin, Michael Y.; Curlander, John C.
1994-01-01
Exact transfer function, ETF, is two-dimensional transfer function that constitutes basis of improved frequency-domain-convolution algorithm for processing synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR data. ETF incorporates terms that account for Doppler effect of motion of radar relative to scanned ground area and for antenna squint angle. Algorithm based on ETF outperforms others.
Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls
Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.
Confined two-dimensional fermions at finite density
De Francia, M; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M; De Francia, M; Falomir, H; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M
1995-01-01
We introduce the chemical potential in a system of two-dimensional massless fermions, confined to a finite region, by imposing twisted boundary conditions in the Euclidean time direction. We explore in this simple model the application of functional techniques which could be used in more complicated situations.
Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors
Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.
2017-01-01
To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions
Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.
1972-01-01
Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Spontaneous emission in two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas
2000-01-01
The properties of the radiation field in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with and without a microcavity introduced are investigated through the concept of the position-dependent photon density of states. The position-dependent rate of spontaneous radiative decay for a two-level atom with random...
Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing
te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J
1993-01-01
In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro
Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities
Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.
1997-01-01
We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects
Two-dimensional manifold with point-like defects
Gani, Vakhid A; Rubin, Sergei G
2014-01-01
We study a class of two-dimensional extra spaces isomorphic to the $S^2$ sphere in the framework of the multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.
Instability of two-dimensional heterotic stringy black holes
Azreg-Ainou, M
1999-01-01
We solve the eigenvalue problem of general relativity for the case of charged black holes in two-dimensional heterotic string theory, derived by McGuigan et al. For the case of $m^{2}>q^{2}$, we find a physically acceptable time-dependent growing mode; thus the black hole is unstable. The extremal case $m^{2}=q^{2}$ is stable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Lei; LI haijiao; ZHANG Lewen
2008-01-01
The fourth-order B spline wavelet scaling functions are used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation. The calculations from a case history indicate that the method provides high accuracy and the computational efficiency is enhanced due to the small matrix derived from this method.The respective features of 3-spline wavelet scaling functions, 4-spline wavelet scaling functions and quasi-wavelet used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation are compared. The proposed method has potential applications in many fields including marine science.
EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems
Sule, N.; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.
2014-01-01
We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...
Universality class of the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model.
Martins, P H L; Plascak, J A
2007-07-01
In this work, we evaluate the probability distribution function of the order parameter for the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for different spin concentrations p (0.70universality class of the diluted Ising model seems to be independent of the amount of dilution. Logarithmic corrections of the finite-size critical temperature behavior of the model can also be inferred even for such small lattices.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Majorana lattice model
Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata
2017-07-01
We study interacting Majorana fermions in two dimensions as a low-energy effective model of a vortex lattice in two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. For that purpose, we implement ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation to the Majorana fermion system in which the path-integral measure is given by a semipositive Pfaffian. We discuss spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry at finite temperatures.
Kang, Y; Yang, C; Huang, X
2005-08-02
The Joule heating induced transient temperature field and its effect on the electroosmotic flow in a capillary packed with microspheres is analyzed numerically using the control-volume-based finite difference method. The model incorporates the coupled momentum equation for the electroosmotic velocity, the energy equations for the Joule heating induced temperature distributions in both the packed column and the capillary wall, and the mass and electric current continuity equations. The temperature-dependent physical properties of the electrolyte solution are taken into consideration. The characteristics of the Joule heating induced transient development of temperature and electroosmotic flow fields are studied. Specifically, the simulation shows that the presence of Joule heating causes a noticeable axial temperature gradient in the thermal entrance region and elevates a significant temperature increment inside the microcapillary. The temperature changes in turn greatly affect the electroosmotic velocity by means of the temperature-dependent fluid viscosity, dielectric constant, and local electric field strength. Furthermore, the model predicts an induced pressure gradient to counterbalance the axial variation of the electroosmotic velocity so as to maintain the fluid mass continuity. In addition, under specific conditions, the present model is validated by comparing with the existing analytical model and experimental data from the literature.
