Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation
Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoo Sze-Wei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.
Kapusta, L.; Mainzer, G.; Weiner, Z.; Deutsch, L.; Khoury, A.; Haddad, S.; Lorber, A.
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: Data on myocardial deformation during the internationally widely used second-trimester screening are scarce and confusing. Reference values of time to peak strain are missing. The aims of this study were to assess reference values derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiog
Kapusta, L.; Mainzer, G.; Weiner, Z.; Deutsch, L.; Khoury, A.; Haddad, S.; Lorber, A.
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: Data on myocardial deformation during the internationally widely used second-trimester screening are scarce and confusing. Reference values of time to peak strain are missing. The aims of this study were to assess reference values derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking
Marcus, K.A.; Janousek, J.; Barends, M.E.; Weijers, G.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.
2012-01-01
Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) offers valuable information in the echocardiographic assessment of ventricular myocardial function. It enables the quantification and timing of systolic ventricular myocardial deformation. In addition, 2DSTE can be used to identify mechanical
Galimskaia, V A; Donchenko, I A; Romanovskaia, E M; Oleĭnikov, V É
2014-01-01
Aim of this study was to assess qualitative and quantitative features of deformation parameters of left ventricular myocardium in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) with and without history of myocardial infarction (MI) using two-dimensional strain imaging. We examined 30 patients with clinical IHD with (group 1, n = 15) and without (group 2, n = 15) history of MI and 20 healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy subjects IHD patients of both groups had reduced longitudinal and circular myocardial deformation. There were no significant differences between patients with IHD and controls in parameters of radial, global, and regional deformation.
A Large Deformation Model for the Elastic Moduli of Two-dimensional Cellular Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Guoming; WAN Hui; ZHANG Youlin; BAO Wujun
2006-01-01
We developed a large deformation model for predicting the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials. This large deformation model was based on the large deflection of the inclined members of the cells of cellular materials. The deflection of the inclined member, the strain of the representative structure and the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials were expressed using incomplete elliptic integrals. The experimental results show that these elastic moduli are no longer constant at large deformation, but vary significantly with the strain. A comparison was made between this large deformation model and the small deformation model proposed by Gibson and Ashby.
Deformable two-dimensional photonic crystal slab for cavity optomechanics
Antoni, T; Briant, T; Cohadon, P -F; Heidmann, A; Braive, R; Beveratos, A; Abram, I; Gatiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Robert-Philip, I
2011-01-01
We have designed photonic crystal suspended membranes with optimized optical and mechanical properties for cavity optomechanics. Such resonators sustain vibration modes in the megahertz range with quality factors of a few thousand. Thanks to a two-dimensional square lattice of holes, their reflectivity at normal incidence at 1064 nm reaches values as high as 95%. These two features, combined with the very low mass of the membrane, open the way to the use of such periodic structures as deformable end-mirrors in Fabry-Perot cavities for the investigation of cavity optomechanical effects
Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kuldip Singh; Dinesh Kumar Madan; Anita Goel; Nat Ram Garg
2005-08-01
The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular case of a normal line-load acting inside an orthotropic elastic half-space has been considered in detail and closed form expressions for the displacements and stresses are obtained. Further, the results for the displacements for a transversely isotropic as well as for an isotropic medium have also been derived in the closed form. The use of matrix notation is straightforward and avoids unwieldy mathematical expressions. To examine the effect of anisotropy, variations of dimensionless displacements for an orthotropic, transversely isotropic and isotropic elastic medium have been compared numerically and it is found that anisotropy affects the deformation signiﬁcantly.
A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)
2011-08-15
Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this
Novel effects of strains in graphene and other two dimensional materials
Amorim, B.; Cortijo, A.; de Juan, F.; Grushin, A. G.; Guinea, F.; Gutiérrez-Rubio, A.; Ochoa, H.; Parente, V.; Roldán, R.; San-Jose, P.; Schiefele, J.; Sturla, M.; Vozmediano, M. A. H.
2016-03-01
The analysis of the electronic properties of strained or lattice deformed graphene combines ideas from classical condensed matter physics, soft matter, and geometrical aspects of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spaces. Recent theoretical and experimental work shows the influence of strains in many properties of graphene not considered before, such as electronic transport, spin-orbit coupling, the formation of Moiré patterns and optics. There is also significant evidence of anharmonic effects, which can modify the structural properties of graphene. These phenomena are not restricted to graphene, and they are being intensively studied in other two dimensional materials, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides. We review here recent developments related to the role of strains in the structural and electronic properties of graphene and other two dimensional compounds.
Novel effects of strains in graphene and other two dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amorim, B., E-mail: amorim.bac@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics and Center of Physics, University of Minho, P-4710-057, Braga (Portugal); Cortijo, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Juan, F. de [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grushin, A.G. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik komplexer Systeme, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Guinea, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); IMDEA Nanociencia Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gutiérrez-Rubio, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ochoa, H. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Parente, V. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanociencia Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roldán, R.; San-Jose, P.; Schiefele, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sturla, M. [IFLP-CONICET. Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Vozmediano, M.A.H. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)
2016-03-03
The analysis of the electronic properties of strained or lattice deformed graphene combines ideas from classical condensed matter physics, soft matter, and geometrical aspects of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spaces. Recent theoretical and experimental work shows the influence of strains in many properties of graphene not considered before, such as electronic transport, spin–orbit coupling, the formation of Moiré patterns and optics. There is also significant evidence of anharmonic effects, which can modify the structural properties of graphene. These phenomena are not restricted to graphene, and they are being intensively studied in other two dimensional materials, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides. We review here recent developments related to the role of strains in the structural and electronic properties of graphene and other two dimensional compounds.
Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu
2017-02-01
Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Deformed oscillator algebras for two dimensional quantum superintegrable systems
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kokkotas, K D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1994-01-01
Quantum superintegrable systems in two dimensions are obtained from their classical counterparts, the quantum integrals of motion being obtained from the corresponding classical integrals by a symmetrization procedure. For each quantum superintegrable systema deformed oscillator algebra, characterized by a structure function specific for each system, is constructed, the generators of the algebra being functions of the quantum integrals of motion. The energy eigenvalues corresponding to a state with finite dimensional degeneracy can then be obtained in an economical way from solving a system of two equations satisfied by the structure function, the results being in agreement to the ones obtained from the solution of the relevant Schrodinger equation. The method shows how quantum algebraic techniques can simplify the study of quantum superintegrable systems, especially in two dimensions.
Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Motomichi; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki
2017-06-12
Aimed at the low accuracy problem of shear strain measurement in Moiré methods, a two-dimensional (2D) Moiré phase analysis method is proposed for full-field deformation measurement with high accuracy. A grid image is first processed by the spatial phase-shifting sampling Moiré technique to get the Moiré phases in two directions, which are then conjointly analyzed for measuring 2D displacement and strain distributions. The strain especially the shear strain measurement accuracy is remarkably improved, and dynamic deformation is measurable from automatic batch processing of single-shot grid images. As an application, the 2D microscale strain distributions of a titanium alloy were measured, and the crack occurrence location was successfully predicted from strain concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stone, C.M.
1997-07-01
SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.
Repulsively interacting fermions in a two-dimensional deformed trap with spin-orbit coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchukov, O. V.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a two-dimensional system of fermions with two internal (spin) degrees of freedom. It is confined by a deformed harmonic trap and subject to a Zeeman field, Rashba or Dresselhaus one-body spin-orbit couplings and two-body short range repulsion. We obtain self-consistent mean-field $...... that cold atoms may be used to study quantum chaos both in the presence and absence of interactions....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreev V.I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the use of a numerical method the calculation of finite cylinders into account the dependence of physical and mechanical properties of the material on temperature. If we have two-dimensional temperature field characteristics of the material depends on two coordinates. - r and z from which follows that the problem of thermoelasticity is also a two-dimensional. Using the numerical method allows to solve the problem for any state of the cylinder (plane stress or plane strain and consider arbitrary boundary conditions at its ends.
Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.
2007-04-01
A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Junqiang; WANG Guangqian; WU Baosheng
2004-01-01
Two kinds of bank erosion mechanisms were analyzed, including fluvial and non-fluvial controlled mechanisms, and mechanical methods of simulating the erosion processes of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks were improved. Then a two-dimensional numerical model of the channel deformation was developed, consisting of a 2D flow and sediment transport submodel and bank-erosion submodels of different soil riverbanks. In the model, a new technique for updating the bank geometry during the bed evolution was presented, which combines closely two kinds of submodels. The proposed model is capable of not only predicting the processes of flood routing and longitudinal channel deformation in natural rivers, but also simulating the processes of lateral channel deformation, especially the processes of lateral erosion and failure of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks.
Disparate Strain Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Two-dimensional Penta-Structures.
Liu, Huake; Qin, Guangzhao; Lin, Yuan; Hu, Ming
2016-06-08
Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope called penta-graphene was recently proposed from first-principles calculations and various similar penta-structures emerged. Despite significant effort having been dedicated to electronic structures and mechanical properties, little research has been focused on thermal transport in penta-structures. Motivated by this, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport properties of three representative pentagonal structures, namely penta-graphene, penta-SiC2, and penta-SiN2, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with interatomic force constants extracted from first-principles calculations. Unexpectedly, the thermal conductivity of the three penta-structures exhibits diverse strain dependence, despite their very similar geometry structures. While the thermal conductivity of penta-graphene exhibits standard monotonic reduction by stretching, penta-SiC2 possesses an unusual nonmonotonic up-and-down behavior. More interestingly, the thermal conductivity of penta-SiN2 has 1 order of magnitude enhancement due to the strain induced buckled to planar structure transition. The mechanism governing the diverse strain dependence is identified as the competition between the change of phonon group velocity and phonon lifetime of acoustic phonon modes with combined effect from the unique structure transition for penta-SiN2. The disparate thermal transport behavior is further correlated to the fundamentally different bonding nature in the atomic structures with solid evidence from the distribution of deformation charge density and more in-depth molecular orbital analysis. The reported giant and robust tunability of thermal conductivity may inspire intensive research on other derivatives of penta-structures as potential materials for emerging nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study also solidifies the strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of broad 2D materials by simple mechanical
Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles.
Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J
2014-09-01
Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.
Effect of Elastic Constitutive Laws on the Deformation of Two-dimensional Red Blood Cell
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Zhao-xin; LU Chuan-jing
2009-01-01
Deformation of two-dimensional red blood cell in linear shear flow is simulated using the immersed boundary method, in which the cell is modeled as a force source instead of a real body. The effect of three constitutive laws, i.e. Hookean, Neo-Hookean and Skalak elasticity, on the deformation is studied by simulating the cell movement in two linear shear flows. The results show that the effect of the constitutive laws gets more obvious as the shear rate increases. Both the aspect ratio and the inclination of the steady shapes get bigger, and the differences between the periods of the cell tank-treading motion become larger. For the same shear flow, the period with Hookean elasticity is less than the period with Neo-Hookean elasticity and bigger than the period with Skalak elasticity.
Two-dimensional analytical models for asymmetric fully depleted double-gate strained silicon MOSFETs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Hong-Xia; Li Jin; Li Bin; Cao Lei; Yuan Bo
2011-01-01
This paper develops the simple and accurate two-dimensional analytical models for new asymmetric double-gate fully depleted strained-Si MOSFET. The models mainly include the analytical equations of the surface potential, surface electric field and threshold voltage, which are derived by solving two dimensional Poisson equation in strained-Si layer.The models are verified by numerical simulation. Besides offering the physical insight into device physics in the model,the new structure also provides the basic designing guidance for further immunity of short channel effect and drain-induced barrier-lowering of CMOS-based devices in nanometre scale.
Barbosa, Marcia M; Vasconcelos, Maria Carmen M; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A; Fernandes, Bárbara Martins; Passaglia, Luiz Guilherme; Silva, Célia Maria; Nunes, Maria Carmo P
2014-11-01
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hemoglobinopathy that is common worldwide. It usually presents with cardiac involvement, although data on systolic function are somewhat controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of speckle-tracking strain, a deformation index, in detecting ventricular dysfunction in SCD. Ninety adult patients with SCD were compared with 20 healthy controls. Doppler echocardiography with Doppler tissue imaging was performed in all, and the left and right ventricles were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain. The mean age of the patients with SCD was 26 years, and 43% were men. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions and mass were higher in patients with SCD, whereas LV ejection fraction did not differ from the controls. E and A waves, as well as E/e' ratio, were also higher in patients with SCD. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain of both ventricles in the patients with SCD was not different from that of controls. The factors independently associated with LV longitudinal strain were age (P = .009), oximetry (P = .001), lactate dehydrogenase (P = .014), LV ejection fraction (P speckle-tracking strain of both ventricles was similar in patients and controls, suggesting normal myocardial contractility in patients with SCD. LV global longitudinal strain was associated with age, intensity of hemolysis, and ventricular function. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Addressing asymmetry of the charge and strain in a two-dimensional fullerene peapod
Valeš, V.; Verhagen, T.; Vejpravová, J.; Frank, O.; Kalbáč, M.
2015-12-01
We prepared a two-dimensional C70 fullerene peapod by the sequential assembly of 12C graphene, C70 fullerenes and 13C graphene. The local changes in the strain and doping were correlated with local roughness revealing asymmetry in the strain and doping with respect to the top and bottom graphene layers of the peapod.We prepared a two-dimensional C70 fullerene peapod by the sequential assembly of 12C graphene, C70 fullerenes and 13C graphene. The local changes in the strain and doping were correlated with local roughness revealing asymmetry in the strain and doping with respect to the top and bottom graphene layers of the peapod. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06271c
Numerical Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Dry Granular Flow with Deformable Elastic Grain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boateng, H A; Elander, V; Jin, C; Li, Y; Vasquez, P; Fast, P
2005-08-11
The authors consider the dynamics of interacting elastic disks in the plane. This is an experimentally realizable two-dimensional model of dry granular flow where the stresses can be visualized using the photoelastic effect. As the elastic disks move in a vacuum, they interact through collisions with each other and with the surrounding geometry. Because of the finite propagation speed of deformations inside each grain it can be difficult to capture computationally even simple experiments involving just a few interacting grains. The goal of this project is to improve our ability to simulate dense granular flow in complex geometry. They begin this process by reviewing some past work, how they can improve upon previous work. the focus of this project is on capturing the elastic dynamics of each grain in an approximate, computationally tractable, model that can be coupled to a molecular dynamics scheme.
Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Modes with Deformed Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Xiang-Hua; ZHENG Wan-Hua; MA Xiao-Tao; REN Gang; XIA Jian-Bai
2005-01-01
@@ A numerical study of the defect modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed triangular lattice is presented by using the supercell method and the finite-difference time-domain method We find the stretch or shrink of the lattice can bring the change not only on the frequencies of the defect modes but also on their magnetic field distributions. We obtain the separation of the doubly degenerate dipole modes with the change of the lattice and find that both the stretch and the shrink of the lattice can make the dipole modes separate large enough to realize the single-mode emission. These results may be advantageous to the manufacture of photonic crystal lasers and provide a new way to realize the single-mode operation in photonic crystal lasers.
Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.
Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai
2010-02-16
We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials.
Yang, Y.; Özgen, S.
2017-06-01
During the last few decades, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has developed greatly and has become a more reliable tool for the conceptual phase of aircraft design. This tool is generally combined with an optimization algorithm. In the optimization phase, the need for regenerating the computational mesh might become cumbersome, especially when the number of design parameters is high. For this reason, several mesh generation and deformation techniques have been developed in the past decades. One of the most widely used techniques is the Spring Analogy. There are numerous spring analogy related techniques reported in the literature: linear spring analogy, torsional spring analogy, semitorsional spring analogy, and ball vertex spring analogy. This paper gives the explanation of linear spring analogy method and angle inclusion in the spring analogy method. In the latter case, two di¨erent solution methods are proposed. The best feasible method will later be used for two-dimensional (2D) Airfoil Design Optimization with objective function being to minimize sectional drag for a required lift coe©cient at di¨erent speeds. Design variables used in the optimization include camber and thickness distribution of the airfoil. SU2 CFD is chosen as the §ow solver during the optimization procedure. The optimization is done by using Phoenix ModelCenter Optimization Tool.
Two-dimensional fibre grating packaging design for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement
Mokhtar, M. R.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.
2010-09-01
This paper demonstrates a novel two-dimensional sensor packaging design to facilitate the use of fibre grating-based sensors for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement. The width and height of a sensor package were optimized to induce dissimilar responses from two co-located fibre gratings within the sensor head. Through an appropriate calibration of both the strain and temperature coefficients of the individual fibre gratings used, both strain and temperature can be accurately determined and their individual components separated by measuring the shift in their respective Bragg wavelengths. This approach can not only ensure the robustness of the sensor head, but also offer the necessary level of control over the differences between the coefficients, which allows for maximizing the accuracy of the strain and temperature values determined from the sensor itself.
Unified (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of oscillator algebra and two-dimensional conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burban, I.M., E-mail: burban@bitp.kiev.ua
2013-11-29
The unified (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of a number of well-known deformed oscillator algebras is introduced. The deformation is constructed by imputing new free parameters into the structure functions and by generalizing the defining relations of these algebras. The generalized Jordan–Schwinger and Holstein–Primakoff realizations of the U{sub pq}{sup αγl}(su(2)) algebra by the generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed operators are found. The generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformation of the two-dimensional conformal field theory is established. By introducing the (p,q;α,γ,l)-operator product expansion (OPE) between the energy–momentum tensor and primary fields, we obtain the (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed centerless Virasoro algebra. The two-point correlation function of the primary generalized (p,q;α,γ,l)-deformed fields is calculated.
Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor
Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Proux, Raphaël; Gerardot, Brian D
2017-01-01
An outstanding challenge in quantum photonics is scalability, which requires positioning of single quantum emitters in a deterministic fashion. Site positioning progress has been made in established platforms including defects in diamond and self-assembled quantum dots, albeit often with compromised coherence and optical quality. The emergence of single quantum emitters in layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors offers new opportunities to construct a scalable quantum architecture. Here, using nanoscale strain engineering, we deterministically achieve a two-dimensional lattice of quantum emitters in an atomically thin semiconductor. We create point-like strain perturbations in mono- and bi-layer WSe2 which locally modify the band-gap, leading to efficient funnelling of excitons towards isolated strain-tuned quantum emitters that exhibit high-purity single photon emission. We achieve near unity emitter creation probability and a mean positioning accuracy of 120±32 nm, which may be improved with further optimization of the nanopillar dimensions. PMID:28530219
Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor
Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Proux, Raphaël; Gerardot, Brian D.
2017-05-01
An outstanding challenge in quantum photonics is scalability, which requires positioning of single quantum emitters in a deterministic fashion. Site positioning progress has been made in established platforms including defects in diamond and self-assembled quantum dots, albeit often with compromised coherence and optical quality. The emergence of single quantum emitters in layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors offers new opportunities to construct a scalable quantum architecture. Here, using nanoscale strain engineering, we deterministically achieve a two-dimensional lattice of quantum emitters in an atomically thin semiconductor. We create point-like strain perturbations in mono- and bi-layer WSe2 which locally modify the band-gap, leading to efficient funnelling of excitons towards isolated strain-tuned quantum emitters that exhibit high-purity single photon emission. We achieve near unity emitter creation probability and a mean positioning accuracy of 120+/-32 nm, which may be improved with further optimization of the nanopillar dimensions.
Two-dimensional (2-D) deformation measurements with ASAR and PHARUS
Groot, J.S.; Halsema, D. van; Maarseveen, R.A. van; Blommaart, P.J.L.; Kruse, G.A.M.; Loon, D. van; Hanssen, R.F.; Samson, J.; Striegel, A.J.; Visser, J.M.P.C.M.
2001-01-01
Deformation measurements are important in the field of ground engineering. Deformation can have a non-natural cause (e.g., surface deformation due to tunnel construction) or a natural one (e.g., dike deformation due to a high water level). Radar interferometry can in principle provide deformations w
Marcus, K.A.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Barends, M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Feuth, T.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.
2011-01-01
BACKGROUND: The accurate evaluation of intrinsic myocardial contractility in children with or without congenital heart disease (CHD) has turned out to be a challenge. Two-dimensional strain echocardiographic (2DSTE) imaging or two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic imaging appears to hol
Novel effects of strains in graphene and other two dimensional materials
Amorim, B.; Cortijo, A.; de Juan, F.; Grushin, A. G.; Guinea, F.; Gutiérrez-Rubio, A.; Ochoa, H.; Parente, V.; Roldán, R.; San-José, P.; Schiefele, J.; Sturla, M.; Vozmediano, M. A. H.
2015-01-01
The analysis of the electronic properties of strained or lattice deformed graphene combines ideas from classical condensed matter physics, soft matter, and geometrical aspects of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spaces. Recent theoretical and experimental work shows the influence of strains in many properties of graphene not considered before, such as electronic transport, spin-orbit coupling, the formation of Moir\\'e patterns, optics, ... There is also significant evidence of anharmonic ...
Two-dimensional silica: Structural, mechanical properties, and strain-induced band gap tuning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Enlai; Xie, Bo [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Zhiping, E-mail: xuzp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2016-01-07
Two-dimensional silica is of rising interests not only for its practical applications as insulating layers in nanoelectronics, but also as a model material to understand crystals and glasses. In this study, we examine structural and electronic properties of hexagonal and haeckelite phases of silica bilayers by performing first-principles calculations. We find that the corner-sharing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in these two phases are locally similar. The robustness and resilience of these tetrahedrons under mechanical perturbation allow effective strain engineering of the electronic structures with band gaps covering a very wide range, from of that for insulators, to wide-, and even narrow-gap semiconductors. These findings suggest that the flexible 2D silica holds great promises in developing nanoelectronic devices with strain-tunable performance, and lay the ground for the understanding of crystalline and vitreous phases in 2D, where bilayer silica provides an ideal test-bed.
Strain-Induced Energy Band Gap Opening in Two-Dimensional Bilayered Silicon Film
Ji, Z.; Zhou, R.; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhuang, Y.
2016-10-01
This work presents a theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of bilayered silicon film (BiSF) under in-plane biaxial strain/stress using density functional theory (DFT). Atomic structures of the two-dimensional (2-D) silicon films are optimized by using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In the absence of strain/stress, five buckled hexagonal honeycomb structures of the BiSF with triangular lattice have been obtained as local energy minima, and their structural stability has been verified. These structures present a Dirac-cone shaped energy band diagram with zero energy band gaps. Applying a tensile biaxial strain leads to a reduction of the buckling height. Atomically flat structures with zero buckling height have been observed when the AA-stacking structures are under a critical biaxial strain. Increase of the strain between 10.7% and 15.4% results in a band-gap opening with a maximum energy band gap opening of ˜0.17 eV, obtained when a 14.3% strain is applied. Energy band diagrams, electron transmission efficiency, and the charge transport property are calculated. Additionally, an asymmetric energetically favorable atomic structure of BiSF shows a non-zero band gap in the absence of strain/stress and a maximum band gap of 0.15 eV as a -1.71% compressive strain is applied. Both tensile and compressive strain/stress can lead to a band gap opening in the asymmetric structure.
Marcus, K.A.; Barends, M.; Morava, E.; Feuth, T.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.
2011-01-01
BACKGROUND: Myocardial dysfunction in children diagnosed with mitochondrial disease is an ominous sign and has been associated with substantial increased mortality rates. Early detection of cardiac involvement would therefore be desirable. Two dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSTE) has proven t
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murata Kazuya
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel blockers augment ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads in patients undergoing Brugada-type electrocardiography (ECG. However, their effect on echocardiographic features is not known. We address this by assessing global and regional ventricular function using conventional Doppler and two- dimensional (2D speckle tracking techniques. Methods Thirty-one patients with Brugada-type ECG were studied. A pure sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide, was used to provoke an ECG response. The percentage longitudinal systolic myocardial strain at the base of both the right ventricular (RV free wall and the interventricular septum wall was measured using 2D speckle tracking. Left ventricular (LV and RV myocardial performance (TEI indices were also measured. Results The pilsicainide challenge provoked a positive ECG response in 13 patients (inducible group. In the inducible group, longitudinal strain was significantly reduced only at the RV (-27.3 ± 5.4% vs -22.1 ± 3.6%, P P P Conclusions Temporal and spatial analysis using the TEI index and 2D strain imaging revealed the deterioration of global ventricular function associated with conduction disturbance and RV regional function in patients with Brugada-type ECG and coved type ST elevation due to administration of a sodium channel blocker.
Strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a maned wolf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheus M. Mantovani
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The measurement of cardiovascular features of wild animals is important, as is the measurement in pets, for the assessment of myocardial function and the early detection of cardiac abnormalities, which could progress to heart failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE is a new tool that has been used in veterinary medicine, which demonstrates several advantages, such as angle independence and the possibility to provide the early diagnosis of myocardial alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the left myocardial function in a maned wolf by 2D STE. Thus, the longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were obtained, as well as, the radial and longitudinal velocity and displacement values, from the right parasternal long axis four-chamber view, the left parasternal apical four chamber view and the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles. The results of the longitudinal variables were -13.52±7.88, -1.60±1.05, 4.34±2.52 and 3.86±3.04 for strain (%, strain rate (1/s, displacement (mm and velocity (cm/s, respectively. In addition, the radial and circumferential Strain and Strain rate were 24.39±14.23, 1.86±0.95 and -13.69±6.53, -1.01±0.48, respectively. Thus, the present study provides the first data regarding the use of this tool in maned wolves, allowing a more complete quantification of myocardial function in this species.
Strain bidimensional na cardiopatia de Takotsubo Two-dimensional strain in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Bellini G. Gomes
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Este relato apresenta o seguimento tardio de um caso de cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo com boa evolução clínica e melhora da função sistólica global ventricular esquerda. Contudo, observou-se persistência de significativa disfunção sistólica regional longitudinal que foi avaliada por meio de nova técnica ecocardiográfica (speckle tracking, com as medidas do strain (S e strain rate (SR correspondentes. Ressaltamos a importância desse novo método para o acompanhamento dessa cardiopatia, pois permite identificar os pacientes que persistem com disfunção sistólica e que possivelmente serão beneficiados com a manutenção da terapêutica clínica.This report presents the late follow-up of a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with good clinical outcome and improved left ventricular global systolic function. However, there was persistence of significant regional longitudinal systolic dysfunction evaluated using a new echocardiographic technique (speckle tracking, with corresponding measures of strain (S and strain rate (SR. We emphasize the importance of this new method to monitoring this cardiomyopathy, since it identifies patients with persistent systolic dysfunction who will possibly benefit from maintenance of clinical therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Banović Marko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Early detection of left ventricle (LV systolic dysfunction could be a clue for surgical treatment in patients with significant aortic stenosis (AS. Therefore, we evaluated LV peak of global longitudinal strain (PGLS using speckle tracking imaging at rest and during low-dose dobutamine infusion in asymptomatic patients with moderate and severe AS and preserved LV ejection fraction (EF. Methods. All the patients underwent coronary angiography and had no obstructive coronary disease (defined as having no stenosis greater than 50% in diameter. The patients were divided into two groups: above and below median of 0.785 cm2 aortic valve area (AVA. PGLS was measured from acquired apical 4-chamber and 2-chamber cine loops using a EchoPac PC-workstation at rest and during 5 μg/kg/min, 10 μg/kg/min, and 20 μg/kg/min dobutamine infusion, respectively. The global strain was the average of segment strains from the apical views. Results: A total of 62 patients with moderate and severe AS (AVA median reached the statistical significance (- 8.71 ± 2.68% vs -11.93 ± 3.74%, p = 0.002. In addition, PGLS increase was also significant in 4-chamber view in the patients with AVA above median, but only when comparing baseline to peak 20 μg/kg/min (-10.72 ± 3.07% vs -13.14 ± 4.79%; p = 0.034. Conversely, in both groups the increase of PGLS in 2-chamber view did not reach significance. Conclusion. Two-dimensional strain speckle tracking analysis of myocardial deformation with measurement of peak systolic strain during dobutamine infusion is a feasible and accurate method to determine myocardial longitudinal systolic function and contractile reserve and may contribute to clinical decision making in patients with significant AS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisi Matteo
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of speckle tracking in the assessment of left atrial (LA deformation dynamics is not established. We sought to determine the feasibility and reference ranges of LA longitudinal strain indices measured by speckle tracking in a population of normal subjects. Methods In 60 healthy individuals, peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS and time to peak longitudinal strain (TPLS were measured using a 12-segment model for the left atrium. Values were obtained by averaging all segments (global PALS and TPLS and by separately averaging segments measured in the two apical views (4- and 2-chamber average PALS and TPLS. Results Adequate tracking quality was achieved in 97% of segments analyzed. Inter and intra-observer variability coefficients of measurements ranged between 2.9% and 5.4%. Global PALS was 42.2 ± 6.1% (5–95° percentile range 32.2–53.2%, and global TPLS was 368 ± 30 ms (5–95° percentile range 323–430 ms. The 2-chamber average PALS was slightly higher than the 4-chamber average PALS (44.3 ± 6.0% vs 40.1 ± 7.9%, p Conclusion Speckle tracking is a feasible technique for the assessment of longitudinal myocardial LA deformation. Reference ranges of strain indices were reported.
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.
Myocardial Strain Imaging Based on Two-Dimensional Displacement Vector Measurement
Nitta, Naotaka; Shiina, Tsuyoshi
2004-05-01
The abnormalities of myocardial wall motion caused by changes in wall stiffness often appear in the early stage of ischemic heart disease. Since the myocardium exhibits complex and large motion, a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) assessment of stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis. Although a 3D assessment is ultimately required, as a stepped approach for practical use, we propose novel methods for tracking the 2D motion using a one-dimensional (1D) phased array and for assessing myocardial malfunction by visualizing the invariant of a strain tensor. The feasibilities of the proposed methods were evaluated by numerically simulating the short-axis imaging of a 3D myocardial model. This model includes a hard infarction located between 1 and 3 o’clock, which is difficult to detect by conventional tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging, and the motions of the model were assigned by referring to actual myocardial motion. These results revealed that the proposed imaging methods clearly depicted the hard infarction area which conventional imaging could not detect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Wen-Qian; Liu Yu-Min; Wang Dong-Lin; Han Li-Hong; Guo Xuan; Yu Zhong-Yuan
2013-01-01
We investigate the effect of disorder and mechanical deformation on a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide.The dispersion characteristics and transmittance of the waveguide are studied using the finite element method.Results show that the geometric change of the dielectric material perpendicular to the light propagation direction has a larger influence on the waveguide characteristics than that parallel to the light propagation direction.Mechanical deformation has an obvious influence on the performance of the waveguide.In particular,longitudinal deformed structure exhibits distinct optical characteristics from the ideal one.Studies on this work will provide useful guideline to the fabrication and practical applications based on photonic crystal waveguides.
Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals
Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.
2015-09-01
Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.
Chiral expansion and Macdonald deformation of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Kokenyesi, Zoltan; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We derive the analog of the large $N$ Gross-Taylor holomorphic string expansion for the refinement of $q$-deformed $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory on a compact oriented Riemann surface. The derivation combines Schur-Weyl duality for quantum groups with the Etingof-Kirillov theory of generalized quantum characters which are related to Macdonald polynomials. In the unrefined limit we reproduce the chiral expansion of $q$-deformed Yang-Mills theory derived by de Haro, Ramgoolam and Torrielli. In the classical limit $q=1$, the expansion defines a new $\\beta$-deformation of Hurwitz theory wherein the refined partition function is a generating function for certain parameterized Euler characters, which reduce in the unrefined limit $\\beta=1$ to the orbifold Euler characteristics of Hurwitz spaces of holomorphic maps. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our expansions in relation to quantum spectral curves and $\\beta$-ensembles of matrix models arising in refined topological string theory.
Hung, Ming-Jui; Ko, Ta; Liang, Chung-Yu; Kao, Yu-Cheng
2017-10-01
Although transient reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction is characteristic of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, little is known about the time-course changes of myocardial deformation in coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We retrospectively analyzed the time-course changes in left ventricle, right ventricle, and left atrium strain values in a patient with coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We found that not only left ventricular strain but also left atrial strain was abnormal during acute Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to coronary vasospasm. Right ventricular free wall strain was normal. Coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. A serial echocardiographic study. The left ventricular strain was still subnormal despite a normalized left ventricular ejection fraction 2 months later. The left atrial strain was normal when the left ventricular ejection fraction normalized. From this limited experience, it is suggested that echocardiographic myocardial deformation analysis can provide more information than the standard ejection fraction in evaluating myocardial contractile function.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Ali, Sophia; Olsen, Niels T;
2012-01-01
Evaluation of myocardial deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking is useful for clinical and research purposes. However, differences may exist among different ultrasound machines, software packages, frame rates, and observers....
Chiral expansion and Macdonald deformation of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koekenyesi, Zoltan; Sinkovics, Annamaria [Institute of Theoretical Physics, MTA-ELTE Theoretical Research Group, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117, Budapest, Pazmany, s. 1/A (Hungary); Szabo, Richard J. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); The Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2016-11-15
We derive the analog of the large N Gross-Taylor holomorphic string expansion for the refinement of q-deformed U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a compact oriented Riemann surface. The derivation combines Schur-Weyl duality for quantum groups with the Etingof-Kirillov theory of generalized quantum characters which are related to Macdonald polynomials. In the unrefined limit we reproduce the chiral expansion of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory derived by de Haro, Ramgoolam and Torrielli. In the classical limit q = 1, the expansion defines a new β-deformation of Hurwitz theory wherein the refined partition function is a generating function for certain parameterized Euler characters, which reduce in the unrefined limit β = 1 to the orbifold Euler characteristics of Hurwitz spaces of holomorphic maps. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our expansions in relation to quantum spectral curves and β-ensembles of matrix models arising in refined topological string theory. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Two-Dimensional Large Deformation Finite Element Analysis for the Pulling-up of Plate Anchor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dong; HU Yu-xia; JIN Xia
2006-01-01
Based on mesh regeneration and stress interpolation from an old mesh to a new one, a large deformation finite element model is developed for the study of the behaviour of circular plate anchors subjected to uplift loading. For the determination of the distributions of stress components across a clay foundation, the Recovery by Equilibrium in Patches is extended to plastic analyses. ABAQUS, a commercial finite element package, is customized and linked into our program so as to keep automatic and efficient running of large deformation calculation. The quality of stress interpolation is testified by evaluations of Tresca stress and nodal reaction forces. The complete pulling-up processes of plate anchors buried in homogeneous clay are simulated, and typical pulling force-displacement responses of a deep anchor and a shallow anchor are compared. Different from the results of previous studies, large deformation analysis is of the capability of estimating the breakaway between the anchor bottom and soils. For deep anchors, the variation of mobilized uplift resistance with anchor settlement is composed of three stages, and the initial buried depths of anchors affect the separation embedment slightly. The uplift bearing capacity of deep anchors is usually higher than that of shallow anchors.
Lopata, R.G.P.; Hansen, H.H.G.; Nillesen, M.M.; Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de
2009-01-01
In this study, the performances of one-dimensional and two-dimensional least-squares strain estimators (LSQSE) are compared. Furthermore, the effects of kernel size are examined using simulated raw frequency data of a widely-adapted hard lesion/soft tissue model. The performances of both methods are
Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai
2005-01-01
Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna
1987-01-01
The proteins of 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis were compared by SDS-PAGE in gradient gels, by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells and by immunoblot analysis of cell proteins. The strains examined included the M. hominis type strain PG21 and 13 others...... isolated variously from genital tract, mouth, blood, upper urinary tract and a wound. These 14 strains shared 76-99% of proteins in SDS-gradient gel analysis and 41-72% in the 2D gels. As expected, the immunoblot analysis likewise revealed the existence of an extensive common protein pattern in M. hominis...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing
2008-01-01
To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.
Ab-initio study of dynamical properties of two dimensional MoS2 under strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Himadri Soni
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we report the biaxial strain induced modifications in the phonon dispersion curves of monolayer MoS2 using first principles calculations in the framework of density functional perturbation theory. We have used the ultrasoft psedopotentials and the exchange correlation energies have been approximated by the local density approximation. There are significant changes in the phonon dispersion curves under strain. A systematic decrease in the optical phonon modes is observed with strain percentage. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of monolayer MoS2 show linear dependency for both without and with strain cases. However, the out of plane acoustic mode (ZA which behaves quadratically with wave vector k- turns linear under strain. We have also linked ripple in single layer (SL MoS2 by ZA mode with strain using shell elasticity theory. The strain induced softening of linear behaviour of ZA mode with strain indicates the absence of rippling under strain. At a very high strain there is a possibility of structural phase transition as the ZA mode at zone centre turns imaginary above 15% strain. Our results indicate a close relationship between the morphology and properties enabling the device tailoring and bandgap engineering in SL-MoS2 by manipulating the strain.
Wu, Victor Chien-Chia; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki
2017-01-01
Background Newer 2D strain software has a potential to assess layer-specific strain. However, normal reference values for layer-specific strain have not been established. We aimed to establish the normal ranges of layer-specific longitudinal and circumferential strain (endocardial global longitudinal strain (GLS), transmural GLS, epicardial GLS, endocardial global circumferential strain (GCS), transmural GCS, and epicardial GCS). Methods and results We retrospectively analyzed longitudinal and circumferential strain parameters in 235 healthy subjects, with use of layer-specific 2D speckle tracking software (GE). The endocardial strain/epicardial strain (Endo/Epi) ratio was also measured to assess the strain gradient across the myocardium. The endocardial, transmural, and epicardial GLS values and the Endo/Epi ratio in the normal subjects were -23.1±2.3, -20.0±2.0, -17.6±1.9, and 1.31±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values of GCS were -28.5±3.0, -20.8±2.3, -15.3±2.0, and 1.88±0.17, respectively. The layer-specific global strain parameters exhibited no age dependency but did exhibit gender dependency except for endocardial GCS. A subgroup analysis revealed that basal and middle levels of endocardial LS was decreased in the middle and elderly aged group. However, apical endocardial LS was preserved even in the elderly subjects. Conclusions We proposed normal reference values for layer-specific strain based on both age and gender. This detailed strain analysis provides layer-oriented information with the potential to characterize abnormal findings in various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28662186
Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Zhu, Wenlong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fengwen; Ma, Zhenhe
2015-03-01
The heart undergoes remarkable changes during embryonic development due to genetic programming and epigenetic influences, in which mechanical loads is a key factor. As embryonic research development, an important goal is to develop mathematical models that describe the influence of mechanics on embryonic heart development. However, basic parameters for the modeling are difficult to acquire since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast in the early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique provides depth-resolved image with high resolution and high acquisition speed in a noninvasive manner. In this paper, we performed 4D[(x,y,z) + t] scan on the outflow tract (OFT) of the chick embryonic heart at stage of HH18(~ 3 days of incubation) in vivo using spectral domain OCT (SDOCT). Parameters such as displacement and geometrical size of the OFT were extracted from the structural images of the SDOCT. Two-dimensional strain vector were solved using strain-displacement relations in curvilinear cylindrical coordinates based on kinetic theory of elasticity. Based on the geometrical size and other initial conditions, two-dimensional elasticity finite element model of the OFT myocardial wall deformation were established and then solved by direct frequency response method. Comparison between experimental data and simulation result shows the utility of the finite element models. Our results demonstrate that mathematical modeling based on parameters provided by SDOCT is a useful approach for studying cardiac development in early stage.
