Kumar, Manish
2016-01-01
We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate a spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90{\\deg} bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)
2014-08-04
We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.
Esumi, Y; Kabir, M D; Kannari, F
2009-10-12
A novel non-interferometric vector pulse-shaping scheme is developed for femtosecond laser pulses using a two-dimensional spatial light modulator (2D-SLM). By utilizing spatiotemporal pulse shaping obtainable by the 2D-SLM, we demonstrate spatiotemporal vector pulse shaping for the first time.
Two-Dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Spatial Light Modulators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qin Wang; Jan Borglind; Smilja Becanovic; Stéphane Junique; Daniel (A)gren; Bertrand Noharet; Linda H(o)glund; Olof (O)berg; Erik Petrini; Jan Y. Andersson; Hedda Malm
2003-01-01
Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators with 128x128 array in 38μm pitch are fabricated using two pproaches, one with an attachment of an optical substrate and another one without. These two fabrication processes are described and compared.
Interaction between Two-Dimensional White-Light Photovoltaic Dark Spatial Solitons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhao-Hong; LIU Si-Min; GUO Ru; GAO Yuan-Mei; SONG Tao; ZHU Nan; QU Di
2007-01-01
Using fully incoherent white light emitted from an incandescent bulb (a line source) and amplitude mask, we study experimentally the interaction between two 2D white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons with three different separations (40 μm, 50 μm and 60 μm) and arrangement directions (parallel to, perpendicular to and tilted at 45° with respect to the crystalline c axis) propagating in parallel in close proximity in self-defocusing LiNbO3:Fe crystal. Experimental results reveal that a 2D white-light dark soliton pair only experiences attractive forces when their mutual separation is sufficiently small (＜ 60 μm), and the degree of the attraction depends on their mutual separation and their arrangement direction. When the separation is larger than 60 μm, the interaction is not evident.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.
Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping
2016-04-01
We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.
Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems.
Torii, Keiko U
2012-08-01
Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder
Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S
2013-01-01
Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.
Steering light into logic patterns with two-dimensional cascaded multimode waveguide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Hai-Feng; Yang Jian-Yi; Wang Ming-Hua; Jiang Xiao-Qing
2007-01-01
Steering light into logic patterns with two-dimensional cascaded multimode waveguide is demonstrated.By employing the imaging properties of 2D multimode interference (MMI) and partial phase modulation method,the design ideas and the implementing methods of the 2(2×2) bits type spatial logic steering are discussed;therefore the structure of logical pattern is proposed.Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the design in detail by using the beam propagation method.It is expected to realize logic coders by using the integrated optical methods and exploit their potential applications in the field of optical logic.
Two-dimensional Block of Spatial Convolution Algorithm and Simulation
Mussa Mohamed Ahmed
2012-01-01
This paper proposes an algorithm based on sub image-segmentation strategy. The proposed scheme divides a grayscale image into overlapped 6×6 blocks each of which is segmented into four small 3x3 non-overlapped sub-images. A new spatial approach for efficiently computing 2-dimensional linear convolution or cross-correlation between suitable flipped and fixed filter coefficients (sub image for cross-correlation) and corresponding input sub image is presented. Computation of convolution is itera...
Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozhansky, I. V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Aronzon, B. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. B. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tripathi, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)
2015-06-22
We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.
Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane.
Rupley, J A; Siemankowski, L; Careri, G; Bruni, F
1988-12-01
The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, h(c) approximately 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/(2)H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level h(c) is frequency independent and shows no deuterium isotope effect. These properties are analogous to those found for lysozyme in a related study. Protonic conduction for the purple membrane can be considered, as for lysozyme, within the framework of a percolation model. The critical exponent, t, which describes the conductivity of a percolative system near the threshold, has the value 1.23. This number is in close agreement with expectation from theory for a two-dimensional percolative process. The dielectric properties of the purple membrane are more complex than those of lysozyme, seen in the value of h(c) and in the frequency and hydration dependence of the loss factor. There appear to be preferred regions of proton conduction. The percolation model is based upon stochastic behavior of a system partially populated with conducting elements. This model suggests that ion transport in membranes and its control can be based on pathways formed of randomly connected conducting elements and that a fixed geometry (a proton wire) is not the only possible basis for a mechanism of conduction.
Slow Light by Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Chao; HUANG Yan; MAO Xiao-Yu; CUI Kai-Yu; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De
2009-01-01
A simple and effective way to measure the group velocity of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWGs) is developed by using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A PCWG with perfect air-bridge structure is fabricated and slow light with group velocity slower than c/80 is demonstrated.
Stability of two-dimensional spatial solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skupin, S.; Bang, Ole; Edmundson, D.;
2006-01-01
We discuss the existence and stability of two-dimensional solitons in media with spatially nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that such systems, which include thermal nonlinearity and dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, may support a variety of stationary localized structures, including rotating...
Two-dimensional gain cross-grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain
Wang, Li; Zhou, Feng-Xue; Guo, Hong-Ju; Niu, Yue-Ping; Gong, Shang-Qing
2016-11-01
Based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain, a two-dimensional gain cross-grating is theoretically proposed. As the probe field propagates along the z direction and passes through the intersectant region of the two orthogonal standing-wave fields in the x-y plane, it can be effectively diffracted into the high-order directions, and the zero-order diffraction intensity is amplified at the same time. In comparison with the two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating based on electromagnetically induced transparency, the two-dimensional gain cross-grating has much higher diffraction intensities in the first-order and the high-order directions. Hence, it is more suitable to be utilized as all-optical switching and routing in optical networking and communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274112 and 11347133).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Ishizaki, Akihito [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2011-07-28
Graphical abstract: 2D electronic spectroscopy, when combined with theoretical approaches, can investigate structure-function relationships in photosynthetic complexes by probing electronic energy transfer and excited state orientations. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} We review theoretical principles and experimental implementation of 2D spectroscopy. {yields} 2DES monitors energy transfer, observes coherence, determines excited state geometry, and compares to homology models. {yields} 2DES reveals structure-function relationships in the Photosystem II supercomplex. - Abstract: In natural light harvesting systems, pigment-protein complexes are able to harvest sunlight with near unity quantum efficiency. These complexes exhibit emergent properties that cannot be simply extrapolated from knowledge of their component parts. In this perspective, we focus on how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) can provide an incisive tool to probe the electronic, energetic, and spatial landscapes that must be understood to describe photosynthetic light-harvesting. We review the theoretical and experimental principles of 2DES, and demonstrate its application to the study of the Photosystem II supercomplex of green plants. We illustrate several capabilities of 2DES, including monitoring energy transfer pathways, observing excitonic coherence, determining excitonic geometry, and informing on the atomic structure.
Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage
Kolokolov, I. V.
2017-03-01
The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.
Path integral approach to two-dimensional QCD in the light-front frame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaete, P. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, BR-21945, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Gamboa, J. (Fachbereich 7 Physik, Universitaet Siegen, Siegen, D-57068 (Germany)); Schmidt, I. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile))
1994-05-15
Two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics in the light-front frame is studied following Hamiltonian methods. The theory is quantized using the path integral formalism and an effective theory similar to the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is obtained. Confinement in two dimensions is derived by analyzing directly the constraints in the path integral.
Li, Yanyan
2006-07-01
In recent years, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) have been used widely, and the applications of this technique to many fields have already been reported. In the standard method of oil analysis, the concentrations of aromatics and naphthalene hydrocarbons in light petroleum products must be detected by more than two methods. Mono-aromatics, di-aromatics etc. in light petroleum products were detected only by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. After the proper selection of column system and optimization of chromatographic conditions, the method can achieve the group separations of paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, aromatics with 1 to 2 rings and some target components in light petroleum products with good reproducibility and good precision. The recoveries of standard compounds were 89.5% - 106.1%, and the relative standard deviations of repeatedly detecting the components were all lower than 5.8%. It took only 30 min to finish a determination.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Christin; Christensen, Johan; Mortensen, N. Asger
2016-01-01
We develop a methodology to incorporate nonlocal optical response of the free electron gas due to quantum-interaction effects in metal components of periodic two-dimensional plasmonic crystals and study the impact of spatial dispersion on promising building blocks for photonic circuits. Within th...... at normal incidence and the surprisingly large structural parameters at which finite blueshifts are observable, which we attribute to diffraction that offers nonvanishing in-plane wave vector components and increases the penetration depth of longitudinal (nonlocal) modes....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P A Subha; C P Jisha; V C Kuriakose
2007-08-01
The nonlinear Schrödinger equation which governs the dynamics of two-dimensional spatial solitons in Kerr media with periodically varying diffraction and nonlinearity has been analyzed in this paper using variational approach and numerical studies. Analytical expressions for soliton parameters have been derived using variational analysis. Variational equations and partial differential equation have been simulated numerically. Analytical and numerical studies have shown that nonlinearity management and diffraction management stabilize the pulse against decay or collapse providing undisturbed propagation even for larger energies of the incident beam.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI An-Chun; TIAN Guang-Shan
2006-01-01
In the present paper, we calculate the Gaussian correction to the critical value Jc⊥ caused by quantum spin fluctuation in a two-dimensional spatially anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet with integer spin S. Previously, someauthors computed this quantity by the mean-field theory based on the Schwinger boson representation of spin operators.However, for S = 1, their result is much less than the one derived by numerical calculations. By taking the effect ofquantum spin fluctuation into consideration, we are able to produce a greatly improved result.
Ultrashort light bullets described by the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation
Leblond, Hervé; 10.1103/PHYSREVA.81.063815
2011-01-01
By using a reductive perturbation technique applied to a two-level model, this study puts forward a generic two-dimensional sine-Gordon evolution equation governing the propagation of femtosecond spatiotemporal optical solitons in Kerr media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation. Direct numerical simulations show that, in contrast to the long-wave approximation, no collapse occurs, and that robust (2+1)-dimensional ultrashort light bullets may form from adequately chosen few-cycle input spatiotemporal wave forms. In contrast to the case of quadratic nonlinearity, the light bullets oscillate in both space and time and are therefore not steady-state lumps.
Jameson, A. R.; Larsen, M. L.
2016-06-01
Microphysical understanding of the variability in rain requires a statistical characterization of different drop sizes both in time and in all dimensions of space. Temporally, there have been several statistical characterizations of raindrop counts. However, temporal and spatial structures are neither equivalent nor readily translatable. While there are recent reports of the one-dimensional spatial correlation functions in rain, they can only be assumed to represent the two-dimensional (2D) correlation function under the assumption of spatial isotropy. To date, however, there are no actual observations of the (2D) spatial correlation function in rain over areas. Two reasons for this deficiency are the fiscal and the physical impossibilities of assembling a dense network of instruments over even hundreds of meters much less over kilometers. Consequently, all measurements over areas will necessarily be sparsely sampled. A dense network of data must then be estimated using interpolations from the available observations. In this work, a network of 19 optical disdrometers over a 100 m by 71 m area yield observations of drop spectra every minute. These are then interpolated to a 1 m resolution grid. Fourier techniques then yield estimates of the 2D spatial correlation functions. Preliminary examples using this technique found that steadier, light rain decorrelates spatially faster than does the convective rain, but in both cases the 2D spatial correlation functions are anisotropic, reflecting an asymmetry in the physical processes influencing the rain reaching the ground not accounted for in numerical microphysical models.
Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun
2010-02-01
We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in terms of response accuracy and task completion time. Results show that response accuracy did not differ between the two types of representations while task completion time was significantly greater with the stereoscopic representations. The completion time increased as the number of mental manipulations of 3D objects increased in the tasks. Post-interviews provide evidence that some students continued to think of stereoscopic representations as two-dimensional. Based on cognitive load and cue theories, we interpret that, in the absence of pictorial depth cues, students may need more time to be familiar with stereoscopic representations for optimal performance. In light of these results, we discuss potential uses of stereoscopic representations for science learning.