Observation of a pairing pseudogap in a two-dimensional Fermi gas.
Feld, Michael; Fröhlich, Bernd; Vogt, Enrico; Koschorreck, Marco; Köhl, Michael
2011-11-30
Pairing of fermions is ubiquitous in nature, underlying many phenomena. Examples include superconductivity, superfluidity of (3)He, the anomalous rotation of neutron stars, and the crossover between Bose-Einstein condensation of dimers and the BCS (Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer) regime in strongly interacting Fermi gases. When confined to two dimensions, interacting many-body systems show even more subtle effects, many of which are not understood at a fundamental level. Most striking is the (as yet unexplained) phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, which is intimately related to the two-dimensional geometry of the crystal structure. In particular, it is not understood how the many-body pairing is established at high temperature, and whether it precedes superconductivity. Here we report the observation of a many-body pairing gap above the superfluid transition temperature in a harmonically trapped, two-dimensional atomic Fermi gas in the regime of strong coupling. Our measurements of the spectral function of the gas are performed using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, analogous to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the solid state. Our observations mark a significant step in the emulation of layered two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductors using ultracold atomic gases.
Nuclear-spin-induced localization of edge states in two-dimensional topological insulators
Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2017-08-01
We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the resistance of helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (2DTIs). Via the hyperfine interaction, nuclear spins allow electron backscattering, otherwise forbidden by time-reversal symmetry. We identify two backscattering mechanisms, depending on whether the nuclear spins are ordered or not. Their temperature dependence is distinct but both give resistance, which increases with the edge length, decreasing temperature, and increasing strength of the electron-electron interaction. Overall, we find that the nuclear spins will typically shut down the conductance of the 2DTI edges at zero temperature.
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional single-phase model is developed for the steady-state and transient analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Based on diluted and concentrated solution theories, viscous flow is introduced into a phenomenological multi-component modeling framework in the membrane. Characteristic variables related to the water uptake are discussed. A ButlereVolmer formulation of the current-overpotential relationship is developed based on an elementary mechanism of elect...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴万烨; 武昆; 李国英
2015-01-01
The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study the aggregation behavior of acid-soluble collagen solutions (0. 2,0. 4 and 1. 6 mg·mL-1 )during the heating process of 10~70 ℃. It was found that the fluorescence excited at 292 and 282 nm (Δλ= 9 nm)belongs to the tyrosine (Tyr)residues which partici-pate in forming hydrogen bonds or not,respectively.The two dimensional correlation analysis with the temperature varying showed that with the temperature increased (10~30 ℃)hydrogen bonds among collagen molecular with Tyr residues formed in the 0. 2 mg·mL-1 collagen solution,while the higher aggregations of collagen molecular and hydrophobic micro-domains ap-peared in the 0. 4 and 1. 6 mg·mL-1 collagen solutions.With approaching the denatured temperature of collagen (36~38 ℃), the hydrophobic micro-domain and aggregates seemed to be broken in the 0. 4 and 1. 6 mg·mL-1 collagen solutions,however the hydrogen bonds in the 0. 2 mg·mL-1 were stable.Above the denaturation temperature of collagen,the triple-helix structure of collagen molecular in solution of each concentration tended to be loose.In the heating process of 45~70 ℃,this trend was more obvious.%采用恒波长同步荧光法和二维相关分析技术研究了不同浓度Ⅰ型胶原溶液中胶原分子聚集行为随温度升高（10～70℃）的变化规律。选取0．2，0．4，1．6 mg·mL－1的胶原溶液，在初始温度下各浓度溶液中胶原分子分别处于单分子状态、较低程度和较高程度的聚集态。研究表明：波长差为9 nm的同步荧光光谱中，激发波长282和292 nm处荧光峰分别归属于未参与形成氢键的 Tyr（酪氨酸）残基和参与形成氢键的Tyr残基。对升温过程同步荧光数据进行二维相关分析，得两荧光值对温度的响应顺序，进而推测得到：当温度低于30℃时，0．2 mg·mL－1溶液中出现了胶原分子间形成 Tyr 残
Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice
Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen
2016-11-01
Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.