The microstructural origin of strain hardening in two-dimensional open-cell metal foams
Mangipudi, K. R.; van Buuren, S. W.; Onck, P. R.
2010-01-01
This paper aims at elucidating the microstructural origin of strain hardening in open-cell metal foams. We have developed a multiscale model that allows to study the development of plasticity at two length scales: (i) the development of plastic zones inside individual struts (microscopic scale) and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felix Heggemann
Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to characterize global and regional right ventricular (RV myocardial function in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC using 2D strain imaging. METHODS: We compared various parameters of RV and left ventricular (LV systolic function between 2 groups of consecutive patients with TC at initial presentation and upon follow-up. Group 1 had RV involvement and group 2 did not have RV involvement. RESULTS: At initial presentation, RV peak systolic longitudinal strain (RVPSS and RV fractional area change (RVFAC were significantly lower in group 1 (-13.2±8.6% vs. -21.8±5.4%, p = 0.001; 30.7±9.3% vs. 43.5±6.3%, p = 0.001 and improved significantly upon follow-up. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE did not differ significantly at initial presentation between both groups (14.8±4.1 mm vs. 17.9±3.5 mm, p = 0.050. Differences in regional systolic RV strain were only observed in the mid and apical segments. LV ejection fraction (LVEF and LV global strain were significantly lower in group 1 (36±8% vs. 46±10%, p = 0.006 and -5.5±4.8% vs. -10.2±6.2%, p = 0.040 at initial presentation. None of the parameters were significantly different between the 2 groups upon follow-up. A RVPSS cut-off value of >-19.1% had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 71% to discriminate between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: In TC, RVFAC, RVPSS, LVEF and LV global strain differed significantly between patients with and without RV dysfunction, whereas TAPSE did not. 2 D strain imaging was feasible for the assessment of RV dysfunction in TC and could discriminate between patients with and without RV involvement in a clinically meaningful way.
Strain Control of Fermiology and Many-Body Interactions in Two-Dimensional Ruthenates
Burganov, B.; Adamo, C.; Mulder, A.; Uchida, M.; King, P. D. C.; Harter, J. W.; Shai, D. E.; Gibbs, A. S.; Mackenzie, A. P.; Uecker, R.; Bruetzam, M.; Beasley, M. R.; Fennie, C. J.; Schlom, D. G.; Shen, K. M.
2016-05-01
Here we demonstrate how the Fermi surface topology and quantum many-body interactions can be manipulated via epitaxial strain in the spin-triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 and its isoelectronic counterpart Ba2RuO4 using oxide molecular beam epitaxy, in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and transport measurements. Near the topological transition of the γ Fermi surface sheet, we observe clear signatures of critical fluctuations, while the quasiparticle mass enhancement is found to increase rapidly and monotonically with increasing Ru-O bond distance. Our work demonstrates the possibilities for using epitaxial strain as a disorder-free means of manipulating emergent properties, many-body interactions, and potentially the superconductivity in correlated materials.
Karsenty, Clement; Hadeed, Khaled; Dulac, Yves; Semet, Florent; Alacoque, Xavier; Breinig, Sophie; Leobon, Bertrand; Acar, Philippe; Hascoet, Sebastien
2017-03-01
Right ventricular (RV) function is a prognostic marker of cardiac disease in children. Speckle tracking has been developed to assess RV longitudinal shortening, the dominant deformation during systole; little is known about its feasibility in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of RV two-dimensional (2D) strain assessed by speckle tracking in infants undergoing CHD surgery compared with conventional markers. In this prospective single-centre study, RV peak systolic strain (RV-PSS) was measured using 2D speckle tracking in 37 consecutive children undergoing CHD surgery. Examinations were performed the day before surgery, a few hours after surgery and before discharge. Relationships with the z score of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TA Sa) were assessed. Median (interquartile range) age was 19 months (5-63); median weight was 9.2 kg (5.3-18.0). RV-PSS analysis was feasible in 92.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.0-97.1) of examinations. The coefficient of variation was 9.7% (95% CI: 7.4-11.9) for intraobserver variability and 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7-17.6) for interobserver variability. Correlations between RV-PSS and z score of TAPSE and TA Sa were strong (r=0.71, Pspeckle tracking is a feasible and reproducible method of assessing perioperative evolution of RV function in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Alto, Michele; Di Maio, Marco; Vettori, Serena; Benjamin, Nicola; Cocchia, Rosangela; Argiento, Paola; Romeo, Emanuele; Di Marco, Giovanni; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Valentini, Gabriele; Calabrò, Raffaele; Bossone, Eduardo; Grünig, Ekkehard
2016-07-01
Enlargement and dysfunction of the right atrium might be an early sign for pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This is the first study to analyse right atrial morphology and function in SSc patients compared to healthy controls by speckle-tracking two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE) at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, right atrial function was correlated with further clinical findings. Adult patients with SSc for >3 years (n = 90) and 55 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent a panel of non-invasive assessments including transthoracic echocardiography, pulsed Doppler myocardial imaging and 2DSE at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, serological tests and high-resolution chest computed tomography were performed. SSc patients showed significant impairment of right atrial function and the right atrial enlargement, measured by 2DSE at rest and during exercise compared to controls (both p right atrial lateral strain was significantly associated with PAPs during effort, right atrial area, left ventricle stroke volume and inferior vena cava diameter using multivariable analysis. The findings of this study suggest that a high proportion of SSc patients reveal right atrial dysfunction even without manifest pulmonary hypertension. Impaired right atrial function occurred mostly in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and/or elevated PAPs during exercise, was independently associated with prognostic factors and may therefore be useful for risk stratification. Further studies are needed to analyse if right atrial dysfunction assessed by 2DSE may help to improve early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.
Marcus, K.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Feuth, T.; Thijssen, J.M.; Oort, A.M. van; Tanke, R.B.; Kapusta, L.
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investige serial changes of myocardial deformation using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic (2DSTE) imaging in children undergoing balloon valvuloplasty for congenital valvular aortic stenosis (VAS). METHODS: Thirty-seven children with isolate
EFFECTIVE STRESS AND STRAIN IN FINITE DEFORMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周喆; 秦伶俐; 黄文彬; 王红卫
2004-01-01
Whether the concept of effective stress and strain in elastic-plastic theory is still valid under the condition of finite deformation was mainly discussed. The uni-axial compression experiments in plane stress and plane strain states were chosen for study. In the two kinds of stress states, the stress- strain curve described by logarithm strain and rotated Kirchhoff stress matches the experiments data better than the curves defined by other stressstrain description.
Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2013-01-23
We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.
Fuchs, L.; Schmeling, H.
2013-08-01
A key to understand many geodynamic processes is studying the associated large deformation fields. Finite deformation can be measured in the field by using geological strain markers giving the logarithmic strain f = log 10(R), where R is the ellipticity of the strain ellipse. It has been challenging to accurately quantify finite deformation of geodynamic models for inhomogeneous and time-dependent large deformation cases. We present a new formulation invoking a 2-D marker-in-cell approach. Mathematically, one can describe finite deformation by a coordinate transformation to a Lagrangian reference frame. For a known velocity field the deformation gradient tensor, F, can be calculated by integrating the differential equation DtFij = LikFkj, where L is the velocity gradient tensor and Dt the Lagrangian derivative. The tensor F contains all information about the minor and major semi-half axes and orientation of the strain ellipse and the rotation. To integrate the equation centrally in time and space along a particle's path, we use the numerical 2-D finite difference code FDCON in combination with a marker-in-cell approach. For a sufficiently high marker density we can accurately calculate F for any 2-D inhomogeneous and time-dependent creeping flow at any point for a deformation f up to 4. Comparison between the analytical and numerical solution for the finite deformation within a Poiseuille-Couette flow shows an error of less than 2 per cent for a deformation up to f = 1.7. Moreover, we determine the finite deformation and strain partitioning within Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTIs) of different viscosity and layer thickness ratios. These models provide a finite strain complement to the RTI benchmark of van Keken et al. Large finite deformation of up to f = 4 accumulates in RTIs within the stem and near the compositional boundaries. Distinction between different stages of diapirism shows a strong correlation between a maximum occurring deformation of f = 1, 3 and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rong LIU; Youbin DENG; Xiaojun BI; Yani LIU; Li XIONG; Liuping CHEN
2009-01-01
The clinically applied value of myocardial perfusion and systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease after coronary artery bypass surgery using real-time myocardial contrast echo-cardiography (RT-MCE) combined with two-dimensional strain echocardiography was assessed.Twenty patients underwent intravenous RT-MCE by intravenous injections of Sono Vue before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. Two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular four-chamber view, two-chamber view and the apical view before, and two weeks and three months af-ter coronary artery bypass surgery, and the peak systolic longitudinal strain was measured. The results showed that myocardial perfusion was significantly increased after coronary artery bypass surgery in about 71.6% segments. In the group that myocardial perfusion was improved, the peak systolic longitu-dinal strain three months after bypass surgery was significantly higher than that before operation [(-15.78±5.91)% vs (-10.45±8.31)%, P0.05]. It was con-cluded that whether or not the improvement of myocardial perfusion can mirror the recovery trend of regional systolic function, two-dimensional strain echocardiography can observe dynamic change of re-gional systolic function. The combination of myocardial perfusion with two-dimensional strain echocar-diography can more accurately assess the curative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass surgery.
Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.
2005-01-01
A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...
Mahya, M. J.; Sanny, T. A.
2017-04-01
Lembang and Cimandiri fault are active faults in West Java that thread people near the faults with earthquake and surface deformation risk. To determine the deformation, GPS measurements around Lembang and Cimandiri fault was conducted then the data was processed to get the horizontal velocity at each GPS stations by Graduate Research of Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT) Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Study Program, ITB. The purpose of this study is to model the displacement distribution as deformation parameter in the area along Lembang and Cimandiri fault using 2-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) using the horizontal velocity that has been corrected by the effect of Sunda plate horizontal movement as the input. The assumptions that used at the modeling stage are the deformation occurs in homogeneous and isotropic medium, and the stresses that acted on faults are in elastostatic condition. The results of modeling show that Lembang fault had left-lateral slip component and divided into two segments. A lineament oriented in southwest-northeast direction is observed near Tangkuban Perahu Mountain separating the eastern and the western segments of Lembang fault. The displacement pattern of Cimandiri fault shows that Cimandiri fault is divided into the eastern segment with right-lateral slip component and the western segment with left-lateral slip component separated by a northwest-southeast oriented lineament at the western part of Gede Pangrango Mountain. The displacement value between Lembang and Cimandiri fault is nearly zero indicating that Lembang and Cimandiri fault are not connected each other and this area is relatively safe for infrastructure development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Butz, Corinna N. Lang, Marc van Bracht, Magnus W. Prull, Hakan Yeni, Petra Maagh, Gunnar Plehn, Axel Meissner, Hans-Joachim Trappe
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: Strain rate imaging techniques have been proposed for the detection of ischemic or viable myocardium in coronary artery disease, which is still a challenge in clinical cardiology. This retrospective comparative study analyzed regional left ventricular function and scaring with two-dimensional strain (2DS in the first 4 to 10 days after acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI.Methods and results: The study population consisted of 32 AMI patients with an LAD occlusion and successful reperfusion. The assessment of peak systolic 2DS and peak systolic strain rate (SR was performed segment-oriented with the angle-independent speckle tracking algorithm Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI. The infarcted, adjacent and non-infarcted segments were revealed by late enhancement MRI (LE-MRI, which was used as reference for the comparison with 2DS. The infarcted segments showed a significant decrease of tissue velocities, 2DS and SR in comparison to the non-affected segments.Conclusion: 2DS and SR as assessed by VVI seem to be a suitable approach for echocardiographic quantification of global and regional myocardial function as well as a promising tool for multimodal risk stratification after anterior AMI.
Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal; Babaoğlu, Kadir; Altun, Gürkan; Kayabey, Özlem
2014-01-01
Whether the hypertrophy found in the hearts of athletes is physiologic or a risk factor for the progression of pathologic hypertrophy remains controversial. The diastolic and systolic functions of athletes with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy usually are normal when measured by conventional methods. More precise assessment of global and regional myocardial function may be possible using a newly developed two-dimensional (2D) strain echocardiographic method. This study evaluated the effects that different types of sports have on the hearts of children and adolescents and compared the results of 2D strain and strain-rate echocardiographic techniques with conventional methods. Athletes from clubs for five different sports (basketball, swimming, football, wrestling, and tennis) who had practiced regularly at least 3 h per week during at least the previous 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of sedentary children and adolescents with no known cardiac or systemic diseases (n = 25). The athletes were grouped according to the type of exercise: dynamic (football, tennis), static (wrestling), or static and dynamic (basketball, swimming). Shortening fraction and ejection fraction values were within normal limits for the athletes in all the sports disciplines. Across all 140 athletes, LV geometry was normal in 58 athletes (41.4 %), whereas 22 athletes (15.7 %) had concentric remodeling, 20 (14.3 %) had concentric hypertrophy, and 40 (28.6 %) had eccentric hypertrophy. Global LV longitudinal strain values obtained from the average of apical four-, two-, and three-chamber global strain values were significantly lower for the basketball players than for all the other groups (p < 0.001).
Meimoun, Patrick; Abouth, Shirley; Boulanger, Jacques; Luycx-Bore, Anne; Martis, Sonia; Clerc, Jérome
2014-12-01
After acute-anterior myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular (LV) viable myocardial segments show some degree of active deformation (longitudinal shortening) despite wall motion abnormalities (WMA). Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by myocardial stunning; however, it is unclear whether in TTC the strain pattern mimics AMI. To compare the strain-pattern in TTC and AMI using the 2D-longitudinal strain by speckle-tracking in segments with WMA, and its relationship with recovery of function at follow-up. 21 consecutive patients with typical TTC and 21 age-matched AMI patients treated by primary angioplasty had an analysis of LV-longitudinal strain at the acute-phase and at follow-up (1 and 6 months later for TTC and AMI respectively). The recovery of a segment was defined as normal wall motion at follow-up. Among the 706 analyzable LV-segments at the acute-phase, 406 had WMA (TTC 229, AMI 177). At follow-up, total recovery was observed for 45 % segments in AMI and 100 % in TTC, (p strain at follow-up (all, p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, among the 57 % of segments exhibiting any systolic lengthening duration in AMI, only ¼ recovered, versus 62 % of such segments in TTC with 100 % recovery (p myocardial stunning in TTC and AMI is different according to longitudinal strain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liming He
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Mapping deformation field time-series, including vertical and horizontal motions, is vital for landslide monitoring and slope safety assessment. However, the conventional differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR technique can only detect the displacement component in the satellite-to-ground direction, i.e., line-of-sight (LOS direction displacement. To overcome this constraint, a new method was developed to obtain the displacement field time series of a slope by coupling DInSAR based small baseline subset approach (DInSAR-SBAS with multiple-aperture InSAR (MAI based small baseline subset approach (MAI-SBAS. This novel method has been applied to a set of 11 observations from the phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR sensor onboard the advanced land observing satellite (ALOS, spanning from 2007 to 2011, of two large-scale north–south slopes of the largest Asian open-pit mine in the Northeast of China. The retrieved displacement time series showed that the proposed method can detect and measure the large displacements that occurred along the north–south direction, and the gradually changing two-dimensional displacement fields. Moreover, we verified this new method by comparing the displacement results to global positioning system (GPS measurements.
Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Cronje; R E Kroon; W D Roos; J H Neethling
2013-02-01
Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well as samples that were unannealed and strained, are devoid of these twins. These deformation twins occurred at deformation conditions less extreme than previously predicted.
Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U
2017-06-01
The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.
High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites
Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.
2012-11-01
Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.
Afonso, Luis; Briasoulis, Alex; Mahajan, Nitin; Kondur, Ashok; Siddiqui, Fayez; Siddiqui, Sabeeh; Alesh, Issa; Cardozo, Shaun; Kottam, Anupama
2015-12-01
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) affects the right ventricle (RV) because of the anatomically hypertrophied septum and plausibly by extension of the myopathic process to the RV. We sought to investigate RV strain in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to either HCM or hypertension (H-LVH). Our cross-sectional study included 32 patients with HCM, 21 patients with H-LVH, and 11 healthy subjects, who were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography. Using a dedicated software package, bi-dimensional acquisitions were analyzed to measure segmental longitudinal strain in apical views. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) was calculated by averaging septal and right free wall strains. The HCM and H-LVH groups were comparable for age and demographic characteristics. Right ventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was not significantly different between HCM and H-LVH subjects. Moreover, RV GLS, septal and lateral RV myocardial strain were significantly impaired in patients with HCM (all p 14.9% differentiated HCM and H-LVH with a 90% sensitivity and a 95% specificity (p < 0.001). RV strain parameters are impaired in patients with HCM. Assessment of two-dimensional RV strain parameters could help differentiate between HCM and H-LVH.
Reeves, E A; Barton, D C; FitzPatrick, D P; Fisher, J
1998-01-01
As new methods of sterilization of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component in knee replacements are introduced, reported incidents of delamination will decrease. The prediction of plastic strain accumulation and associated failure mechanisms will then become more important in knee replacement design. The finite element analysis reported in this paper aims to advance the modelling of strain accumulation in UHMWPE over repeated gait cycles and seeks to determine the effects of the knee replacement design variables of geometry and kinematics. Material testing was performed under cyclic and creep conditions to generate the elastic, viscoplastic material model that has been used in this time-dependent analysis. Non-conforming geometries were found to accumulate plastic strains at higher rates than conforming geometries. The anatomical motion known as rollback initially produced lower strain rates, but predictions of the long-term response indicated that designs which allow rollback may produce higher strains than static designs after only about a week of loading for a knee replacement patient.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Strelcov, Evgheni [Southern Illinois University; Luk' yanchuk, Prof. Igor A. [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Jones, Keith M [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kolmakov, Andrei [ORNL
2010-01-01
Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in VO_2 nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO_2) quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and non-trivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO_2 structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed El-Ashram
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite infecting warm-blooded vertebrate hosts, with only early infection stage being contained with drugs. But diagnosis differencing early and late infection was not available. In the present investigation, 2-dimensional immunobloting was used to explore early and late infections in chickens. The protein expression of T. gondii was determined by image analysis of the tachyzoites proteome separated by standard-one and conventional two-dimentional gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D- PAGE. Pooled gels were prepared from tachyzoites of T. gondii. A representative gel spanning a pH range of 3-10 of the tachyzoite proteome consisted of 1306 distinct polypeptide spots. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE combined with 2-DE immunoblotting was used to resolve and compare immunoglobulins (Igs M & G patterns against Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (mouse virulent strain. Total tachyzoite proteins of T. gondii were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the 7 and 56 days post-infection (dpi SPF chicken antisera. Different antigenic determinant patterns were detected during analysis with M and G immunoglobulins. Of the total number of polypeptide spots analyzed (1306 differentially expressed protein spots, 6.97% were identified as having shared antigenic polypeptide spots on immunoblot profiles with IgG and IgM antibodies regardless the time after infection. Furthermore, some of the immunoreactive polypeptide spots seemed to be related to the stage of infection. Interestingly, we found natural antibodies to toxoplasmic antigens, in addition to the highly conserved antigenic determinants that reacted with non-specific secondary antibody; goat anti-chicken IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. In conclusion, unique reactive polypeptide spots are promising candidates for designation of molecular markers to discriminate
Britton, Paul; Loughran, Jeff
This paper outlines a computational procedure that has been implemented for the direct measurement of finite material strains from digital images taken of a material surface during plane-strain process experiments. The selection of both hardware and software components of the image processing system is presented, and the numerical procedures developed for measuring the 2D material deformations are described. The algorithms are presented with respect to two-roll milling of sugar cane bagasse, a complex fibro-porous material that undergoes large strains during processing to extract the sucrose-rich liquid. Elaborations are made in regard to numerical developments for other forms of experimentation, algorithm calibrations and measurement improvements. Finite 2D strain results are shown for both confined uniaxial compression and two-roll milling experiments.
Uppu, Santosh C; Shah, Amee; Weigand, Justin; Nielsen, James C; Ko, H Helen; Parness, Ira A; Srivastava, Shubhika
2015-06-01
The presence of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in concert with electrocardiography and elevated biomarkers helps support the diagnosis of acute myocarditis. Two-dimensional echocardiography is limited to global and qualitative regional function assessment and may not contribute to the diagnosis, especially in the presence of normal LV systolic function. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking (2D-STE)-derived segmental peak systolic (pkS) longitudinal strain (LS) may identify segmental myocardial involvement in myocarditis. We sought to identify an association between segmental pkS, LGE, and troponin levels in patients with myocarditis. Retrospective analysis of myocardial segmental function by 2D-STE segmental strain was compared to the presence of LGE and admission peak troponin levels in patients with acute myocarditis and preserved global LV systolic function. American Heart Association 17-segment model was used for comparison between imaging modalities. Global function was assessed by m-mode-derived shortening fraction (SF). Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were utilized. Forty-four CMRs performed to evaluate for myocarditis were identified. Of the 44, 10 patients, median age 17.5 years (14-18.5 years) and median SF 35 % (28-44 %), had paired CMR and 2D-STE data for analysis, and 161/170 segments could be analyzed by both methods for comparison. PkS LS was decreased in 51 % of segments that were positive for LGE with average pkS of -14.7 %. Segmental pkS LS abnormalities were present in all but one patient who had abnormal pkS circumferential strain. Global pkS LS was decreased in patients with myocarditis. There is a moderate correlation between decreased pkS LS and the presence of LGE by CMR, 2D-STE for myocardial involvement in acute myocarditis can serve as an useful noninvasive adjunct to the existing tests used for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis and might have a role in prognostication.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2013-01-01
model, analytic expressions and the coupling strengths for the deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are established. We furthermore show that the deformation potential interaction has contributions from both normal and umklapp processes and that the latter contribution is only weakly...
Tomé, M. F.; Bertoco, J.; Oishi, C. M.; Araujo, M. S. B.; Cruz, D.; Pinho, F. T.; Vynnycky, M.
2016-04-01
This work is concerned with the numerical solution of the K-BKZ integral constitutive equation for two-dimensional time-dependent free surface flows. The numerical method proposed herein is a finite difference technique for simulating flows possessing moving surfaces that can interact with solid walls. The main characteristics of the methodology employed are: the momentum and mass conservation equations are solved by an implicit method; the pressure boundary condition on the free surface is implicitly coupled with the Poisson equation for obtaining the pressure field from mass conservation; a novel scheme for defining the past times t‧ is employed; the Finger tensor is calculated by the deformation fields method and is advanced in time by a second-order Runge-Kutta method. This new technique is verified by solving shear and uniaxial elongational flows. Furthermore, an analytic solution for fully developed channel flow is obtained that is employed in the verification and assessment of convergence with mesh refinement of the numerical solution. For free surface flows, the assessment of convergence with mesh refinement relies on a jet impinging on a rigid surface and a comparison of the simulation of a extrudate swell problem studied by Mitsoulis (2010) [44] was performed. Finally, the new code is used to investigate in detail the jet buckling phenomenon of K-BKZ fluids.
Sun, Jing Ping; Stewart, William J; Yang, Xing Sheng; Donnell, Robert O; Leon, Angel R; Felner, Joel M; Thomas, James D; Merlino, John D
2009-02-01
Hypertension is the most common cause of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, multiple causes can lead to LV hypertrophy, each of which has different histological and mechanical properties. To assess the value of a novel speckle-tracking echocardiographic measurement of myocardial strain and strain rate in defining the mechanical properties of LV hypertrophy, 20 patients with asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 24 patients with secondary LV hypertrophy, 12 patients with biopsy-proved confirmed cardiac amyloidosis, and 22 age-matched healthy asymptomatic volunteers were studied. Patients with amyloidosis had severe diastolic dysfunction, and myocardial deformation was significantly decreased. The new technique allowed cardiac amyloid to be easily differentiated from the other categories. In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, there was segmental myocardium dysfunction as assessed by strain imaging. LV global systolic velocity and radial displacement were higher, and abnormal relaxation was more frequent, in the group with secondary LV hypertrophy than in normal controls. In conclusion, the observations from strain parameters derived from speckle tracking were consistent with the known underlying pathology of each condition, which speaks to the value of strain imaging. Cardiac amyloid profoundly alters all strain parameters, and analysis of these parameters could aid in the diagnosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cramer Maarten J
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyssynchrony of myocardial deformation is usually described in terms of variability only (e.g. standard deviations SD's. A description in terms of the spatio-temporal distribution pattern (vector-analysis of dyssynchrony or by indices estimating its impact by expressing dyscoordination of shortening in relation to the global ventricular shortening may be preferential. Strain echocardiography by speckle tracking is a new non-invasive, albeit 2-D imaging modality to study myocardial deformation. Methods A post-processing toolbox was designed to incorporate local, speckle tracking-derived deformation data into a 36 segment 3-D model of the left ventricle. Global left ventricular shortening, standard deviations and vectors of timing of shortening were calculated. The impact of dyssynchrony was estimated by comparing the end-systolic values with either early peak values only (early shortening reserve ESR or with all peak values (virtual shortening reserve VSR, and by the internal strain fraction (ISF expressing dyscoordination as the fraction of deformation lost internally due to simultaneous shortening and stretching. These dyssynchrony parameters were compared in 8 volunteers (NL, 8 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW, and 7 patients before (LBBB and after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. Results Dyssynchrony indices merely based on variability failed to detect differences between WPW and NL and failed to demonstrate the effect of CRT. Only the 3-D vector of onset of shortening could distinguish WPW from NL, while at peak shortening and by VSR, ESR and ISF no differences were found. All tested dyssynchrony parameters yielded higher values in LBBB compared to both NL and WPW. CRT reduced the spatial divergence of shortening (both vector magnitude and direction, and improved global ventricular shortening along with reductions in ESR and dyscoordination of shortening expressed by ISF. Conclusion Incorporation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunita Rani; Sarva Jit Singh
2007-04-01
The Biot linearized theory of ﬂuid saturated porous materials is used to study the plane strain deformation of a two-phase medium consisting of a homogeneous, isotropic, poroelastic half-space in welded contact with a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by a twodimensional source in the elastic half-space. The integral expressions for the displacements and stresses in the two half-spaces in welded contact are obtained from the corresponding expressions for an unbounded elastic medium by applying suitable boundary conditions at the interface. The case of a long dip-slip fault is discussed in detail. The integrals for this source are solved analytically for two limiting cases: (i) undrained conditions in the high frequency limit, and (ii) steady state drained conditions as the frequency approaches zero. It has been veriﬁed that the solution for the drained case ( → 0) coincides with the known elastic solution. The drained and undrained displacements and stresses are compared graphically. Diffusion of the pore pressure with time is also studied.
Phelan, Dermot; Collier, Patrick; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Popović, Zoran B; Hanna, Mazen; Plana, Juan Carlos; Marwick, Thomas H; Thomas, James D
2012-10-01
The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is challenging owing to vague symptomatology and non-specific echocardiographic findings. To describe regional patterns in longitudinal strain (LS) using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in CA and to test the hypothesis that regional differences would help differentiate CA from other causes of increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. 55 consecutive patients with CA were compared with 30 control patients with LV hypertrophy (n=15 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, n=15 with aortic stenosis). A relative apical LS of 1.0, defined using the equation (average apical LS/(average basal LS + mid-LS)), was sensitive (93%) and specific (82%) in differentiating CA from controls (area under the curve 0.94). In a logistic regression multivariate analysis, relative apical LS was the only parameter predictive of CA (p=0.004). CA is characterised by regional variations in LS from base to apex. A relative 'apical sparing' pattern of LS is an easily recognisable, accurate and reproducible method of differentiating CA from other causes of LV hypertrophy.
Nishio, Yui; Tange, Takahiro; Hirayama, Naomi; Iida, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Yoshifumi
2014-01-01
The energy states of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in high-electron-mobility transistors with a pseudomorphically strained InAs channel (PHEMTs) were analyzed rigorously using a recently established theory that takes into account the nonparabolicity of the conduction band of the channel layer. The sheet density of the 2DEG in InxGa1-xAs-PHEMTs and the drain I-V characteristics of those devices were calculated theoretically and compared with the density and characteristics obtained experimentally. Not only the calculated threshold voltage (VTH) but also the calculated transconductance agreed fairly well with the corresponding values obtained experimentally. When the effects of the compositions of the InxGa1-xAs subchannel layer in the composite channel and the channel layer on energy states of 2DEG were investigated in order to establish a guiding principle for a design of the channel structure in PHEMTs, it was found that VTH is determined by the effective conduction-band offset energy ΔEC between the InAlAs barrier and the channel layers.
Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sarva Jit Singh; Sunita Rani
2006-12-01
The Biot linearized quasi-static theory of ﬂuid-inﬁltrated porous materials is used to formulate the problem of the two-dimensional plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads. The Fourier–Laplace transforms of the stresses, displacements, pore pressure and ﬂuid ﬂux in each homogeneous layer of the multi-layered half-space are expressed in terms of six arbitrary constants. Generalized Thomson–Haskell matrix method is used to obtain the deformation ﬁeld. Simpliﬁed explicit expressions for the elements of the 6 × 6 propagator matrix for the poroelastic medium are obtained. As an example of the possible applications of the analytical formulation developed, formal solution is given for normal strip loading, normal line loading and shear line loading.
Strain distribution during tensile deformation of nanostructured aluminum samples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kidmose, Jacob; Lu, L.; Winther, Grethe
2012-01-01
To optimize the mechanical properties, especially formability, post-process deformation by cold rolling in the range 5–50 % reduction was applied to aluminum sheets produced by accumulative roll bonding to an equivalent strain of 4.8. During tensile testing high resolution maps of the strain...
A Recognition Algorithm for Highly Deformed Two-Dimensional Code%高形变二维码识别算法设计与实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于继明; 徐楠; 陈硕
2014-01-01
针对 QR(Quick Response)二维码在高偏离拍摄角度下难以识别的问题，设计一种在高偏离拍摄角度下正确识别的算法。该算法通过对图像二值化处理、形态学处理、边缘检测、Hough 变换和射影几何变换5个步骤，实现对图像的高准确率识别，使用 java 语言环境和移动终端的 android 环境下对算法进行仿真与算法验证，并实现了通过扫描或读取二维码图像来写入、查找信息等操作。%A recognition algorithm at a highly deviated shooting angle is proposed,which can solve the puzzle of identification for QR (Quick Response)two-dimensional code in case of high-angle shooting deviation from itself.The image can be recognized with high accuracy through the method with five procedures to process the image,i.e.,binarization processing, morphological processing,edge detection,Hough transformation and projective geometry trans-formation.Then the algorithm has been simulated and evaluated by using java language envi-ronment and android mobile terminal.By scanning or reading two-dimensional code image,the i-dentification function can be realized with the algorithm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang
2008-01-01
We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunita Rani; Ram Chander Verma
2013-08-01
The solution of the static deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by uniform movement along a long vertical tensile fracture is well known. In this paper, we study the problem of static deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by a nonuniform movement along a long vertical tensile fracture of infinite length and finite depth. Four movement profiles are considered: linear, parabolic, elliptic and cubic. The deformation corresponding to the four non-uniform movement profiles is compared numerically with the deformation due to a uniform case, assuming the source potency to be the same. The equality in source potency is achieved in two ways: One, by varying the depth of fracture and keeping the surface discontinuity constant and the other way, by keeping the depth of fracture constant and varying the surface discontinuity. It is found that the effect of non-uniformity in movement in the near field is noteworthy. The far field is not affected significantly by the non-uniformity in movement. In the first case, horizontal displacement is significantly affected rather than vertical displacement. In the second case, non-uniformity in movement changes the magnitude of the displacement at the surface. Also, the displacements around a long vertical tensile fracture for different movement profiles are plotted in three dimensions.
Evidence for residual elastic strain in deformed natural quartz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura,Nobumichi; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf
2009-01-30
Residual elastic strain in naturally deformed, quartz-containing rocks can be measured quantitatively in a petrographic thin section with high spatial resolution using Laue microdiffraction with white synchrotron x-rays. The measurements with a resolution of one micrometer allow the quantitative determination of the deviatoric strain tensor as a function of position within the crystal investigated. The observed equivalent strain values of 800-1200 microstrains represent a lower bound of the actual preserved residual strain in the rock, since the stress component perpendicular to the cut sample surface plane is released. The measured equivalent strain translates into an equivalent stress in the order of {approx} 50 MPa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)
2016-01-01
High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.
Georgievska-Ismail, Ljubica; Zafirovska, Planinka; Hristovski, Zarko
2016-11-01
To evaluate additional role of left atrial two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, 218 patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction divided according to the presence of diabetes mellitus (108 with and 110 without) were enrolled in the study. Traditional parameters using two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler imaging were measured as expressions of left ventricular diastolic function as well as peak atrial longitudinal strain and peak atrial contraction strain were measured using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Global average peak atrial longitudinal strain and peak atrial contraction strain were significantly lower in patients with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively) and its reduced values were significantly associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively), its greater severity (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016, respectively) and longer duration only for global average peak atrial longitudinal strain (p = 0.030). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of diabetes mellitus appeared as independent predictor of reduced global peak atrial longitudinal strain [B = -2.173; 95% confidence interval: -3.870 to (-0.477); p = 0.012] as well of reduced global peak atrial contraction strain [B = -1.30; 95% confidence interval: -2.234 to (-0.366); p = 0.007]. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography appeared as a useful additional tool for detection of left atrial dysfunction in patients with heart failure who have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and diabetes mellitus who are especially prone to develop cardiovascular complications. © The Author(s) 2016.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Cui, Xiaoyi; Shifman, M.
2012-02-01
We consider two-dimensional N=(0,2) sigma models with the CP(1) target space. A minimal model of this type has one left-handed fermion. Nonminimal extensions contain, in addition, Nf right-handed fermions. Our task is to derive expressions for the β functions valid to all orders. To this end we use a variety of methods: (i) perturbative analysis; (ii) instanton calculus; (iii) analysis of the supercurrent supermultiplet (the so-called hypercurrent) and its anomalies, and some other arguments. All these arguments, combined, indicate a direct parallel between the heterotic N=(0,2) CP(1) models and four-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theories. In particular, the minimal N=(0,2) CP(1) model is similar to N=1 supersymmetric gluodynamics. Its exact β function can be found; it has the structure of the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov (NSVZ) β function of supersymmetric gluodynamics. The passage to nonminimal N=(0,2) sigma models is equivalent to adding matter. In this case an NSVZ-type exact relation between the β function and the anomalous dimensions γ of the “matter” fields is established. We derive an analog of the Konishi anomaly. At large Nf our β function develops an infrared fixed point at small values of the coupling constant (analogous to the Banks-Zaks fixed point). Thus, we reliably predict the existence of a conformal window. At Nf=1 the model under consideration reduces to the well-known N=(2,2) CP(1) model.
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
Stress–strain relations for hydrogels under multiaxial deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville
2013-01-01
Constitutive equations are derived for the elastic response of swollen elastomers and hydrogels under an arbitrary deformation with finite strains. An expression is developed for the free energy density of a polymer network based on the Flory concept of flexible chains with constrained junctions...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheus M. Mantovani
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The measurement of cardiovascular features of wild animals is important, as is the measurement in pets, for the assessment of myocardial function and the early detection of cardiac abnormalities, which could progress to heart failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE is a new tool that has been used in veterinary medicine, which demonstrates several advantages, such as angle independence and the possibility to provide the early diagnosis of myocardial alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the left myocardial function in a maned wolf by 2D STE. Thus, the longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were obtained, as well as, the radial and longitudinal velocity and displacement values, from the right parasternal long axis four-chamber view, the left parasternal apical four chamber view and the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles. The results of the longitudinal variables were -13.52±7.88, -1.60±1.05, 4.34±2.52 and 3.86±3.04 for strain (%, strain rate (1/s, displacement (mm and velocity (cm/s, respectively. In addition, the radial and circumferential Strain and Strain rate were 24.39±14.23, 1.86±0.95 and -13.69±6.53, -1.01±0.48, respectively. Thus, the present study provides the first data regarding the use of this tool in maned wolves, allowing a more complete quantification of myocardial function in this species.A obtenção de parâmetros cardiovasculares em animais selvagens são importantes de serem avaliados, assim como em animais de companhia, para a obtenção da função miocárdica e determinação precoce de alterações cardíacas que poderiam evoluir para insuficiência cardíaca . A ecocardiografia speckle tracking (2D STE é uma ferramenta nova que tem sido utilizada em medicina veterinária, a qual tem demonstrado várias vantagens quanto ao seu uso, como a independência do ângulo de insonação e a possibilidade de se obter o diagnóstico precoce de altera
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
Butz, T; van Buuren, F; Mellwig, K P; Langer, C; Plehn, G; Meissner, A; Trappe, H J; Horstkotte, D; Faber, L
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional strain (2DS) is a novel method to measure strain from standard two-dimensional echocardiographic images by speckle tracking, which is less angle dependent and more reproducible than conventional Doppler-derived strain. The objective of our study was to characterize global and regional function abnormalities using 2DS and strain rate analysis in patients (pts) with pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) caused by non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in top level athletes, and in healthy controls. The hypothetical question was, if 2DS might be useful as additional tool in differentiating between pathologic and physiologic hypertrophy in top-level athletes. We consecutively studied 53 subjects, 15 pts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 20 competitive top-level athletes, and a control group of 18 sedentary normal subjects by standard echocardiography according to ASE guidelines. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and regional peak systolic strain (PSS) was assessed by 2DS in the apical four-chamber-view using a dedicated software. All components of strain were significantly reduced in pts with HCM (GLS: -8.1 ± 3.8%; P < 0.001) when compared with athletes (-15.2 ± 3.6%) and control subjects (-16.0 ± 2.8%). In general, there was no significant difference between the strain values of the athletes and the control group, but in some of the segments, the strain values of the control group were significantly higher than those in the athletes. A cut-off value of GLS less than -10% for the diagnosis of pathologic hypertrophy (HCM) resulted in a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 95.0%. The combination of TDI (averaged S', E') and 2DS (GLS) cut-off values for the detection of pathologic LVH in HCM demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, and a specificity of 95%. Two-dimensional strain is a new simple and rapid method to measure GLS and PSS as components of systolic strain. This technique could offer a unique approach to quantify
Zhang, Yong; Shen, Lvkang; Liu, Ming; Li, Xin; Lu, Xiaoli; Lu, Lu; Ma, Chunrui; You, Caiyin; Chen, Aiping; Huang, Chuanwei; Chen, Lang; Alexe, Marin; Jia, Chun-Lin
2017-08-22
Epitaxial thin films of CoFe2O4 (CFO) have successfully been transferred from a SrTiO3 substrate onto a flexible polyimide substrate. By bending the flexible polyimide, different levels of uniaxial strain are continuously introduced into the CFO epitaxial thin films. Unlike traditional epitaxial strain induced by substrates, the strain from bending will not suffer from critical thickness limitation, crystalline quality variation, and substrate clamping, and more importantly, it provides a more intrinsic and reliable way to study strain-controlled behaviors in functional oxide systems. It is found that both the saturation magnetization and coercivity of the transferred films can be changed over the bending status and show a high accord with the movement of the curvature bending radius of the polyimide substrate. This reveals that the mechanical strain plays a critical role in tuning the magnetic properties of CFO thin films parallel and perpendicular to the film plane direction.