Strong light-matter coupling in two-dimensional atomic crystals
Liu, Xiaoze; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Fengnian; Lin, Erh-chen; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Menon, Vinod M
2014-01-01
Two dimensional (2D) atomic crystals of graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a class of materials that show strong light-matter interaction. This interaction can be further controlled by embedding such materials into optical microcavities. When the interaction is engineered to be stronger than the dissipation of light and matter entities, one approaches the strong coupling regime resulting in the formation of half-light half-matter bosonic quasiparticles called microcavity polaritons. Here we report the evidence of strong light-matter coupling and formation of microcavity polaritons in a two dimensional atomic crystal of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) embedded inside a dielectric microcavity at room temperature. A Rabi splitting of 46 meV and highly directional emission is observed from the MoS2 microcavity owing to the coupling between the 2D excitons and the cavity photons. Realizing strong coupling effects at room temperature in a disorder free potential landscape is central to the ...
Tongay, Sefaattin; Zhou, Jian; Ataca, Can; Liu, Jonathan; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Matthews, Tyler S; You, Long; Li, Jingbo; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Wu, Junqiao
2013-06-12
In the monolayer limit, transition metal dichalcogenides become direct-bandgap, light-emitting semiconductors. The quantum yield of light emission is low and extremely sensitive to the substrate used, while the underlying physics remains elusive. In this work, we report over 100 times modulation of light emission efficiency of these two-dimensional semiconductors by physical adsorption of O2 and/or H2O molecules, while inert gases do not cause such effect. The O2 and/or H2O pressure acts quantitatively as an instantaneously reversible "molecular gating" force, providing orders of magnitude broader control of carrier density and light emission than conventional electric field gating. Physi-sorbed O2 and/or H2O molecules electronically deplete n-type materials such as MoS2 and MoSe2, which weakens electrostatic screening that would otherwise destabilize excitons, leading to the drastic enhancement in photoluminescence. In p-type materials such as WSe2, the molecular physisorption results in the opposite effect. Unique and universal in two-dimensional semiconductors, the effect offers a new mechanism for modulating electronic interactions and implementing optical devices.
David, Christin; Christensen, Johan; Mortensen, N. Asger
2016-10-01
We develop a methodology to incorporate nonlocal optical response of the free electron gas due to quantum-interaction effects in metal components of periodic two-dimensional plasmonic crystals and study the impact of spatial dispersion on promising building blocks for photonic circuits. Within the framework of the hydrodynamic model, we observe significant changes with respect to the commonly employed local-response approximation, but also in comparison with homogeneous metal films where nonlocal effects have previously been considered. Notable are the emergence of a contribution from nonlocality at normal incidence and the surprisingly large structural parameters at which finite blueshifts are observable, which we attribute to diffraction that offers nonvanishing in-plane wave vector components and increases the penetration depth of longitudinal (nonlocal) modes.
Multifrequency observations of a solar microwave burst with two-dimensional spatial resolution
Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.
1990-01-01
Frequency-agile interferometry observations using three baselines and the technique of frequency synthesis were used to obtain two-dimensional positions of multiple microwave sources at several frequency ranges in a solar flare. Source size and brightness temperature spectra were obtained near the peak of the burst. The size spectrum shows that the source size decreases rapidly with increasing frequency, but the brightness temperature spectrum can be well-fitted by gyrosynchrotron emission from a nonthermal distribution of electrons with power-law index of 4.8. The spatial structure of the burst showed several characteristics in common with primary/secondary bursts discussed by Nakajima et al. (1985). A source of coherent plasma emission at low frequencies is found near the secondary gyrosynchrotron source, associated with the leader spots of the active region.
Kilpatrick, Zachary P.
2009-10-29
We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.
Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements
Kessler, Brian Maxwell
The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.
Mehlenbacher, Randy D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Grechko, Maksim; Wu, Meng-Yin; Arnold, Michael S.; Zanni, Martin T.
2015-04-01
Thin film networks of highly purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being explored for energy harvesting and optoelectronic devices because of their exceptional transport and optical properties. The nanotubes in these films are in close contact, which permits energy to flow through the films, although the pathways and mechanisms for energy transfer are largely unknown. Here we use a broadband continuum to collect femtosecond two-dimensional white-light spectra. The continuum spans 500 to 1,300 nm, resolving energy transfer between all combinations of bandgap (S1) and higher (S2) transitions. We observe ultrafast energy redistribution on the S2 states, non-Förster energy transfer on the S1 states and anti-correlated energy levels. The two-dimensional spectra reveal competing pathways for energy transfer, with S2 excitons taking routes depending on the bandgap separation, whereas S1 excitons relax independent of the bandgap. These observations provide a basis for understanding and ultimately controlling the photophysics of energy flow in CNT-based devices.
Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun
2010-01-01
We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in…
Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Fang
2017-07-01
Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project will use numerous two-dimensional (2D) neutron detectors whose ZnS (Ag) scintillator is doped with 6Li. To ensure the consistency of all neutron detectors, a calibration system for the performance of 2D neutron detectors is designed. For radiation protection, the state control of the radiation source gets more and more strict. It is impossible to directly carry out experiments with massive radioactive particles. Thus, the following scheme has been designed. The controlled pulsed laser light source on a 2D mobile platform is used to replace the neutron bombardment to generate the photon. The pulse signal drives the laser diode to generate pulse light. The pulse light source located on the 2D platform is controlled by the core controller, and goes to the wavelength shift fiber through the optical fiber. The host computer (PC) receives the signal from the electronics system, processes data, and automatically calibrates the performance parameters. As shown by the experimental results, the pulse light source can perfectly meet all requirements of 2D neutron detector calibration system.