The separation of whale myoglobins with two-dimensional electrophoresis.
Spicer, G S
1988-10-01
Five myoglobins (sperm whale, Sei whale, Hubbs' beaked whale, pilot whale, and Amazon River dolphin) were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Previous reports indicated that none of these proteins could be separated by using denaturing (in the presence of 8-9 M urea) isoelectric focusing. This result is confirmed in the present study. However, all the proteins could be separated by using denaturing nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis in the first dimension. Additionally, all the myoglobins have characteristic mobilities in the second dimension (sodium dodecyl sulfate), but these mobilities do not correspond to the molecular weights of the proteins. We conclude that two-dimensional electrophoresis can be more sensitive to differences in primary protein structure than previous studies indicate and that the assessment seems to be incorrect that this technique can separate only proteins that have a unit charge difference.
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.
Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters
Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301
2012-01-01
The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...
The Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence
Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul
2010-01-01
We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter {\\Lambda} to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with a universal exponent {\\theta} = 3.1 \\pm 0.2.
On Dirichlet eigenvectors for neutral two-dimensional Markov chains
Champagnat, Nicolas; Miclo, Laurent
2012-01-01
We consider a general class of discrete, two-dimensional Markov chains modeling the dynamics of a population with two types, without mutation or immigration, and neutral in the sense that type has no influence on each individual's birth or death parameters. We prove that all the eigenvectors of the corresponding transition matrix or infinitesimal generator \\Pi\\ can be expressed as the product of "universal" polynomials of two variables, depending on each type's size but not on the specific transitions of the dynamics, and functions depending only on the total population size. These eigenvectors appear to be Dirichlet eigenvectors for \\Pi\\ on the complement of triangular subdomains, and as a consequence the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered in a specific way. As an application, we study the quasistationary behavior of finite, nearly neutral, two-dimensional Markov chains, absorbed in the sense that 0 is an absorbing state for each component of the process.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
Bouchet, Freddy
2011-01-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter's troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equi...
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used...... for prediction purposes. However, we suggest that life insurance companies use the estimation technique and the cross-validation for bandwidth selection when analyzing their portfolio mortality. The non-parametric approach may give valuable information prior to developing more sophisticated prediction models...
Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao
2006-01-01
The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panjit MUSIK
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-01
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers
Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun
2016-10-01
We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.
CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toth Reka
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.
Two-dimensional magnetostriction under vector magnetic characteristic
Wakabayashi, D.; Enokizono, M.
2015-05-01
This paper presents two-dimensional magnetostriction of electrical steel sheet under vector magnetic characteristic. In conventional measurement method using Single Sheet Tester, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field strength, and the magnetostriction have been measured in one direction. However, an angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector exists because the magnetic property is vector quantity. An angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the direction of maximum magnetostriction also exists. We developed a new measurement method, which enables measurement of these angles. The vector magnetic characteristic and the two-dimensional magnetostriction have been measured using the new measurement method. The BH and Bλ curves considering the angles are shown in this paper. The analyzed results considering the angles are also made clear.
Phase separation under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow.
Kiwata, H
2001-05-01
The spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid under Poiseuille flow is studied by numerical simulation. We investigated time dependence of domain sizes in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow. In an effective region of the flow, the power-law growth of a characteristic length in the direction parallel to the flow changes from the diffusive regime with the growth exponent alpha=1/3 to a new regime. The scaling invariance of the growth in the perpendicular direction is destroyed after the diffusive regime. A recurrent prevalence of thick and thin domains which determines log-time periodic oscillations has not been observed in our model. The growth exponents in the infinite system under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow are obtained by the renormalization group.
Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems
Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.
2016-12-01
Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.