Strain localization in usnaturated soils with large deformation
Song, X.; Borja, R. I.
2014-12-01
Strain localization is a ubiquitous feature of granular materials undergoing nonhomogeneous deformation. In unsaturated porous media, how the localized deformation band is formed depends crucially on the degree of saturation, since fluid in the pores of a solid imposes a volume constraint on the deformation of the solid. When fluid flow is involved, the inception of the localized deformation band also depends on the heterogeneity of a material, which is quantified in terms of the spatial variation of density, the degree of saturation, and matric suction. We present a mathematical framework for coupled solid-deformation/fluid-diffusion in unsaturated porous media that takes into account material and geometric nonlinearities [1, 2]. The framework relies on the continuum principle of thermodynamics to identify an effective, or constitutive, stress for the solid matrix, and a water retention law that highlights the interdependence of degree of saturation, suction, and porosity of the material. We discuss the role of heterogeneity, quantified either deterministically or stochastically, on the development of a persistent shear band. We derive bifurcation conditions [3] governing the initiation of such a shear band. This research is inspired by current testing techniques that allow nondestructive and non-invasive measurement of density and the degree of saturation through high-resolution imaging [4]. The numerical simulations under plane strain condition demonstrate that the bifurcation not only manifests itself on the loading response curve and but also in the space of the degree of saturation, specific volume and suction stress. References[1] Song X, Borja RI, Mathematical framework for unsaturated flow in the finite deformation range. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2014; 97: 658-686. [2] Song X, Borja RI, Finite deformation and fluid flow in unsaturated soils with random heterogeneity. Vadose Zone Journal 2014; doi:10.2136/vzj2013.07.0131. [3] Song X, Borja RI, Instability
Timóteo, Ana T; Branco, Luísa M; Rosa, Sílvia A; Ramos, Ruben; Agapito, Ana F; Sousa, Lídia; Galrinho, Ana; Oliveira, José A; Oliveira, Mário M; Ferreira, Rui C
2017-01-01
To determine whether right ventricular and/or atrial speckle tracking strain is associated with previous arrhythmic events in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We studied right ventricular and atrial strain in 100 consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot referred for routine echocardiographic evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups, one with previous documentation of arrhythmias (n=26) and one without arrhythmias, in a median follow-up of 22 years. Patients with arrhythmias were older (pright ventricular strain (-14.7±5.5 vs. -16.9±4.0%, p=0.029) and right atrial strain (19.1±7.7% vs. 25.8±11.4%, p=0.001). Neither right ventricular nor right atrial strain were independent predictors of the presence of a history of documented arrhythmias, which was associated with age at correction and with the presence of residual defects. In a subanalysis after excluding 23 patients who had had more than one corrective surgery, right ventricular strain was an independent predictor of the presence of previous arrhythmic events (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p=0.025). Right atrial strain was also an independent predictor after adjustment (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, p=0.029). The ideal cut-off for right ventricular strain was -15.3% and for right atrial strain 23.0%. Compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters, strain measures of the right heart are associated with the presence of arrhythmic events, and may be useful for risk stratification of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, although a prospective study is required. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The use of strain tensor to estimate thoracic tumors deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michalski, Darek, E-mail: michalskid@upmc.edu; Huq, M. Saiful; Bednarz, Greg; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)
2014-07-15
Purpose: Respiration-induced kinematics of thoracic tumors suggests a simple analogy with elasticity, where a strain tensor is used to characterize the volume of interests. The application of the biomechanical framework allows for the objective determination of tumor characteristics. Methods: Four-dimensional computed tomography provides the snapshots of the patient's anatomy at the end of inspiration and expiration. Image registration was used to obtain the displacement vector fields and deformation fields, which allows one for the determination of the strain tensor. Its departure from the identity matrix gauges the departure of the medium from rigidity. The tensorial characteristic of each GTV voxel was determined and averaged. To this end, the standard Euclidean matrix norm as well as the Log-Euclidean norm were employed. Tensorial anisotropy was gauged with the fractional anisotropy measure which is based on the normalized variance of the tensors eigenvalues. Anisotropy was also evaluated with the geodesic distance in the Log-Euclidean framework of a given strain tensor to its closest isotropic counterpart. Results: The averaged strain tensor was determined for each of the 15 retrospectively analyzed thoracic GTVs. The amplitude of GTV motion varied from 0.64 to 4.21 with the average of 1.20 cm. The GTV size ranged from 5.16 to 149.99 cc with the average of 43.19 cc. The tensorial analysis shows that deformation is inconsiderable and that the tensorial anisotropy is small. The Log-Euclidean distance of averaged strain tensors from the identity matrix ranged from 0.06 to 0.31 with the average of 0.19. The Frobenius distance from the identity matrix is similar and ranged from 0.06 to 0.35 with the average of 0.21. Their fractional anisotropy ranged from 0.02 to 0.12 with the average of 0.07. Their geodesic anisotropy ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 with the average of 0.09. These values also indicate insignificant deformation. Conclusions: The tensorial framework
Rockslide deformation monitoring with fiber optic strain sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. R. Moore
2010-02-01
Full Text Available With micro-strain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 100 Hz and higher, fiber optic (FO strain sensors offer exciting new possibilities for in-situ landslide monitoring. Here we describe a new FO monitoring system based on long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensors installed at the Randa Rockslide Laboratory in southern Switzerland. The new FO monitoring system can detect sub-micrometer scale deformations in both triggered-dynamic and continuous measurements. Two types of sensors have been installed: (1 fully embedded borehole sensors and (2 surface extensometers. Dynamic measurements are triggered by sensor deformation and recorded at 100 Hz, while continuous data are logged every 5 min. Deformation time series for all sensors show displacements consistent with previous monitoring. Accelerated shortening following installation of the borehole sensors is likely related to long-term shrinkage of the grout. A number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the deformation process. Accelerated surface crack opening in spring is shown to have a diurnal trend, which we attribute to the effect of snowmelt seeping into the crack void space and freezing at night to generate pressure on the crack walls. Controlled-source tests investigated the sensor response to dynamic inputs, which compared an independent measure of ground motion against the strain measured across a surface crack. Low frequency signals were comparable but the FO record suffered from aliasing, where undersampling of higher frequency signals generated spectral peaks not related to ground motion.
Gu, Kunming; Yu, Sheng; Eshun, Kwesi; Yuan, Haiwen; Ye, Huixian; Tang, Jiaoning; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Xiao, Changshi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qiliang
2017-09-01
In this paper, we report a comprehensive modeling and simulation study of constructing hybrid layered materials by alternately stacking MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers. Such hybrid MoS2/WSe2 hetero-multilayers exhibited direct bandgap semiconductor characteristics with bandgap energy (E g) in a range of 0.45-0.55 eV at room temperature, very attractive for optoelectronics (wavelength range 2.5-2.75 μm) based on thicker two-dimensional (2D) materials. It was also found that the interlayer distance has a significant impact on the electronic properties of the hetero-multilayers, for example a five orders of magnitude change in the conductance was observed. Three material phases, direct bandgap semiconductor, indirect bandgap semiconductor, and metal were observed in MoS2/WSe2 hetero-multilayers, as the interlayer distance decreased from its relaxed (i.e., equilibrium) value of about 6.73 Å down to 5.50 Å, representing a vertical pressure of about 0.8 GPa for the bilayer and 1.5 GPa for the trilayer. Such new hybrid layered materials are very interesting for future nanoelectronic pressure sensor and nanophotonic applications. This study describes a new approach to explore and engineer the construction and application of tunable 2D semiconductors.
Nakamura, Kaoru; Higuchi, Sadao; Ohnuma, Toshiharu
2016-03-01
Using density functional perturbation theory, we investigated the effect of various substitutional dopant elements and in-plane strain on the piezoelectric properties of ZnO. The piezoelectric stress constant e33 of doped ZnO was found to depend on the formal charge of the substitutional dopant. By decomposing the piezoelectric stress constant e33 into the individual atomic contributions, the change in the piezoelectric properties was found to originate from a change in the coupling between the atomic displacement and the strain. Furthermore, we found that in-plane tensile strain along the a axis, which is specific to the thin film, can enhance the piezoelectric constant of ZnO. A phase transition from wurtzite to h-BN-type structure was found to occur with increasing in-plane tensile. The piezoelectric strain constant d33 was predicted to reach ˜200 pC/N for 2.78 at. % V-substituted ZnO at 5.5% in-plane strain, just before the phase transition. These theoretical results suggest that the piezoelectric constant of ZnO can be enhanced by controlling the in-plane strain via selection of the substrate material and dopant element.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Liu, Y J; Leng, X P; Du, G Q; Wang, X D; Tian, J W; Ren, M
2015-02-01
The reperfusion injury that occurs in the early reperfusion often results in myocardial dysfunction. This study evaluated global and regional left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in a rabbit ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model with and without ischemic postconditioning (I-PostC). The aim is to investigate the potential benefit of I-PostC for myocardial function and validate whether regional longitudinal strain is an appropriate index to indicate myocardial dysfunction. Forty rabbits were divided into an ischemia-reperfusion group (group I) and an I-PostC group (group II). After the coronary arteries were ligated, LV systolic strain and twist parameters decreased, and absolute value of strain rate of isovolumetric relaxation period (SRivr) and post-systolic strain index (PSI) increased significantly in both groups (all pstrain rate (SRsys), systolic strain (Ssys), LV twist and untwisting rate increased, and SRivr and PSI decreased in group II. These changes were not seen in group I. All STE parameters were correlated with area of necrosis (AN)/area at risk (AR) (all p0.8 or 0.6. The sensitivities of GSRsys, GSsys, SRsys, Ssys, and LV twist to detect the myocardial infarction were 81.3%, 62.5%, 87.5%, 93.8% and 81.3%, respectively. And the specificities of those parameters were 75.0%, 81.2%, 75.0%, 87.5% and 68.7%. These results indicate that STE is useful for quantitative detection on myocardial function improvement induced by I-PostC in a rabbit I/R model. The regional index-Ssys is an appropriate parameter to indicate myocardial dysfunction because of its sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D
2004-07-06
The mechanical response of a pearlitic UHCS-1.3C steel deformed at approximately 4000 s{sup -1} to large strains ({var_epsilon} = -0.9) has been studied. Failure, at both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels has been evaluated, and the ability of the material to absorb energy in compression has been examined. Failure occurred by the development of a shear band. However before failure, extensive buckling of the carbide plates was observed and the UHCS-1.3C material exhibited significant potential for compressive ductility and energy absorption due to the distributed buckling of these plates. Strain localization during adiabatic shear band development resulted in the formation of austenite. Subsequent cooling produced a divorced-eutectoid transformation with associated deformation, which resulted in a microstructure consisting of 50 to 100 nm sized grains. The stress-strain behavior within the shear band has also been determined. The results are used to critically evaluate the maximum shear stress criterion of shear band development. New criteria for the development of shear bands are developed based on a strain energy concept.
Universal digital strain gauge measurement system of aeroelastic deformation development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavlov Anton
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents description of the universal digital strain gauge system developed to measure the static and dynamic aeroelastic deformations of elasticity-scale models during the tests in aerodynamic tube and during in-flight tests of an experimental air vehicles. The main requirements for such devices are small size and possibility of operation in a wide temperature range. The article considers the dependence of zero offset from temperature. Functional diagram block and logic diagram of the build system are shown.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Shear band (SB),axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of anisotropic jointed rock specimen (JRS) were modeled by Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). Failure criterion of rock was a composited Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. An inclined joint was treated as square elements of ideal plastic material beyond the peak strength. Several FISH functions were written to automatically find the addresses of elements in the joint and to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of plane strain JRS. The results show that for moderate joint inclination (JI), strain is only concentrated into the joint governing the behavior of JRS,leading to ideal plastic responses in axial and lateral directions. For higher JI, the post-peak stress-axial and lateral strain curves become steeper as JI increases owing to the increase of new SB's length. Lateral expansion and precursor to the unstable failure are the most apparent, resulting in the highest Poisson's ratio and even negative volumetric strain. For lower JI, the entire post-peak deformational characteristics are independent of JI. The lowest lateral expansion occurs, leading to the lowest Poisson's ratio and positive volumetric strain all along. The present prediction on anisotropic strength in plane strain compression qualitatively agrees with the results in triaxial tests of rocks.The JI calculated by Jaeger's formula overestimates that related to the minimum strength. Advantages of the present numerical model over the Jaeger's model are pointed out.
Hoffmann, Rainer; Altiok, Ertunc; Friedman, Zvi; Becker, Michael; Frick, Michael
2014-10-01
Myocardial deformation analysis by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has been used for analysis of myocardial viability and myocardial fibrosis. Patients with severe aortic stenosis are known to develop myocardial fibrosis. This study evaluated the association between myocardial fibrosis determined by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and 2-dimensional STE in patients with severe aortic stenosis. In 30 patients (78±7 years) with severe aortic stenosis (mean gradient 53±21 mm Hg), peak systolic circumferential strain based on 2-dimensional echocardiographic parasternal short-axis views and peak systolic longitudinal strain based on apical views were determined for analysis of regional function. LGE CMR was performed to define the amount of fibrosis in each segment within 24 hours of echocardiography. Relative amount of fibrosis was determined based on LGE CMR as gray-scale threshold 6 SDs above the mean signal intensity of the normal remote myocardium. There was a decrease in LGE from base to apex (14.4±8.7% for basal segments, 3.4±3.0% for midventricular segments, and 2.1±3.0% for apical segments; pmyocardial deformation expressed as peak systolic longitudinal strain from base to apex (-11.6±7.0% for basal segments, -16.9±6.5% for midventricular segments, and -17.4±7.7% for apical segments; p=0.001). There was a negative correlation between the amount of myocardial fibrosis determined by LGE CMR and peak systolic longitudinal strain for the total left ventricle (r=-0.538, p=0.007). Myocardial fibrosis defined as LGE>10% could be identified by peak systolic longitudinal strain less than -11.6%, with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 75% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.69). In conclusion, myocardial fibrosis increases from apical to basal left ventricular segments in patients with severe aortic stenosis. There is an association between severity of myocardial fibrosis defined by LGE CMR
Structure and properties of copper after large strain deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodak, Kinga; Molak, Rafal M.; Pakiela, Zbigniew
2010-05-15
Structure and properties of Cu in dependence on strain (from {epsilon}{proportional_to} 0.9 to {epsilon}{proportional_to} 15) during multi-axial compression processing at room temperature was investigated. The evolution of dislocation structure, misorientation distribution and crystallite size were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The mechanical properties of yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and uniform elongation was performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). The structure-flow stress relationship of multi-axial compression processing material at strains {epsilon}{proportional_to} 3.5 and {epsilon}{proportional_to} 5.5 is discussed. It is found that processing does not produce any drastic changes in deformation structure and the microstructural refinement is slow. These results indicate that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role during multi-axial compression process in this range of deformation (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢岷; 王志刚; 冉海涛; 曹小玲; 张群霞; 孙幼屏; 李宜蓁
2011-01-01
目的 探讨二维应变技术联合负荷超声评价犬急性心肌缺血再灌注模型存活心肌的应用价值.方法 24只健康杂种犬,阻断其左冠状动脉前降支90 min后再灌注120 min.运用二维斑点追踪显像(speckle tracking imaging,SRI)分别检测静息状态、再灌注状态和小剂量多巴酚丁胺负荷状态下左室前壁、前间壁各节段收缩期峰值纵向应变(peak-systolic longitudinal strain,SLpeak)、径向应变(peak-systolic radial strain,SRpeak)、圆周应变(peak-systolic circumferential strain,SCpeak).以用氯化三苯基四氮唑(2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride,TTC)和伊文思蓝(Evans blue,EB)染色结果为标准,将前壁、前间隔各节段分为存活节段组和非存活节段组.结果 (1)基础状态下,存活节段组和非存活节段组之间SLpeak、SRpeak、SCpeak无显著性差异(P＞0.05)；(2)再灌注后,存活组和非存活组SLpeak、SRpeak、SCpeak均降低,但两组比较无显著性差异(P＞0.05);(3)与负荷试验前比较,多巴酚丁胺负荷后存活节段组SLpeak、SRpeak、SCpeak显著性增加(P＜0.05),非存活节段组各指标无明显变化(P＞0.05)；存活节段组与非存活节段组比较有显著性差异(P＜0.05).结论 小剂量多巴酚丁胺负荷超声联合二维应变可准确评价心肌存活性.%Objective To evaluate the myocardial viability by two-dimensional strain combined with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography. Methods In twenty four anesthetized mongrel dogs, the left anterior descending artery was occluded for 90 min followed by 120 min reperfusion. Two-dimensional strain of anterior wall and anterior septum, include peak systolic longitudinal strain (Slpeak), circumferential strain (Scpeak) and radial strain (Srpeak), were measured at baseline, after reperfusion and dobutamine stress. To assess viable or nonviable myocardium, triph-enyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining were applied. Results During baseline
Ryczek, Robert; Krzesiński, Paweł; Krzywicki, Paweł; Smurzyński, Paweł; Cwetsch, Andrzej
2011-01-01
The evaluation of the left ventricular (LV) function is one of the most important elements of diagnosis in patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A low LV ejection fraction (LVEF) is a strong and independent predictor of CV events. Traditionally, echocardiography characterises the LV systolic function by the estimation of LVEF with use of the Simpson method, supported by the wall motion score index (WMSI). Speckle tracking imaging is a new method of LV function imaging based on the estimation of longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS), by tracing of the automatically detected myocardial speckles. To evaluate the usefulness of global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) and regional longitudinal peak systolic strain (r-LPSS) in LV systolic function assessment and to compare LPSS with conventional parameters such as LVEF, WMSI and regional wall motion score index (r-WMSI). The study was performed in a group of 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (mean age 63.6 ± 12.2 years). The LVEF, WMSI, r-WMSI were estimated by echocardiography (VIVID 7 Dimension, GE Healthcare, USA). Moreover, LPSS (GLPSS and r-LPSS) with use of automated function imaging (AFI) were also estimated. In the study group mean LVEF was 43.1 ± 12.7%, mean WMSI: 1.68 ± 0.52, and GLPSS: -13.8 ± 5.6%. A very strong linear correlation between the conventional and new parameters was observed - for GLPSS and LVEF: r = -0.86 (p < 0.00001), for GLPSS and WMSI: r = 0.88 (p < 0.00001). The results of the regional myocardial contractility assessment (r-LPSS and r-WMSI) were also in agreement, especially for LV anterior wall (r = 0.87, p < 0.00001). These results suggest a considerable usefulness of LPSS - a new method of echocardiographical imaging - in the estimation of global and regional LV function in patients with acute coronary syndrome and its agreement with conventional parameters such as LVEF and WMSI.
GPS derived Crustal Deformation and Strain determination in India
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhay P. Singh,
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The theory of Plate tectonics has revolutionized the way thinking about the processes of Earth. According to this theory, the surface of the Earth is broken into large plates. The size and position of these plates change over time. The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sites of intense tectonic activity, suchas earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain building. It is well known that Indian Plate is currently moving in the northeast direction, while the Eurasian Plate is moving north. This is causing the Indian and Eurasian Plate to deform at the point of contact besides its interior. Modern geophysical and space geodetic techniques such asseismology and GPS (Global Positioning system, have become important tools in the study of the deformation in the Earth due to tectonic processes, leading to earthquakes. Geodesy has provided an important role for plate tectonics study with high temporal resolution of the plate movements, particular from space technologies such as GPS and VLBI. The Global Positioning System (GPS provides accurate measurements of the rate of displacement of crustal. Indeed, the GPS velocity field can only be compared to finite strain if one assumes adeformation mechanism and that the style of deformation has been the same over long periods of geological time. For study of crustal deformation National Center of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad installed highly efficient and accurate LEICA GRX1200 Pro receiver at Ghoorpur near to Allahabad. This instrument is also equipped withMET3A sensor to record pressure, temperature, humidity at regular interval of 30 second. The Latitude and longitude of the GPS sites is 25.21N, 81.28E.
Theory of Lattice Strain for Materials Undergoing Plastic Deformation
Karato, S.
2008-12-01
Radial x-ray diffraction is used to probe physical properties of materials including elastic and plastic properties. The theory used behind such an practice is the one developed by Singh (1993) in which the relation between lattice strain and elastic constants and macroscopic stress is derived. In this theory, the variation of inferred stress with the crystallographic planes, (hkl), is due to the elastic anisotropy. However, recent experimental studies showed that in many cases, the variation of stress with (hkl) far exceeds the value expected from this theory. I have developed a modified theory to rectify this problem with Singh's theory. In Singh's theory, the stress distribution in a polycrystalline material is treated only either unrelaxed or relaxed state. The role of plastic deformation is included only to the extent that plastic flow influences this stress state. Such an assumption corresponds to a Voigt model behavior, which is not an appropriate model at high temperatures where continuing plastic flow occurs with concurrent microscopic equilibrium, elastic deformation. This is a Maxwell model type behavior, and my model provides a stress analysis in a Maxwell material with anisotropic and non-linear power-law rheology. In this theory, the lattice strain corresponding to an imposed macroscopic strain-rate is calculated by three steps: (i) conversion of macroscopic strain-rate to macroscopic stress, (ii) conversion of macroscopic stress to microscopic stress at individual grains, and (iii) calculation of microscopic strain due to microscopic stress. The first step involves anisotropy in macroscopic viscosity that depends on anisotropy in crystal plasticity and lattice-preferred orientation. The second step involves anisotropic crystal plasticity and finally the third step involves elastic crystal anisotropy. In most cases, the influence of LPO is weak and in such a case, the lattice strain depends on (hkl) due to the anisotropy in both elastic and plastic
Bock, Y.; Fang, P.; Moore, A. W.; Kedar, S.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Glasscoe, M. T.
2016-12-01
underlying physical mechanisms. (3) We present evolving strain dilatation and shear rates based on the SESES velocities for regional subnetworks as a metric for assigning earthquake probabilities and detection of possible time-dependent deformation related to underlying physical processes.
Material deformation dynamics at ultrahigh pressures and strain rates
Remington, B. A.; Park, H. S.; Maddox, B. R.; May, M. J.; Pollaine, S. M.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Rudd, R. E.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Perry, T. S.; Comley, A. J.; Wark, J. S.; Meyers, M. A.
2010-11-01
Solid-state dynamics experiments at extreme pressures, up to 10 Mbar, and strain rates (1.e6 -1.e8 1/s) are being developed for the NIF laser. The experimental methods are being developed on the Omega laser facility. VISAR measurements establish the ramped, high-pressure conditions. Recovery experiments offer a look at the residual microstructure. Dynamic diffraction measurements allow phase, shear stress (strength), and possibly twin volume fraction and dislocation density to be inferred. Constitutive models for material strength at these conditions by comparing 2D simulations with experiments measuring the Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolution in solid-state samples of vanadium and tantalum. The material deformation likely falls into the phonon drag regime. We estimate of the (microscopic) phonon drag coefficient, by relating to the (macroscopic) effective lattice viscosity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Y.Gao; Q.Sun
2003-01-01
The paper deals with different plastic deformation behavior of electroformed copper liner of shaped charge,depormed at high strain rate(about 1×107s-1) and normal strain rate (4×10-4s-1).The crystallographic orientation distribution of grains in recovered slugs which had undergone high-strain-rate plastic deformation during ex-plosive detonation was investigated by electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern tech-nique.Cellualar structures formed by tangled disocations and sub-grain boundaries consisting of dislocation arrays were detected in the recovered slugs.Some twins and slip dislocations were observed in specimen deformed at normal strain rate.It was found that dynamic recovery and recrystallization take place during high-strain-rate deformation due to the temperature rising,whereas the conventional slip mechanism operates during deformation at normal strain rate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Di; YANG Bin; ZHANG Ji-shan; ZHANG Yong-an; XIONG Bai-qing
2005-01-01
Spray-formed Al-70%Si(mass fraction) alloys were deformed by compression in the semi-solid state.The effects of the deformation temperature, strain rate and the microstructure were studied. Two strain rates(1 s-1and 0.1 s-1) and six deformation temperatures (600 ℃, 720 ℃ , 780 ℃, 900 ℃, 1 000 ℃ and 1 100 ℃) were chosen. The stress-strain curve exhibits a peak at low strain and then decreases to a plateau before it starts to increase again as the strain increases. The stress required for deformation at lower strain rate and at higher deformation temperatures is less than those at higher strain rate and at lower deformation temperatures. Four mechanisms of semisolid deformation can be used to explain the different behaviors of the stress-strain curves under different conditions.
Basic Strain Gradient Plasticity Theories with Application to Constrained Film Deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.
2011-01-01
with the deformation theory under proportional straining, analogous to the corresponding coincidence in the conventional J(2) theories. The generality of proportional straining is demonstrated for pure power-law materials, and the utility of power-law solutions is illustrated for the constrained deformation of thin...
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Y. Gao; W.H. Tian; A.L. Fan; Q. Sun
2003-01-01
The paper deals with different plastic deformation behavior of electroformed copperliner of shaped charge, deformed at high strain rate (about 1×107 s-1) and normalstrain rate (4×10-4 s-1). The crystallographic orientation distribution of grains inrecovered slugs which had undergone high-strain-rate plastic deformation during ex-plosive detonation was investigated by electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern tech-nique. Cellular structures formed by tangled dislocations and sub-grain boundariesconsisting of dislocation arrays were detected in the recovered slugs. Some twins andslip dislocations were observed in specimen deformed at normal strain rate. It wasfound that dynamic recovery and recrystallization take place during high-strain-ratedeformation due to the temperature rising, whereas the conventional slip mechanismoperates during deformation at normal strain rate.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王亚非; 于春艳; 张鲁春; 李志远; 王雁博; 王金凤; 马晓华
2013-01-01
Objective To evaluate regional dyssynergia of left ventricular of patients with cardiac ischemia or myocardial infraction by two-dimensional strain imaging (2DSI) and to identify the accuracy of using 2DSI to locate ischemia myocardium. Methods 36 cases with myocardial infarction (MI) and stable coronary heart disease (CHD) were respectively selected, while 36 cases of healthy group were selected as control group. LV longitudinal peak of systolic strain were obtained from the 3 groups. The strain parameter and the ischemia range that came from the "ox's eye" image with the results of cardioangiography (CAG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were compared. Results ① the LV global longitudinal systolic peak and LPSS of stable CHD group and MI group were both less than these of the control group ( P <0. 05) ; ② LPSS of ischemia location in stable CHD group and MI group were both less than these of the control group ( P <0. 05, P < 0. 001, t =2. 597~3. 216). There was a positive correlation between visual ischemia range came from the "ox's eye" image and the result of CAG and ECG ( r=0. 661, P <0. 001, r=0. 598, P < 0.001, r =0.556, P <0. 001, r =0.556, P <0. 001). Conclusion Two-dimensional strain imaging (2DSI) can exactly reflect the wall motion abnormality of ischemia myocardium. It is exact, direct and easy for clinical application. It plays an important role in early diagnosis of CHD and MI. The location of cardiac ischemia and MI have characteristic practice and value of clinical application.%目的 探讨二维超声应变对缺血冠脉心肌分布区域定位的准确性及临床应用价值.方法 经临床确诊的冠心病及心肌梗死72例,获取其两组左室收缩期纵向峰值应变参数(LPSS)与健康正常组30例对照,对牛眼图缺血部位应变参数和范围分别与冠状动脉造影及心电图相应导联Q波、ST-T对照.结果 ①缺血组和梗死组左室各节段纵向收缩期峰值及整体LPSS均小于健康
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
章晨; 孙寅光; 朱佳; 黄洁; 王琳; 葛卫力; 唐礼江
2012-01-01
目的 研究正常人心肌机械运动特性.方法 研究对象为60例正常志愿者,男34例,年龄(42.0±13.0)岁；女26例,年龄(37.0±10.0)岁,应用超声心动图二维斑点成像技术评价左心室纵向、径向和圆周向运动的心肌机械运动参数,包括收缩应变、收缩应变率和舒张应变率及其达峰时间.结果左心室收缩应变纵向运动和圆周向表现出自基底部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值递增,纵向运动基底部、中间部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为:20.2±4.2,20.4±4.3,22.5±6.4(P＜0.05)；圆周向运动基底部、中间部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为:20.1±7.7,23.4±8.1,27.1±7.1(P＜0.01),而径向运动的表现则不同,基底部、中间部与心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为40.9±17.4,41.8±17.6,28.8±17.1(P＜0.01)；3个方向的收缩应变率表现完全不一致,没有明显规律.3个方向舒张早期应变率均表现为自基底部至心尖部递增的趋势.重复性检验提示纵向收缩峰值应变,重复性最佳.结论心肌机械运动是一个极其复杂的过程,二维应变超声心动图有助于揭示生理和病理状态下心肌运动特性.%Objective To study myocardial characteristics of mechanical motion in normal subjects. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers were included,male 34 cases,aged (42. 0±13. 0) years;female 26 cases,aged (37. 0± 10, 0) years,two- dimensional speckle imaging technique was used to measure the left ventricular myocardial longitudinal, radial and circumferential movement of mechanical motion parameters including systolic strain,systolic strain rate and diatolic strain rates,as well as time-to-peak. Results The performance of left ventricular radial motion was different in absolute strain value, compared to longitudinal and circumferential systolic strains which increased from the base to the apex. The absolute value of longitudinal strain from base to apex respectively was 20. 2±4. 2,20. 4±4
Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S
1975-01-01
Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after...... and before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure...
Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up
Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian
2017-04-01
Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion
Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter
2017-06-01
Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSRdias) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSsys) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLSsys and E/GLSRdias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLSsys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLSsys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLSsys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.
Deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires governed by the sign and magnitude of strain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Lihua, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Beijing Key Lab of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kong, Deli; Xin, Tianjiao; Shu, Xinyu; Zheng, Kun; Xiao, Lirong; Sha, Xuechao; Lu, Yan; Han, Xiaodong, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Beijing Key Lab of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, Ze [Department of Materials Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Zou, Jin, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)
2016-04-11
In this study, the deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires are investigated at the atomic scale with bending strain up to 12.8%. The sign and magnitude of the applied strain are found to govern their deformation mechanisms, in which the dislocation types (full or partial dislocations) can be affected by the sign (tensile or compressive) and magnitude of the applied strain. In the early stages of bending, plastic deformation is controlled by 60° full dislocations. As the bending increases, Lomer dislocations can be frequently observed. When the strain increases to a significant level, 90° partial dislocations induced from the tensile surfaces of the bent nanowires are observed. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effect of the sign and magnitude of the bending strain on the deformation mechanisms in bent Si nanowires.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
权欣; 李慧; 郭继鸿; 朱天刚; 江勇; 朱振辉; 王浩
2016-01-01
Objective To assess RV myocardial function in patients with hypertension (H-LVH) using two dimensional strain imaging prospectively. Methods One hundred and thirty-six individuals were enrolled into this study ,divided into 3 groups :hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n= 53) , hypertrophy secondary to hypertension (n = 36 ) and normal controls (n = 47 ). Echocardiographic parameters were measured ,including right ventricular basal dimension tracing from 4-chamber view , fractional area change (FAC) ,tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ,wall thickness of interventricular septum (IVST ) and left ventricular posterior wall (PWT ) ,left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd) ,left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ,right ventricle regional and global longitudinal strain derived from two-dimensional strain imaging were compared between groups. Results The wall thickness of HCM group was significantly higher than H-LVH group and control group ,whereas LVIDd was smaller ( P 0.05). Right ventricular diameters were smaller in HCM groups than H-LVH and control groups (all P< 0.05).Significance difference of regional and global strain existed between HCM group and the other 2 groups (P< 0.01).Cut-off value of global strain was - 9.75%to diagnose right ventricular functional remodeling in HCM ( P = 0.027 ). Conclusions Two-dimensional strain is superior to traditional echo parameters. Right ventricular remodeling is prone to present in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than hypertensive hypertrophy.%目的：应用二维应变成像定量评价肥厚型心肌病（HCM ）患者的右室局部及整体应变，与高血压性左室肥厚（H-LVH）及健康人进行对比研究。方法前瞻性纳入2015年5月至2016年4月的136例患者，分为3组：HCM 53例，H-LVH 36例，正常对照47例。测量检测右心功能指标，包括右室基底段横径、右室面积变化率、三尖瓣环收缩期位移、三尖瓣环组织收缩峰值速度、右室局
Suppressed plastic deformation at blunt crack tips due to strain gradient effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Goutianos, Stergios
2009-01-01
Large deformation gradients occur near a crack-tip and strain gradient dependent crack-tip deformation and stress fields are expected. Nevertheless, for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, a conventional elastic-plastic solution is obtained. On the other...... hand, for significant large material length scales, a conventional elastic solution is obtained. This transition in behaviour is investigated based on a finite strain version of the Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient plasticity model from 2001. The predictions show that for a wide range of material...
Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)
2007-12-05
It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.
Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors
Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.