Design of two-dimensional signal constellations for visible light communication
Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zheng, Beixiong; Guan, Rui; Chen, Ming
2017-02-01
This paper investigates a two-dimensional signal space for visible light communication (VLC) by taking into account some practical constraints. We first present the relationship between the signal space and basis functions, and then find the basis function yielding the largest signal space. Besides, to improve the symbol error rate (SER) performance of the system, we design the constellations by maximizing the minimum Euclidean distance among all constellation pairs. The original optimization problem is non-convex and relaxed to a convex one through a linear approximation method. Simulation results show that the optimized design provides significant signal-to-noise ratio gain (up to 6 dB at the SER of 10-4 for half-illumination target) over the heuristic design.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Shuai; Wang Yi-Quan
2011-01-01
Light propagation through a channel filter based on two-dimensional photonic crystals with elliptical-rod defects is studied by the finite-difference time-domain method.Shape alteration of the defects from the usual circle to an ellipse offers a powerful approach to engineer the resonant frequency of channel filters.It is found that the resonant frequency can be flexibly adjusted by just changing the orientation angle of the elliptical defects.The sensitivity of the resonant wavelength to the alteration of the oval rods' shape is also studied.This kind of multi-channel filter is very suitable for systems requiring a large number of output channel filters.
Cooperative resonances in light scattering from two-dimensional atomic arrays
Shahmoon, Ephraim; Lukin, Mikhail D; Yelin, Susanne F
2016-01-01
We consider light scattering off a two-dimensional (2D) dipolar array and show how it can be tailored by properly choosing the lattice constant of the order of the incident wavelength. In particular, we demonstrate that such arrays can operate as nearly perfect mirrors for a wide range of incident angles and frequencies close to the individual atomic resonance. These results can be understood in terms of the cooperative resonances of the surface modes supported by the 2D array. Experimental realizations are discussed, using ultracold arrays of trapped atoms and excitons in 2D semiconductor materials, as well as potential applications ranging from atomically thin metasurfaces to single photon nonlinear optics and nanomechanics.
Two-dimensional mapping of the asymmetric lateral coherence of thermal light.
Paroli, B; Potenza, M A C
2016-10-31
We report in this work the first experimental verification of the asymmetric lateral coherence which is a measurement of the spatio-temporal coherence by using a wide-band Young interference experiment with a fixed off-axis slit. We demonstrate the coherence properties through the measurement of the real part of the coherence factor of thermal light. We extend our recent results obtained for betatron and undulator radiations providing a robust experimental method for the two-dimensional mapping of the two-point correlation function of broadband radiation preserving the phase information. The proposed method can be used as a high-sensitivity alternative to traditional interferometry with quasi-monochromatic radiation.
Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Song
2016-10-01
Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384
Ballesteros, E.; Collados, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Lorenzo, F.; Viera, T.; Reyes, M.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, I.
1996-02-01
In this paper the description of the Solar Correlation Tracker prototype built by the Instituto de Astrof isica de Canarias is presented. The system is mainly conceived as a solar image tranquilizer, although a scanning utility has also been included in order to displace the image on the final focal plane with sub-arcsecond steps, thus allowing to perform two-dimensional high spatial resolution spectroscopy. The behaviour of the different elements of the tracker is shown, as well as their influence in the performance of the system. The restrictions of the Absolute Differences algorithm, used to detect image motion when granulation fields are considered, are extensively discussed. Laboratory and telescope tests have demonstrated the capabilities of the system. The electronic components have been adapted to new optics and mechanics developed at the Kiepenheuer Institut to build an Advanced Solar Correlation Tracker. The final version of the system has been installed at the German VTT of the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. The tests carried out have demonstrated that a bandwidth of about 60Hz (for an attenuation factor of two) is achieved, which is approximately four times larger than that of previous Correlation Trackers, at the same level of attenuation.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Scholes, Gregory D; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-09
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.
Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G
2017-03-29
Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P21/c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr6" octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τavg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.
Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehab Malkawi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng shuai; Wang Yi-Quan
2011-01-01
This paper studies the propagating characteristics of the electromagnetic waves through the coupled-resonator optical waveguides based on the two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals by the finite-difference time-domain method. When the traditional circular rods adjacent to the centre of the cavities are replaced by the oval rods, the simulated results show that the waveguide mode region can be adjusted only by the alteration of the oval rods' obliquity.When the obliquity of the oval rods around one cavity is different from the obliquity of that around the adjacent cavities,the group velocities of the waveguide modes can be greatly reduced and the information of different frequencies can be shared and chosen at the same time by the waveguide branches with different structures. If the obliquities of the oval rods around two adjacent cavities are equal and they alternate between two values, the group velocities can be further reduced and a maximum value of 0.0008c (c is the light velocity in vacuum) can be acquired.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Tao; ZHU Xing; ZHANG Bei; ZHANG Zhen-Sheng; LIU Dan; WANG Xiao; BAO Kui; KANG Xiang-Ning; XU Jun; Yu Da-Peng
2007-01-01
A two-dimensional array of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal(12PQC)is fabricated on the surface of current injected GaN-based LEDs to out-couple guided modes.The spatially-resolved surface light extraction mapping of 12PQC is observed and compared with that of triangular lattice photonic crystal (3PC)by microscopic electrical luminescence and scanning near-field microscopy.The higher enhancement factor of 12PQC is obtained to be larger than that of 3PC.It is shown that 12PQC is more favourable and efficient for light extraction of guided lights.
Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
1999-01-01
Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near......-field optical images. For the regime of strong multiple scattering, the near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by 10-50 times. This feature is attributed to strong localization of surface polaritons due to interference effects in multiple scattering...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....
Two Dimensional Spatial Independent Component Analysis and Its Application in fMRI Data Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hua-fu; YAO De-zhong
2005-01-01
One important application of independent component analysis (ICA) is in image processing. A two dimensional (2-D) composite ICA algorithm framework for 2-D image independent component analysis (2-D ICA) is proposed. The 2-D nature of the algorithm provides it an advantage of circumventing the roundabout transforming procedures between two dimensional (2-D) image data and one-dimensional (1-D) signal. Moreover the combination of the Newton (fixed-point algorithm) and natural gradient algorithms in this composite algorithm increases its efficiency and robustness. The convincing results of a successful example in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show the potential application of composite 2-D ICA in the brain activity detection.