Enstrophy inertial range dynamics in generalized two-dimensional turbulence
Iwayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi
2016-07-01
We show that the transition to a k-1 spectrum in the enstrophy inertial range of generalized two-dimensional turbulence can be derived analytically using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovianized (EDQNM) closure. The governing equation for the generalized two-dimensional fluid system includes a nonlinear term with a real parameter α . This parameter controls the relationship between the stream function and generalized vorticity and the nonlocality of the dynamics. An asymptotic analysis accounting for the overwhelming dominance of nonlocal triads allows the k-1 spectrum to be derived based upon a scaling analysis. We thereby provide a detailed analytical explanation for the scaling transition that occurs in the enstrophy inertial range at α =2 in terms of the spectral dynamics of the EDQNM closure, which extends and enhances the usual phenomenological explanations.
Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2014-12-01
Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...
Modeling of the transient behaviors of a lithium-ion battery during dynamic cycling
Yi, Jaeshin; Lee, Jeongbin; Shin, Chee Burm; Han, Taeyoung; Park, Seongyong
2015-03-01
In this paper, we report a modeling methodology on the transient behaviors of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) during dynamic cycling. To account for the short time effects of current pulses and rest periods, the nonfaradaic component of the current density transferred through the separator between the positive and negative electrodes is included based on the lumped double-layer capacitance. Two-dimensional modeling is performed to predict the transient behaviors of an LIB cell during dynamic cycling. To validate the modeling approach presented in this work, modeling results for the variations in cell voltage and two-dimensional temperature distribution of the LIB cell as a function of time are compared with the experimental data for constant-current discharge and charge cycles and the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule cycles. The transient behaviors obtained from the modeling agree well with the experimental measurements.
Conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding center plasma.
Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.
1972-01-01
The Kubo method is used to calculate the electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional, strongly magnetized plasma. The particles interact through (logarithmic) electrostatic potentials and move with their guiding center drift velocities (Taylor-McNamara model). The thermal equilibrium dc conductivity can be evaluated analytically, but the ac conductivity involves numerical solution of a differential equation. Both conductivities fall off as the inverse first power of the magnetic field strength.
Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)
2011-05-15
The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.
Cryptography Using Multiple Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetric key block cipher cryptosystem is proposed, involving multiple two-dimensional chaotic maps and using 128-bits external secret key. Computer simulations indicate that the cipher has good diffusion and confusion properties with respect to the plaintext and the key. Moreover, it produces ciphertext with random distribution. The computation time is much less than previous related works. Theoretic analysis verifies its superiority to previous cryptosystems against different types of attacks.
A UNIVERSAL VARIATIONAL FORMULATION FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL FLUID MECHANICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何吉欢
2001-01-01
A universal variational formulation for two dimensional fluid mechanics is obtained, which is subject to the so-called parameter-constrained equations (the relationship between parameters in two governing equations). By eliminating the constraints, the generalized variational principle (GVPs) can be readily derived from the formulation. The formulation can be applied to any conditions in case the governing equations can be converted into conservative forms. Some illustrative examples are given to testify the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.
Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence
Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E
1998-01-01
The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.
Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Qing-Hai Wang
2009-08-01
Two-dimensional $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry, the complex energy eigenvalues appear when level crossing happens between same parity eigenstates.
Lyapunov Computational Method for Two-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation
Mabrouk, Anouar Ben
2010-01-01
A numerical method is developed leading to Lyapunov operators to approximate the solution of two-dimensional Boussinesq equation. It consists of an order reduction method and a finite difference discretization. It is proved to be uniquely solvable and analyzed for local truncation error for consistency. The stability is checked by using Lyapunov criterion and the convergence is studied. Some numerical implementations are provided at the end of the paper to validate the theoretical results.
Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra
2012-08-01
Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.
Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Wen-Fang
2004-01-01
Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.
А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem
Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.
Chronology Protection in Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity
Mishima, T; Mishima, Takashi; Nakamichi, Akika
1994-01-01
The global structure of 1 + 1 dimensional compact Universe is studied in two-dimensional model of dilaton gravity. First we give a classical solution corresponding to the spacetime in which a closed time-like curve appears, and show the instability of this spacetime due to the existence of matters. We also observe quantum version of such a spacetime having closed timelike curves never reappear unless the parameters are fine-tuned.