2007-12-01
It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张梅青; 王秋霜; 黄党生; 张丽伟; 欧阳巧红; 王宇玫; 安秀芝
2013-01-01
目的 评价心肌梗死患者超声二维心肌应变的变化与心肌梗死范围的相关性.方法 选择71例急性心肌梗死患者,于心肌梗死后3～6个月行超声心动图和单光子发射计算机断层摄影(SPECT)检查,根据心肌梗死面积将患者分为A组28例(心肌梗死面积＜12%),B组43例(心肌梗死面积≥12%).所有患者行超声二维斑点追踪分析,测量心肌收缩期整体纵向应变(GLS)、收缩期整体径向应变(GRS)、收缩期整体圆周应变(GCS),对心肌应变与SPECT检测的左心室壁缺血坏死心肌的面积占左心室壁的百分比(Extent)进行相关分析,并应用ROC曲线评价3种心肌应变检测心肌梗死范围的价值.结果 B组的GLS、GCS及GRS均低于A组(P＜0.05).GLS、GCS与Extent均相关(r=0.721、r=0.504,P＜0.01),GLS、GCS及GRS的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.818、0.749、0.678,诊断心肌梗死面积≥12%对应的界值分别为-13.83%、-11.65%、26.64%,敏感性和特异性分别为72.7%、88.9%,63.6%、88.9%,81.8%、55.6%.结论 超声二维心肌应变的变化能够反映心肌梗死范围的改变,其中GLS能够较好地评价心肌梗死范围.%Objective To assess the relation between myocardial strain and infarction size detected by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with myocardial infarction .Methods Seventy-one acute myocardial infarction patients ,who underwent echocardiography and single photon e-mission computed tomography (SPECT ) 3 -6 months after onset of the disease ,were divided into group A with its myocardial infarction size<12% (n=28)and group B with its myocardial infarction size≥l2% (n=43).Their cardiac global longitudinal strain (GLS ),global radial strain (GRS) and global circumference strain (GCS ) were detected by two-dimensional echocardiography and compared with the left ventricular ischemic size detected by SPECT .ROC curves were plotted for the GLS ,GCS and GRS .Results The incidence of GLS ,GCS and GRS was significantly
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王健; 康春松; 董建红; 薛继平
2009-01-01
Objective To probe into the value of the evaluation of left ventricular myocardial function by two dimensional strain(2DS) for coronary artery disease(CAD) patients with different degrees of left anterior descending(LAD) branch stenosis. Methods Fifty-five eases without myocardial infarction among a total of 72 patients with CAD were divided in to 3 groups based on the extent of LAD stenosis,that was group A(stenosis75%, n = 12). Another 17 eases of CAD with myocardial infarction were selected as group D. Strain and strain rate of the whole 11 segments that blood supplied by LAD of all cases were measured with 2DS. Results The 2DS ultrasound showed that the peak strain(S), the peak systolic strain rate(SRs) and the peak early diastolic strain rate (SRE) in all the 11 segments of group A were high and sharp. The above mentioned parameters of group B decreased compared with that of group A, however, there was no statistical significant difference (P >0.05). The S, SRs and SRE of group C cases decreased in some segments compared with that of group A and group B (P0.05). While in group D cases, the SRA decreased markedly. The SRE/SRA was more than 1 in group A. However, in group B, C and D cases, the SRE/SRA were all less than 1. Conclusions 2DS can sensitively reflect the decrease of regional myocardial systolic and diastolic function caused by the reduction of perfusion,and it may be beneficial to find myocardial ischemia for patients as early as possible.%目的 探讨二维应变成像评价冠心病患者左前降支(LAD)不同程度狭窄时局部心功能改变的价值.方法 72例冠心病患者中非心肌梗死患者55例,根据LAD狭窄程度分组:A组(狭窄75%)12例;17例心肌梗死患者为D组.应用二维应变成像检测LAD参与供血的11个节段应变和应变率参数的变化.结果 A组各节段峰值应变(S)、收缩期峰值应变率(SRS)与舒张早期峰值应变牢(SRE)较高尖.B组与A组比较有所下降,
Work-hardening behavior of mild steel under cyclic deformation at finite strains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Z. (Univ. Paris-Nord, Villetaneuse (France))
1994-10-01
The work-hardening behavior of mild steel under monotonic deformation at large shears and cyclic deformation under a wide range of shear amplitudes (from 3 to 34%) has been experimentally investigated and modeled. The influence of shear amplitude, the effect of the amount of pre-shear and that of pre-cyclic deformation have been studied. Considering the evolution of both polarized persistent dislocation structures and no-polarized low-energy dislocation configurations, a physically-based phenomenological model with four internal variables has been proposed. The model explains the cyclic hardening behavior at large strains, the work-hardening stagnation followed by a resumption of work-hardening under Bauschinger deformation with large pre-strains and under cyclic deformation with moderate strain amplitudes. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement has been achieved between experimental results and model predictions.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Two-dimensional manifold with point-like defects
Gani, Vakhid A; Rubin, Sergei G
2014-01-01
We study a class of two-dimensional extra spaces isomorphic to the $S^2$ sphere in the framework of the multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范怡婷; 黄国倩; 朱志栋; 朱雯; 李勇
2012-01-01
目的 运用速度向量成像(VVI)技术评价冠心病非心肌梗死患者心肌二维应变以及经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)的疗效.方法 选取经冠脉造影证实并接受PCI手术的非心肌梗死患者20例(PCI组),以及性别、年龄匹配的经冠脉造影除外冠心病的患者20例(对照组).在术前、出院前及术后3个月接受VVI,测量左心室心肌纵向、径向、圆周方向上的应变及应变率,以及左心室扭转角度,评价病变冠状动脉灌注区内的心肌功能及PCI术后改善情况.结果 与对照组对应的血管灌注节段相比,PCI组术前的病变血管灌注节段径向应变、径向收缩期峰值应变率、径向舒张晚期峰值应变率显著降低(均P＜0.05)；PCI组术前左心室内膜扭转角度较对照组明显下降.PCI组出院前径向应变较PCI组术前出现改善(P＜0.01),经向收缩期峰值应变率和好张晚期峰值应变率在术后3个月得到改善.结论 VVI技术可用于识别灌注异常导致的内眼无法识别的心肌功能损害；PCI术后早期即可出现径向应变的改善.%Objective To observe the value of two-dimensional strain using velocity vector imaging (VVT) in evaluating the therapeutic effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with non-infarcted coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Twenty non-infarcted CAD patients underwent PCI (PCI group) and 20 age and sex matched subjects (control group) confirmed by coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled. VVI were acquired before CAG and PCI procedures for all subjectsi and were repeated in PCI group before discharge and 3 months after PCI. The longitudinal, radial, circumferential regional strain and strain rate, as well as left ventricular torsion were analyzed. The regional myocardial deformation parameters in territory of the stenostic coronary artery in PCI group (ischemic segments) were compared with those of corresponding segments in control group (normal segments
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
Strain localization in carbonate rocks experimentally deformed in the ductile field
Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.; Dresen, G.
2012-04-01
The deformation of rocks in the Earth's crust is often localized, varying from brittle fault gauges in shallow environments to mylonites in ductile shear zones at greater depth. A number of theoretical, experimental, and field studies focused on the evolution and extend of brittle fault zones, but little is known so far about initiation of ductile shear zones. Strain localization in rocks deforming at high temperature and pressure may be induced by several physical, chemical, or structurally-related mechanisms. We performed simple and pure shear deformation experiments on carbonate rocks containing structural inhomogenities in the ductile deformation regime. The results may help to gain insight into the evolution of high temperature shear zones. As starting material we used cylindrical samples of coarse-grained Carrara marble containing one or two 1 mm thin artificially prepared sheets of fine-grained Solnhofen limestone, which act as soft inclusions under the applied experimental conditions. Length and diameter of the investigated solid and hollow cylinders were 10-20 mm and 10-15 mm, respectively. Samples were deformed in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900° C temperature and confining pressures of 300 and 400 MPa. Three samples were deformed in axial compression at a bulk strain rate of 8x10-5 s-1to axial strains between 0.02 and 0.21 and 15 samples were twisted in torsion at a bulk shear strain rate of 2x10-4 s-1 to shear strains between 0.01 and 3.74. At low strain, specimens deformed axially and in torsion show minor strain hardening that is replaced by strain weakening at shear strains in excess of about 0.2. Peak shear stress at the imposed condition is about 20 MPa. Strain localized strongly within the weak inclusions as indicated by inhomogeneous bending of initially straight strain markers on sample jackets. Maximum strain concentration within inclusions with respect to the adjacent matrix was between 4 and 40, depending on total strain and
Generalization of strain-gradient theory to finite elastic deformation for isotropic materials
Beheshti, Alireza
2017-03-01
This paper concerns finite deformation in the strain-gradient continuum. In order to take account of the geometric nonlinearity, the original strain-gradient theory which is based on the infinitesimal strain tensor is rewritten given the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. Following introducing the generalized isotropic Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material model for the strain-gradient elasticity, the boundary value problem is investigated in not only the material configuration but also the spatial configuration building upon the principle of virtual work for a three-dimensional solid. By presenting one example, the convergence of the strain-gradient and classical theories is studied.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
The role of deformation microstructure in recovery and recrystallization of heavily strained metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Niels
2012-01-01
Metals deformed to high and ultrahigh strains are characterized by a nanoscale microstructure, a large fraction of high angle boundaries and a high dislocation density. Another characteristic of such a microstructure is a large stored energy that combines elastic energy due to dislocations...... and boundary energy. Parameters of the deformed microstructure significantly affect annealing processes such as recovery and recrystallization. For example, the recovery rate can be significantly increased after high strain deformation and restoration may occur as either discontinuous recrystallization...... of recovery on subsequent restoration processes is discussed along with the effect of heterogeneities both on the local scale and on the sample scale. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....
Estimation of GNSS Multiscale Strain Field and Detection of Regional Crustal Deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XU Keke
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Using GNSS data,the estimation model for GNSS multiscale strain field was established based on spherical wavelet. The key technologies for wavelet center location, wavelet scale choices and regularization parameter calculation were discussed in detail. For further testing the correctness of the model, the simulated data in locked fault areas was generated according to negative dislocation theory. With spherical wavelet model, the strain field in locked strike-slip fault areas was estimated,and the results agreed well with the characteristics of actual crustal deformation. Meanwhile, the experiments on crustal deformation anomaly detection with multiscale strain field were completed. The results showed that the small fault deformation of 50 km appeared obviously in the small scale(8th scale stain field, but there wasn't signals in the large scale (4 to 7 scale. The large fault deformation of 150 km only showed a part of information in the small scale (8th scale stain field, but showed more completely and clearly in the large scale(4 to 7 scale.So it's concluded that crustal deformation of different spatial coverage scope embody in the different scales strain field, and the small scale strain field have the ability to detect regional deformation anomaly.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The microstructures in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges after high-strain-rate plastic deformation were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the orientation distribution of the grains in the recovered slug was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern (EBSP) technique. EBSP analysis illustrated that unlike the as-formed electroformed copper linersof shaped charges the grain orientations in the recovered slug are distributed along randomly all the directions after undergoing heavily strain deformation at high-strain rate. Optical microscopy shows a typical recrystallization structure, and TEM examination reveals dislocation cells existed in the thin foil specimen. These results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during this plastic deformation process, and the associated deformation temperature is considered to be higher than 0.6 times the melting point of copper.
Huang, M.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Bouaziz, O.; Van der Zwaag, S.
2009-01-01
Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that t
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
. By enabling the trailing edge to move independently and quickly along the spanwise position of the blade, local small flutuations in the aerodynamic forces can be alleviated by deformation of the airfoil flap. Strain gauges are used as input for the flap controller, and the effect of placing strain gauges...
Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites
Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos
2003-01-01
The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Suppression of dislocations at high strain rate deformation in a twinning-induced plasticity steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, Z.Y. [Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Huang, W., E-mail: whuang@szu.edu.cn [Department of Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen (China); Huang, M.X., E-mail: mxhuang@hku.hk [Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
2015-03-25
The increase of strain rate generally enhances dislocation evolution in face-centred cubic (FCC) metals. However, by synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments, the present work demonstrates for the first time that a higher strain rate leads to a lower dislocation density in a twinning-induced plasticity steel with an FCC structure. This unexpected suppression of dislocation evolution has been attributed to the temperature increase due to dissipative heating at high strain rate deformation.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
Effect of Deforming Temperature and Strain on Abnormal Grain Growth of Extruded FGH96 Superalloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Chaoyuan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Based on the experiments of isothermal forging wedge-shaped samples, Deform-3D numerical simulation software was used to confirm the strain distribution in the wedge-shaped samples. The effect of deforming temperature and strain on abnormal grain growth(AGG in extruded FGH96 superalloy was examined. It is found that when the forging speed is 0.04 mm/s,the critical AGG occurring temperature is 1100℃,and the critical strain is 2%.AGG does not occur within 1000-1070℃,but still shows the feature of ‘critical strain’,and the region with strain of 5%-10% has the largest average grain size.AGG can be avoided and the uniform fine grains can be gained when the strain is not less than 15%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweena Sureeyatanapas
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The deformation behavior of model glass fiber in epoxy composites has been studied using Raman spectroscopyproperties. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were introduced at the glass fiber/epoxy interface as strain sensors,which can be detected by Raman Spectroscopy, to sense the strain profile of the fiber under deformation. The release agentwas applied on the fiber surface before composite fabrication. It was found that at high strain level, the behavior of a singlefiber in a composite did not follow a classical shear-lag model as shown in the fragmentation study. This is due to the interfacial failure caused by the release agent. The strain mapping result can be compared to that without release agent coating.The finding confirmed the application of SWNTs as strain sensors at the fiber/composite interface.
Thickness-Dependent Strain Effect on the Deformation of the Graphene-Encapsulated Au Nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuangli Ye
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The strain effect on graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles is investigated. A finite-element calculation is performed to simulate the strain distribution and morphology of the monolayer and multilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, respectively. It can be found that the inhomogeneous strain and deformation are enhanced with the increasing shrinkage of the graphene shell. Moreover, the strain distribution and deformation are very sensitive to the layer number of the graphene shell. Especially, the inhomogeneous strain at the interface between the graphene shell and encapsulated Au nanoparticles is strongly tuned by the graphene thickness. For the mono- and bilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, the dramatic shape transformation can be observed. However, with increasing the graphene thickness further, there is hardly deformation for the encapsulated Au nanoparticles. These simulated results indicate that the strain and deformation can be designed by the graphene layer thickness, which provides an opportunity to engineer the structure and morphology of the graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles.
Deformation of superplastic alloys at relatively low strain rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grivas, D.
1978-02-01
The superplastic and sub-superplastic creep properties of Pb-Sn eutectic and Al-Zn eutectoid alloys were studied. Various thermomechanical treatments we tested to check the possibilities of whether the subsuperplastic deformation mechanism is affected by these treatments. All thermomechanical histories were found to reveal the same stress exponent, which is believed to be indicative of the predominant mechanism. The mechanical data in the low stress region lead us to suggest that dislocation glide is the predominant mechanism in this region. At higher stresses extensive grain boundary sliding takes place and the dislocation movement is directed to relieve the stress concentration developed by the grain movement.
Numerical modelling of the evolution of conglomerate deformation up to high simple-shear strain
Ran, Hao; Bons, Paul D.; Wang, Genhou; Steinbach, Florian; Finch, Melanie; Ran, Shuming; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Jie
2017-04-01
Deformed conglomerates have been widely used to investigate deformation history and structural analysis, using strain analyses techniques, such as the Rf-Φ and Fry methods on deformed pebbles. Although geologists have focused on the study of deformed conglomerates for several decades, some problems of the process and mechanism of deformation, such as the development of structures in pebbles and matrix, are still not understand well. Numerical modelling provides a method to investigate the process of deformation, as a function of different controlling parameters, up to high strains at conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. We use the 2D numerical modelling platform Elle coupled to the full field crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) to simulate the deformation of conglomerates under simple shear conditions, achieving high finite strains of ≥10. Probably for the first time, we included the effect of an anisotropy, i.e. mica-rich matrix. Our simulations show the deformation of pebbles not only depends on the viscosity contrast between pebbles and matrix but emphasises the importance of interaction between neighbouring pebbles. Under the same finite strain shearing the pebbles of conglomerates with high pebble densities show higher Rf and lower Φ than those of conglomerates with a low density pebbles. Strain localisation can be observed at both the margin of strong pebbles and in the bridging area between the pebbles. At low to medium finite strain, local areas show the opposite (antithetic) shear sense because of the different relative rotation and movement of pebbles or clusters of pebbles. Very hard pebbles retain their original shape and may rotate, depending on the anisotropy of the matrix. σ-clasts are formed by pebbles with moderate viscosity contrast between pebble and a softer matrix. By contrast, δ-clasts are not observed in our simulations with both isotropic and anisotropic matrices, which is consistent with their relative scarcity in
Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics
Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r
Liu, L; Wang, J; Gong, S K; Mao, S X
2011-04-29
We have observed a new deformation-twinning mechanism using the high resolution transmission electron microscope in polycrystalline Ag films, zero-strain twinning via nucleation, and the migration of a Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundary (ITB). This twinning mechanism produces a near zero macroscopic strain because the net Burgers vectors either equal zero or are equivalent to a Shockley partial dislocation. This observation provides new insight into the understanding of deformation twinning and confirms a previous hypothesis: detwinning could be accomplished via the nucleation and migration of Σ3{112} ITBs. The zero-strain twinning mechanism may be unique to low staking fault energy metals with implications for their deformation behavior.
Neutron-diffraction measurement of the evolution of strain for non-uniform plastic deformation
Rogge, R B; Boyce, D
2002-01-01
Neutrons are particularly adept for the validation of modeling predictions of stress and strain. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to model the evolution of both the macroscopic stresses and the intergranular stress during plastic deformation. These have had broad implications with regard to understanding the evolution of residual stress and to diffraction-based measurements of strain. Generally the modeling and associated measurements have been performed for simple uniaxial tension, leaving questions with regard to plastic deformation under multi-axial stress and non-uniform stress. Extensive measurements of the strain profile across a plastic hinge for each of a series of loading and unloading cycles to progressively higher degrees of plastic deformation are presented. These measurements are used to assess multiple-length-scale finite-element modeling (FEM) of the plastic hinge, in which the elements will range in size from single crystallites (as used in successful simulations of uniaxia...
Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation
Cai, Jing
Heterogeneous energetic materials have many applications. Their dynamic behavior and microstructural evolution upon plastic deformation have remained not fully understood. The following heterogeneous materials were investigated in the this study: the pure PTFE (usually a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases), PTFE-Sn, PTFE-Al, PTFE-Al-W, and carbon fibers filled Al alloy. Sample manufacturing processes involving ball milling and Cold Isostatic Pressing were employed. Quasi-static and Hopkinson bar tests were carried out to obtain the compressive strengths of composites. The Conventional Thick-walled Cylinder (TWC) method and newly developed small-scale Hopkinson bar based TWC experiments were conducted to investigate single shear bands and their assembly. Conventional and "soft" drop-weight tests were performed to examine the mechanical properties and the initiation of chemical reactions. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to detect the details of the microstructures and failure mechanisms of heterogeneous materials. New features in the dynamic behavior of heterogeneous materials were observed. They include the following: (1) Strain softening, instead of thermal softening, is the main mechanism in the initiation of shear bands in explosively driven TWC tests of solid PTFE. (2) Cold isostatically pressed PTFE-Sn samples were more stable with respect to shear localization than solid PTFE. (3) The dynamic collapse of solid PTFE-Al samples with different particle sizes was accomplished with the shear localization bands and cracks. (4) Force chains in the fine W and Al particles were attributed to the high strength of the porous PTFE-Al-W composite containing fine W particles in comparison with composites with coarse W particles. (5) Debonding of metal particles from the PTFE matrix and the fracture of the matrix were identified to be two major mechanisms for the failure of the PTFE-Al-W composites. (6) The formation of PTFE nano-fibers during high strain flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sug, J. Y. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Choi, S. Y. [Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
We study the optical quantum transition line shapes and the optical quantum transition linewidths in relation to the magnetic-field-dependent properties of an electron-deformation potential phonon interaction system. We consider two systems - one is subject to right circularly oscillating external fields and the other is subject to left circularly-oscillatory external fields. We investigated theoretically the temperature dependence of the quantum optical transition of qusi-2-dimensional Landau splitting ystem in CdS, GaN and ZnO.
Dynamic strain ageing of deformed nitrogen-alloyed AISI 316 stainless steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ehrnsten, U.; Toivonen, A. [Materials and Structural Integrity, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1704, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Ivanchenko, M.; Nevdacha, V.; Yagozinskyy, Y.; Haenninen, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology Puumiehenkuja 3, P.O. Box 4200, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)
2004-07-01
Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has occurred in BWR environment in non-sensitized, deformed austenitic stainless steel materials. The affecting parameters are so far not fully known, but deformation mechanisms may be decisive. The effect of deformation and nitrogen content on the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels was investigated. The materials were austenitic stainless steels of AISI 316L type with different amounts of nitrogen (0.03 - 0.18%) and they were mechanically deformed 0, 5 and 20%. The investigations are focused on the dynamic strain ageing (DSA) behaviour. A few crack growth rate measurements are performed on nuclear grade AISI 316NG material with different degrees of deformation (0, 5 and 20%). The effects of DSA on mechanical properties of these materials are evaluated based on peaks in ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening coefficient and minimum in ductility in the DSA temperature range. Additionally, internal friction measurements have been performed in the temperature range of -100 to 600 deg. C for determining nitrogen interactions with other alloying elements and dislocations (cold-worked samples). The results show an effect of nitrogen on the stainless steel behaviour, e.g. clear indications of dynamic strain ageing and changes in the internal friction peaks as a function of nitrogen content and amount of deformation. (authors)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.
1998-01-01
Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.
Microstructure, Properties and Atomic Level Strain in Severely Deformed Rare Metal Niobium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lembit KOMMEL
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The mechanical and physical properties relationship from atomic level strain/stress causes dislocation density and electrical conductivity relationship, as well as crystallites deformation and hkl-parameter change in the severely deformed pure refractory rare metal Nb at ambient temperature and during short processing times. The above mentioned issues are discussed in this study. For ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline microstructure forming in metal the equal-channel angular pressing and hard cyclic viscoplastic deformation were used. The flat deformation and heat treatment at different parameters were conducted as follows. The focused ion beam method was used for micrometric measures samples manufacturied under nanocrystalline microstructure study by transmission electron microscope. The microstructure features of metal were studied under different orientations by X-ray diffraction scattering method, and according to the atomic level strains, dislocation density, hkl-parameters and crystallite sizes were calculated by different computation methods. According to results the evolutions of atomic level strains/stresses, induced by processing features have great influence on the microstructure and advanced properties forming in pure Nb. Due to cumulative strain increase the tensile stress and hardness were increased significantly. In this case the dislocation density of Nb varies from 5.0E+10 cm–2 to 2.0E+11 cm–2. The samples from Nb at maximal atomic level strain in the (110 and (211 directions have the maximal values of hkl-parameters, highest tensile strength and hardness but minimal electrical conductivity. The crystallite size was minimal and relative atomic level strain maximal in (211 orientation of crystal. Next, flat deformation and heat treatment increase the atomic level parameters of severely deformed metal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3091
Microstructure, Properties and Atomic Level Strain in Severely Deformed Rare Metal Niobium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lembit KOMMEL
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The mechanical and physical properties relationship from atomic level strain/stress causes dislocation density and electrical conductivity relationship, as well as crystallites deformation and hkl-parameter change in the severely deformed pure refractory rare metal Nb at ambient temperature and during short processing times. The above mentioned issues are discussed in this study. For ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline microstructure forming in metal the equal-channel angular pressing and hard cyclic viscoplastic deformation were used. The flat deformation and heat treatment at different parameters were conducted as follows. The focused ion beam method was used for micrometric measures samples manufacturied under nanocrystalline microstructure study by transmission electron microscope. The microstructure features of metal were studied under different orientations by X-ray diffraction scattering method, and according to the atomic level strains, dislocation density, hkl-parameters and crystallite sizes were calculated by different computation methods. According to results the evolutions of atomic level strains/stresses, induced by processing features have great influence on the microstructure and advanced properties forming in pure Nb. Due to cumulative strain increase the tensile stress and hardness were increased significantly. In this case the dislocation density of Nb varies from 5.0E+10 cm–2 to 2.0E+11 cm–2. The samples from Nb at maximal atomic level strain in the (110 and (211 directions have the maximal values of hkl-parameters, highest tensile strength and hardness but minimal electrical conductivity. The crystallite size was minimal and relative atomic level strain maximal in (211 orientation of crystal. Next, flat deformation and heat treatment increase the atomic level parameters of severely deformed metal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3091
Analysis of Deformation in Inconel 718 When the Stress Anomaly and Dynamic Strain Aging Coexist
Follansbee, Paul S.
2016-09-01
Deformation in Inconel 718 in the presence of combined effects of the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging is analyzed according to an internal state variable model formulation. The analysis relies on the availability of experimental data in regimes of behavior where both the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging are absent. A model that introduces two internal state variables—one characterizing interactions of dislocations with solute atoms and one characterizing interaction of dislocations with precipitates—is shown to adequately describe the temperature and strain-rate dependence of the yield stress in several superalloy systems. Strain hardening is then added with a third internal state variable to enable description of the full stress-strain curve. These equations are extrapolated into regimes where the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging are present to identify signatures of their effects and to compare to similar analyses in a variety of metal systems. Dynamic strain aging in Inconel 718 follows similar trends to those observed previously. The magnitude of the stress anomaly tracks measurements of stress vs test temperature in pure Ni3Al. Several trends in the strain-rate sensitivity of elevated temperature deformation in superalloys are identified based on limited availability of measurements over a wide range of strain rates or tests using strain-rate changes.
Thermal behavior of Nickel deformed to ultra-high strain by high pressure torsion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Hongwang; Huang, Xiaoxu; Pippan, Richard
2012-01-01
Polycrystalline Ni (99.5 %) has been deformed to an ultra-high strain of εvM=100 (εvM, von Mises strain) by high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. The deformed sample is nanostructured with an average boundary spacing of 90 nm, a high density of dislocations of >1015m-2 and a large....... The isochronal annealing leads to a hardness drop in three stages: a relatively small decrease at low temperatures (recovery) followed by a rapid decrease at intermediate temperatures (discontinuous recrystallization) and a slow decrease at high temperatures (grain growth). Due to the presence of a small amount...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Aihua; Peng, Mingzeng; Willatzen, Morten;
2017-01-01
, in the framework of the 6 × 6 k·p Hamiltonian for the valence states, to directly assess the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the strain-induced deformation potential for the interband momentum-matrix element. We numerically addressed problems of both the infinite and IQWs with piezoelectric fields...... to elucidate the effects of the piezoelectric potential and the deformation potential on the strain-dependent luminescence. The experimentally measured photoluminescence variatio½n as a function of pressure can be qualitatively explained by the theoretical results....
Miner, R. V.; Castelli, M. G.
1992-01-01
The relative contributions of the hardening mechanisms in Hastelloy X during cyclic deformation were investigated by conducting isothermal cyclic deformation tests within a total strain range of +/-0.3 pct and at several temperatures and strain rates, and thermomechanical tests within several different temperature limits. The results of the TEM examinations and special constant structure tests showed that the precipitation on dislocations of Cr23C6 contributed to hardening, but only after sufficient time above 500 C. Solute drag alone produced very considerable cyclic hardening. Heat dislocation densities, peaking around 10 exp 11 per sq cm, were found to develop at temperatures producing the greatest cyclic hardening.
Finite strain analyses of deformations in polymer specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-01-01
Analyses of the stress and strain state in test specimens or structural components made of polymer are discussed. This includes the Izod impact test, based on full 3D transient analyses. Also a long thin polymer tube under internal pressure has been studied, where instabilities develop...... viscoplastic flow on the indentation response. Also, the ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends from the 3D finite element solutions has been assessed....
SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator
Krivonos, Sergey
2016-01-01
Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756[hep-th], with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written it terms of the oscillator variables.
Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama
2005-06-01
We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.
Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin
2016-11-01
Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre–soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre–soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre–soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation.
Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.
2017-07-01
Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2006-01-01
Patterns of shear band, precursors to shear failure occurring in strain-softening stage, axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of plane strain rock specimens in compression for different heights were investigated by use of Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua(FLAC). A material imperfection closer to the lower-left comer of the specimen was prescribed. For finer mesh, the imperfection was modeled by four null elements, while it was modeled by a null element for coarser mesh. FISH functions were written to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of the specimen. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. Height of rock specimen does not influence shear band's pattern (including the thickness and inclination angle of shear band). The slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve,lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poisson's ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve depend on the height. Hence, the slopes of these curves cannot be considered as material properties. Nonlinear deformation prior to the peak stress is a kind of precursors to shear failure, which is less apparent for shorter specimen. For the same axial strain, lower lateral expansion is reached for shorter specimen, leading to lower Poisson's ratio and higher volumetric strain. The maximum volumetric strain of longer specimen is less than that of shorter specimen. The conclusions drawn from numerical results using finer mesh qualitatively agree with those using coarser mesh.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Bouaziz, Olivier, E-mail: mingxin.huang@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, Voie Romaine-BP30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France)
2009-07-15
Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} showing good agreement with experimental results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘伟伟; 王岳恒; 周金玲; 白晖; 王凤; 毛天杰
2015-01-01
目的：探讨二维斑点追踪技术评估肺动脉高压患者右房心肌功能的临床价值，并明确右房功能和心功能评级的关系。方法选择38例肺动脉高压患者和25例相匹配的健康志愿者，应用二维斑点追踪技术测量右房心肌纵向应变(PALS)和应变率(SR)。PALS 为心尖四腔观测量的右房心肌所有节段的平均值。结果与对照组相比，肺动脉高压患者右房 PALS 明显降低，而且随心功能不全的进展逐渐降低。右房 PALS 与6 min 步行距离呈正相关。右房 PALS <38.08%在预测患者心功能状态方面表现出非常高的诊断准确率(ROC 曲线下面积0.979)，其敏感性和特异性分别为86.8%、84.0%。结论肺动脉高压患者右房形变显著受损。运用二维斑点追踪技术可评估右房储器功能，右房 PALS 可以预测肺动脉高压患者心功能状态和活动耐力。%Objective To assess right atrial (RA)myocardial mechanics in pulmonary hypertension (PH ) patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI ),and define the relationship between RA function and exercise capacity in PH patients.Methods Thirty-eight consecutive PH patients were studied and compared with a control group of 25 healthy volunteers.Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS)and strain rate of RA were measured in all subjects.PALS values were obtained by averaging all segments (global PALS)measured in the 4-chamber view.Results RA PALS was significantly lower in PH patients than in controls,and gradually reduced with the development of cardiac insufficiency.A significantly postive correlation between global PALS and 6-minute walk distance was found(P =0.003). Furthermore,global PALS demonstrated the highest diagnositic accuracy (AUC of 0.979 )and excellent sensitivity and specificity of 86.8% and 84.0%,respectively,to predict functional status using a cutoff value less than 38.08%.Conclusions RA deformation is significantly damaged in PH patients
A POF-based distributed strain sensor for detecting deformation of wooden structures
Fukumoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki
2008-04-01
This report presents a feasibility test of the distributed strain sensor based on plastic optical fiber (POF) for detecting deformation of wooden structures. First, a simple method to fix POF cable onto wooden structures is developed, where the dimensions of the fixing plate are determined so as to minimize the OTDR responses due to the fixing tool as well as the slip between the POF cable and the structure. Second, the authors focus on a new function "memory effect" of the POF-based strain sensor. The strain once applied to the POF cable is memorized through the plastic deformation of the core material, and can be read out using OTDR even after the event. The characteristics of the memory effect and its life are discussed experimentally for tensile strain. Third, in this report, we showed that a 5-point measurement with the spatial resolution of around 5 m was possible for the axial elongation imposed on the POF. Then, we apply the present method for detection of deformations of wooden frame structures. We try to detect the direction and magnitude of deformations at four corners of a rectangular wooden frame using a POF cable and OTDR. The availability of the memory effect in multipoint measurements on wooden structures is also discussed.
Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.
1998-01-01
Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.
1987-03-01
PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李秀云; 邹春鹏; 姜淑英; 何慧疗; 寇红菊; 张其敏; 赵雅萍
2014-01-01
目的 应用超声二维应变成像检测2型糖尿病患者颈动脉整体圆周应变(CS)、应变率(CSr)和硬度参数(β),探讨其评价颈动脉弹性的临床应用价值.方法 选择2型糖尿病患者60例为病例组,并分为颈动脉内中膜厚度(CIMT)增厚组(34例,1.0 mm＜CIMT≤1.2 mm)和斑块组(26例,CIMT＞ 1.2mm),33例正常人为对照组.在颈总动脉二维短轴图像测量收缩期峰值CS和CSr,根据超声二维应变计算动脉硬度参数β,并将β和CS分别与CIMT进行相关性分析.结果 CIMT增厚组与斑块组CS和CSr均低于对照组(P＜0.01),斑块组CS和CSr低于CIMT增厚组(P＜0.05);CIMT增厚组与斑块组β高于对照组(P＜0.01);斑块组β高于CIMT增厚组(P＜0.01);CS与CIMT显著相关(r =-0.79,P＜0.01),β与CIMT显著相关(r=0.72,P＜0.01).结论 超声二维应变成像能更早地检测出2型糖尿病患者颈动脉受累的信息,2型糖尿病患者颈动脉的变形程度随CIMT增厚而减低,硬度随CIMT增厚而增大.%Objective Three parameters include circumferential strain (CS),circumferential strain rate (CSr) and stiffness parameter (β) were measured to evaluate the elasticity of carotid artery using two-dimensional(2D) strain imaging and evaluate its clinical value in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods 60 patients with T2DM were collected and divided into carotid intima-midia thickness (CIMT) thickeness group(34 cases,1.0 mm＜CIMT≤1.2 mm) and plaque group(26 case,CIMT＞ 1.2 mm).33 normal people were supplied as control group.The systolic global peak CS and CSr of the carotid artery were obtained from short-axis view of the common carotid artery and the stiffness parameters β was measured using 2D strain imaging.All the parameters were compared among the three groups.Results The CS and CSr were decreased and β was increased in patients with T2DM (P ＜ 0.01),The CS and CSr obtained from the plaque group were less than that of the CIMT thickeness group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2012-01-01
The effects of strain rates on the hot working characteristics and nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were studied by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Hot compression tests were conducted using a Gleeble-1500 simulator at a true strain of 0.7 in the temperature range of 1000 to 1150 °C and strain rate range of 0.01 to 10.00 s-1. It is found that the size and volume fraction of the DRX grains in hot-deformed Inconel 625 superalloy firstly decreas...
Experimental measurement and elaborate analysis of strain hardening exponent in tensile deformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper gives a set of formulae for measuring strain hardeningexponent n in different typical deforming routes by using experimental parameters p (forming load), v (velocity of cross-head) and l (gauge length of specimen). With them the uniform method for measuring n (strain hardening exponent at constant strain rate), nv (strain hardening exponent under constant velocity) and np (strain hardening exponent under constant load) is established when , v or p is constant distinctively. Furthermore, the deviation among n values via different typical deformation route is analyzed. The results indicate that there exists structural sensitivity under superplastic and plastic deformation. In addition, the experimental results also prove that the values of n, nv and np obtained with different sets of constant , v or p curves are different too, even if the formulae are the same. Thus a more profound understanding of the relation between the experimental results and the mathematic expressions of n, nv and np is reached and the parameter n is more subtly analyzed by experiment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Hui-e; YANG Li; ZHEN Liang; SHAO Wen-zhu; ZHANG Bao-you
2008-01-01
Tensile tests of solid solution treated 7050 aluminum alloy were conducted to different strain degrees (0.1, 0.4, 0.6 and failure) at 460 ℃ with the strain rate of 1.0×10-4-1.0×10-1s-1. The boundary misorientation angle evolution during hot deformation of the 7050 aluminum alloy was studied by EBSD technique and the fracture surfaces were observed using SEM. A linear relationship between the increase in the average boundary misorientation angle and the true strain at different strain rates is assumed when aluminum alloy is deformed at 460 ℃. The increasing rate of average boundary misorientation angle is 15.1-, 15.7- and -0.75- corresponding to the strain rate of 1.0×10-4, 1.0×10-2 and 0.1 s-1, respectively. The main softening mechanism is continuous dynamic recrystallization when the strain rates are 1.0×10-4 and 1.0×10-2 s-1, and it is dynamic recovery when strain rate is 0.1 s-1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deva D Chan
Full Text Available Characterization of spatiotemporal deformation dynamics and material properties requires non-destructive methods to visualize mechanics of materials and biological tissues. Displacement-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has emerged as a noninvasive and non-destructive technique used to quantify deformation and strains. However, the techniques are not yet applicable to a broad range of materials and load-bearing tissues. In this paper, we visualize transient and internal material deformation through the novel synchrony of external mechanical loading with rapid displacement-encoded MRI. We achieved deformation measurements in silicone gel materials with a spatial resolution of 100 µm and a temporal resolution (of 2.25 ms, set by the repetition time (TR of the rapid MRI acquisition. Displacement and strain precisions after smoothing were 11 µm and 0.1%, respectively, approaching cellular length scales. Short (1/2 TR echo times enabled visualization of in situ deformation in a human tibiofemoral joint, inclusive of multiple variable T(2 biomaterials. Moreover, the MRI acquisitions achieved a fivefold improvement in imaging time over previous technology, setting the stage for mechanical imaging in vivo. Our results provide a general approach for noninvasive and non-destructive measurement, at high spatial and temporal resolution, of the dynamic mechanical response of a broad range of load-bearing materials and biological tissues.
Goldberg, Robert K.
2000-01-01
There has been no accurate procedure for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials, but such an analytical capability will be required in designing reliable lightweight engine-containment systems. The majority of the models in use assume a linear elastic material response that does not vary with strain rate. However, for containment systems, polymer matrix composites incorporating ductile polymers are likely to be used. For such a material, the deformation response is likely to be nonlinear and to vary with strain rate. An analytical model has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that incorporates both of these features. A set of constitutive equations that was originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals (Ramaswamy-Stouffer equations) was modified to simulate the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation of polymers. Specifically, the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the inelastic response, which can be significant in polymers, were accounted for by a modification of the definition of the effective stress. The constitutive equations were then incorporated into a composite micromechanics model based on the mechanics of materials theory. This theory predicts the deformation response of a composite material from the properties and behavior of the individual constituents. In this manner, the nonlinear, rate-dependent deformation response of a polymer matrix composite can be predicted.
Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))
1991-06-01
Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.
McKnight, G. P.; Henry, C. P.
2008-03-01
Morphing or reconfigurable structures potentially allow for previously unattainable vehicle performance by permitting several optimized structures to be achieved using a single platform. The key to enabling this technology in applications such as aircraft wings, nozzles, and control surfaces, are new engineered materials which can achieve the necessary deformations but limit losses in parasitic actuation mass and structural efficiency (stiffness/weight). These materials should exhibit precise control of deformation properties and provide high stiffness when exercised through large deformations. In this work, we build upon previous efforts in segmented reinforcement variable stiffness composites employing shape memory polymers to create prototype hybrid composite materials that combine the benefits of cellular materials with those of discontinuous reinforcement composites. These composites help overcome two key challenges for shearing wing skins: the resistance to out of plane buckling from actuation induced shear deformation, and resistance to membrane deflections resulting from distributed aerodynamic pressure loading. We designed, fabricated, and tested composite materials intended for shear deformation and address out of plane deflections in variable area wing skins. Our designs are based on the kinematic engineering of reinforcement platelets such that desired microstructural kinematics is achieved through prescribed boundary conditions. We achieve this kinematic control by etching sheets of metallic reinforcement into regular patterns of platelets and connecting ligaments. This kinematic engineering allows optimization of materials properties for a known deformation pathway. We use mechanical analysis and full field photogrammetry to relate local scale kinematics and strains to global deformations for both axial tension loading and shear loading with a pinned-diamond type fixture. The Poisson ratio of the kinematically engineered composite is ~3x higher than
Dynamic Grain Growth in Forsterite Aggregates Experimentally Deformed to High Strain
Kellermann Slotemaker, A.; de Bresser, H.; Spiers, C.; Drury, M.
2004-12-01
The dynamics of the outer Earth are largely controlled by olivine rheology. From previous work it has become clear that if olivine rocks are deformed to high strain, substantial weakening may occur before steady state mechanical behaviour is approached. This weakening appears directly related to progressive modification of the grain size distribution through competing effects of dynamic recrystallization and syn-deformational grain growth. However, most of our understanding of these processes in olivine comes from tests on coarse-grained materials that were reduced in grain size during straining by grain size insensitive (dislocation) creep mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate microstructure evolution of fine-grained olivine rocks that coarsen in grain size while deforming by grain size sensitive (GSS) creep. We used fine-grained (~1 μ m) olivine aggregates (i.e., forsterite/Mg2SiO4), containing ~0.5 wt% water and 10 vol% enstatite (MgSiO3). Two types of experiments were carried out: 1) Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) followed by axial compression to varying strains up to a maximum of ~45%, at 600 MPa confining pressure and a temperature of 950°C, 2) HIP treatment without axial deformation. Microstructures were characterized by analyzing full grain size distributions and texture using SEM/EBSD. Our stress-strain curves showed continuous hardening. When samples were temporally unloaded for short time intervals, no difference in flow stress was observed before and after the interruption in straining. Strain rate sensitivity analysis showed a low value of ~1.5 for the stress exponent n. Measured grain sizes show an increase with strain up to a value twice that of the starting value. HIP-only samples showed only minor increase in grain size. A random LPO combined with the low n ~1.5 suggests dominant GSS creep controlled by grain boundary sliding. These results indicate that dynamic grain growth occurs in forsterite aggregates deforming by GSS
Earthquake volume, fault plane area, seismic energy, strain, deformation and related quantities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. J. DUDA
1964-06-01
Full Text Available An effort is made to improve Benioff's method for investigation
of strain release in aftershock sequences. The improvement
may be summarized as follows:
1. Earthquake volume increases with magnitude, instead of being
constant. A relation is given, relating volume to magnitude.