Efremov, MA; Petropavlovsky, SV; Fedorov, MV; Schleich, WP; Yakovlev, VP
2005-01-01
The formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets produced in the interaction of a beam of two-level atoms with two standing light waves polarised in the same plane is considered. The mechanism providing a dispersionless particle dynamics is the balance of two processes: a rapid deca
Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage
Kolokolov, Igor
2016-01-01
The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time what contradicts to the statements present in literature. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. These tensors demonstrate highly intermittent statistics of the field fluctuations both in space and time.
Feng, Xiao; Ding, Xuesong; Chen, Long; Wu, Yang; Liu, Lili; Addicoat, Matthew; Irle, Stephan; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin
2016-09-01
Highly ordered discrete assemblies of chlorophylls that are found in natural light-harvesting antennae are key to photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and is the principal producer of organic matter on Earth. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines, which are analogues of chlorophylls, exhibit a strong absorbance of visible and near-infrared light, respectively. A highly ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae would harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum for chemical transformation. However, such a robust antennae has not yet been synthesised. Herein, we report a strategy that merges covalent bonds and noncovalent forces to produce highly ordered two-dimensional porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae. This methodology enables control over the stoichiometry and order of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine units; more importantly, this approach is compatible with various metalloporphyrin and metallophthalocyanine derivatives and thus may lead to the generation of a broad structural diversity of two-dimensional artificial antennae. These ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine two-dimensional antennae exhibit unique optical properties and catalytic functions that are not available with single-component or non-structured materials. These 2D artificial antennae exhibit exceptional light-harvesting capacity over the entire solar spectrum as a result of a synergistic light-absorption effect. In addition, they exhibit outstanding photosensitising activities in using both visible and near-infrared photons for producing singlet oxygen.
Daugman, J G
1985-07-01
Two-dimensional spatial linear filters are constrained by general uncertainty relations that limit their attainable information resolution for orientation, spatial frequency, and two-dimensional (2D) spatial position. The theoretical lower limit for the joint entropy, or uncertainty, of these variables is achieved by an optimal 2D filter family whose spatial weighting functions are generated by exponentiated bivariate second-order polynomials with complex coefficients, the elliptic generalization of the one-dimensional elementary functions proposed in Gabor's famous theory of communication [J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 429 (1946)]. The set includes filters with various orientation bandwidths, spatial-frequency bandwidths, and spatial dimensions, favoring the extraction of various kinds of information from an image. Each such filter occupies an irreducible quantal volume (corresponding to an independent datum) in a four-dimensional information hyperspace whose axes are interpretable as 2D visual space, orientation, and spatial frequency, and thus such a filter set could subserve an optimally efficient sampling of these variables. Evidence is presented that the 2D receptive-field profiles of simple cells in mammalian visual cortex are well described by members of this optimal 2D filter family, and thus such visual neurons could be said to optimize the general uncertainty relations for joint 2D-spatial-2D-spectral information resolution. The variety of their receptive-field dimensions and orientation and spatial-frequency bandwidths, and the correlations among these, reveal several underlying constraints, particularly in width/length aspect ratio and principal axis organization, suggesting a polar division of labor in occupying the quantal volumes of information hyperspace.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevedomskiy, V. N., E-mail: nevedom@mail.ioffe.ru; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.
Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moffatt, Robert [Stanford U.
2016-01-01
In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Jing-Min
2009-01-01
We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagome optical lattice under an effective magnetic field,which can be realized with laser beams.We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schr(o)dinger equation.The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations.We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability.
Chaigne, Thomas; Katz, Ori; Bossy, Emmanuel; Gigan, Sylvain
2014-01-01
We implement the photoacoustic transmission-matrix approach on a two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging system, using a 15 MHz linear ultrasound array. Using a black leaf skeleton as a complex absorbing structure, we demonstrate that the photoacoustic transmission-matrix approach allows to reveal structural features that are invisible in conventional photoacoustic images, as well as to selectively control light focusing on absorbing targets, leading to a local enhancement of the photoacoustic signal.
7 Å resolution in protein two-dimensional-crystal X-ray diffraction at Linac Coherent Light Source.
Pedrini, Bill; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Capitani, Guido; Padeste, Celestino; Hunter, Mark S; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Barty, Anton; Benner, W Henry; Boutet, Sébastien; Feld, Geoffrey K; Hau-Riege, Stefan P; Kirian, Richard A; Kupitz, Christopher; Messerschmitt, Marc; Ogren, John I; Pardini, Tommaso; Segelke, Brent; Williams, Garth J; Spence, John C H; Abela, Rafael; Coleman, Matthew; Evans, James E; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Frank, Matthias; Li, Xiao-Dan
2014-07-17
Membrane proteins arranged as two-dimensional crystals in the lipid environment provide close-to-physiological structural information, which is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of protein function. Previously, X-ray diffraction from individual two-dimensional crystals did not represent a suitable investigational tool because of radiation damage. The recent availability of ultrashort pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has now provided a means to outrun the damage. Here, we report on measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source XFEL on bacteriorhodopsin two-dimensional crystals mounted on a solid support and kept at room temperature. By merging data from about a dozen single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 Å, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. This indicates that a larger dataset will allow for reliable quantification of peak intensities, and in turn a corresponding increase in the resolution. The presented results pave the way for further XFEL studies on two-dimensional crystals, which may include pump-probe experiments at subpicosecond time resolution. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Lim, James; Ing, David J; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2017-01-14
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Kevrekidis, P G; Saxena, A; Frantzeskakis, D J; Bishop, A R
2014-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anti-continuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual "extended" unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being what was considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (analytically, whenever possible). Typical scenarios ...
Lim, James; Ing, David J.; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H.; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2017-01-01
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Two-dimensional periodic and quasiperiodic spatial structures in microchip laser resonator
Okulov, A Yu
2014-01-01
The spatially periodic 2D patterns at output mirror of solid state microchip laser with high Fresnel number (100-1000) are discussed in view of numerical modeling with split-step FFT code comprising nonlinear gain, relaxation of inversion and paraxial diffraction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Saux Picart
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its
An Optimization Model for Scheduling Problems with Two-Dimensional Spatial Resource Constraint
Garcia, Christopher; Rabadi, Ghaith
2010-01-01
Traditional scheduling problems involve determining temporal assignments for a set of jobs in order to optimize some objective. Some scheduling problems also require the use of limited resources, which adds another dimension of complexity. In this paper we introduce a spatial resource-constrained scheduling problem that can arise in assembly, warehousing, cross-docking, inventory management, and other areas of logistics and supply chain management. This scheduling problem involves a twodimensional rectangular area as a limited resource. Each job, in addition to having temporal requirements, has a width and a height and utilizes a certain amount of space inside the area. We propose an optimization model for scheduling the jobs while respecting all temporal and spatial constraints.
Velazco, Julio G; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P; Jordan, David R; Eilers, Paul H C; Malosetti, Marcos; van Eeuwijk, Fred A
2017-07-01
A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and selection of genotypes. Current mixed model methods of spatial analysis are based on a multi-step modelling process where global and local trends are fitted after trying several candidate spatial models. This paper reports the application of a novel spatial method that accounts for all types of continuous field variation in a single modelling step by fitting a smooth surface. The method uses two-dimensional P-splines with anisotropic smoothing formulated in the mixed model framework, referred to as SpATS model. We applied this methodology to a series of large and partially replicated sorghum breeding trials. The new model was assessed in comparison with the more elaborate standard spatial models that use autoregressive correlation of residuals. The improvements in precision and the predictions of genotypic values produced by the SpATS model were equivalent to those obtained using the best fitting standard spatial models for each trial. One advantage of the approach with SpATS is that all patterns of spatial trend and genetic effects were modelled simultaneously by fitting a single model. Furthermore, we used a flexible model to adequately adjust for field trends. This strategy reduces potential parameter identification problems and simplifies the model selection process. Therefore, the new method should be considered as an efficient and easy-to-use alternative for routine analyses of plant breeding trials.
Wang, Yunhua; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao
2017-01-01
Periodically driven nontrivial quantum states open another door to engineer topological phases in solid systems by light. Here we show, based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, that the on-resonant linearly and circularly polarized infrared light brings in the exotic Floquet quantum spin Hall state and half-metal in two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks (2D MOFs) because of the unbroken and broken time-reversal symmetry, respectively. We also observe that the off-resonant light triggers topological quantum phase transitions and induces semimetals with pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions via the photon-dressed topological band structures of 2D MOFs. This work paves a way to design light-controlled spintronics and optoelectronics based on 2D MOFs. PMID:28134315
Wang, Yunhua; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao
2017-01-01
Periodically driven nontrivial quantum states open another door to engineer topological phases in solid systems by light. Here we show, based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, that the on-resonant linearly and circularly polarized infrared light brings in the exotic Floquet quantum spin Hall state and half-metal in two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks (2D MOFs) because of the unbroken and broken time-reversal symmetry, respectively. We also observe that the off-resonant light triggers topological quantum phase transitions and induces semimetals with pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions via the photon-dressed topological band structures of 2D MOFs. This work paves a way to design light-controlled spintronics and optoelectronics based on 2D MOFs.
Metamaterials for Remote Generation of Spatially Controllable Two Dimensional Array of Microplasma
Singh, Pramod K.; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer
2014-08-01
Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials.
Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma.
Singh, Pramod K; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer
2014-08-07
Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials.
Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN LED with a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Slab
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Hong-Wei; KAN Qiang; WANG Chun-Xia; HU Hai-Yang; XU Xing-Sheng; CHEN Hong-Da
2011-01-01
Light extraction effects of a photonic crystal slab with a micrometer scale lattice constant are studied. A GaN light emitting diode (LED) with a photonic crystal slab is fabricated. The light extraction effects and the enhancement mechanism are investigated. From theoretical analysis, it is found that the characteristics of LED light emission are modulated by the photonic crystal slab. Experimental results show that the LED light emission intensity is enhanced by 38％ due to guide mode extracting by the photonic crystal.%@@ Light extraction effects ora photonic crystal slab with a micrometer scale lattice constant are studied.A GaN light emitting diode(LED) with a photonic crystal slab is fabricated.The light extraction effects and the enhancement mechanism are investigated.From theoretical analysis,it is found that the characteristics of LED light emission are modulated by the photonic crystal slab.Experimental results show that the LED light emission intensity is enhanced by 38% due to guide mode extracting by the photonic crystal.
Fidler, Andrew F; Singh, Ved P; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Engel, Gregory S
2013-10-21
Excitation energy transfer events in the photosynthetic light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are investigated with polarization controlled two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. A spectrally broadened pulse allows simultaneous measurement of the energy transfer within and between the two absorption bands at 800 nm and 850 nm. The phased all-parallel polarization two-dimensional spectra resolve the initial events of energy transfer by separating the intra-band and inter-band relaxation processes across the two-dimensional map. The internal dynamics of the 800 nm region of the spectra are resolved as a cross peak that grows in on an ultrafast time scale, reflecting energy transfer between higher lying excitations of the B850 chromophores into the B800 states. We utilize a polarization sequence designed to highlight the initial excited state dynamics which uncovers an ultrafast transfer component between the two bands that was not observed in the all-parallel polarization data. We attribute the ultrafast transfer component to energy transfer from higher energy exciton states to lower energy states of the strongly coupled B850 chromophores. Connecting the spectroscopic signature to the molecular structure, we reveal multiple relaxation pathways including a cyclic transfer of energy between the two rings of the complex.
Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in OLED with two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rongjin Yan; Qingkang Wang
2006-01-01
Light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on various photonic crystal slab (PCS) structures was studied. By using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigated the effect of several parameters, including filling factor and lattice constant, on the enhancement of light extraction efficiency of three basic PCSs, and got the most effective one. Two novel designs of "interlaced"and "double-interlaced" PCS structures based on the most effective basic PCS structure were introduced,and the "interlaced" one was proved to be even more efficient than its prototype. Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency resulted from the coupling to leaky modes in the expended light cone of a band structure, the diffraction in the space between columns, as well as the strong scattering at indium-tinoxide/glass interfaces.