2. A revised energy-magnitude formula is used.
3. The seismic gain ratio, i. e. the ratio between seismic energy and
elastic strain energy, probably increases with magnitude, instead of being
constant. Likewise, the ratio of fault plane area of the main shock to the
vertical section through the aftershock volume increases with magnitude.
4. The seismic energy density, the elastic strain energy density as
well as strain are independent of magnitude.
5. The deformation, i. e. the total strain in the aftershock zone, increases
with magnitude at the same rate as seismic energy and volume do.
As a consequence of these improvements some earlier published strain
release characteristics are reconstructed, this time as deformation characteristics
instead.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudd, R E
2009-02-05
Recent advances in the ability to generate extremes of pressure and temperature in dynamic experiments and to probe the response of materials has motivated the need for special materials optimized for those conditions as well as a need for a much deeper understanding of the behavior of materials subjected to high pressure and/or temperature. Of particular importance is the understanding of rate effects at the extremely high rates encountered in those experiments, especially with the next generation of laser drives such as at the National Ignition Facility. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the high-rate deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum to investigate the processes associated with plastic deformation for strains up to 100%. We use initial atomic configurations that were produced through simulations of solidification in the work of Streitz et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, (2006) 225701]. These 3D polycrystalline systems have typical grain sizes of 10-20 nm. We also study a rapidly quenched liquid (amorphous solid) tantalum. We apply a constant volume (isochoric), constant temperature (isothermal) shear deformation over a range of strain rates, and compute the resulting stress-strain curves to large strains for both uniaxial and biaxial compression. We study the rate dependence and identify plastic deformation mechanisms. The identification of the mechanisms is facilitated through a novel technique that computes the local grain orientation, returning it as a quaternion for each atom. This analysis technique is robust and fast, and has been used to compute the orientations on the fly during our parallel MD simulations on supercomputers. We find both dislocation and twinning processes are important, and they interact in the weak strain hardening in these extremely fine-grained microstructures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨君梅; 马晓芹; 张春云; 王瑶
2016-01-01
Objective:To explore the application of fetal cleft lip and palate malformation joint two-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound 3 d ultrasound technology TUI diagnosis of clinical significance.Method:From May 2015 to May 2016 obstetric delivery in our clinical data of 60 children with cleft lip and palate deformities were analyzed retrospective,all children before birth to joint two-dimensional color Doppler ultrasonic ultrasonic testing joint two-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging,the technology of three-dimensional ultrasound TUI diagnosis, analysis and summarize the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate deformities in ultrasonic image characteristics,two joint diagnosis scheme and actual results the coincidence rate of postpartum were observed.Result:4 cases of induced labor,56 cases of natural childbirth.16 cases with cleft lip, 3 cases wereⅠ degree,7 cases wereⅡ degree,6 cases wereⅢ degree;7 cases with cleft palate,2 cases wereⅠ degree,3 cases wereⅡ degree,2 cases wereⅢ degree;37 cases with cleft lip and palate,9 cases wereⅠ degree,17 cases wereⅡ degree,11 cases wereⅢ degree.Joint two-dimensional color,Doppler ultrasonic ultrasonic testing accurate diagnosis of 47 cases, including 10 cases of cleft lip and 5 cases of cleft palate, 32 cases of cleft lip and palate,accurate diagnostic rate was 78.33%,2 cases of misdiagnosis and 11 cases missed diagnosis.Joint two-dimensional ultrasound and color,Doppler ultrasound 3 d ultrasound technology TUI accurate diagnosis of 58 cases,15 cases of cleft lip and 6 cases of cleft palate,37 cases of cleft lip and palate,accurate diagnostic rate was 96.67%, 2 cases of misdiagnosis.Ultrasound images with discontinuous display lip lines or interrupt the echo of the two-dimensional ultrasound shows the nose showed “triangle”,the three dimensional ultrasound showed a cleft lip, nasal distortion, the tip of the tongue sticking out from the nasal cavity, alveolar arch radian
Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran
2012-01-01
In the formulations of earlier Displacement Transfer Functions for structure shape predictions, the surface strain distributions, along a strain-sensing line, were represented with piecewise linear functions. To improve the shape-prediction accuracies, Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated using piecewise nonlinear strain representations. Through discretization of an embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a strain-sensing line) into multiple small domains, piecewise nonlinear functions were used to describe the surface strain distributions along the discretized embedded beam. Such piecewise approach enabled the piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations to yield slope and deflection equations in recursive forms. The resulting Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, written in summation forms, were expressed in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By feeding the surface strains into the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, structural deflections could be calculated at multiple points for mapping out the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The shape-prediction accuracies of the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were then examined in view of finite-element-calculated deflections using different tapered cantilever tubular beams. It was found that by using the piecewise nonlinear strain representations, the shape-prediction accuracies could be greatly improved, especially for highly-tapered cantilever tubular beams.
PLANE ELASTICITY PROBLEM OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OCTAGONAL QUASICRYSTALS AND CRACK PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU WANG-MIN; FAN TIAN-YOU
2001-01-01
The plane elasticity theory of two-dimensional octagonal quasicrystals is developed in this paper. The plane elasticity problem of quasicrystals is reduced to a single higher-order partial differential equation by introducing a displacement function. As an example, the exact analytic solution of a Mode I Griffith crack in the material is obtained by using the Fourier transform and dual integral equations theory, then the displacement and stress fields, stress intensity factor and strain energy release rate can be calculated. The physical significance of the results relative to the phason and the difference between the mechanical behaviours of the crack problem in crystals and quasicrystals are figured out.These provide important information for studying the deformation and fracture of the new solid phase.
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Kim
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative
Kocabay, Gonenc; Muraru, Denisa; Peluso, Diletta; Cucchini, Umberto; Mihaila, Sorina; Padayattil-Jose, Seena; Gentian, Denas; Iliceto, Sabino; Vinereanu, Dragos; Badano, Luigi P
2014-08-01
Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a novel tool to assess myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular myocardial strain and rotation parameters by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a large group of healthy adults across a wide age range to establish their reference values and to assess the influence of age, sex, and hemodynamic factors. Transthoracic echocardiograms were acquired in 247 healthy volunteers (139 women, 44 years [standard deviation, 16 years old] (range, 18-80 years). We measured longitudinal, circumferential, and radial peak systolic strain values, and left ventricular rotation and twist. Average values of global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain were -21.5% (standard deviation, 2.0%), 40.1% (standard deviation, 11.8%) and -22.2% (standard deviation, 3.4%), respectively. Longitudinal strain was significantly more negative in women, whereas radial and circumferential strain and rotational parameters were similar in both sexes. Accordingly, lower limits of normality for the strain components were -16.9% in men and -18.5% in women for longitudinal strain, and -15.4% for circumferential and 24.6% for radial strain, irrespective of sex. Longitudinal strain values were more negative at the base than at apical segments. Mean rotational values were -6.9° (standard deviation, 3.5°) for the base, 13.0° (standard deviation, 6.5°) for apical rotation, and 20.0° (standard deviation, 7.3°) for net twist. We report the comprehensive assessment of normal myocardial deformation and rotational mechanics in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We found that women have more negative longitudinal strain, accounting for their higher left ventricular ejection fraction. Availability of reference values for these parameters may foster their implementation in the clinical routine. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: kernel.chen@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Madigan, Bruce [Montana Tech, Butte, MT (United States); Cao, Hongyan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Konovalov, Sergey [Center for Collective Use Material Science, Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Average grain sizes of 1.8 μm are observed at strain rate of 10 s{sup −1}. • Peak stress value increased, but strain decreased with increasing of strain rate. • A catenuliform recrystallized occurred at a strain rate of 5 s{sup −1}. • DRX effect improved with increasing of deformation amounts. - Abstract: To investigate the effects of strain rate on dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior on China low activation martensitic steel, hot uniaxial compression tests with strain rates ranging from 0.1 s{sup −1} to 10 s{sup −1} and deformations amounts of 40% and 70% where conducted. The true stress–true strain curves were analyzed for the occurrence of DRX under the different strain rates and compressive deformation amounts. The steel microstructures were examined and linked to the observed stress-strain diagrams to study DRX. Results show that DRX was responsible for refining the grain structure over a wide range of strain rates under 70% deformation. However, significant DRX occurred only at the relatively low strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1} under 40% deformation. The original elongated microstructure of the rolled plate from which the specimens were taken was replaced by dynamic recrystallization grains. At 70% deformation, the average grain size was 4.2 μm at a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}, 2.5 μm at a strain rate of 5 s{sup −1}, 1.8 μm at a strain rate of 10 s{sup −1}. In conclusion, with increasing strain rate, the recrystallized grain size decreased and the peak stress increased.
Experimental deformation of coarse-grained rock salt to high strain
Linckens, J.; Zulauf, G.; Hammer, J.
2016-08-01
The processes and deformation mechanisms (e.g., dislocation creep, pressure solution, grain boundary sliding, and recrystallization) of rock salt are still a matter of debate. In order to fill this gap, high strain constriction experiments at 345°C, atmospheric pressure and a strain rate of 10-7 s-1 have been conducted on natural halite cuboids (60 × 60 × 45 mm) from the Morsleben mine of Northern Germany. Most samples were almost single crystals and contain a small amount of smaller grains (10-26%). The grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions. The experiments were stopped at different final strains (ɛy = z of 10, 20, 30, and 40%) corresponding to a maximum strain (ɛx) range of 20-170%. The halite is deformed by dislocation creep, and the size of developed subgrains corresponds to the applied stress. The combined Schmid factor and subgrain boundary analysis indicate that slip was largely accommodated by the {110} slip systems, with possible minor contribution by slip on the {100} slip systems. Some of the deformed samples show evidence of grain boundary migration. In addition, subgrains with small misorientations form that result in large cumulative misorientations within a single grain (>40°). However, no subgrain rotation recrystallization is observed (i.e., misorientation angles are <10°). All the experiments show strain hardening, suggesting that recrystallization by grain boundary migration was not extensive and did not reset the microstructure. The experiments show that high finite strain in coarse-grained relatively dry rock salt can be accommodated by dislocation creep, without extensive dynamic recrystallization.
Deformation nanotwins in coarse-grained aluminum alloy at ambient temperature and low strain rate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Zhu; Li, Ning, E-mail: hslining@mail.hust.edu.cn; Jiang, Huawen; Liu, Lin
2015-01-05
In order to reveal the possible occurrence of deformation twins in coarse-grained aluminum/aluminum alloy at normal experimental conditions, a 5A02-O aluminum alloy with coarse grains was compressed quasi-statically to various plastic strains at ambient temperature, followed by high-resolution transmission electron analysis. The results revealed some long streaks produced by the thin plate-like structure with 2 atomic planes thick in the specimen undergoing a large strain, while under a relatively small plastic strain, the striped characteristics disappeared. The fast Fourier transform and theoretical analysis have shown that these long streaks are nanotwins, derived from the overlapping of stacking fault ribbons formed by Shockley partial dislocation on adjacent slip planes, which are triggered by the large plastic strain.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗丽芳; 郑小红; 邓劲瑶; 吴惠双; 朱艳芳
2016-01-01
Objective:To investigate the value of two-dimensional ultrasound,three-dimensional ultrasound TUI and four-dimensional ultrasound combine examination in the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate deformities.Method:From March 2014 to February 2016,5400 cases of pregnant women in our hospital were selected.Respectively for two-dimensional ultrasonography,three-dimensional ultrasound,four-dimensional ultrasound and combined examination,antenatal and postnatal number of cleft lip and palate,simple cleft lip and palate number,different gestational weeks of detection rate were compared.Result:Among 5400 cases of pregnant women,203 cases were lost to follow-up,accounted for 3.76%,and the other 5197 cases were produced by normal or induced labor.Postpartum found 23 cases of cleft lip and palate,accounting for 0.44%(23/5197), included 17 cases of children with cleft lip and palate,6 cases of simple lip cleft palate.Maternal gestational age between 24 and 35 weeks,cleft lip and palate and cleft lip and palate see prototype was higher.Conclusion:Two-dimensional ultrasound,three-dimensional ultrasound TUI and four-ultrasound combined examination of cleft lip and palate is much better than that of two-dimensional ultrasound detection rate.It can promote the use in the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate deformities.%目的：探讨二维超声、三维超声TUI以及四维超声三者联合对胎儿唇腭裂畸形的诊断价值。方法：选取本院2014年3月-2016年2月接收的孕妇5400例分别进行单独二维超声检查、单独三维超声、单独四维超声以及二维超声、三维超声TUI以及四维超声联合检查，比较产前、产后唇腭裂数、单纯性唇腭裂数以及不同孕周的检出率情况。结果：5400例产妇中，失访203例，占3.76%，余5197例正常生产或引产生产。产后发现唇腭裂23例，占0.44%（23/5197），其中唇腭裂17例，单纯性唇腭裂6例；此外，若孕周为24~35周，则唇腭裂
Schäpers, Th.; Guzenko, V.A.; Müller, R.P.; Golubov, A.A.; Brinkman, A.; Crecelius, G.; Kaluza, A.; Lüth, H.
2003-01-01
We study the suppression of the critical current in a multi-terminal superconductor/two-dimensional electron gas/superconductor Josephson junction by means of hot carrier injection. As a superconductor Nb is used, while the two-dimensional electron gas is located in a strained InGaAs/InP heterostruc
Tanaka, Y; Naito, K; Kishimoto, S; Kagawa, Y
2011-03-18
We investigated a method for measuring deformation and strain distribution in a multiscale range from nanometers to millimeters via in situ FE-SEM observations. A multiscale pattern composed of a grid as well as random and nanocluster patterns was developed to measure the localized deformation at the specimen surface. Our in situ observations of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite with a hierarchical microstructure subjected to loading were conducted to identify local deformation behaviors at various boundaries. We measured and analyzed the multiscale deformation and strain localizations during various stages of loading.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Y; Naito, K; Kishimoto, S; Kagawa, Y, E-mail: TANAKA.Yoshihisa@nims.go.jp [The National Institute of Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)
2011-03-18
We investigated a method for measuring deformation and strain distribution in a multiscale range from nanometers to millimeters via in situ FE-SEM observations. A multiscale pattern composed of a grid as well as random and nanocluster patterns was developed to measure the localized deformation at the specimen surface. Our in situ observations of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite with a hierarchical microstructure subjected to loading were conducted to identify local deformation behaviors at various boundaries. We measured and analyzed the multiscale deformation and strain localizations during various stages of loading.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuping Yuan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.
Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Xiaolei
2014-12-01
A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.
Effects of Adiabatic Heating on the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites
Sorini, Chris; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.
2017-01-01
Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are increasingly being used in aerospace structures that are expected to experience complex dynamic loading conditions throughout their lifetime. As such, a detailed understanding of the high strain rate behavior of the constituents, particularly the strain rate, temperature, and pressure dependent polymer matrix, is paramount. In this paper, preliminary efforts in modeling experimentally observed temperature rises due to plastic deformation in PMCs subjected to dynamic loading are presented. To this end, an existing isothermal viscoplastic polymer constitutive formulation is extended to model adiabatic conditions by incorporating temperature dependent elastic properties and modifying the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor to explicitly depend on temperature. It is demonstrated that the modified polymer constitutive model is capable of capturing strain rate and temperature dependent yield as well as thermal softening associated with the conversion of plastic work to heat at high rates of strain. The modified constitutive model is then embedded within a strength of materials based micromechanics framework to investigate the manifestation of matrix thermal softening, due to the conversion of plastic work to heat, on the high strain rate response of a T700Epon 862 (T700E862) unidirectional composite. Adiabatic model predictions for high strain rate composite longitudinal tensile, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear loading are presented. Results show a substantial deviation from isothermal conditions; significant thermal softening is observed for matrix dominated deformation modes (transverse tension and in-plane shear), highlighting the importance of accounting for the conversion of plastic work to heat in the polymer matrix in the high strain rate analysis of PMC structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.
2005-07-20
The assessment of regional heart wall motion (local strain) can localize ischemic myocardial disease, evaluate myocardial viability and identify impaired cardiac function due to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. The objectives of this research were to develop and validate a technique known as Hyperelastic Warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle from clinical cine-MRI image datasets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image datasets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target image. To validate the technique, MRI image datasets representing two deformation states of a left ventricle were created such that the deformation map between the states represented in the images was known. A beginning diastoliccine-MRI image dataset from a normal human subject was defined as the template. A second image dataset (target) was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a forward FE model of diastolic filling. Fiber stretch and strain predictions from Hyperelastic Warping showed good agreement with those of the forward solution. The technique had low sensitivity to changes in material parameters, with the exception of changes in bulk modulus of the material. The use of an isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model in the Warping analyses degraded the predictions of fiber stretch. Results were unaffected by simulated noise down to an SNR of 4.0. This study demonstrates that Warping in conjunction with cine-MRI imaging can be used to determine local ventricular strains during diastole.
Hardness and phase analysis of IN 718 deformed at high strain rate.
Renhof, L; Guder, S; Werner, E
2004-06-01
Specimens of the nickel base alloy IN 718 deformed at high strain rate (approximately 10 s(-1)), as realized in a screw press, have higher strength than parts forged conventionally in a hydraulic press. Microstructure analyses in light and transmission electron microscopes reveal the precipitation of very small Ni(3)Nb particles (gamma"-phase) to be the reason for the increased hardness. Several processing routes are discussed and analyzed in relation to the TTT-diagram of IN 718.
Atom-Based Geometrical Fingerprinting of Conformal Two-Dimensional Materials
Mehboudi, Mehrshad
The shape of two-dimensional materials plays a significant role on their chemical and physical properties. Two-dimensional materials are basic meshes that are formed by mesh points (vertices) given by atomic positions, and connecting lines (edges) between points given by chemical bonds. Therefore the study of local shape and geometry of two-dimensional materials is a fundamental prerequisite to investigate physical and chemical properties. Hereby the use of discrete geometry to discuss the shape of two-dimensional materials is initiated. The local geometry of a surface embodied in 3D space is determined using four invariant numbers from the metric and curvature tensors which indicates how much the surface is stretched and curved under a deformation as compared to a reference pre-deformed conformation. Many different disciplines advance theories on conformal two-dimensional materials by relying on continuum mechanics and fitting continuum surfaces to the shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. However two-dimensional materials are inherently discrete. The continuum models are only applicable when the size of two-dimensional materials is significantly large and the deformation is less than a few percent. In this research, the knowledge of discrete differential geometry was used to tell the local shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. Three kind of two-dimensional materials are discussed: 1) one atom thickness structures such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride; 2) high and low buckled 2D meshes like stanene, leadene, aluminum phosphate; and, 3) multi layer 2D materials such as Bi2Se3 and WSe2. The lattice structures of these materials were created by designing a mechanical model - the mechanical model was devised in the form of a Gaussian bump and density-functional theory was used to inform the local height; and, the local geometries are also discussed.
Hunt, Simon A; Weidner, Donald J; McCormack, Richard J; Whitaker, Matthew L; Bailey, Edward; Li, Li; Vaughan, Michael T; Dobson, David P
2014-08-01
A new multi-anvil deformation apparatus, based on the widely used 6-8 split-cylinder, geometry, has been developed which is capable of deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 18 GPa at room temperature. In 6-8 (Kawai-type) devices eight cubic anvils are used to compress the sample assembly. In our new apparatus two of the eight cubes which sit along the split-cylinder axis have been replaced by hexagonal cross section anvils. Combining these anvils hexagonal-anvils with secondary differential actuators incorporated into the load frame, for the first time, enables the 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus to be used for controlled strain-rate deformation experiments to high strains. Testing of the design, both with and without synchrotron-X-rays, has demonstrated the Deformation T-Cup (DT-Cup) is capable of deforming 1-2 mm long samples to over 55% strain at high temperatures and pressures. To date the apparatus has been calibrated to, and deformed at, 18.8 GPa and deformation experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-rays at confining pressures up to 10 GPa at 800 °C .
Hunt, Simon A.; Weidner, Donald J.; McCormack, Richard J.; Whitaker, Matthew L.; Bailey, Edward; Li, Li; Vaughan, Michael T.; Dobson, David P.
2014-08-01
A new multi-anvil deformation apparatus, based on the widely used 6-8 split-cylinder, geometry, has been developed which is capable of deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 18 GPa at room temperature. In 6-8 (Kawai-type) devices eight cubic anvils are used to compress the sample assembly. In our new apparatus two of the eight cubes which sit along the split-cylinder axis have been replaced by hexagonal cross section anvils. Combining these anvils hexagonal-anvils with secondary differential actuators incorporated into the load frame, for the first time, enables the 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus to be used for controlled strain-rate deformation experiments to high strains. Testing of the design, both with and without synchrotron-X-rays, has demonstrated the Deformation T-Cup (DT-Cup) is capable of deforming 1-2 mm long samples to over 55% strain at high temperatures and pressures. To date the apparatus has been calibrated to, and deformed at, 18.8 GPa and deformation experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-rays at confining pressures up to 10 GPa at 800 °C .
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N.R.;
2015-01-01
The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level...... of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alaie, A., E-mail: amir_alaie@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kadkhodapour, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials (IMWF), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Ziaei Rad, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi Asadabad, M. [Materials Research School, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Schmauder, S. [Institute for Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials (IMWF), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)
2015-01-19
In this study the key factors in the creation and coalescence of strain localization regions in dual-phase steels were investigated. An in-situ tensile setup was used to follow the microscopic deformation of ferrite phase inside the microstructure of DP600 steel. The test was continued until the specimen was very close to final failure. The captured scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs enabled us to directly observe the evolution of deformation bands as a contour of strain distribution in the ferrite matrix. The image processing method was used to quantify the ferrite microscopic strains; the obtained strain maps were superimposed onto the SEM micrographs. The results revealed important deformational characteristics of the microstructure at the microscopic level. It was observed that despite the formation of slip bands inside the large grains during the early stages of deformation, the large ferrite grains did not contribute to the formation of high-strain bands until the final stages of severe necking. The behavior of voids and initial defects inside the localization bands was also studied. In the final stages of deformation, cracks were observed to preferentially propagate in the direction of local deformation bands and to coalescence with each other to form the final failure lines in the microstructure. It was observed that in the final stages of deformation, the defects or voids outside the deformation bands do not contribute to the final failure mechanisms and could be considered to be of minor importance.
Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements
Kessler, Brian Maxwell
The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.
Local kinetic effects in two-dimensional plasma turbulence.
Servidio, S; Valentini, F; Califano, F; Veltri, P
2012-01-27
Using direct numerical simulations of a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell model, kinetic processes are investigated in a two-dimensional turbulent plasma. In the turbulent regime, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion distribution function. These patterns of non-Maxwellian features are concentrated in space nearby regions of strong magnetic activity: the distribution function is modulated by the magnetic topology, and can elongate along or across the local magnetic field. These results open a new path on the study of kinetic processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature anisotropy, commonly observed in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Dynamical matrix of two-dimensional electron crystals
Côté, R.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Doiron, C. B.; Ettouhami, A. M.
2008-03-01
In a quantizing magnetic field, the two-dimensional electron gas has a rich phase diagram with broken translational symmetry phases such as Wigner, bubble, and stripe crystals. In this paper, we derive a method to obtain the dynamical matrix of these crystals from a calculation of the density response function performed in the generalized random-phase approximation (GRPA). We discuss the validity of our method by comparing the dynamical matrix calculated from the GRPA with that obtained from standard elasticity theory with the elastic coefficients obtained from a calculation of the deformation energy of the crystal.
Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–Sn–Yb alloy sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Jiang
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–2Sn–0.5Yb alloy (at.% sheet were investigated in uniaxial tensile test at temperatures of 25–250 °C and strain rates of 1 × 10−3 s−1–0.1 s−1. The data fit with the Kocks–Mecking type plots were used to show different stages of strain hardening. Besides III-stage and IV-stage, the absence of the II-stage strain hardening at room temperature should be related to the sufficient dynamic recrystallization during extrusion. The decrease of strain hardening ability of the alloy after yielding was attributed to the reduction of dislocation density with increasing testing temperature. Strain rate sensitivity (SRS was significantly enhanced with increasing temperature, and the corresponding m-value was calculated as 0.07–0.12, which indicated that the deformation mechanism was dominated by the climb-controlled dislocation creep at 200 °C. Furthermore, the grain boundary sliding (GBS was activated at 250 °C, which contributed to the higher SRS. The activation energy was calculated as 213.67 kJ mol−1, which was higher than that of lattice diffusion or grain boundary self-diffusion. In addition, the alloy exhibited a quasi superplasticity at 250 °C with a strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1, which was mainly related to the fine microstructure and the presence of the Mg2Sn and Mg2(Sn,Yb particles.
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sorensen, Tor; Sogaard, Peter;
2014-01-01
AIMS: Mitral annular (MA) displacement reflects longitudinal left ventricular (LV) deformation and systolic velocity measurements reflect the rate of contraction; both are valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to test the agreement and reproducibility......, and M-mode determined in the septal and lateral walls in the apical four-chamber view were assessed in 50 control subjects and in 168 patients with various cardiac anomalies known to affect longitudinal displacement such as heart failure, mitral regurgitation, LV hypertrophy, and LV dilation. Intra...
Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment
Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels
2016-08-01
A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy for recovery. This approach is applied to commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) cold rolled to ultrahigh strain (99.6 pct reduction in thickness) and annealed at temperatures from 413 K to 493 K (140 °C to 220 °C). The annealing data fit the recovery model well, and the analysis shows that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which is related to an increase in the stored energy (driving force). These findings form the basis for a discussion of recovery mechanisms and the increase in the apparent activation energy during annealing, suggesting an application of the model when optimizing the structure and strength through annealing of nanostructured materials produced by high strain deformation.
Biomimetics of Campaniform Sensilla: Measuring Strain from the Deformation of Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Julian F. V. Vincent; Sally E. Clift; Carlo Menon
2007-01-01
We present a bio-inspired strategy for designing embedded strain sensors in space structures. In insects, the campaniform sensillum is a hole extending through the cuticle arranged such that its shape changes in response to loads. The shape change is rotated through 90 by the suspension of a bell-shaped cap whose deflection is detected by a cell beneath the cuticle. It can be sensitive to displacements of the order of 1 nm. The essential morphology, a hole formed in a plate of fibrous composite material, was modelled by Skordos et al. who showed that global deformation of the plate (which can be flat, curved or a tube) induces higher local deformation of the hole due to its locally higher compliance. Further developments reported here show that this approach can be applied to groups of holes relative to their orientation.The morphology of the sensillum in insects suggests that greater sensitivity can be achieved by arranging several holes in a regular pattern; that if the hole is oval it can be "aimed" to sense specific strain directions; and that either by controlling the shape of the hole or its relationship with other holes it can have a tuned response to dynamic strains.We investigate space applications in which novel bio-inspired strain sensors could successfully be used.
Mapping the Strain Distributions in Deformed Bulk Metallic Glasses Using Hard X-Ray Diffraction
Bednarcik, J.; Chen, L. Y.; Wang, X. D.; Jiang, J. Z.; Franz, H.
2012-05-01
The deformation behavior of Cu45 Zr46.5 Al7Ti1.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) under bending was investigated in-situ using high-energy X-ray synchrotron diffraction. Samples were bent using two different benders with radii of 10 and 20 mm. The components of the strain tensor were determined from the change of positions of the first maximum of the diffracted intensity in reciprocal space. The procedure of data treatment was improved by the introduction of direct beam off-center correction. Comparing results for the two different bending radii, we found that the zero stress region does not necessarily lay within the central part of the specimen. Bending with smaller radius resulted in symmetric strain distribution, whereas a larger bending radius revealed strong asymmetry. Furthermore, bending with a smaller radius (10 mm) shows steeper strain gradients as compared with the situation in which the larger bending radius (20 mm) was used. Using a smaller bending radius implies reaching higher tensile/compressive stresses and reveals the signs of the plastic deformation, which are demonstrated as a saturation of elastic strains.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
MO-C-17A-08: Evaluation of Lung Deformation Using Three Dimensional Strain Maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, T [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Huang, Q [Duke Unversity, Durham, NC (United States); Miller, W [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Zhong, X [Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yin, F; Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To develop a systematic approach to generate three dimensional (3D) strain maps of lung using the displacement vector field (DVF) during the respiratory deformation, and to demonstrate its application in evaluating deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: A DVF based strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was calculated from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six nearest neighbors. The maximum and minimum stretches of a VOI can be determined by the principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}), which are the eigenvalues and the corresponding strain tensors. Two healthy volunteers enrolled in this study under IRB-approved protocol, each was scanned using 3D Hyperpolarized He-3 tagging-MRI and 3D proton-MRI with TrueFISP sequence at the endof- inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE) phases. 3D DVFs of tagging- and proton-MRI were obtained by the direct measurements of the tagging grid trajectory and by the DIR method implemented in commercial software. Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated for all DVFs. The principal strain E1s were calculated as 0.43±0.05 and 0.17±0.25 for tagging-MRI and proton-MRI, respectively. The large values of E{sub 1} indicate the predominant lung motion in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Given that the DVFs from the tagging images are considered as the ground truth, the discrepancies in the DIR-based strain maps suggest the inaccuracy of the DIR algorithm. In the E{sub 1} maps of tagging-MRI for subject 1, the fissures were distinguishable by the larger values (0.49±0.02) from the adjacent tissues (0.41±0.03) due to the larger relative displacement between the lung lobes. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a methodology to generate DVF-based 3D strain maps of lung. It can potentially enable us to better understand the pulmonary biomechanics and to evaluate and improve the DIR algorithms for the lung deformation. We are currently studying more
Deformation and failure of OFHC copper under high strain rate shear compression
Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Iannitti, Gianluca; Persechino, Italo; Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist
2017-01-01
Hat-shaped specimen geometries were developed to generate high strain, high-strain-rates deformation under prescribed conditions. These geometries offer also the possibility to investigate the occurrence of ductile rupture under low or negative stress triaxiality, where most failure models fail. In this work, three tophat geometries were designed, by means of extensive numerical simulation, to obtain desired stress triaxiality values within the shear region that develops across the ligament. Material failure was simulated using the Continuum Damage Model (CDM) formulation with a unilateral condition for damage accumulation and validated by comparing with quasi-static and high strain rate compression tests results on OFHC copper. Preliminary results seem to indicate that ductile tearing initiates at the specimen corner location where positive stress triaxiality occurs because of local rotation and eventually propagates along the ligament.
Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels
2016-01-01
for recovery. This approach is applied to commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) cold rolled to ultrahigh strain (99.6 pct reduction in thickness) and annealed at temperatures from 413 K to 493 K (140 A degrees C to 220 A degrees C). The annealing data fit the recovery model well, and the analysis shows......A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy...... that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which...
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Hongwang; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels
2008-01-01
A quantitative analysis of microstructure and strength as a function of strain is presented for polycrystalline nickel (99.5%) deformed by high-pressure torsion in the strain range vertical bar-300 (epsilon(VM), von Mises strain). Typical lamellar structures consisting of extended boundaries...... and short interconnecting boundaries have been found, with additional features at large strains which are equiaxed regions, small equiaxed subgrains and deformation twins. The evolution of microstructure and microstructural parameters falls in stages: (i) the first stage at epsilon(VM) = vertical bar-12...
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook
Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.
2016-01-01
One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.
Lattice strain and texture evolution during room-temperature deformation in Zircaloy-2
Xu, Feng
Zircaloy-2 and its sister alloy, Zircaloy-4, have extensive applications in the nuclear industry as core components in heavy water reactors and fuel cladding in both heavy and light water reactors. Intergranular stresses and texture can greatly affect the mechanical performance of these components. A complete understanding of the development of intergranular constraints and texture in Zircaloy-2 will allow an improved understanding of the plastic deformation of zirconium alloys, and the prediction of in-reactor deformation of tubes made by different manufacturing routes. Neutron diffraction was used to track the development of lattice strain and peak intensity in three dimensions for various crystallographic planes in samples cut from a rolled Zircaloy-2 slab. The samples were subject to room temperature compression or tension in-situ in the neutron spectrometer in each of the three principal directions of the slab. Textures in the deformed samples were measured using neutron diffraction. Strong evidence was found for tensile twinning in tensile tests in the plate normal direction and compression tests in the transverse and rolling directions. The lattice strain development inside the newly formed twins was recorded for the first time in a Zr alloy. An elasto-plastic self-consistent model and a visco-plastic self-consistent model were used to interpret the lattice strain and texture data, respectively. Various slip and twinning modes were considered in both models. Prism slip, basal slip, pyramidal slip and tensile twinning were concluded to be indispensable, while pyramidal slip was unnecessary in the modeling. The critical resolved shear stresses and hardening parameters were obtained by simultaneously achieving a 'best-fit' with the complete experimental data set. The effects of anisotropic latent hardening due to dislocation interactions were found to be critical, and the inclusion of Lankford coefficients as modeling constraints was necessary. This research
Hamada, Atef S.
2013-04-01
The ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure of an austenitic stainless steel (Type 301LN), processed by controlled phase-reversion annealing, was fatigued to study the deformation and damage mechanisms during cyclic straining. Fatigue cracking along the grain boundaries and the formation of extended persistent slip band-like shear bands (SBs) were observed to be the fatigue-induced microstructural features in the ultrafine-grained structure. Characterization of SBs was performed by electron backscattered diffraction and atomic force microscopy to study the fine features.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄冬梅; 夏稻子; 张宇虹; 礼广森; 崔洪岩
2011-01-01
目的 应用超声二维纵向应变探讨心绞痛患者冠状动脉介入治疗术(PCI)前后左心室心肌收缩功能改变情况.方法 32例心绞痛(左前降支病变)患者和30例正常人(对照组),分别记录PCI术前、术后3个月和正常人心尖四腔切面,二腔切面,左心室长轴高帧频图像,应用二维应变软件测量各个节段的收缩期峰值纵向应变值.结果 PCI术前患者(术前组)与对照组比较,心肌节段的纵向应变值减低(P＜0.05),且与冠状动脉造影左前降支病变分布范围相一致;与PCI术前相比,术后3个月患者(术后组)相应节段心肌收缩期纵向应变值较前改善(P＜0.05),且部分节段与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P＞0.05).结论 超声斑点追踪二维纵向应变不但能定位诊断节段性室壁运动异常,而且能够定量地评价心绞痛患者PCI术后左心室心肌收缩功能改善情况.%Objective To explore the characteristics of two-dimensional strain of left ventricular myocardial function before and after percutaneous coronary intervention( PCI) in the patients with angina pectoris ( AP ) by speckle tracking echocardiography. Methods A total of 32 patients with AP and 30 healthy volunteers were involved. High frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the apical four-chamber view, two-chamber view and long-axis view of the left ventricle, respectively. The peak systolic longitudinal strain was measured in all of these views using two-dimensional strain software. Results Compared to the control group, the left ventricular peak systolic longitudinal strain values in part of segments were lower in patients with AP before and after PCI ( P ＜ 0.05 ). Left ventricular peak systolic longitudinal strain values in part of segments were significantly improved at 3 month after PCI compared to those patients before PCI ( P＜0. 05 ). Conclusions Two-dimensional strain echocardiography can be used to precisely quantify regional
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈燕华; 贺声; 高云华; 张云山; 李馨
2009-01-01
目的 应用二维应变超声心动图(2DSE)定量分析常规方法 显示室壁运动正常冠心病患者的左室收缩运动,探讨其临床应用意义.方法 采集经冠脉造影证实的38例冠心病和31例对照组患者的心尖长轴、四腔和二腔观的二维灰阶动态图像,应用二维应变软件测量左室壁各节段的收缩应变、应变率及整体长轴应变(GLS),心尖双平面Simpson 法测量左室射血分数(LVEF),比较两组参数值及分析LVEF与GLS的相关性.结果 组间比较,各项常规超声指标均无统计学差异(P>0.05),部分节段的应变、应变率及GLS有统计学差异(P0.05).Strain and strain rate have significant differences at several segments（P<0.05 or P<0.01).GLS has good correlations with LVEF (P<0.05).Conclusions 2DSE has higher sensitivity than conventional echocardiography in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia.
Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels
2016-01-01
A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy...... that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which...... is related to an increase in the stored energy (driving force). These findings form the basis for a discussion of recovery mechanisms and the increase in the apparent activation energy during annealing, suggesting an application of the model when optimizing the structure and strength through annealing...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjit Shrestha
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, 3 Dimensional welding simulation was carried out in the FE software ANSYS in order to predict temperature, stress, strain and deformation in the joining of similar and dissimilar materials. The numerical simulation shows that temperature exceeds well above the melting temperature of the substrate material in the welding region. It is found that, higher residual stress is distributed in the weld bead area and surrounding heat affected zone. The stress and strain distribution patterns in the specimen showed that both tended to concentrate at or near points of application of thermal load, and were generally not uniform in these areas. It is also found that Stress and strain were concentrated at corners, edges, and other areas of abrupt change in the shape of the specimen and was also not uniform where the cross-section of the structure changed suddenly, and had large gradients at localized points. The deformation was found maximum at the beginning and the end of welding direction (Y-axis and minimum at the ends of X-axis as they are simply supported in both ends. In addition, among the six different cases of similar and dissimilar materials (S40C+S40C, STS304+STS304, STS316L+STS316L, S40C+STS304, S40C+STS316L, STS304+STS316L, the minimum temperature was found in S40C+STS304 whereas the maximum temperature was S40C+STS316L; the minimum stress was found in case of S40C+STS304 and maximum stress was found in 40C+STS316L; the minimum strain was found in case of S40C+STS304 and maximum strain was found in STS304+STS304; the minimum deformation was found in S40C+S40C and maximum in S40C+STS316L.The prediction show qualitative good agreement with the experimental results found in the literature and hence it was confirmed that the method of finite elements has proved to be successful for proper design analysis.
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁彬彬; 张卫达; 王晓武; 李叶阔
2009-01-01
目的 运用斑点追踪技术测量实验动物猪左心室短轴各个节段二维应变.方法 选取健康贵州小型巴马猪9只,采集猪在正常状态下左室短轴二尖瓣水平、乳头肌水平及心尖水平心室节段二维图像(帧频>40帧/s),应用二维应变技术分析软件分析左室心肌各节段的径向应变(RS),圆周应变(CS)及旋转角度(Rot)的变化规律.结果 实验猪在正常状态下显示二维应变所测得左室短轴切面基底段、中间段、心尖段的径向应变依次递增,基底段最小,心尖段最大,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).从左室心尖来看,左室扭转运动主要表现为心底部顺时针旋转和心尖部逆时针旋转,心脏整体表现为心动周期内逆时针方向为主的扭转运动.结论 二维应变技术为定量评价左室收缩功能提供了一种快速准确、操作简便、可重复性的无角度依赖的的新方法,具有广阔的临床应用前景.%Objective To evaluate the two-dimensional strain by speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy piglets.Methods 9 small Guizhou-Panama pigs were used.High frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at the levels of mitral annulus,papillary muscle and apex.Radial strain,circumferential strain and rotation were measured in the left ventricular short-axis views using two-dimensional strain software.Results Left ventricular two-dimensional radial strain gradually increased from the base to apex.As seenfromthe apex.LV performs a wringing motion with a clockwise rotation at the base and counterclockwise rotation at the apex.Conclusion 2DS technique is a rapid,accurate,easy,repeatable and no angle reliant method to quantitatively estimate the left ventrlcle function.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉静; 何燕萍; 叶季鲜; 谢晓莉
2012-01-01
Objective: To assess the short-term efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using two-dimensional strain echocardiography in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: A total of 31 CHF patients treated with CRT were enrolled in this study. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD),left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) were measured two weeks before and three months after CRT. Radial strain (RS) peak,circumferential strain (CS) peak and longitudinal systolic strain (LS) peak of 16 left ventricular segments were measured using two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: LVEF,LVEDD,LVESD,RS peak,CS peak,LS peak were improved after CRT. CRT increased LVEF,decreased LVEDD and LVESD. CRT also shortened LS peak after three months (P<0. 05). Cardiac resynchronization was achieved after CRT. Conclusions: CRT can significantly improve the cardiac function in patients with CHF. Two-dimensional strain echocardiography can provide unique quantitative information for assessing the short-term outcome of CRT.%目的:应用二维应变超声心动图评价慢性心力衰竭(chronic heart failure,CHF)患者在安装三腔起搏器进行左室再同步化治疗(cardiac resynchronization therapy,CRT)后的短期疗效.方法:选择行植入CRT的患者31例,分别在CRT术前、术后2周及术后3个月测量左室射血分数(left ventricular ejection fraction,LVEF)、左室舒张末内径(left ventricular end-diastolic diameter,LVEDD)、左室收缩末内径(left ventricular end-systolic diameter,LVESD),应用二维应变成像技术分析左室壁16个节段的径向应变(radial strain,RS)峰值、环向应变(circumferential strain,CS)峰值及纵向收缩期(longitudinal systolic strain,LS)峰值.结果:与术前相比,术后2周及术后3个月的LVEDD、LVESD和LVEF及左室壁16个节段的RS峰值、CS峰值和LS峰值均有不同程度改善.术后2周与术后3
High-strain-induced deformation mechanisms in block-graft and multigraft copolymers
Schlegel, Ralf
2011-12-13
The molecular orientation behavior and structural changes of morphology at high strains for multigraft and block-graft copolymers based on polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) were investigated during uniaxial monotonic loading via FT-IR and synchrotron SAXS. Results from FT-IR revealed specific orientations of PS and PI segments depending on molecular architecture and on the morphology, while structural investigations revealed a typical decrease in long-range order with increasing strain. This decrease was interpreted as strain-induced dissolution of the glassy blocks in the soft matrix, which is assumed to affect an additional enthalpic contribution (strain-induced mixing of polymer chains) and stronger retracting forces of the network chains during elongation. Our interpretation is supported by FT-IR measurements showing similar orientation of rubbery and glassy segments up to high strains. It also points to highly deformable PS domains. By synchrotron SAXS, we observed in the neo-Hookean region an approach of glassy domains, while at higher elongations the intensity of the primary reflection peak was significantly decreasing. The latter clearly verifies the assumption that the glassy chains are pulled out from the domains and are partly mixed in the PI matrix. Results obtained by applying models of rubber elasticity to stress-strain and hysteresis data revealed similar correlations between the softening behavior and molecular and morphological parameters. Further, an influence of the network modality was observed (random grafted branches). For sphere forming multigraft copolymers the domain functionality was found to be less important to achieve improved mechanical properties but rather size and distribution of the domains. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
McGlumphy, Kellye C; Mendel, Deborah A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D
2014-06-01
The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the use of 3D image correlation photogrammetry (3DIC) in comparing strain characteristics of three commercially available mouthguard materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. 3DIC was used to measure strain and deformation on the surface of a mouthguard and a resin model. A computed tomographic scan of a maxilla of a patient was used to fabricate a resin test model. Three mouthguard materials were tested: conventional ethylene vinyl acetate; Proform TM, a thermoplastic material; and Polyshok TM, an EVA product containing polyurethane. Three mouthguards of each of the three materials were fabricated and fitted to the acrylic model for testing. A speckle pattern was applied to the external surfaces of each of the mouthguards. Static mechanical tests using a servohydraulic load frame at 10, 25, and 50 pounds of force were applied to the mouthguards while on the resin model. Strains were measured in both the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes using (3DIC). Measured strains were analysed by 4-way anova. For all three materials tested, the difference in strain between two measured directions (X and Y) was found to be statistically significant for all regions evaluated. The analysis indicated that each direction, region, and load was involved in a statistically significant effect (P materials. Differences in strains in two directions were found to be significant for the materials studied (P materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. Materials, along with larger sample sizes, may improve confidence levels of the results. Further testing is indicated before clinical claims can be made. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gawedzki Waclaw
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volkov Aleksandr E.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This microstructural model deals with simulation both of the reversible and irreversible deformation of a shape memory alloy (SMA. The martensitic transformation and the irreversible deformation due to the plastic accommodation of martensite are considered on the microscopic level. The irreversible deformation is described from the standpoint of the plastic flow theory. Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are taken into account and are related to the densities of scattered and oriented deformation defects. It is supposed that the phase transformation and the micro plastic deformation are caused by the generalized thermodynamic forces, which are the derivatives of the Gibbs’ potential of the two-phase body. In terms of these forces conditions for the phase transformation and for the micro plastic deformation on the micro level are formulated. The macro deformation of the representative volume of the polycrystal is calculated by averaging of the micro strains related to the evolution of the martensite Bain’s variants in each grain comprising this volume. The proposed model allowed simulating the evolution of the reversible and of the irreversible strains of a stressed SMA specimen under thermal cycles. The results show a good qualitative agreement with available experimental data. Specifically, it is shown that the model can describe a rather big irreversible strain in the first thermocycle and its fast decrease with the number of cycles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张晓红; 朱文晖; 赵永峰
2011-01-01
目的 探讨应用二维应变成像技术定量评价孤立性心肌致密化不全患者(IVNC)左心室收缩功能改变的价值.方法 IVNC患者14例(IVNC组)和正常对照组20例,行常规超声心动图检查及二维应变成像,比较两组之间各节段收缩期峰值应变的差异,分析致密化不全节段致密化不全内层与致密化外层厚度的比值(NC/C),及其与收缩期峰值应变的关系.结果 IVNC组左室各节段收缩期峰值应变绝对值较正常对照组显著下降(P<0.05),其中侧壁、后壁、下壁各节段及心尖部各节段收缩期峰值应变绝对值下降程度更显著(P<0.01).致密化不全心肌节段NC/C值与其收缩期峰值应变密切相关(r=0.86,P<0.01).结论 二维应变成像可以定量评价心肌致密化不全患者左心室各节段收缩功能改变,致密化不全节段室壁收缩功能下降与其致密化程度密切相关.%Objective To quantitatively evaluate the left ventricular systolic function in isolated ventricular noncompaction( IVNC ) patients by two - dimensional strain imaging. Methods IVNC group( n = 14 ) and normal group( n =20 ) were examined by conventional echocardiography and two - dimensional strain imaging. Defferences in segmental peak systolic strain between two groups were compared, the relationship between the ratio of non - compacted to compacted myocardium( NC/C ratio ) and peak systolic strain in all noncompacted segments was analyzed. Results Compared with normal group, the peak systolic strain in IVNC group was significantly decreased in all left ventricular segments( P ＜ 0. 05 ), especially in lateral wall, posterior wall, inferior wall and apex segments( P ＜ 0. 01 ). NC/C ratio in noncompacted segments was correlated with peak systolic strain( r = 0. 86 , P ＜ 0. 01 ). Conclusion Two - dimensional strain imaging can quantitatively evaluate left ventricular systolic function of IVNC patients. The extent of myocardial noncompaction is associated
Diaphragm assessment by two dimensional speckle tracking imaging in normal subjects.
Orde, Sam R; Boon, Andrea J; Firth, Daniel G; Villarraga, Hector R; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi
2016-07-25
Conventionally, ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragm contractility has involved measuring respiratory changes in diaphragm thickness (thickening fraction) using B-mode or caudal displacement with M-mode. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking has been increasingly used to assess muscle deformation ('strain') in echocardiography. We sought to determine in a pilot study if this technology could be utilized to analyze diaphragmatic contraction. Fifty healthy adult volunteers with normal exercise capacity underwent ultrasound imaging. A linear array transducer was used for the assessment of diaphragm thickness, thickening fraction (TF), and strain in the right anterior axillary line at approximately the ninth intercostal space. A phased array transducer was applied subcostally for the assessment of diaphragm displacement on the right mid-clavicular line. Diaphragmatic images were recorded from the end of expiration through the end of inspiration at 60 % maximal inspiratory capacity. Diaphragm strain was analyzed off-line by speckle tracking imaging. Blinded inter- and intra-rater variability was tested in 10 cases. Mean right diaphragm thickness at end-expiration (±SD: standard deviation) was 0.24 cm (±0.1), with TF of 45.1 % (±12) at 60 % peak inspiratory effort. Mean right diaphragm caudal displacement was 4.9 cm (±1). Mean right diaphragm strain was -40.3 % (±9). A moderate correlation was seen between longitudinal strain and TF (R(2) 0.44, p speckle tracking imaging was associated with conventional ultrasound measures of diaphragmatic function (TF and caudal displacement). Further clinical studies are warranted to investigate its clinical utility.
Isaev, N. V.; Shumilin, S. E.; Zabrodin, P. A.; Geidarov, V. G.; Grigorova, T. V.; Fomenko, V. S.; Braude, I. S.; Pustovalov, V. V.
2013-07-01
This is a study of the effect of microstructure created by severe plastic deformation (SPD) and annealing on strain hardening and jump-like deformation in Al-Li alloys. It is shown that under tension at 0.5 K, SPD processed polycrystals retain a significant strain hardening rate and have high strength and ductility. SPD also simulates unstable (jump-like) flow of the polycrystals owing to dislocation dynamics that shows up as stress jumps in the tension curve. The average amplitude of the jumps increases with strain, while the dislocation amplitude distribution corresponds to collective motion of dislocation avalanches with a distinctive scale. Jump-like deformation is partially suppressed by high-temperature annealing, while the distribution of the jump amplitudes is described by a power law. The relationship established between the coefficient of strain hardening and the average stress jump amplitude suggests a common dislocation dynamic for strain hardening and jump-like deformation at low temperatures. The observed features of low-temperature plastic deformation are treated as a consequence of changes in the grain sizes and density of dislocations owing to SPD and annealing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李朝军; 罗向红
2012-01-01
To discuss the longitudinal strain (LS) of myocardium in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) based on the ventricular-arterial coupling. Methods Eighty patients with DM were divided into normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) group (DMN group, EF≥50%, n=40) and abnormal EF group (DMA group, EF0. 05). For comparison of DMA and DMN group, the ROC analysis indicated that the area under ROC curve of SLba > SLPM and SLap was 0. 720, 0. 782 and 0. 942. Conclusion For patients with DM, ventricular-arterial coupling and LS decrease in synchronism. Ventricular-arterial uncoupling, LS would be asynchronous, power decrease and oxygen increase.%目的 基于心脏血管耦联理论探讨糖尿病患者心肌纵向应变的价值.方法 2型糖尿病患者80例分为射血分数(EF)正常组(DMN组,EF≥50％)40例,EF减低组(DMA组,EF＜50％)40例；对照组为42名健康志愿者.测量左心每搏量(SV),计算每搏功(SW)、心率血压二重乘积(RPP)、循环血管阻力指数(SVRI)和有效动脉弹性(Ea).采用斑点追踪技术获取左心室壁各节段的纵向应变(LS),左心室基底(SLBA)、乳头肌(SLPM)和心尖水平的纵向应变(SLAp)为同一水平6个节段应变的均值.结果 ①DMA组RPP、Ea和SVRI参数与DMN组和对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P均＜0.05)；SLBA、SLPM和SLAP在3组间差异有统计学意义(P均＜0.01)；②SLBA、SLPM和SLAP与Ea、SVRI、EF及FS呈正相关(P均＜0.01);与SW和RPP呈负相关(P均＜0.01)；③ROC分析DMN组与对照组间,SLBA、SLPM和SLAP ROC曲线下面积分别为0.857、0.862和0.832(P均＞0.05);分析DMA组与DMN组间,曲线下面积SLAP＞SLPM＞ SLBA,分别为0.942、0 782和0.720.结论 2型糖尿病患者心脏血管耦联心肌纵向应变同步减低;心脏血管脱耦联心肌纵向应变减低失同步,心肌做功效能减低,氧耗增加.
Riffel, Johannes H; Keller, Marius G P; Aurich, Matthias; Sander, Yannick; Andre, Florian; Giusca, Sorin; Aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Seitz, Sebastian; Galuschky, Christian; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Mereles, Derliz; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J
2015-07-01
Myocardial deformation measurement is superior to left ventricular ejection fraction in identifying early changes in myocardial contractility and prediction of cardiovascular outcome. The lack of standardization hinders its clinical implementation. The aim of the study is to investigate a novel standardized deformation imaging approach based on the feature tracking algorithm for the assessment of global longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) in echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). 70 subjects undergoing CMR were consecutively investigated with echocardiography within a median time of 30 min. GLS and GCS were analyzed with a post-processing software incorporating the same standardized algorithm for both modalities. Global strain was defined as the relative shortening of the whole endocardial contour length and calculated according to the strain formula. Mean GLS values were -16.2 ± 5.3 and -17.3 ± 5.3 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GLS did not differ significantly between the two imaging modalities, which showed strong correlation (r = 0.86), a small bias (-1.1 %) and narrow 95 % limits of agreement (LOA ± 5.4 %). Mean GCS values were -17.9 ± 6.3 and -24.4 ± 7.8 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GCS was significantly underestimated by echocardiography (p windows in echocardiography. GCS assessment revealed only a strong correlation (r = 0.87) when echocardiographic image quality was good. No significant differences for GLS between two different echocardiographic vendors could be detected. Quantitative assessment of GLS using a standardized software algorithm allows the direct comparison of values acquired irrespective of the imaging modality. GLS may, therefore, serve as a reliable parameter for the assessment of global left ventricular function in clinical routine besides standard evaluation of the ejection fraction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gray G.T.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴灵敏; 杨莉; 方思华; 邱琼
2011-01-01
Objective To detect left ventricular torsional changes in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD)by two-dimensional strain imaging, and to study its clinical implication.Methods Fifty-two patients with coronary artery disease and 31 control subjects were enrolled.LVEF was measured with Simpson method using two-dimentional echocardiography.High frame rate two-dimensional dynamic images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at the basal and apical levels.Using two dimensional strain software,The peak basal and apical rotation (Rot-base, Rot-apex) in basal and apical plane and peak left ventricular torsion(LV-tor)were caculated using Echo PAC software.Results Rot-base, Rot-apex and LV-tor were not significantly different between coronary artery disease and control groups (P＞0.05).Compared with the control group, Rot-base, Rot-apex and LV-tor were significantly lower in the 3-vessel disease subgroup (P＜0.05) ,No significant difference was found for LVEF in ACD and contral groups (P＞0.05).Conclusions Left ventricular torsion was impaired in patients with extensive myocardial ischemia.Left ventricular torsional changes detected by two-dimensional strain imaging may be used as an early index of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.%目的 运用超声二维应变技术检测冠心病患者左心室扭转运动的变化并探讨其临床意义.方法 冠心病组52例,对照组31例.常规测定左室射血分数(LVEF).采集高频二维动态图像,运用二维应变软件获得左心室短轴基底部、心尖部旋转角度峰值(Rot-base、Rot-apex)及左心室扭转角度峰值(LV-tor).结果 冠心病组与对照组的Rot-base、Rot-apex及LV-tor均无显著性差异(P>0.05);亚组分析显示:支病变亚组的Rot-base、Rot-apex及LV-tor显著低于对照组(P0.05).结论 范围较广的心肌缺m可引起左心室扭转运动减弱;应用二维应变技术检测左心室扭转运动变化可早期发现
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L
2010-01-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory
Zak, M.
1979-01-01
The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Fresvig, T; Ludvigsen, P; Steen, H; Reikerås, O
2008-01-01
Strain gauges are currently the default method for measuring deformation in bone. Strain gauges are not well suited for in vivo measurements because of their size and because they are difficult to use in bone. They are also unsuitable for repeated measurements over time since they cannot be left in the patient. The optical Bragg grating fibres behave like selective filters of light. As a result the structure will transmit most wavelengths of light, but will reflect certain specific wavelengths. If the Bragg grating is strained along the fibre axis, the wavelength will shift, and this change represents a measure of strain. The optical fibres are very thin, no thicker than a standard surgical suture and are easy to adhere to bone by use of the FDA approved polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as bonding adhesive. Since they are made of biocompatible silica porous bioglass ceramics, it should also be possible to leave the fibres in the patient between and after measurements. We have shown that fibre optic Bragg grating sensors can be used as a measurement tool for bone strain by performing measurements both on an acryl tube and on an extracted sample of human femur diaphysis. On either of them we used four fibre optic sensors and four strain gauges, interspersed at every 45 degrees around the circumference. The standard deviation of the measurements on the acrylic tube for each of the sensors, both optical fibres and strain gauges, varied from 1.0 to 5.2%. Every sensor, both optical fibre and strain gauge, correlated significantly with all of the rest at the 0.01 level with a Pearson correlation coefficient r ranging from 0.986 to 1.0. The linearity for all of the sensors versus load was excellent, the lowest linearity of the eight sensors was 0.996 as expressed by r(2) (coefficient of determination), with no significant difference in linearity between optical fibres and strain gauges. Bone is not an ideal isotropic material, and we found that the strain readings of the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵胜; 邓又斌; 陈欣林; 刘蓉
2011-01-01
Objective To evaluate the value of two-dimensional strain imaging in assessing right ventricular function of recipient fetus in TTTS pregnancies.Methods Sixteen TTTS pregnancies and 19 normal monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies(controls) were included.Doppler studies of the umbilical artery,umbilical vein,ductus venosus,middle cerebral artery,atrioventricular valve and semilunar value were recorded in both fetus,and myocardial performance index of both ventricles was calculated.Longitudinal peak systolic strain of right ventricular were calculated and compared between recipient fetus and other fetus.Results Cardiothoracic ratio and myocardial performance index of right ventricular showed significant differences between recipient fetus and controls.Right ventricular strain was decreased in recipient fetus compared with controls.Conclusions Two-dimensional strain imaging can be used to evaluate right ventricular myocardial function in the recipient fetus of TTTS.%目的 探讨二维应变成像在评价双胎输血综合征(twin-twin transfusion syndrome,TTTS)受血儿右心功能中的价值.方法 选择TTTS 16例及正常单绒毛膜囊双羊膜囊双胎19例,分别测量两个胎儿脐动脉、脐静脉、静脉导管、大脑中动脉、房室瓣口、半月瓣口等部位的血流频谱参数,计算心肌做功指数.然后局部放大胎儿四腔心,清晰显示心内膜及肌层,动态存储2~3个心动周期,脱机分析两组胎儿右心纵向收缩期峰值应变.结果 TTTS受血儿心胸面积比值、右心心肌做功指数大于供血儿及对照组,差异有统计学意义;TTTS受血儿右心游离壁、室间隔及平均纵向收缩期峰值应变小于供血儿及对照组,差异有统计学意义.结论 二维应变成像可反映TTTS受血儿的右心心肌运动异常,但是在羊水过多及胎动频繁时应用受到限制.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Kyung Oh; Shin, Hyung Seop [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
To ensure the reliability and safety of various mechanical systems in accordance with their high-speed usage, it is necessary to evaluate the dynamic deformation behavior of structural materials under impact load. However, it is not easy to understand the dynamic deformation behavior of the structural materials using experimental methods in the high strain-rate range exceeding 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. In this study, the Taylor bar impact test was conducted to investigate the dynamic deformation behavior of metallic materials in the high strain-rate region, using a high-speed photography system. Numerical analysis of the Taylor bar impact test was performed using AUTODYN S/W. The results of the analysis were compared with the experimental results, and the material behavior in the high strain-rate region was discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The as-formed and post-deformed microstructures in both electroformed and spin-formed copper liners of shaped charge were studied by optical microscopy(OM), electron backscattering Kikuchi patterns(EBSP) technique and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The deformation was carried out at an ultra-high strain rate. OM analysis shows that the initial grains of the electroformed copper liner are finer than those of the spin-formed copper liners. Meanwhile, EBSP analysis reveals that the fiber texture exists in the electroformed copper liners, whereas there is no texture observed in the spin-formed copper liners before deformation. Having undergone high-strain-rate deformation the grains in the recovered slugs, which are transformed from both the electroformed and spin-formed copper liners, all become small. TEM observations of the above two kinds of post-deformed specimens show the existence of cellular structures characterized by tangled dislocations and subgrain boundaries consisting of dislocation arrays. These experimental results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization play an important role in the high-strain-rate deformation process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张丽; 林萍; 于妍洁; 赵久阳
2012-01-01
目的:探讨二维应变技术(2DS)评价不同分期慢性肾脏病患者左室收缩功能的价值.方法:100名慢性肾脏病患者按肾小球滤过率分为3组,A组(n=30)、B组(n=30)及C组(n=40),同时选取30名健康志愿者为正常对照组,分别取二维条件下心尖四腔切面、心尖两腔切面、心尖长轴切面3个连续心动周期图像.应用2DS获取左室18个节段心肌应变(s)及舒张早期应变率(SRe),并计算整体应变(GLS).结果:A组左室壁部分节段应变、应变率低于正常组.B组除间隔心尖段、下壁基底段、中间段以外,其余各节段收缩期应变均低于正常组,B组、C组各节段舒张早期应变率均低于正常组.其中,C组除前壁中间段、后壁心尖段以外,其他节段均较A组降低.B组、C组整体应变低于正常.结论:二维应变技术可以早期发现慢性肾脏病患者左室心肌收缩及舒张功能的异常.%AIM: To evaluate the application of two-dimensional strain imaging (2DS) in assessing the left ventricular function in patients with chronic renal diseases. METHODS: One hundred patients with chronic renal diseases were divided into three groups: group A (n=30) , group B (n=30) and group C (n=40) according to the severity of the renal disease and underwent 2DS. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited as control group. Four-chamber apical views, two-chamber apical views and left ventricular long-axis views of two-dimensional images were stored. Longitudinal strain (S) and early diastolic strain rate (SRe) of left ventricular segments were obtained by 2DS software. RESULTS; Compared with those in the control group, the S and SRe in some segments in group A decreased and except for the S of the apical anteroseptum and the basal and middle segments of inferior wall, the S and SRe of each wall of left ventricle in group B also decreased. The S and SRe of all segments in group C significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. Except
Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities
Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.
1994-05-01
We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
Impact of rockfill deformation on stress-strain state on dam reinforced concrete face
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sainov Mikhail Petrovich
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The author considered the results of the numerical studies of stress-strain state of a 100 m high rockfill dam with a reinforced concrete face. In the analysis, the dam construction sequence and loads applied to it were considered; it was assumed that the reinforced concrete face was constructed after filling the dam. The calculations were carried out in the elastic formulation at various moduli of deformation and Poisson’s ratio. It was revealed that at rockfill settlement under the action of hydrostatic pressure the reinforced concrete face not only bends but also is subject to longitudinal force. The development of these forces is connected not only with rockfill shear deformation in horizontal direction. Depending on the value of rockfill Poisson’s ratio these longitudinal forces may be both compressive and tensile. At the Poisson’s ratio exceeding 0.25 the longitudinal forces are tensile, and when it is equal to 0.2 - they are compressive. Evidently these particular longitudinal forces are the course of crack formation in reinforced concrete faces of a number of constructed dams. The indirect confirmation of the development of tensile forces on the face is the fact that actually in all the dams with reinforced concrete face opening of perimeter joint was observed. Thus, in order to provide the strength of reinforced concrete it is important to increase rockfill shear modulus. Only the decrease of stone compressibility (i.e. increase of linear deformation modulus E will slightly improve the stress state of the face, as the value of E has less effect on settlements and shear of the dam than Poisson’s ratio. High rockfill dams with reinforced concrete face may have a favorable stress state only at narrow site when the face horizontal displacements are inconsiderable and due to the settlements of rockfill in the face the forces are compressive but not tensile longitudinal forces.
Galgana, G. A.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Pontbriand, C. W.; Klein, E.; Wang, F.; Shabestari, K.; Yang, W.
2014-12-01
We analyze active crustal deformation in South America (SA) using published GPS observations and historic seismicity along the Nazca Trench and the active Ecuador-Colombia-Venezuela Plate boundary Zone. GPS-constrained kinematisc models that incorporate block and continuum techniques are used to assess patterns of regional tectonic deformation and its implications to seismic potential. We determine interplate coupling distributions, fault slip-rates, and intraplate crustal strain rates in combination with historic earthquakes within 40 seismic zones crust to provide moment rate constraints. Along the Nazca subduction zone, we resolve a series of highly coupled patches, interpreted as high-friction producing "asperities" beneath the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These include areas responsible for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Predicted tectonic block motions and fault slip rates reveal that the northern part of South America deforms rapidly, with crustal fault slip rates as much as ~20 mm/a. Fault slip and locking patterns reveal that the Oca Ancón-Pilar-Boconó fault system plays a key role in absorbing most of the complex eastward and southward convergence patterns in northeastern Colombia and Venezuela, while the near-parallel system of faults in eastern Colombia and Ecuador absorb part of the transpressional motion due to the ~55 mm/a Nazca-SA plate convergence. These kinematic models, in combination with historic seismicity rates, provide moment deficit rates that reveal regions with high seismic potential, such as coastal Ecuador, Bucaramanga, Arica and Antofagasta. We eventually use the combined information from moment rates and fault coupling patterns to further constrain stochastic seismic hazard models of the region by implementing realistic trench rupture scenarios (see Mahdyiar et al., this volume).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.
2016-02-01
An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Universite Paris 13, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaeuse (France); Ouarem, A. [LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Universite Paris 13, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaeuse (France); Couque, H. [Nexter-Munitions, 7 route de Guerry, 18023 Bourges Cedex (France); Gubicza, J.; Szommer, P. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest, P.O.B. 32, H-1518 (Hungary); Brinza, O. [LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Universite Paris 13, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaeuse (France)
2011-05-15
Polycrystalline Zn with an average grain size of about 300 {mu}m was deformed by direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar at a velocity of 29 m/s. An inhomogeneous grain structure was found consisting of a center region having large average grain size of 20 {mu}m surrounded by a fine-grained rim with an average grain size of 6 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed a significant dislocation density in the large-grained area while in the fine-grained rim the dislocation density was negligible. Most probably, the higher strain yielded recrystallization in the outer ring while in the center only recovery occurred. The hardening effect of dislocations overwhelms the smaller grain size strengthening in the center part resulting in higher nanohardness in this region than in the outer ring. - Graphical Abstract: (a): EBSD micrograph showing the initial microstructure of polycrystalline Zn that was subsequently submitted to high strain rate impact. (b): an inhomogeneous grain size refinement was obtained which consists of a central coarse-grained area, surrounded by a fine-grained recrystallized rim. The black arrow points to the disc center. Research Highlights: {yields} A polycrystalline Zn specimen was submitted to high strain rate impact loading. {yields} Inhomogeneous grain refinement occurred due to strain gradient in impacted sample. {yields} A fine-grained recrystallized rim surrounded the coarse-grained center of specimen. {yields} The coarse-grained center exhibited higher hardness than the fine-grained rim. {yields} The higher hardness of the center was caused by the higher dislocation density.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张立敏; 李莎; 魏红; 刘楠; 王盈
2015-01-01
Objective To establish a diabetic and atherosclerosis rat models,so as to discuss the mechanism of the effect of Fasudil on left ventricle function using two?dimensional strain echocardiography(2D?SE). Methods Among the 27 Wistar rats selected for the study,9 were selected as control group(Cont group),the other 18 were used to establish diabetic and atherosclerosis models. Then the modeling group was equally divided in?to Model group(Mod group,n=9)and Fasudil group(Fas group,n=9). The Fas group was given Fasudil with the dose of 10 mg · kg-1 · d-1 for 4 weeks. The global radial strain(GRS),global circumferential strain(GCS)and blood levels of von Willebrand factor(vWF)were measured. The correlation between strain parameter and vWF were analyzed. Results The vWF level was significantly higher in Mod group compared to Cont group and Fas group(P0.05). The GRS and GCS were significantly decreased in Mod group compared to Cont group and Fas group(P0.05).Mod组与Cont组及Fas组相比GRS、GCS明显降低(P<0.05),Fas组GRS、GCS较Cont组降低(P<0.05).GRS、GCS与vWF呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 法舒地尔对糖尿病合并动脉硬化大鼠左心室功能的影响与改善内皮功能相关,2D?SE评价糖尿病合并动脉硬化大鼠的左心室功能是一种有效的方法.
Effect of Strain Rate on Deformation Behavior of AlCoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloy by Nanoindentation
Tian, L.; Jiao, Z. M.; Yuan, G. Z.; Ma, S. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Zhang, Y.; Qiao, J. W.
2016-06-01
In this study, nanoindentation tests with continuous stiffness measurement technique were measured to investigate the deformation behavior of a high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi under different indentation strain rates at room temperature. Results suggest that the creep behavior exhibits remarkable strain rate dependence. In-situ scanning images showed a conspicuous pileup around the indents, indicating that an extremely localized plastic deformation occurred during the nanoindentation. Under different strain rates, elastic modulus basically remains unchanged, while the hardness decreases with increasing indentation depth due to the indentation size effect. Furthermore, the modulus and hardness of AlCoCrFeNi HEAs are greater than that of the Al x CoCrFeNi ( x = 0.3,0.5) at the strain rate of 0.2 s-1 due to its higher negative enthalpy of mixing related to the atomic binding force, and the solid solution strengthening induced by the lattice distortion, respectively.
Strain Accumulation Estimated from Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan
Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Kenji, Y.; Sakata, T.
2012-12-01
Our research has developed an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation composed of the kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging techniques [Tadokoro et al., 2006; Ikuta et al., 2008]. We monitored crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Amurian Plate. The convergence rate is predicted at 60 mm/y in the N59W direction by the Euler vector of REVEL [Sella et al., 2002]. We installed three monitoring sites (named KMN, KMS, and KME) on the seafloor at depths of about 1920-2030 m. The sites KMN and KMS are installed perpendicular to the trough axis with a spacing of 20 km; the site KME is 50 km from KMN and KMS in the direction parallel to the trough axis. The monitoring was started in 2004, 2005, and 2008 at KMS, KMN, and KME, respectively. The numbers of measurements are 16, 20, and 5 times at KMN, KMS, and KME, respectively. We obtained 3-7 years averaged horizontal site velocities within ITRF2000 adopting a robust estimation method with Tukey's biweight function to the time series of site position measured until the end of 2011. Substituting the synthetic rigid block motions of the Amurian Plate from the velocities within ITRF2000, we obtained the following site velocities with respect to the Amurian Plate [Tadokoro et al., 2012]: KMN 41±4 mm/y, N77±7W KMS 43±5 mm/y, N80±6W KME 42±5 mm/y, N80±7W In contrast, the on-land GPS horizontal velocities along the coast is 23-33 mm/y toward N74-80W. The present observational results show: (1) the velocity vectors are all the same length and direction, which indicates no internal deformation in this region; (2) the back-slip model predicts that the plate interface beneath the region is uniformly locked with coupling ratios of 60-80 %, indicating strain accumulation that will be released during the anticipated mega-thrust Tonankai earthquake; and (3) the directions of site velocities differ from that of convergence vector by 20 degrees, which is affected by
Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities
Constantinou, Navid C
2010-01-01
Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-06
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics
Lyubich, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra
2004-08-01
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史浩颖; 舒先红; 汪芳; 陈灏珠; 刘少稳
2009-01-01
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of longitudinal strain and strain rate imaging by two dimensional speckle tracking in predicting echocardiographic response under cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT),in comparison with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods Fifty patients suffering from heart failure,who received CRT,were selected. TDI and two dimensional speckle tracking ima ging in addition to standard echocardiography were performed prior to CRT. The average value of peak longitu dinal strain in 12 left ventricular (LV) segments (Strain-12), the standard deviation of time to peak longitudinal strain in 12 LV segments (Tstrain-SD) and the standard deviation of time to the end of longitudinal systolic strain rate in 6 basal LV segments (Tsr-SD) were calculated. Patients were classified as echocardiographic re sponders if the LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) was reduced > 15% compared with baseline volumes. Re sults No significant difference was seen in baseline Ts-SD,Strain-12 and Tstrain-SD between nonresponders and responders. However, the Tsr-SD was much higher in responders than nonresponders[ (95. 9 ±33. 0)% vs (64. 8 ±39. 6)%,P15%或左心室射血分数(LVEF)绝对值增加>5%的患者.结果 CRT有效组起搏前左心室射血前时间显著长于无效组[(146.0±34.5)ms对(123.5±32.0)ms,P0.05),而CRT有效组的应变率结束时间标准差(Tsr-SD)显著高于无效组(P0.05),而CRT有效组的左心室12节段纵轴反向应变总和(Pstrain-12)显著高于无效组[(12.5±7.9)%对(7.1±8.4)%,P<0.05].将140.5 ms作为截点值,左心室射血前时间预测超声心动图有效的敏感性和特异性分别为63%和79%,将70.7 ms作为截点值,Tsr-SD预测CRT有效的敏感性和特异性分别为73%和65%.结论 常规超声心动图参数中仅左心室射血前时间能预测CRT疗效,二维斑点追踪显像技术的部分参数预测CRT疗效优于组织多普勒.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Zhang, Z. B.; Mishin, O. V.; Tao, N. R.; Pantleon, W.
2015-03-01
The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization takes place during annealing of the low-strain and high-strain samples for 1 h at 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Both coarsening and partial recrystallization occur in the high-strain sample during annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. For this sample, it is found that whereas coarsening alone results in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Z.B.; Mishin, O.V. [Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals, Section for Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Tao, N.R. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Pantleon, W., E-mail: pawo@dtu.dk [Section for Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark)
2015-03-15
The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr−1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization takes place during annealing of the low-strain and high-strain samples for 1 h at 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Both coarsening and partial recrystallization occur in the high-strain sample during annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. For this sample, it is found that whereas coarsening alone results in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength.
Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; Schuck, Bernhardt; Hoehne, Nadine; Oelker, Anne; Bésuelle, Pierre; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Schmatz, Joyce; Klaver, Jop
2017-04-01
A microphysics-based understanding of mechanical and fluid flow properties in clay-rich geomaterials is required for extrapolating better constitutive equations beyond the laboratory's time scales, so that predictions over the long term can be made less uncertain. In this contribution, we present microstructural investigations of rocks specimens sheared in triaxial compression at low bulk strain, by using the combination of broad-ion-beam (BIB) milling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to infer deformation mechanisms based on microstructures imaged at sub-micron resolution. Two end-member clay-rich geomaterials from European Underground Laboratories (URL) were analysed: (i) the poorly cemented Boom Clay sediment (BC from URL at Mol/Dessel, Belgium; confining pressure [CP] = 0.375 & 1.5 MPa) and (ii) the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (COx from the URL at Bure, France; CP = 2 & 10 MPa). Although as a first approximation the inelastic bahvior of cemented and uncemented clay-rich geomaterials can be described by similar pressure-dependent hardening plasticity models, deformed samples in this contribution show very contrasting micro-scale behaviour: microstructures reveal brittle-ductile transitional behaviour in BC, whereas deformation in COx is dominantly cataclastic. In Boom Clay, at meso-scale, shear bands exhibit characteristics that are typical of uncemented small-grained clay-rich materials deformed at high shear strains, consisting of anastomosing shears interpreted as Y- and B-shears, which bound the passively deformed microlithons. At micro- down to nano-scale, the strong shape preferential orientation of clay aggregates in the anastomosing shears is interpreted to be responsible of the shear weakness. More over, the reworking of clay aggregates during deformation contributes to the collapsing of porosity in the shear band. Ductile deformation mechanisms represented by grain-rotation, grain-sliding, bending and granular flow mechanisms are strongly involved
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chu, Xi, E-mail: chuxi.ok@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf1963871400@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jin, Mengmeng, E-mail: 24401878@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)
2015-03-11
Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s{sup −1}). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinara, Syed Mukulika, E-mail: smdinara.iit@gmail.com; Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kumar, Rahul [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India 721302 (India); Chakraborty, Apurba; Biswas, Dhrubes [Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India 721 302 (India); Bhattacharya, Sekhar [SSN Research Center, Tamilnadu, India 603110 (India)
2015-04-15
Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations at Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN hetero interface after a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (SiN) passivation has been investigated from non-destructive High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) analysis, depletion depth and capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile measurement. The crystalline quality and strained in-plane lattice parameters of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N and GaN were evaluated from double axis (002) symmetric (ω-2θ) diffraction scan and double axis (105) asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (DA RSM) which revealed that the tensile strain of the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer increased by 15.6% after SiN passivation. In accordance with the predictions from theoretical solution of Schrödinger-Poisson’s equations, both electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) depletion depth profile and C-V characteristics analyses were performed which implied effective 9.5% increase in 2DEG carrier density after passivation. The enhancement of polarization charges results from increased tensile strain in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer and also due to the decreased surface states at the interface of SiN/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer, effectively improving the carrier confinement at the interface.