Percolation in spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on two-dimensional lattices
Choi, Woosik; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup
2015-11-01
We study the spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game with updates of imitation max on triangular, hexagonal, and square lattices. We use the weak prisoner's dilemma game with a single parameter b . Due to the competition between the temptation value b and the coordination number z of the base lattice, a greater variety of percolation properties is expected to occur on the lattice with the larger z . From the numerical analysis, we find six different regimes on the triangular lattice (z =6 ). Regardless of the initial densities of cooperators and defectors, cooperators always percolate in the steady state in two regimes for small b . In these two regimes, defectors do not percolate. In two regimes for the intermediate value of b , both cooperators and defectors undergo percolation transitions. The defector always percolates in two regimes for large b . On the hexagonal lattice (z =3 ), there exist two distinctive regimes. For small b , both the cooperators and the defectors undergo percolation transitions while only defectors always percolate for large b . On the square lattice (z =4 ), there exist three regimes. Combining with the finite-size scaling analyses, we show that all the observed percolation transitions belong to the universality class of the random percolation. We also show how the detailed growth mechanism of cooperator and defector clusters decides each regime.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Yin; LU Yan-Wu
2009-01-01
@@ Light propagation through a coupled-defect waveguide with a 63.5°bend in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal is investigated. The waveguide modes are non-degenerate monopole state and dipole defect state of a square lattice for two different branches. To increase the transmission in the bending waveguide, we propose a method to rotate the localized state by introducing a new type defect with a sheared square rod into coupled cavity. The higher coupling efficiency and transmission in the bending waveguide are obtained with proper shear shift.
Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun
2011-07-01
The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.
Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer
Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent
2016-01-01
Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, NHC; Gruenke, NL; Oliver, TAA; Ballottari, M; Bassi, R; Fleming, GR
2016-10-05
Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) serves a central role in light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis and is arguably the most important photosynthetic antenna complex. In this article, we present two-dimensional electronic–vibrational (2DEV) spectra of LHCII isolated from spinach, demonstrating the possibility of using this technique to track the transfer of electronic excitation energy between specific pigments within the complex. We assign the spectral bands via comparison with the 2DEV spectra of the isolated chromophores, chlorophyll a and b, and present evidence that excitation energy between the pigments of the complex are observed in these spectra. Lastly, we analyze the essential components of the 2DEV spectra using singular value decomposition, which makes it possible to reveal the relaxation pathways within this complex.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amoudache, Samira [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Pennec, Yan, E-mail: yan.pennec@univ-lille1.fr; Djafari Rouhani, Bahram [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Khater, Antoine [Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans UMR 6283 CNRS, Université du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Lucklum, Ralf [Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems (IMOS), Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany); Tigrine, Rachid [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)
2014-04-07
We theoretically investigate the potentiality of dual phononic-photonic (the so-called phoxonic) crystals for liquid sensing applications. We study the transmission through a two-dimensional (2D) crystal made of infinite cylindrical holes in a silicon substrate, where one row of holes oriented perpendicular to the propagation direction is filled with a liquid. The infiltrated holes may have a different radius than the regular holes. We show, in the defect structure, the existence of well-defined features (peaks or dips) in the transmission spectra of acoustic and optical waves and estimate their sensitivity to the sound and light velocity of the analyte. Some of the geometrical requirements behave in opposite directions when searching for an efficient sensing of either sound or light velocities. Hence, a compromise in the choice of the parameters may become necessary in making the phoxonic sensor.
Herran Cuspinera, Roxana M.; Hore, Dennis K.
2016-11-01
We highlight the potential of generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis for the fingerprinting of cell growth in solution monitored by light scattering, where the synchronous and asynchronous responses serve as a sensitive marker for the effect of growth conditions on the distribution of cell morphologies. The polarization of the scattered light varies according to the cell size distribution, and so the changes in the polarization over time are an excellent indicator of the dynamic growth conditions. However, direct comparison of the polarization-, time-, and angle-resolved signals between different experiments is hindered by the subtle changes in the data, and the inability to easily adapt models to account for these differences. Using Mie scattering simulations of different growth conditions, and some preliminary experimental data for a single set of conditions, we illustrate that correlation analysis provides rapid and sensitive qualitative markers of growth characteristics.
High-resolution two-dimensional image upconversion of incoherent light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter
2010-01-01
We consider a technique for high-resolution image upconversion of thermal light. Experimentally, we demonstrate cw upconversion with a resolution of more than 200 × 1000 pixels of thermally illuminated objects. This is the first demonstration (to our knowledge) of high-resolution cw image...... upconversion. The upconversion method promises an alternative route to high-quantum-efficiency all-optical imaging in the mid-IR wavelength region and beyond using standard CCD cameras. A particular advantage of CCD cameras compared to state-of-the-art thermal cameras is the possibility to tailor and tune...