On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1975-01-01
The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....
Two-dimensional Numerical Modeling Research on Continent Subduction Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhimin; XU Bei; ZHOU Yaoqi; XU Hehua; HUANG Shaoying
2004-01-01
Continent subduction is one of the hot research problems in geoscience. New models presented here have been set up and two-dimensional numerical modeling research on the possibility of continental subduction has been made with the finite element software, ANSYS, based on documentary evidence and reasonable assumptions that the subduction of oceanic crust has occurred, the subduction of continental crust can take place and the process can be simplified to a discontinuous plane strain theory model. The modeling results show that it is completely possible for continental crust to be subducted to a depth of 120 km under certain circumstances and conditions. At the same time, the simulations of continental subduction under a single dynamical factor have also been made, including the pull force of the subducted oceanic lithosphere, the drag force connected with mantle convection and the push force of the mid-ocean ridge. These experiments show that the drag force connected with mantle convection is critical for continent subduction.
Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.
Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming
2013-04-04
Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhanghua Chen; Jiajian Jin; Jiumei Xiao
2004-01-01
An investigation of computer simulation is presented to analyze the effects of strain localization and damage evolution in large plastic deformation. The simulation is carried out by using an elastic-plastic-damage coupling finite element program that is developed based on the concept of mixed interpolation of displacement/pressure. This program has been incorporated into a damage mechanics model as well as the corresponding damage criterion. To illustrate the performance of the proposed approach, a typical strain localization problem has been simulated. The results show that the proposed approach is of good capability to capture strain localization and predict the damage evolution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlberg, Carl F.O.; Faleskog, Jonas; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2013-01-01
Small scale strain gradient plasticity is coupled with a model of grain boundaries that take into account the energetic state of a plastically strained boundary and the slip and separation between neighboring grains. A microstructure of hexagonal grains is investigated using a plane strain finite...... element model. The results show that three different microstructural deformation mechanisms can be identified. The standard plasticity case in which the material behaves as expected from coarse grained experiments, the nonlocal plasticity region where size of the microstructure compared to some intrinsic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yoshimi, Yusuke; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimokawa, Tomotsugu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ohashi, Tetsuya [Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koencho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)
2014-01-10
Plastic deformation of fully pearlitic steels was investigated using a multiscale approach: experimentally, the finite element method and molecular dynamics. This paper is the first in a series of three papers demonstrating the strain distribution in uniaxial tensile deformation with high-precision markers drawn by electron beam lithography. Strain was measured at loads of 1.98 kN, 2.21 kN and 2.28 kN in tensile deformation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and strain maps show the plastic deformation of cementite lamellae and homogenous plastic deformation under uniaxial tensile deformation in the area where the cementite lamellae are aligned in the tensile direction. The areas where strain was enhanced were both block/colony boundaries and the areas where the cementite lamellae are inclined approximately 45° to the tensile direction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李阳; 夏稻子
2011-01-01
Objective To access two-dimensional strain echocardiography(2DSE) in evaluating the clinical effect of emergency stent implantation and delayed stent implantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods With two-dimensional strain software, peak systolic radial strain of the left ventricular and parameters of conventional ultrasound were measured in 48 patients with AMI and 30 healthy age-matched volunteers.Results (1)Compared with the control group, the peak systolic radial strain of the left vent ricular segments,Left ventricle ejection fraction(LVEF) and fractional shortening(FS) in patients with emergency stent implantation group(A group)and delayed stent implantation group(B group) decreased.Left antrum and ventricular diameter were higher than those in A group and B group.Difference between them was significant(P＜0.05).(2) Compared A group and B group, left antrum and ventricular diameters of A group were lower than those in group B.LVEF and FS were higher than those in B group.Peak systolic radial strain of the left ventricular segments except posterior and inferior wall to basal segment,inferior wall to apical segment of B group decreased significantly(P＜0.05).Conclusions Emergency stent implantation is better than delayed stent implantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.%目的 应用超声二维应变技术(2DSE)分析急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者急诊与延迟支架置入术后的局部心肌应变,评价急诊与延迟支架置入术的临床效果.方法 48例AMI患者和30例正常对照组应用二维应变软件测量左室短轴室壁各节段的径向峰值收缩应变及常规超声参数.结果 (1)与对照组比较,急诊支架置入术后患者(A组)与延迟支架置人术后患者(B组)的左房、左室内径增大,LVEF、FS降低,各节段室壁应变降低,差异有统计学意义(P＜0.05);(2)A组与B组比较,A组的左房、左室内径低于B组,LVEF、FS高于B组,A组各节段室壁应变除后
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张群霞; 张茂惠; 阳文琳; 曹小玲; 苏蕾; 卢岷
2016-01-01
Objective To explore the accuracy of assessing viable myocardium by two -dimensional strain analysis combined with PLGA contrast enhanced low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography.Methods Thirty cute ischemia reperfusion canine models were reproduced successfully. Then myocardial contrast(enhanced with PLGA contrast agents) was performed through aortic root,images were acquired and saved at baseline,rest,and the period with low dose dobutamine administration.The dimentional strain parameters of myocardial segments were acquired by measurements of regional peak -systolic strain in longitudinal(LS),radial(RS)and circumferential(CS)motion on all segments respectively under different condition.Results The parameters of 24 dogs were measured successfully.Compared with nonviable myocardial segment,LS,RS and CS of viable segment increased significantly during dobutamine stress,there was significant difference (P<0.05),however,LS,RS and CS of the former did not present significant variance at the same time .The myocardial specimen staining results were selected as the gold standard, the LS,RS,and CS were selected as evaluation parameters,the sensitivities for LS,RS and CS were 81.03%,77.59% and 72.41%, the specificities were 81.30%,84.00% and 78.00%,respectively.Conclusion Two-dimensional strain analysis combined with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography enhanced with PLGA contrast agent can improve the quality of ultrasound image,and also can improve the accuracy of assessing viable myocardium with acquired dimensional strain parameters.%目的：探讨乳酸/羟基乙酸共聚物（PLGA）经主动脉心肌造影联合多巴酚丁胺负荷条件下，二维应变评价犬节段心肌存活性的准确性。方法30只犬成功建立急性心肌缺血再灌注模型，经主动脉根部行 PLGA 心肌造影，通过多巴酚丁胺负荷试验，获取心肌节段二维应变参数：收缩期峰值纵向应变（LS）、径向应变（RS）及圆
Magnetic properties of two dimensional silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes-based kagome lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Xiaowei [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Zhou Jian [Peking University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Qian, E-mail: qianwang2@pku.edu.cn [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Physics (United States)
2012-08-15
Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic kagome lattices are constructed using silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes (SiC-TNFs). Two types of structures with alternating Si and C atoms are studied: the first one is constructed using the C-edged SiC-TNFs as the building blocks and C atoms as the linkers of kagome sites (TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N}) while the second one is composed of the Si-edged SiC-TNFs with Si atoms as linkers (TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N}). Using density functional theory-based calculations, we show that the fully relaxed TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N} retains the morphology of regular kagome lattice and is ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure is deformed and antiferromagnetic. However, the ground state of TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure can be transformed from the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state by applying tensile strain. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SiC-TNFs-based kagome lattices can be ferromagnetic at room temperature.
Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy
Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.
Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-01-01
In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-12-01
The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-01-01
We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
Band Gap Engineering of Two-Dimensional Nitrogene
Li, Jie-Sen; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin
2016-01-01
In our previous study, we have predicted the novel two-dimensional honeycomb monolayers of pnictogen. In particular, the structure and properties of the honeycomb monolayer of nitrogen, which we call nitrogene, are very unusual. In this paper, we make an in-depth investigation of its electronic structure. We find that the band structure of nitrogene can be engineered in several ways: controlling the stacking of monolayers, application of biaxial tensile strain, and application of perpendicular electric field. The band gap of nitrogene is found to decrease with the increasing number of layers. The perpendicular electric field can also reduce the band gap when it is larger than 0.18 V/Å, and the gap closes at 0.35 V/Å. A nearly linear dependence of the gap on the electric field is found during the process. Application of biaxial strain can decrease the band gap as well, and eventually closes the gap. After the gap-closing, we find six inequivalent Dirac points in the Brillouin zone under the strain between 17% and 28%, and the nitrogene monolayer becomes a Dirac semimetal. These findings suggest that the electronic structure of nitrogene can be modified by several techniques, which makes it a promising candidate for electronic devices. PMID:27680297
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁彬彬; 张卫达; 张雪花; 王晓武
2012-01-01
目的:运用斑点追踪技术(STI)测量猪闭合性心肌挫伤前、后左心室短轴各节段的二维应变值,观察正常人室壁二维应变的规律,探讨斑点追踪技术对节段性心肌缺血的临床应用价值.方法:采用小型撞击器对9只贵州小型巴马猪进行撞击建立闭合性心肌损伤模型,记录猪撞击前及撞伤后左室短轴观3个水平的高帧频图像,应用二维应变分析软件测量各节段的径向应变(RS)、圆周应变(CS).结果:闭合性心肌挫伤前Rs在同一水平各节段间差异无统计学意义,乳头肌水平显著高于心尖水平(P＜0.05)；Cs在同一水平不同节段间差异有统计学意义(P＜0.05).闭合性心肌挫伤后的挫伤节段的Rs和Cs显著低于正常组相应节段(均为P＜0.01、P＜0.05).结论:STI能够准确测量左室短轴各节段的二维应变值、敏感评价心肌缺血程度.%Objective:To evaluate the clinical value of speckle tracking echocardiography for the measurement of two dimensional strain echocardiography (2D-SE) technique in pigs with close myocardial contusion and to estimate the left ventricle function of close myocardial contusion. Methods:9 small Guizhou-Panama pigs were used. The close myocardial contusion animal mode, was snccessfully set up using the small impactor. High frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at three different levels before and after the MC. Radial strain (RS) and circumferential strain (CS) were measured in the left ventricular short-axis views using 2DS strain analysis software. Results: 2DS analysis software showed that there was no significant difference ( P >0. 05) of the RS at the same levels mentioned above in left ventricle before the MC. RS and CS after the strike were significantly decreased compared with pre-my-ocardial contusion ( P <0. 05. P<0. 01) at the same levels mentioned above in left ventricle. Conclusion: Speckle tracking imaging
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.
Саврай, Р. А.; Макаров, А. В.; Малыгина, И. Ю.; Давыдова, Н. А.
2014-01-01
Straining and fracture features upon static and cyclic loading of quenched grade 50 steel (with 0.51 wt.% of C) subjected to nanostructurizing deformation-thermal treatment, which includes frictional treatment and optimized tem-pering at temperature of 350°С have been investigated. It is established that combined nanostructurizing treatment alters the character of development of a plastic yielding upon loading and makes it more uniform. This is expressed in disappearance of the yield point el...
Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.
2008-01-01
Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Grain-resolved elastic strains in deformed copper measured by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oddershede, Jette, E-mail: jeto@risoe.dtu.dk [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso DTU, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Schmidt, Soren; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Margulies, Lawrence [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso DTU, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wright, Jonathan [European Synchrotron Research Facility, 38043 Grenoble (France); Moscicki, Marcin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Reimers, Walter [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Sekr. BH18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Winther, Grethe [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso DTU, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)
2011-07-15
This X-ray diffraction study reports the grain-resolved elastic strains in about 1000 randomly oriented grains embedded in a polycrystalline copper sample. Diffraction data were collected in situ in the undeformed state and at a plastic strain of 1.5% while the sample was under tensile load. For each grain the centre-of-mass position was determined with an accuracy of 10 {mu}m, the volume with a relative error of 20%, the orientation to 0.05{sup o} and the axial strain to 10{sup -4}. The elastic strain along the tensile direction exhibited a grain orientation dependence with grains within 20 deg. of <100> carrying the largest strain. While the width of the strain distribution for all grains did not change upon plastic loading, the grain-resolved data show a significant widening of the distribution evaluated for small subsets of initially elastically similar grains. This widening appears independent of the grain orientation. - Research Highlights: {yields} X-ray diffraction study of {approx} 1000 Cu grains during in situ plastic deformation. {yields} Grain averaged positions, orientations, volumes and elastic strain tensors derived. {yields} Both lattice rotation and axial strain depend on the initial grain orientation. {yields} Grains within 20{sup o} of <100> carry the largest elastic strain along the tensile axis. {yields} The results enable evaluation and development of polycrystal plasticity models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Crooker, Paul [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Feng, Zhili [ORNL
2015-01-01
Weld residual stress is one of the primary driving forces for primary water stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds (DMWs). To mitigate tensile residual stress in DMWs, it is critical to understand residual stress distribution by modeling techniques. Recent studies have shown that weld residual stress prediction using today s DMW residual stress models strongly depends on the strain-hardening constitutive model chosen. The commonly used strain-hardening models (isotropic, kinematic, and mixed) are all time-independent and inadequate to account for the time-dependent (viscous) plastic deformation at the elevated temperatures experienced during welding. For materials with profound strain-hardening, such as stainless steels and nickel-based alloys that are widely used in nuclear reactor and piping systems, the equivalent plastic strain the determinate factor of the flow stress can be highly dependent on the recovery and recrystallization processes. These processes are in turn a strong function of temperature, time, and deformation rate. Recently, the authors proposed a new temperature- and time-dependent strain-hardening constitutive model: the dynamic strain-hardening constitutive model. The application of such a model has resulted in improved weld residual stress prediction compared to the residual stress measurement results from the contour and deep-hole drilling methods. In this study, the dynamic strain-hardening behavior of Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 82 used in pressure vessel nozzle DMWs is experimentally determined. The kinetics of the recovery and recrystallization of flow stress are derived from experiments, resulting in a semi-empirical equation as a function of pre-strain, time, and temperature that can be used for weld residual stress modeling. The method used in this work also provides an approach to study the kinetics of recovery and recrystallization of other materials with significant strain-hardening.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓倾; 周青; 黄佳; 陈金玲; 胡波; 贾妍; 吴田; 郭瑞强
2011-01-01
目的 应用斑点追踪技术评价室壁运动正常的心肌缺血患者左室心肌纵向应变，探讨二维纵向应变检测心肌缺血的临床价值。方法 44例经冠状动脉造影证实的冠心病患者和28例对照者接受二维超声检查，用二维应变软件分析心尖长轴观、心尖两腔和四腔观的图像，获取左室各节段心肌纵向应变、18节段心肌纵向应变均值(SL18)和12节段（除外6个心尖节段）纵向应变均值(SL12)。结果 冠心病组缺血节段的纵向应变及整体纵向应变均较正常对照组明显减低;无论正常组还是冠心病组，心尖节段纵向应变均明显高于基底段和中间段，SL18与SL12之间差异有统计学意义;ROC曲线表明SL18诊断心肌缺血的截断值为-18.8％，敏感性为80.2％，特异性为74.1％；SL12诊断心肌缺血的截断值为-17.8％，敏感性为81.7％，特异性为85.6％。SL12诊断心肌缺血的敏感性与SL18接近，但特异性较SL18明显增高。结论 二维纵向应变均值能较敏感地发现心肌缺血，12节段的二维纵向应变均值较18节段能更准确地评价心肌缺血。%Objective To assess left ventricular(LV) longitudinal strain in patients with coronary heart disease by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2DSTI),and to explore the clinical value of 2D longitudinal strain in detecting myocardial ischemia. Methods Forty-four patients with coronary heart disease (CHD group) and 28 age-matched subjects (control group) were enrolled into this study. The two-dimensional data were obtained in apical 4-chamble, 2-chamber and long axis view. And the longitudinal strains of every segments, the average longitudinal strain of LV 18 segments (SL18), the average longitudinal strain of 12 segments (SL12,excluded the 6 apical segments) were analyzed. Results In the patients with CHD, the longitudinal strain of ischemia segments and the global LV longitudinal strain were significantly decreased
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王健; 康春松; 董建红; 薛继平
2009-01-01
目的 探讨冠心病心肌缺血改善前后不同时间点的应变、应变率特点,评价二维应变成像在冠心病患者疗效评价中的价值.方法 24例血运重建治疗的冠心病患者,应用二维应变检测病变节段血运重建前,重建后1周、1月、3月的应变和应变率参数的变化.结果 病变节段治疗前应变-时间曲线、应变率-时间曲线整个心动周期轮廓杂乱,峰值应变(S)、收缩期峰值应变率(SRS)与舒张早期峰值应变率(SRE)波峰低平,部分节段S波峰倒置.治疗后1周,病变节段S、SRS、SRE及舒张晚期峰值应变率(SRA)各峰值指标有所上升,与治疗前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后1月,病变节段S、SRE与治疗前比较明显上升(P<0.01).治疗后3月应变-时间曲线、应变率-时间曲线轮廓趋于整齐,S、SRS、SRE及SRA峰值明显上升,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),S、SRS、SRA与治疗后1周、1月比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 二维应变可无创定量评价冠心病血运重建后不同时间的应变及应变率,评价局部心肌收缩、舒张功能.%Objective To probe into the characteristics of strain and strain rate in different time points of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients before and after the improvement of myocardial ischemia, to evaluate the value of two-dimensional strain (2DS) imaging in assessing curative effect of CAD patients. Methods The changes of strain and strain rate in local lesion segments before revascularization,and one week,one month and three months after revascularization of 24 CAD patients accepting revascularization therapy were detected by 2DS. Results Before revascularization treatment,the outlines of strain-time curves and strain-rate-time curves of lesion segments of CAD patients in whole cardiac circle were cluttered. The peak strain (S),the peak systolic strain rate (SRS) and the peak early diastolic strain rate (SRE) were low and calm. The
Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy
Fayer, Michael
2011-03-01
The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific
Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials
Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter
2017-02-01
Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging
Geotechnical applications of a two-dimensional elastodynamic displacement discontinuity method
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Siebrits, E
1993-12-01
Full Text Available A general two-dimensional elastodynamic displacement discontinuity method is used to model a variety of application problems. The plane strain problems are: the elastodynamic motions induced on a cavity by shear slip on a nearby crack; the dynamic...
Two-dimensional DNA displays for comparisons of bacterial genomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malloff Chad
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We have developed two whole genome-scanning techniques to aid in the discovery of polymorphisms as well as horizontally acquired genes in prokaryotic organisms. First, two-dimensional bacterial genomic display (2DBGD was developed using restriction enzyme fragmentation to separate genomic DNA based on size, and then employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in the second dimension to exploit differences in sequence composition. This technique was used to generate high-resolution displays that enable the direct comparison of > 800 genomic fragments simultaneously and can be adapted for the high-throughput comparison of bacterial genomes. 2DBGDs are capable of detecting acquired and altered DNA, however, only in very closely related strains. If used to compare more distantly related strains (e.g. different species within a genus numerous small changes (i.e. small deletions and point mutations unrelated to the interesting phenotype, would encumber the comparison of 2DBGDs. For this reason a second method, bacterial comparative genomic hybridization (BCGH, was developed to directly compare bacterial genomes to identify gain or loss of genomic DNA. BCGH relies on performing 2DBGD on a pooled sample of genomic DNA from 2 strains to be compared and subsequently hybridizing the resulting 2DBGD blot separately with DNA from each individual strain. Unique spots (hybridization signals represent foreign DNA. The identification of novel DNA is easily achieved by excising the DNA from a dried gel followed by subsequent cloning and sequencing. 2DBGD and BCGH thus represent novel high resolution genome scanning techniques for directly identifying altered and/or acquired DNA.
Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides
Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng
2017-03-01
Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.
Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures
Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.
2012-01-01
A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.
Paglietti, A.
1982-01-01
At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.
Paglietti, A.
1982-01-01
At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.
Cochrane, Cédric; Lewandowski, Maryline; Koncar, Vladan
2010-01-01
A sensor based on a Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC), fully compatible with a textile substrate and its general properties, has been developed in our laboratory, and its electromechanical characterization is presented herein. In particular the effects of strain rate (from 10 to 1,000 mm/min) and of repeated elongation cycles on the sensor behaviour are investigated. The results show that strain rate seems to have little influence on sensor response. When submitted to repeated tensile cycles, the CPC sensor is able to detect accurately fabric deformations over each whole cycle, taking into account the mechanical behaviour of the textile substrate. Complementary information is given concerning the non-effect of aging on the global resistivity of the CPC sensor. Finally, our sensor was tested on a parachute canopy during a real drop test: the canopy fabric deformation during the critical inflation phase was successfully measured, and was found to be less than 9%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godfrey, A.; Hughes, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Materials and Applied Mechanics; Krieger Lassen, N.C.; Jensen, D.J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Dept.
1998-03-01
The speed of automated EBSP orientation gathering has now increased to a point where it is possible to examine large areas of deformed material at a resolution close to the length scale of the dislocation substructures involved (typically < 1 {micro}m for strains of greater than {epsilon} = 1). Investigation of such deformed samples invariably gives rise to diffraction images of low quality and to many double patterns. To assist in a critical selection of the data, it is usual to store a measure of the indexing confidence for each point. Here the authors describe how deformed samples, which provide the appropriate range of pattern qualities, can be used to calibrate acceptance criteria for unsupervised EBSP measurements on deformation microstructures. An application in the use of such criteria is also described. Two crystals chosen with orientations that are known to develop a well defined texture spread during deformation were channel die deformed to a strain of {epsilon} = 1.5 (78% reduction). The texture spread was determined for each sample from a large number of transmission electron microscope (TEM) orientation measurements taken using a fast semi-automatic technique. EBSP scans were then made on the samples. Orientations failing within the expected (TEM determined) texture spread are assumed to be correct. While those falling outside the expected spread are assumed to be incorrect. Unsupervised acceptance criteria based on an indexing confidence parameter (in their case the fraction of located Kikuchi bands matching the indexing solution) were then tested by comparing the set of orientations selected using a given approval criterion with the set of the orientations falling within the expected spread. Criteria were appraised by determining both the fraction of all orientations that were misclassified (incorrect orientations selected plus correct orientations not selected) or by the fraction of incorrect orientations in the selected data set.
Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran
2015-01-01
Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated for shape predictions of complex wing structures, for which surface strain-sensing stations must be properly distributed to avoid jointed junctures, and must be increased in the high strain gradient region. Each embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of structure along a surface strain-sensing line) was discretized into small variable domains. Thus, the surface strain distribution can be described with a piecewise linear or a piecewise nonlinear function. Through discretization, the embedded beam curvature equation can be piece-wisely integrated to obtain the Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions (for each embedded beam), which are expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the embedded beam and the surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By inputting the surface strain data into the Displacement Transfer Functions, slopes and deflections along each embedded beam can be calculated for mapping out overall structural deformed shapes. A long tapered cantilever tubular beam was chosen for shape prediction analysis. The input surface strains were analytically generated from finite-element analysis. The shape prediction accuracies of the Variable- Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were then determined in light of the finite-element generated slopes and deflections, and were fofound to be comparable to the accuracies of the constant-domain Displacement Transfer Functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑东燕; 陈明; 张宇辉; 郑建华; 刘怡
2013-01-01
目的 运用二维斑点追踪成像(STI)技术观察肥厚型心肌病(HCM)患者左心室前壁额断面心肌的面积应变.方法 收集25例肥厚型心肌病患者(HCM组)及25名健康志愿者(对照组),应用STI技术在左心室前壁心肌额断面采集25个ROI的面积应变,获得收缩期应变(ε)、收缩期应变率(SRS),舒张早期应变率(SRE)、舒张晚期应变率(SRA)；比较两组的差异,并分析其与各左心室功能参数的相关性.结果 HCM组ε、SRS及SRE均低于对照组,而SRA高于对照组(P均＜0.01)；ε、SRS、SRE、SRA与左心室相对室壁厚度(RWT)、左心室质量指数(LVMI)呈线性负相关关系(P均＜0.01).结论 STI技术能够用于观察左心室前壁额断面心肌的面积应变,检出HCM患者的左心室局部心肌功能异常.%Objective To observe the myocardial area strain at the anterior wall (AW) of left ventricle (LV) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging (STI).Methods Twenty-five HCM patients (HCM group) and 25 healthy subjects (control group) were collected.Twenty-five ROIs on the AW of LV were tracked by STI.The strain (ε),strain rates in systole (SRS),strain rates in early-diastole (SRE),strain rates in late-diastole (SRA) on 25 ROIs were collected,and the mean valued of 25 ROIs were compared between the two groups.The correlation between the parameters of STI and left ventricular function were analyzed.Results Compared with the control group,e,SRS and SRE significantly decreased,but SRA increased in HCM group (all P＜0.01).There were negative correlations between parameters of STI and left ventricular relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index,respectively (all P＜0.01).Conclusion STI can be used for observing the myocardial area strain at AW to detect the abnormal myocardial of LV in patients with HCM.
Effect of multiaxial deformation Max-strain on the structure and properties of Ti-Ni alloy
Khmelevskaya, I. Yu; Kawalla, R.; Prokoshkin, S. D.; Komarov, V. S.
2014-08-01
The severe plastic deformation (SPD) forming ultrafine-grained (nanocrystalline or nanosubgrained) structure is one of the most effective ways to improve the functional properties of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys [1, 2]. In the present work, the SPD of near-equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy was carried out using the multi-axial deformation module Max-strain, which is a part of the physical simulation system "Gleeble 3500". The deformation was performed at a constant temperature of 400°C with speed of 0.5 mm/s in six passes without interpass pauses. The accumulated true strain was about 3. As a result, a mixed ultrafine-grained/subgrained structure with grain/subgrain sizes from 50 to 300 nm and a high density of free dislocations formed. The resulting structure is close to a nanoscale region and provides a significant advantage in the basic functional property - completely recoverable strain - as compared with a conventional recrystallized structure: 7% versus 2%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付倩; 谢明星; 王静; 王新房; 吕清; 卢晓芳; 方凌云; 程龙
2009-01-01
目的 探讨二维应变超声心动图定量评价大鼠急性心肌梗死模型左室局部心肌功能改变的应用价值.方法 60只Wistar大鼠随机分为两组:实验组50只,制备急性冠状动脉心肌梗死模型;假手术组10只.两组分别于术前及术后1周、4周、8周行超声心动图检查.解剖M型超声心动图测量左室舒张末期及收缩末期内径(LVIDd、LVIDs)、短轴缩短率(FS)、射血分数(EF)和左室质量(LVM).记录左室乳头肌短轴高帧频图像,应用二维应变分析软件测量各节段的收缩期峰值径向应变(PRS)、环向应变(PCS).实验组大鼠检查结束后处死,取出心脏行TTC染色并计算梗死面积;VG染色观察心肌组织中的胶原纤维.结果 根据TTC染色结果将实验组大鼠左窀分为梗死心肌、梗死周围和远处心肌.术后1周VG染色显示实验组大鼠左室各节段均出现不同程度的胶原纤维沉着.与术前及同时期假手术组相比,实验组大鼠于术后1周时梗死心肌、梗死周围及远处心肌的PRS、PCS均明显降低(P0. 01). Compared with baseline and sham-operated group,LVIDd,LVIDs and LVM of study group all increased significantly ( P <0. 05) in 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation,and FS and EF reduced significantly ( P <0. 05). Two-dimensional strain obtained in interobserver and intraobserver both showed high agreement. Conclusions Two-dimensional strain echocardiography can assess regional function of myocardium with different perfusion in rats following acute myocardial infarction, and provides a sensitive and reliable method to follow up the process of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
Exactly isochoric deformations of soft solids
Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.
2014-12-01
Many materials of contemporary interest, such as gels, biological tissues and elastomers, are easily deformed but essentially incompressible. Traditional linear theory of elasticity implements incompressibility only to first order and thus permits some volume changes, which become problematically large even at very small strains. Using a mixed coordinate transformation originally due to Gauss, we enforce the constraint of isochoric deformations exactly to develop a linear theory with perfect volume conservation that remains valid until strains become geometrically large. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by calculating the response of an infinite soft isochoric solid to a point force that leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Kelvin solution. Our approach naturally generalizes to a range of problems involving deformations of soft solids and interfaces in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries, which we exemplify by determining the solution to a distributed load that mimics muscular contraction within the bulk of a soft solid.
Crowdy, Darren
2015-06-01
A one parameter family of analytical solutions for the equilibrium shapes of two-dimensional charged conducting droplets on a substrate with 90° contact angle is presented. The solutions exhibit the tendency to dewet at the droplet centre as the electrostatic stress increases. Such electrostatic deformations are believed to underlie the recently observed stick-slip dynamics of nanodroplets on substrates. Our theoretical results complement a number of other recent analytical and numerical studies of this phenomenon.
On the string actions for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
Sugawara, Y
1996-01-01
We study the structures of partition functions of the large N generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) by recasting the higher Casimirs. We clarify the appropriate interpretations of them and try to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam's topological string model describing the ordinary YM_2 \\cite{CMR} to those describing gYM_2. The concept of ''deformed gravitational descendants'' will be introduced for this purpose.
Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Cardona
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.
The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG CHI
2013-01-01
In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.
Yuan, Long; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong
2013-01-14
Recently, a new kind of spintronics material, bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.
Bhattacharyya, A.; Sakaki, T.; Weng, G. J.
1993-02-01
A continuum model is developed to examine the influence of martensite shape, volume fraction, phase transformation strain, and thermal mismatch on the initial plastic state of the ferrite matrix following phase transformation and on the subsequent stress-strain behavior of the dual-phase steels upon loading. The theory is developed based on a relaxed constraint in the ductile matrix and an energy criterion to define its effective stress. In addition, it also assumes the martensite islands to possess a spheroidal shape and to be randomly oriented and homogenously dispersed in the ferrite matrix. It is found that for a typical water-quenched process from an intercritical temperature of 760 °C, the critical martensite volume fraction needed to induce plastic deformation in the ferrite matrix is very low, typically below 1 pct, regardless of the martensite shape. Thus, when the two-phase system is subjected to an external load, plastic deformation commences immediately, resulting in the widely observed “continuous yielding” behavior in dual-phase steels. The subsequent deformation of the dual-phase system is shown to be rather sensitive to the martensite shape, with the disc-shaped morphology giving rise to a superior overall response (over the spherical type). The stress-strain relations are also dependent upon the magnitude of the prior phase transformation strain. The strength coefficient h and the work-hardening exponent n of the smooth, parabolic-type stress-strain curves of the dual-phase system also increase with increasing martensite content for each selected inclusion shape. Comparison with an exact solution and with one set of experimental data indicates that the theory is generally within a reasonable range of accuracy.
Rolling contact deformation of 1100 aluminum disks
Hahn, G. T.; Huang, Q.
1986-09-01
The plastic deformation produced by pure, two dimensional, rolling contacts has been studied by subjecting 1100 aluminum disks to repeated contacts with well-defined relative peak contact pressures in the range 2 ≤ P 0/ k c ≤ 6.8. Two microstructural conditions are examined: as-received (warm worked) and annealed, displaying cyclic softening and cyclic hardening, respectively. Measurements of the distortion of wire markers imbedded in the rims, microhardness values of the plastically deformed layer, and changes in disk radius and width are reported. These are used to evaluate the plastic circumferential, radial, and axial displacements of the rim surface and the depth of the plastically deformed layer. These features are compared with the classical, elastic-quasi plastic analysis of rolling, and with recent elastic-plastic finite element calculations. The results show that the rim deformation state approaches plane strain when the disk width-to-Hertzian half contact width-ratio B/w ≥ 200. The presence of a solid lubricant has no detectable influence on the character of the plane strain deformation. The measurements of the per cycle forward (circumferential) displacements for the two conditions are self-consistent and agree with the finite element calculations when the resistance to plastic deformation is attributed to the instantaneous cyclic yield stress, but not when the resistance is identified with the initial monotonie yield stress. At the same time, the extent of the plastic zone is 5× greater than predicted by the analyses. These and other results can be rationalized by drawing on the special features of the resistance to cyclic deformation. They support the view that the deformation produced by the N th rolling contact is governed by the shape of the stress-strain hysteresis loop after the corresponding number of stress-strain cycles which depends on the cycle strain amplitude, degree of reversibility, and the strain path imposed by the contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clancy, S.P.; Burkett, M.W.; Maudlin, P.J.
1997-05-01
Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength are implemented in the two-dimensional MESA hydrodynamics code. Quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure are utilized. An associative flow strength formulation incorporating these yield functions is solved using a geometric normal return method. A stretching rod problem is selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on a tensile plastic instability (necking). The rod necking rate and topology are compared for MESA simulations performed for both isotropic and anisotropic cases utilizing the Mechanical Threshold Stress flow stress model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah
, to focus on their ability to capture realistic micro-structural evolution. This challenge is the main focus of the present thesis, which takes as starting point a non-work conjugate type back stress based higher order crystal plasticity theory. Within this framework, several possibilities for the back......An extensive amount of research has been devoted to the development of micro-mechanics based gradient plasticity continuum theories, which are necessary for modeling micron-scale plasticity when large spatial gradients of plastic strain appear. While many models have proven successful in capturing...... the macroscopic effects related to strain gradients, most predict smooth micro-structures. The evolution of dislocation micro-structures, during plastic straining of ductile crystalline materials, is highly complex and nonuniform. Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct...
Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Chu, M. Y.; Wang, Y. S.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.
2016-06-01
Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti56Zr18V10Cu4Be12 were investigated. Upon quasi-static compression, the composite exhibits distinguished work hardening, accompanied by the ultimate strength of 1290 MPa and the plasticity of 20 %. The improved plasticity is attributed to the multiplication of shear bands within the glass matrix and pileups of dislocations within the dendrites. Upon dynamic compression, the stable plastic flow prevails and the yielding stress increases with the strain rate. The macroscopic plasticity decreases considerably, since the shear bands cannot be effectively hindered by dendrites with deteriorated toughness. The dendrite-dominated mechanism results in the positive strain-rate sensitivity, and the Cowper-Symonds model is employed to depict the strain-rate dependency of yielding strength.
The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs
De, Sanchari
2014-01-01
In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2007-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...
Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.
Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong
2009-01-01
By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.
Curved Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Semiconductor Nanoscrolls
Peters, Karen; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang
The perfect control of strain and layer thickness in epitaxial semiconductor bilayers is employed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with precisely adjusted scroll diameter ranging between a few nanometers and several tens of microns. Furthermore, semiconductor heteroepitaxy allows us to incorporate quantum objects such as quantum wells, quantum dots, or modulation doped low-dimensional carrier systems into the nanoscrolls. In this review, we summarize techniques that we have developed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with well-defined location, orientation, geometry, and winding number. We focus on magneto-transport studies of curved two-dimensional electron systems in such nanoscrolls. An externally applied magnetic field results in a strongly modulated normal-to-surface component leading to magnetic barriers, reflection of edge channels, and local spin currents. The observations are compared to finite-element calculations and discussed on the basis of simple models taking into account the influence of a locally modulated state density on the conductivity. In particular, it is shown that the observations in high magnetic fields can be well described considering the transport in edge channels according to the Landauer-Büttiker model if additional magnetic field induced channels aligned along magnetic barriers are accounted for.
Stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide
Wang, Jizhang; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Gan; Saito, Riichiro; Zhang, Zhidong
2017-01-01
Based on ab initio density functional calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide (InI). The calculated results show that monolayer and few-layer InI can be as stable as its bulk counterpart. The stability of the monolayer structure is further supported by examining the electronic and dynamic stability. The interlayer interaction is found to be fairly weak (˜160 meV/atom) and mechanical exfoliation to obtain monolayer and few-layer structures will be applicable. A direct band gap of 1.88 eV of the bulk structure is obtained from the hybrid functional method, and is comparable to the experimental one (˜2.00 eV). The electronic structure can be tuned by layer stacking and external strain. The size of the gap is a linear function of an inverse number of layers, suggesting that we can design few-layer structures for optoelectronic applications in the visible optical range. In-plane tensile or hydrostatic compressive stress is found to be useful not only in varying the gap size to cover the whole visible optical range, but also in inducing a semiconductor-metal transition with an experimentally accessible stress. The present result strongly supports the strategy of broadening the scope of group-V semiconductors by looking for isoelectronic III-VII atomic-layered materials.
Influence of strain on the copper structure under controlled deformation path conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Niewielski
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: One of the methods of plastic deformation under complex deformation path conditions is compression with oscillatory torsion. The observable effects in the form of changing force parameters and structure changes confirm the possibility of deformation to a value many times higher than in the case of methods traditionally applied for forming. This article presents the results of the influence of compression with oscillatory torsion on structural phenomena occurring in copper deformed in such a way.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations were conducted at a compression/oscillatory torsion test stand. The structural examinations were conducted with the use of light and electron microscopy.Findings: In experimental investigations, a reduction of unit pressures was observed when compared to conventional compression. The structural examinations indicated substantial differences in the mechanisms of plastic deformation conducted in both conventional and combined way.Research limitations/implications: There are premises which show that a metallic material of a nanometric structure can be obtained in this way (top-down method, by the accumulation of great plastic deformation. Metallic materials characterized by grain size below 100nm are distinguished by unconventional properties. Further examinations should focus on conducting experiments in a way that would enable grain size reduction to a nanometric size. This will enable the cumulation of greater deformation in the material.Originality/value: The method of compression with oscillatory torsion is an original method developed at the Silesian University of Technology, owing to which it is possible to obtain high deformation values (SPD without risking the loss of cohesion of the material. Thorough understanding of the changes taking place in the structure of metals subjected to compression with oscillatory torsion will allow the optimal choice of process parameters in order to achieve a
Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunrong Zhu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.
Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex
Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Takashi; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi
2015-06-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging via the differences in myocardial deformation in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis who showed no structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Forty-five patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with abnormal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, including ventricular arrhythmias, heart block, regional wall motion abnormalities, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, were excluded. Ten age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited as a control group. Comprehensive echocardiography and DE magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain were consecutively assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic software in a 16-segment model of the left ventricle in accordance to the presence (DE+) or absence (DE-) of DE. Among the 45 patients, 36 segments in 13 patients showed DE. DE+ segments had lower peak circumferential strain than DE- and control segments (-14 ± 5% vs -28 ± 7% vs -30 ± 7%, P speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by DE magnetic resonance imaging in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B.Eghbali; A.Abdollah-zadeh
2005-01-01
Grain refinement is one of the effective methods to develop new generation low carbon microalloyed steels possessing excellent combination of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and ferrite grain refinement at the de-formation temperature of 865℃, above Ar3, with different strain rates were investigated using single pass isothermal hot compression experiments for a low carbon Nb-Ti microalloyed steel. The physical processes that occurred during deformation were discussed by observing the optical microstructure and analyzing the true stress-true strain responses.At strain rates of 0.001 and 0.01 s-1, there is no evidence of work hardening behavior during hot deformation and strain-induced transformation (SIT) leads to dynamic flow softening in flow curves. Optical microscopy observation shows that ultrafine and equiaxed ferrite with grain sizes of 2μm can be obtained by applying deformation with strain rate of 0.1 s-1 due to SIT just after deformation. Furthermore, increasing the strain rate from 0.001 to 0.1 s-1reduces both the grain size of the equiaxed ferrite and the amount of deformed ferrite.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
翟虹; 古丽齐满·霍加阿不都拉; 穆玉明; 关丽娜
2012-01-01
Objective To evaluate the difference of myocardium strain between myocadial infarction and ventricular aneurysm (VA) by two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging in rabbits.Methods 26 healthy New Zealand white rabbits were enrolled in this study,6 were put into the control group and 20 in the experimental group.models of myocardial infarction concomitant with VA were prepared by the ligation of the middle segment of left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery.At 4 weeks after the procedure,according to the pathological inspect and echocardiography for whether VA formed,the experimental animals were divided into the VA group and the myocadial infarction group.Echocardiography was performed to measure the LV cavity size and cardiac function.Radial strain rate (SrR) and circumferential strain rate(SrC) indexes were measured by 2D-STI software for each animal at the level of apex in left ventricular short-axis view,and then calculated the strain rate decrease percentage in each segment.Results 1)Compared with the control group,SrR-S,SrR-E,SrR A,SrC-S,SrC-E,SrC-A in all segments were reduced significantly in the VA group and the myocadial infarction group (P ＜ 0.05),the VA group was the most significant.2)Compared with the myocadial infarction group,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-S,SrR-E,SrR-A,SrC-S,SrC-E,SrC-A in all segment had significant in the VA group.Comparison between the each section,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-Santerior wall,SrR-Sateral wall,SrC-Santerior wall,SrC-Slateral wall were the most significant.3)There were the tighter relationship between the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-Santerior wall,SrC-Santerior wall,SrR-Slateral wall,SrC-Slateral wall and left ventricular ejection fraction (r =0.82,0.72,0.75,0.71,repectively,all P ＜ 0.05).4) The ROC curve analysis showed that when the strain rate decrease percentage was 60％ as the critical point,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrC-Santerior wall
Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M.; Karakas, Zeynep N.; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth
2013-08-01
Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω μɛ-1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was -5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle.
Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos
2003-01-01
A previously developed analytical formulation has been modified in order to more accurately account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical J2 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective inelastic strain, along with the equations used to compute the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor, are appropriately modified. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of two representative polymers are computed across a wide range of strain rates. Results computed using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with experimental data. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare well to experimentally obtained results.
Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; QIANG Tian
2009-01-01
We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chih-Yuan, E-mail: chen6563@gmail.com [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chon [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jer-Ren, E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2015-07-15
Examination of thin foils of specimens with various austenitizing conditions by transmission electron microscopy revealed randomly homogeneous precipitation in the ferrite for each experimental condition. Though no interphase precipitation was found in the present study, two types of random precipitation morphologies were identified in the ferrite matrix. One was randomly and homogeneously precipitated carbides of smaller size (<10 nm), and the other was randomly precipitated carbides of larger size (10–30 nm). Transmission electron microscopy results provided evidence that both types of precipitation carbides could be associated with the supersaturation of microalloying elements in the ferrite and austenite, respectively. A higher austenitizing temperature treatment can lead to more microalloying elements dissolving in the austenite such that many tiny carbides precipitation at the low isothermal holding temperature, which is believed to effectively strengthen the ferrite. Vickers hardness data revealed that, in specimens austenitized at 1200 °C and deformed at 900 °C with strains of 10% and 30%, the ranges of hardness distribution were 250–360 HV 0.1 and 310–400 HV 0.1, respectively. For specimens austenitized at 1000 °C and deformed at 900 °C with strains of 10% and 30%, the ranges of hardness distribution were 220–250 HV 0.1 and 220–260 HV 0.1, respectively. Therefore, the average Vickers hardness increased with the austenitizing temperature and deformation strain. However, a wider range of hardness distribution occurred in specimens that underwent treatment at higher austenitizing temperatures. The wider Vickers hardness distribution reflects non-uniform precipitation in each ferrite grain.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Haiping, E-mail: mrhpwu@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Qian, Yan, E-mail: qianyan@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Ruifeng; Tan, Weishi [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)
2016-02-15
Motivated by the recent synthesis of bulk MoN{sub 2} which exhibits the layered structure just like the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the monolayered MoN{sub 2} exfoliated from the bulk counterpart is investigated systematically by using density-functional calculations in this work. The result shows that the ground-state two-dimensional monolayered MoN{sub 2} behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. Subsequently, the external strain from −6% to 6% is employed to engineer the band structure, and the energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV. Notably, when the strain is beyond 5% or −3%, the two-dimensional monolayered MoN{sub 2} would transfer from an indirect band gap to a direct band gap semiconductor. This work introduces a new member of two-dimensional transition-metal family, which is important for industry applications, especially for the utilization in the long-wavelength infrared field. - Highlights: • The 2D MoN{sub 2} behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. • The energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV by small strain. • The band gap would transfer from an indirect to a direct one when the strain is beyond 5% or −3%.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Niels; Yu, Tianbo; Mishin, Oleg
2013-01-01
in the spatial distribution. The individual lamellae are separated by low and high angle boundaries and significant local differences are produced in the deformed microstructure both in terms of the stored energy and boundary mobility. These differences influence recovery and recrystallization processes......, resulting in significant local variations in mechanisms and kinetics of these processes. The observations suggest that the characterization of the local texture and microstructure both in the deformed state and after annealing is important in order to underpin the analysis of recovery and recrystallization...
Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway
2012-09-01
ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located
RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang
2006-01-01
The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu-qing CHANG; Li-ying ZHANG; Yong-biao YANG; Jing-li REN
2016-01-01
Two constitutive models,the modified Johnson-Cook model and the logarithm linear relation model based on empirical approach and data analysis,were presented to illustrate compressive deformation of magnesium alloys AZ80 under multiple loading directions and strain rates.The results of stress-strain curve analysis and sensitivity in-dex analysis suggested that the stress held large fluctuations in loading direction of 90°.Model testing signified that the logarithm linear relation model was more proper than the modified Johnson-Cook model in view of relative mean square error and correlation coefficients.Moreover,numerical simulation building on established models also indica-ted that the logarithm linear model is more precise than the modified Johnson-Cook model.
Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.
2017-04-01
Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Bo; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, U.
2007-01-01
A novel synchrotron-based technique "high angular resolution 3DXRD" is presented in detail, and applied to the characterization of oxygen-free, high-conductivity copper at a tensile deformation of 2%. The position and shape in reciprocal space of 14 peaks originating from deeply embedded individual...
The development of strain anisotropy during plastic deformation of an aluminium polycrystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korsunsky, A.M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Daymond, M.R. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom); Wells, K.E. [Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Mfg. Engineering, Univ. of Newcastle (United Kingdom)
2000-07-01
To measure internal strains in an Al MMC, time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction was used on the ENGIN instrument at ISIS, RAL, in Oxfordshire, and a monochromated X-ray beam was employed on the BM16 beamline at the ESRF in Grenoble. The development of intergranular stresses between groups of grains possessing certain crystallographic orientations was studied using diffraction of penetrating radiation. Due to aluminium's highly isotropic elastic modulus, the variation of measured strains in the alloy matrix with orientation can be attributed to the anisotropy of the crystal yield surface and plastic flow parameters. A simple illustrative model is presented which explains the observed correlation between the amount of plastic strain (PS) and the measured anisotropy strain (AS) values. In particular, the model explains why a linear relationship is observed between AS and PS for low strain values, and how saturation of AS sets in at higher imposed PS levels. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Salinas
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The work was aimed at simulating two-dimensional wood drying stress using the control-volume finite element method (CVFEM. Stress/strain was modeled by moisture content gradients regarding shrinkage and mechanical sorption in a cross-section of wood. CVFEM was implemented with triangular finite elements and lineal interpolation of the independent variable which were programmed in Fortran 90 language. The model was validated by contrasting results with similar ones available in the specialised literature. The present model’s results came from isothermal (20ºC drying of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides: two-dimensional distribution of stress/strain and water content, 40, 80, 130, 190 and 260 hour drying time and evolution of normal stress (2.5 <σ͓ ͓ < 1.2, MPa, from the interior to the exterior of wood.
Solution of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow Driven by Motion of Flexible Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Gad-el-Hak
2010-03-01
Full Text Available An exact solution of the Navier–Stokes equations for a flow driven by motion of flexible wall is developed. A simple two-dimensional channel with deforming walls is considered as domain. The governing equations are linearized for low Reynolds number and large Womersley number Newtonian flows. Appropriate boundary conditions for general deformation are decomposed into harmonic excitations in space by Fourier series decomposition. A model of harmonic boundary deformation is considered and results are compared with computational fluid dynamics predictions. The results of velocity profiles across the channel and the centerline velocities of the channel are in good agreement with CFD solution. The analytical model developed provides quantitative descriptions of the flow field for a wide spectrum of actuating frequnecy and boundary conditions. The presented model can be used as an effective framework for preliminary design and optimization of displacement micropumps and other miniature applications.
Anisotropic States of Two-Dimensional Electrons in High Magnetic Fields
Ettouhami, A. M.; Doiron, C. B.; Klironomos, F. D.; Côté, R.; Dorsey, Alan T.
2006-05-01
We study the collective states formed by two-dimensional electrons in Landau levels of index n≥2 near half filling. By numerically solving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for a set of oblique two-dimensional lattices, we find that the stripe state is an anisotropic Wigner crystal (AWC), and determine its precise structure for varying values of the filling factor. Calculating the elastic energy, we find that the shear modulus of the AWC is small but finite (nonzero) within the HF approximation. This implies, in particular, that the long-wavelength magnetophonon mode in the stripe state vanishes like q3/2 as in an ordinary Wigner crystal, and not like q5/2 as was found in previous studies where the energy of shear deformations was neglected.
A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin
2006-01-01
By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.
UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟
2003-01-01
In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.
Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.
1979-01-01
The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....
Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor
Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R
2016-01-01
We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.
Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGill Stephen A.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.
Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion
Lavrov, P M
1999-01-01
We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.
Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.
Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Wen-Chao
2004-01-01
We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.
A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.
Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji
2012-02-05
Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.
Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra
2003-10-01
Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.
A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus
1989-09-01
manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.
Applications of FEM and BEM in two-dimensional fracture mechanics problems
Min, J. B.; Steeve, B. E.; Swanson, G. R.
1992-08-01
A comparison of the finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) for the solution of two-dimensional plane strain problems in fracture mechanics is presented in this paper. Stress intensity factors (SIF's) were calculated using both methods for elastic plates with either a single-edge crack or an inclined-edge crack. In particular, two currently available programs, ANSYS for finite element analysis and BEASY for boundary element analysis, were used.
Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation
Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.
2016-01-01
International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...
Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation
T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University
1997-01-01
Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...
Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers
2016-06-15
polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan
2002-05-01
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.
Two dimensional structural analysis of reactor fuel element claddings due to local effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karimi, R; Wolf, L
1978-04-01
Two dimensional thermoelastic and inelastic stresses and deformation of typical LWR (PWR) and LMFBR (CRBR) claddings are evaluated by utilizing the following codes, for (1) Thermoelastic analysis (a) STRESS Code (b) SEGPIPE Code (2) Thermoinelastic analysis (a) Modified version of the GOGO code (b) One dimensional GRO-II code. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the effect of various local perturbations in the clad temperature field, namely eccentrically mounted fuel pellet, clad ovality, power tilt across the fuel and clad-coolant heat transfer variation on the cladding stress and deformation. In view of the fact that the thermoelastic analysis is always the first logical choice entering the structural field, it was decided to start the analysis with the two dimensional codes such as STRESS and SEGPIPE. Later, in order to assess the validity and compare the thermoelastic results to those obtained for actual reactor conditions, a two dimensional code, namely a modified version of the GOGO code, was used to account for inelastic effects such as irradiation and thermal creep and swelling in the evaluation. The comparison of thermoelastic and inelastic results shows that the former can be used effectively to analyze LWR fuel pin over 350 hours of lifetime under the most adverse condition and 500 hours of lifetime for an LMFBR fuel pin. Beyond that the inelastic solution must be used. The impact of the individual thermal perturbation and combinations thereof upon the structural quantity is also shown. Finally, the effect of rod displacement on the two dimensional thermal and structural quantities of the LMFBR fuel pin cladding is analyzed.
Pouya, M.; Winter, S.; Fritsch, S.; F-X Wagner, M.
2017-03-01
Both in research and in the light of industrial applications, there is a growing interest in methods to characterize the mechanical behavior of materials at high strain rates. This is particularly true for steels (the most important structural materials), where often the strain rate-dependent material behavior also needs to be characterized in a wide temperature range. In this study, we use the Finite Element Method (FEM), first, to model the compressive deformation behavior of carbon steels under quasi-static loading conditions. The results are then compared to experimental data (for a simple C75 steel) at room temperature, and up to testing temperatures of 1000 °C. Second, an explicit FEM model that captures wave propagation phenomena during dynamic loading is developed to closely reflect the complex loading conditions in a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) – an experimental setup that allows loading of compression samples with strain rates up to 104 s-1 The dynamic simulations provide a useful basis for an accurate analysis of dynamically measured experimental data, which considers reflected elastic waves. By combining numerical and experimental investigations, we derive material parameters that capture the strain rate- and temperature-dependent behavior of the C75 steel from room temperature to 1000 °C, and from quasi-static to dynamic loading.
Cohen, S. C.
1979-01-01
A viscoelastic model for deformation and stress associated with earthquakes is reported. The model consists of a rectangular dislocation (strike slip fault) in a viscoelastic layer (lithosphere) lying over a viscoelastic half space (asthenosphere). The time dependent surface stresses are analyzed. The model predicts that near the fault a significant fraction of the stress that was reduced during the earthquake is recovered by viscoelastic softening of the lithosphere. By contrast, the strain shows very little change near the fault. The model also predicts that the stress changes associated with asthenospheric flow extend over a broader region than those associated with lithospheric relaxation even though the peak value is less. The dependence of the displacements, stresses on fault parameters studied. Peak values of strain and stress drop increase with increasing fault height and decrease with fault depth. Under many circumstances postseismic strains and stresses show an increase with decreasing depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Values of the strain and stress at distant points from the fault increase with fault area but are relatively insensitive to fault depth.
Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seba Sara Varghese
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.
Torvela, Taija; Ehlers, Carl
2010-07-01
This study demonstrates the impact of variations in overall crustal rheology on crustal strength in relatively high P- T conditions at mid- to lower mid-crustal levels. In a crustal-scale shear zone, along-strike variations in the rheological competence result in large-scale deformation partitioning and differences in the deformation style and strain distribution. The structural behaviour of the crustal-scale Sottunga-Jurmo shear zone (SJSZ) in SW Finland is described. The shear zone represents a discontinuity between the amphibolite-to-granulite facies, dome-and-basin style crustal block to the north and the amphibolite facies rocks with dominantly steeply dipping structures to the south. The overall deformation style and resulting strains along the shear zone are greatly affected by the local lithology. The results of this study also have implications for the current tectonic models of the Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandia. The most important implication is that the SJSZ, together with other structurally related shear zones, compartmentalised the far-field stresses, so that the late ductile structures within and south of the SJSZ can be allocated to a convergence from the south as late as ~1.79 Ga rather than to the Nordic orogeny from the west-northwest. It is further suggested that at ~1.79 Ga the stress regime was still compressive/transpressive and that the ~1.79 Ga magmatism in Åland at least initiated in a compressive setting. No extension or orogenic collapse, therefore, occurred in the Åland area while the rocks still were within the ductile regime.
A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson
2003-05-01
A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.
Bounds on the recoverable deformations of polycrystalline SMAs at finite strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peigney Michaël
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This communication is concerned with the theoretical prediction of the recoverable strains (i.e. the strains that can be recovered by the shape memory effect in polycrystalline SMAs. The analysis is carried out in the finite strain setting, considering a nonlinear elasticity model of phase transformation. The main results are some rigorous upper bounds on the set of recoverable strains. Those bounds depend on the polycrystalline texture through the volume fractions of the different orientations. A two-orientation polycrystal of tetragonal martensite is studied as an illustration. In that case, analytical expressions of the upper bounds are derived and the results are compared with lower bounds obtained by considering laminate textures. The issue of applying the proposed method to complex polycrystalline textures is commented on.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方玲玲; 张平洋; 王冲; 马小五; 史宏伟; 汪黎明; 冯雪虹
2010-01-01
Objective To explore the feasibility of evaluating viable myocardium with twodimensional strain imaging combined with adenosine stress echocardiography. Methods Acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion model was made by ligating anterior descending coronary artery for 90 minutes followed by 120-minute reperfusion in 15 healthy mongrel dogs. Images were acquired at baseline and after reperfusion Adenosine was then infused and image acquisition repeated. Regional peak-systolic strain in radial, circumferential and longitudinal motion on anterior wall and anterior septum were measured. TTC staining served as a "gold standard" to define viable and nonviable myocardium. The ratio of infarct area ( SN ) to total area (S) was calculated and viable myocardium was defined with SN/S ≤ 50%. Results At baseline, RSpeak sys, CSpeak sys and LSpeak syswere similar between viable ( n = 37 ) and nonviable myocardial segments (n = 53 ) and significantly decreased after reperfusion in both viable and nonviable myocardial segments. Compared with values obtained after reperfusion, LSpeak sys and RSpeak sys remained unchanged in nonviable myocardial segments and significantly increased in viable myocardial segments after adenosine (P<0.05). Post adenosine RSpeak sys was negatively correlated with SN/S and CSpeak sys and LSpeak syswere positively correlated with SN/S. With △RSpeak sys(before and after adenosine) ≥ 13.5%, the sensitivity was 83.8% and specificity was 83.0% for distinguishing viable from nonviable myocardial segment. With △LSpeak sys≥11% as cutoff value, the sensitivity was 78.4% and specificity was 88.7% for distinguishing viable from nonviable myocardial segment. Combining △RSpeak sys and △LSpeak sys, the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing viable from nonviable myocardial segment were 91.9% and 79. 2%,respectively. Conclusions Two-dimensional strain imaging combined with adenosine stress echocardiography could quantitatively identify viable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. L. Bobarikin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel high- carbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.
Influence of dynamic strain aging on tensile deformation behavior of alloy 617
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekaputra, I. M. W. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
To investigate the dynamic strain aging (DSA) behavior of Alloy 617, high-temperature tensile tests were carried out with strain rates variations of 10{sup -}3{sup /}s, 10{sup -4}/s, and 10{sup -5}/s from 24°C to 950°C. Five flow relationships, Hollomon, Ludwik, Swift, Ludwigson, and Voce, were applied to describe the tensile true stress–strain curves, and the DSA region was defined. In describing the tensile curves, Ludwigson's equation was superior to the other equations, and the DSA region was adequately defined by this equation as plateaus at intermediate temperatures from 200°C to 700°C. It was identified that Alloy 617 is dominated by three types of serrations, known as Types D, A+B, and C. The activation energy values for each serration type were obtained by the Arrhenius equation. By using the obtained activation energy values, the serrated yielding map and the DSA mechanism were drawn and manifested. In addition, the relationship between the tensile strength and strain rate at higher temperatures above 700°C was found to be closely related to the amounts of slip lines. In the scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractographs, there was a significant difference at the low, intermediate, and high temperatures, but almost the same to the three strain rates.
Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann
2012-08-01
Active knits are a unique architectural approach to meeting emerging smart structure needs for distributed high strain actuation with simultaneous force generation. This paper presents an analytical state-based model for predicting the actuation response of a shape memory alloy (SMA) garter knit textile. Garter knits generate significant contraction against moderate to large loads when heated, due to the continuous interlocked network of loops of SMA wire. For this knit architecture, the states of operation are defined on the basis of the thermal and mechanical loading of the textile, the resulting phase change of the SMA, and the load path followed to that state. Transitions between these operational states induce either stick or slip frictional forces depending upon the state and path, which affect the actuation response. A load-extension model of the textile is derived for each operational state using elastica theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam bending for the large deformations within a loop of wire based on the stress-strain behavior of the SMA material. This provides kinematic and kinetic relations which scale to form analytical transcendental expressions for the net actuation motion against an external load. This model was validated experimentally for an SMA garter knit textile over a range of applied forces with good correlation for both the load-extension behavior in each state as well as the net motion produced during the actuation cycle (250% recoverable strain and over 50% actuation). The two-dimensional analytical model of the garter stitch active knit provides the ability to predict the kinetic actuation performance, providing the basis for the design and synthesis of large stroke, large force distributed actuators that employ this novel architecture.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SQUARE MOVING NEAR FREE SURFACE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The body moving near the free surface is a focus in fluid dynamicresearch. Many numerical methods were developed for the simulation of the induced flow field. In this paper, a two-dimensional square moving near the free surface was simulated by the volume of fluid method (VOF). The flow field and drag exerted on the square were studied. The drag would increase due to the presence of the free surface.The iteration factor of the pressure interpolation of surface cells was modified, and through this modification the iteration became more stable. The capability of dealing with the large deformation of the free surface was raised.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhan, Hongyi, E-mail: h.zhan@uq.edu.au [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zeng, Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Gui [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Kent, Damon [School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland 4575 (Australia); Dargusch, Matthew [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacture, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Defence Material Technology Centre, Level 2, 24 Wakefield St, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)
2015-04-15
The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.
Wetting of two-dimensional physically patterned surfaces
Bell, Michael Scott
features. In this work, we relax these assumptions. We begin by investigating the role of hierarchical roughness (specifically dual-scale roughness) in affecting static contact angles by making no assumptions other than that the effect of gravity is negligible, though the surface features are allowed to be similar in size to the droplet. By investigating phase diagrams of contact angles as a function of surface feature parameters, we find that the nanoscale roughness in hierarchical roughness serves mainly to amplify the intrinsic contact angle of the macroscale roughness, thereby allowing for large contact angles on relatively low aspect ratio macroscale structures. Next, we lift the assumption of the negligible effect of gravity, and consider arbitrarily-sized droplets relative to the surface features, for which the effect of gravity is non-negligible. From this, we find that the effect of gravity is primarily to shift the boundary between the Cassie and Wenzel modes in the phase diagram. Other effects of gravity on contact angles occur mainly when the drops are similar in size to the surface features. Further, by comparing predictions of a circular cap model with a deformable cap model, we find that the gravitationally-induced deformations mainly affect the contact angle, with the equilibrium wetting configurations predicted by both models being otherwise quite similar. Both of these studies reinforce the idea that pinning effects become less important when the surface features become much smaller than the drop size. We next explore this regime, in which the Cassie and Wenzel models become valid, in more detail. Specifically, we use perturbation theory to derive a correction to the Wenzel equation to properly account for the volume of liquid stored in the grooves which was not considered in the original derivation. By considering both the two- and three-dimensional cases, we find an intuitive explanation for the two-dimensional correction which unfortunately breaks down
Triple junction motion - A new recovery mechanism in metals deformed to large strains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu
2013-01-01
A phenomenologically new recovery mechanism - triple junction motion is presented. This recovery mechanism is found to be the dominant one at low and medium temperatures in highly strained aluminum, which has a very fine microstructure, composed of lamellae with the thickness of a few hundred nan...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David Matlock; John Speer
2005-03-31
The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.
Effect of confining pressure on deformation and failure of rock at higher strain rate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin; PAN Yi-shan
2005-01-01
Influence of confining pressure from 0 to 28 MPa, which acts on the two lateral edges of rock specimen in plane strain compression, on the shear failure processes and patterns as well as on the macroscopically mechanical responses were numerically modeled by use of FLAC. A material imperfection with lower strength in comparison with the intact rock, which is close to the lower-left corner of the specimen, was prescribed. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation of rock was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. The numerical results show that with an increase of confining pressure the peak strength of axial stress-axial strain curve and the corresponding axial strain linearly increase; the residual strength and the stress drop from the peak strength to the residual strength increase; the failure modes of rock transform form the multiple shear bands close to the loading end of the specimen (confining pressure=0～0.1MPa), to the conjugate shear bands (0.5～2.0 MPa), and then to the single shear band (4～28 MPa). Once the tip of the band reaches the loading end of the specimen, the direction of the band changes so that the reflection of the band occurs. At higher confining pressure, the new-formed shear band does not intersect the imperfection, bringing extreme difficulties in prediction of the failure of rock structure, such as rock burst. The present results enhance the understanding of the shear failure processes and patterns of rock specimen in higher confining pressure and higher loading strain rate.
Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks
Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si
2009-12-01
We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.
Pavlov, Maxim V
2014-12-08
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.
Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Augustus REJU
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G
2015-06-22
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.
Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces
Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue
2012-12-01
Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng
2016-01-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Hebert, Kelly; Bending, Benjamin; Ricci, Josh; Ediger, M. D.
2015-03-01
Deformation of polymer glasses is typically nonlinear and not understood at a molecular level. During deformation, segmental motion in polymer glasses can be accelerated by over a factor of 1000. While temperature has a big impact on the segmental motion of polymer glasses in the absence of deformation, some workers suggest that segmental mobility in polymer glasses undergoing deformation should be independent of temperature. We have measured segmental mobility in poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses during constant strain rate deformation at four different temperatures using a probe reorientation method. We find that during deformation, the dependence of segmental mobility on temperature is significantly reduced, though not eliminated. This is in qualitative agreement with the work of Chen and Schweizer. We also find that the KWW β parameter increases during deformation, indicating a narrower distribution of segmental relaxation times. At a given strain rate, this increase of the KWW β parameter is larger at lower temperature. We thank the National Science Foundation (DMR-1404614) for support of this research.
Mechanical deformation model of the western United States instantaneous strain-rate field
Pollitz, Fred F.; Vergnolle, Mathilde
2006-10-01
We present a relationship between the long-term fault slip rates and instantaneous velocities as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) or other geodetic measurements over a short time span. The main elements are the secularly increasing forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) plates on the North American plate, viscoelastic relaxation following selected large earthquakes occurring on faults that are locked during their respective interseismic periods, and steady slip along creeping portions of faults in the context of a thin-plate system. In detail, the physical model allows separate treatments of faults with known geometry and slip history, faults with incomplete characterization (i.e. fault geometry but not necessarily slip history is available), creeping faults, and dislocation sources distributed between the faults. We model the western United States strain-rate field, derived from 746 GPS velocity vectors, in order to test the importance of the relaxation from historic events and characterize the tectonic forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and JdF plates. Relaxation following major earthquakes (M γ 8.0) strongly shapes the present strain-rate field over most of the plate boundary zone. Equally important are lateral shear transmitted across the Pacific-North America plate boundary along ~1000 km of the continental shelf, downdip forces distributed along the Cascadia subduction interface, and distributed slip in the lower lithosphere. Post-earthquake relaxation and tectonic forcing, combined with distributed deep slip, constructively interfere near the western margin of the plate boundary zone, producing locally large strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. However, they destructively interfere further into the plate interior, resulting in smaller and more variable strain accumulation patterns in the eastern part of the plate boundary zone. Much of the right-lateral strain accumulation along the SAF system
Mechanical deformation model of the western United States instantaneous strain-rate field
Pollitz, F.F.; Vergnolle, M.
2006-01-01
We present a relationship between the long-term fault slip rates and instantaneous velocities as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) or other geodetic measurements over a short time span. The main elements are the secularly increasing forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) plates on the North American plate, viscoelastic relaxation following selected large earthquakes occurring on faults that are locked during their respective interseismic periods, and steady slip along creeping portions of faults in the context of a thin-plate system. In detail, the physical model allows separate treatments of faults with known geometry and slip history, faults with incomplete characterization (i.e. fault geometry but not necessarily slip history is available), creeping faults, and dislocation sources distributed between the faults. We model the western United States strain-rate field, derived from 746 GPS velocity vectors, in order to test the importance of the relaxation from historic events and characterize the tectonic forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and JdF plates. Relaxation following major earthquakes (M ??? 8.0) strongly shapes the present strain-rate field over most of the plate boundary zone. Equally important are lateral shear transmitted across the Pacific-North America plate boundary along ???1000 km of the continental shelf, downdip forces distributed along the Cascadia subduction interface, and distributed slip in the lower lithosphere. Post-earthquake relaxation and tectonic forcing, combined with distributed deep slip, constructively interfere near the western margin of the plate boundary zone, producing locally large strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. However, they destructively interfere further into the plate interior, resulting in smaller and more variable strain accumulation patterns in the eastern part of the plate boundary zone. Much of the right-lateral strain accumulation along the SAF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NEELAM KUMARI
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The Biot linearized theory for fluid saturated porous materials is used to study the plane strain deformation of an isotropic, homogeneous, poroelastPic half space in welded contact with a homogeneous, transversely isotropic, elastic half space caused by an inclined line-load in elastic half space. The integral expressions for the displacements and stresses in the two half spaces in welded contact are obtained from the corresponding expressions for an unbounded transversely isotropic elastic and poroelastic medium by applying boundary conditions at the interface. The integrals for the inclined line-load are solved analytically for the limiting casei.e. undrained conditions in high frequency limit. The undrained displacements, stresses and pore pressure are shown graphically. Expression for the pore pressure is also calculated for undrained conditions in the high frequency limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anirban Chakraborty
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we report a simple approach to generate micropillars (whose top portions are covered by sub-micron wrinkles on the inner surfaces of polystyrene (PS microchannels, as well as on the top surface of the PS substrate, based on strain-recovery deformations of the PS and oxygen reactive ion etch (ORIE. Using this approach, two types of micropillar-covered microchannels are fabricated. Their widths range from 118 μm to 132 μm, depths vary from 40 μm to 44 μm, and the inclined angles of their sidewalls are from 53° to 64°. The micropillars enable these microchannels to have super-hydrophobic properties. The contact angles observed on the channel-structured surfaces are above 162°, and the tilt angles to make water drops roll off from these channel-structured substrates can be as small as 1°.
Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness
Uchihashi, Takashi
2017-01-01
Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1995-01-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....
Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2008-06-01
We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers
Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.
1995-05-01
A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.
Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun
2004-01-01
Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...
Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation
Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark
2004-01-01
Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.
Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.
Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold
2002-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.
Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes
Lopez-Ortega, A
2011-01-01
We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.
Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank
2014-01-01
We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...
The nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron for a large deformation elasticity problem
Hansbo, Peter; Larsson, Fredrik
2016-12-01
In this paper we investigate the performance of the nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron element introduced by Hansbo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200(9-12):1311-1316, 2011; J Numer Methods Eng 91(10):1105-1114, 2012). This approximation uses midpoints of edges on tetrahedra in three dimensions with either point continuity or mean continuity along edges of the tetrahedra. Since it contains (rotated) bilinear terms it performs substantially better than the standard constant strain element in bending. It also allows for under-integration in the form of one point Gauss integration of volumetric terms in near incompressible situations. We combine under-integration of the volumetric terms with houglass stabilization for the isochoric terms.
The nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron for a large deformation elasticity problem
Hansbo, Peter; Larsson, Fredrik
2016-08-01
In this paper we investigate the performance of the nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron element introduced by Hansbo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200(9-12):1311-1316, 2011; J Numer Methods Eng 91(10):1105-1114, 2012). This approximation uses midpoints of edges on tetrahedra in three dimensions with either point continuity or mean continuity along edges of the tetrahedra. Since it contains (rotated) bilinear terms it performs substantially better than the standard constant strain element in bending. It also allows for under-integration in the form of one point Gauss integration of volumetric terms in near incompressible situations. We combine under-integration of the volumetric terms with houglass stabilization for the isochoric terms.
Tetrahedron deformation and alignment of perceived vorticity and strain in a turbulent flow
Pumir, Alain; Xu, Haitao
2012-01-01
We describe the structure and dynamics of turbulence by the scale dependent perceived velocity gradient tensor as supported by following four tracers, i.e. fluid particles, that initially form a regular tetrahedron. We report results from experiments in a von K\\'arm\\'an swirling water flow and from numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. We analyze the dynamics of the perceived rate of strain tensor and perceived vorticity for initially regular tetrahedron of size $r_0$ from the dissipative to the integral scale. The experimental data at higher Reynolds number suggest the existence of a self-similar regime in the inertial range, where the perceived vorticity aligns with the largest eigenvalue of the perceived rate of strain tensor over durations of order $t_0$, where $t_0$ is the turbulence time scale of the flow for scale $r_0$. For smaller Reynolds numbers we found the dynamics to be scale dependent.
Ye, Chang; Suslov, Sergey; Lin, Dong; Liao, Yiliang; Cheng, Gary J.
2014-06-01
Nanocrystalline metallic materials prepared by severe plastic deformation often possess high strength but low ductility due to the low dislocation accumulation capacity of the nanograins. Here, we report a unique process, namely, cryogenic laser shock peening (CLSP), to generate gradient nanotwinned microstructure that leads to high strength while preserving the ductility. It was observed that gradient structure was generated in copper. Near the top surface, nanocrystalline with high dense nanotwins have been observed; with the depth increasing, the fraction of the twin boundaries reduces and more heavily dislocated subgrains are observed. It has been demonstrated that CLSP can significantly improve material strength while preserving the ductility. The mechanism of the formation of gradient microstructure and high dense nanotwins near the surface was discussed. The reason behind the improvement in strength and ductility was investigated.
Two-grain nanoindentation using the quasicontinuum method: Two-dimensional model approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iglesias, Rodrigo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones, Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Edificio Integrador, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba, CP 5000 (Argentina)]. E-mail: riglesias@mail.fcq.unc.edu.ar; Leiva, Ezequiel P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones, Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Edificio Integrador, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba, CP 5000 (Argentina)
2006-06-15
The quasicontinuum method (two-dimensional) developed by Tadmor et al. [Tadmor EB, Ortiz M, Phillips R. Philos Mag 1996;73:1529] is applied to an indentation process taking account of the atomic structure of the indenter and the substrate subject to indentation. Slip vectors, dislocation nucleation and nanostructure formation are analyzed for different indenter materials (Ag, Cu and Pd) and indenter crystal orientations. Slip vectors near to the contact region show that, depending on the material and orientation of the indenter, plastic deformations occur either inside the indenter or the substrate. Long-range material deformations appear during the indentation or retraction of the indenter. All of these aspects mainly dictate the formation of nanoclusters or nanoholes on the substrate surface.
Descriptions of membrane mechanics from microscopic and effective two-dimensional perspectives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Miao, L.
2006-01-01
Mechanics of fluid membranes may be described in terms of the concepts of mechanical deformations and stresses or in terms of mechanical free-energy functions. In this paper, each of the two descriptions is developed by viewing a membrane from two perspectives: a microscopic perspective, in which...... the membrane appears as a thin layer of finite thickness and with highly inhomogeneous material and force distributions in its transverse direction, and an effective, two-dimensional perspective, in which the membrane is treated as an infinitely thin surface, with effective material and mechanical properties....... A connection between these two perspectives is then established. Moreover, the functional dependence of the variation in the mechanical free energy of the membrane on its mechanical deformations is first studied in the microscopic perspective. The result is then used to examine to what extent different...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Quan; Tian Qiang
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.
Dimitrova, L. L.; Haines, A. J.; Wallace, L. M.; Williams, C. A.
2013-12-01
Monitoring strain accumulation in active deformation zones is vital for studying and preparing for earthquake hazards. New Zealand straddles the complicated boundary between the obliquely converging Australian and Pacific plates. The motion is accommodated largely along the Alpine Fault in the south, through the Marlborough fault system and onto the Hikurangi trench in the north. In addition, a significant component of the motion is distributed on smaller, poorly characterized faults. Dimitrova et al. (2012) showed that the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS) rates are a substantially higher resolution expression of subsurface sources of ongoing deformation than the GPS velocities or GPS derived strain rates. We expand this method to solve the horizontal force balance equations for the VDoHS in 2-D to obtain the highest possible resolution picture of the surface deformation pattern in New Zealand. We invert GPS data from campaign GPS observations spanning from 1995 to 2012 for the VDoHS that best fit the GPS velocities, without prescribing sources or zones of deformation, while fully accounting for the physics of the problem. Using the VDoHS rates we identify (1) areas of deformation due to well-known active faults, (2) areas of poorly characterized deformation, e.g. deformation along faults without slip rate information mapped from palaeo-seismicity, (3) areas of previously unknown deformation, potentially on hidden faults, and (4) areas undergoing post-seismic deformation. The VDoHS are integrated to produce the highest resolution to-date maps of strain rates. We identify an area of extensional areal strain between the Alpine fault and the Main Divide of the central Southern Alps indicating possible gravitational collapse of the Southern Alps. Relationships between the VDoHS and strain rates allow us to calculate the variation in fault slip rate and locking depth for the identified faults, and we show selected results for the Alpine Fault and the
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Möbius semiconductor nanostructures and deformation potential strain effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens
2011-01-01
A discussion of Möbius nanostructures is presented with focus on (1) the accuracy of the approximate differential-geometry formalism by Gravesen and Willatzen and (2) to assess the influence of bending-induced strain on Schrödinger equation eigenstates in semiconductor Möbius structures....... The differential-geometry model assumed complete confinement of a quantum-mechanical particle to a zero-thickness Möbius structure where the shape was computed based on minimization of elastic bending energy only and imposing the relevant boundary conditions. In the latter work, while bending was accounted...
Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy
Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper
We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen
1993-04-01
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))
1993-04-12
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prokhorenko V.I.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.
Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems
Schaapman, Maaike Ruth
2004-01-01
This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting
Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D
1991-01-01
Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem
Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards
Fel, Leonid G.
2002-05-01
The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).
Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....