Two-dimensional light-front $\\phi^4$ theory in a symmetric polynomial basis
Burkardt, M; Hiller, J R
2016-01-01
We study the lowest-mass eigenstates of $\\phi^4_{1+1}$ theory with both odd and even numbers of constituents. The calculation is carried out as a diagonalization of the light-front Hamiltonian in a Fock-space representation. In each Fock sector a fully symmetric polynomial basis is used to represent the Fock wave function. Convergence is investigated with respect to the number of basis polynomials in each sector and with respect to the number of sectors. The dependence of the spectrum on the coupling strength is used to estimate the critical coupling for the positive-mass-squared case. An apparent discrepancy with equal-time calculations of the critical coupling is resolved by an appropriate mass renormalization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taeseong Woo
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A quantitative diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be disturbed by radiofrequency (RF field inhomogeneity induced by the conductive implants. This inhomogeneity causes a local decrease of the signal intensity around the conductor, resulting in a deterioration of the accurate quantification. In a previous study, we developed an MRI imaging method using a two-dimensional selective excitation pulse (2D pulse to mitigate signal inhomogeneity induced by metallic implants. In this paper, the effect of 2D pulse was evaluated quantitatively by numerical simulation and MRI experiments. We introduced two factors for evaluation, spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor. Numerical simulations were performed with two groups. One group was composed of four models with different signal loss width, to evaluate the spatial resolution of the 2D pulse. The other group is also composed of four models with different amounts of signal loss for evaluating maximum compensation factor. In MRI experiments, we prepared phantoms containing conductors, which have different electrical conductivities related with the amounts of signal intensity decrease. The recovery of signal intensity was observed by 2D pulses, in both numerical simulations and experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp Riffel
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implementation of DWI in the abdomen is challenging due to artifacts, particularly those arising from differences in tissue susceptibility. Two-dimensional, spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF excitation pulses for single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI combined with a reduction in the FOV in the phase-encoding direction (i.e. zooming leads to a decreased number of k-space acquisition lines, significantly shortening the EPI echo train and potentially susceptibility artifacts. PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and image quality of a zoomed diffusion-weighted EPI (z-EPI sequence in MR imaging of the pancreas. The approach is compared to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 23 patients who had undergone an MRI study of the abdomen were included in this retrospective study. Examinations were performed on a 3T whole-body MR system (Magnetom Skyra, Siemens equipped with a two-channel fully dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens. The acquired sequences consisted of a conventional EPI DWI of the abdomen and a zoomed EPI DWI of the pancreas. For z-EPI, the standard sinc excitation was replaced with a two-dimensional spatially-selective RF pulse using an echo-planar transmit trajectory. Images were evaluated with regard to image blur, respiratory motion artifacts, diagnostic confidence, delineation of the pancreas, and overall scan preference. Additionally ADC values of the pancreatic head, body, and tail were calculated and compared between sequences. RESULTS: The pancreas was better delineated in every case (23/23 with z-EPI versus c-EPI. In every case (23/23, both readers preferred z-EPI overall to c-EPI. With z-EPI there was statistically significantly less image blur (p<0.0001 and respiratory motion artifact compared to c-EPI (p<0.0001. Diagnostic confidence was statistically significantly better with z-EPI (p<0.0001. No statistically significant differences in calculated ADC values were observed
Hetland, Øyvind S; Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve
2016-01-01
The scattering of polarized light incident from one dielectric medium on its two-dimensional randomly rough interface with a second dielectric medium is studied. A reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering amplitudes is derived for the case where p- or s-polarized light is incident on this interface, with no assumptions being made regarding the dielectric functions of the media. Rigorous, purely numerical, nonperturbative solutions of this equation are obtained. They are used to calculate the reflectivity and reflectance of the interface, the mean differential reflection coefficient, and the full angular distribution of the intensity of the scattered light. These results are obtained for both the case where the medium of incidence is the optically less dense medium, and in the case where it is the optically more dense medium. Optical analogues of the Yoneda peaks observed in the scattering of x-rays from metal surfaces are present in the results obtained in the latter case. Brewster scattering angles for d...
Yang, Jiao; Jiang, Yi-Lin; Li, Lin-Jie; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Mei-Zhen
2016-04-01
Due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and rapid electron transfer, two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets with ultrathin thicknesses are synthesized by using a bottom-up strategy and these self-assembled nanosheet (NS)-based photocatalysts and photodetectors were explored for the first time. The influence of calcination temperature on microstructures and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets were discovered and presented. The as-obtained TiO2 nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The following heat treatment process induced phase evolution from rutile to anatase. The TiO2 nanosheets calcined at 500 °C exhibited the best activity for photo-degradation of organic dyes under UV light irradiation. The obtained photodetector exhibits excellent performance with a high photocurrent to dark current ratio and fast response and recovery times. Additionally, we demonstrated that the device may have potential applications in the future low-power optoelectronics system.Due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and rapid electron transfer, two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets with ultrathin thicknesses are synthesized by using a bottom-up strategy and these self-assembled nanosheet (NS)-based photocatalysts and photodetectors were explored for the first time. The influence of calcination temperature on microstructures and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets were discovered and presented. The as-obtained TiO2 nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The following
Yang, Henglong; Cheng, Yu-Hen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lin, Yu-Hsuan
2016-09-01
The feasibility of applying a five-inch diagonal white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) as a desk lamp was experimentally investigated by quantitatively comparing its two-dimensional (2D) optical intensity profile to that of a traditional 3M desk lamp equipped with optical diffuser. The 2D optical distribution patterns as the function of vertical distances to a surface of a five-inch diagonal WOLED were obtained by using rapid rotating measurement technique consisted of a sample holder on a rotational stage and a fixed photo detector with optical power meter. The 2D optical intensity profile on a surface can be rapidly established in a relatively small space by recording the reading from the fixed photo detector as rotating the sample holder. This rapid measurement technique is suitable for practical application in quality engineering without larger space. A WOLED is a compact and thin lighting source with planar device structure without additional optical components. Its optical intensity profile on a plane is expected to be different from traditional lighting sources. The optical distribution pattern of a desk lamp requires a relatively large area on a surface with relatively uniformed intensity distribution. The quantitative analysis of the similarity between WOLED and 3M desk lamp was conducted by comparing the optimal zones defined as the area within 75% of the maximum intensity in 2D optical distribution pattern. Our preliminary result showed that the optimal zone of a five-inch diagonal WOLED at 45cm vertical distance is highly similar to that of the 3M desk lamp with optical diffuser.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping Yuan; Liang Qiao; Li Dai; Yan-Ping Wang; Guang-Xuan Zhou; Ying Han; Xiao-Xia Liu; Xun Zhang; Yi Cao; Juan Liang; Jun Zhu
2009-01-01
AIM:To investigate the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China.METHODS:Data were collected from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network (CBDMN),a hospitalbased congenital malformations registry system.All fetuses more than 28 wk of gestation and neonates up to 7 d of age in hospitals within the monitoring sites of the CBDMN were monitored from 2001 to 2005.Two-dimensional graph-theoretical clustering was used to divide monitoring sites of the CBDMN into different clusters according to the average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis in the different monitoring sites.RESULTS:The overall average incidence of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China was 3.17 per 10 000 from 2001 to 2005.The areas with the highest average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis were almost always focused in Eastern China.The monitoring sites were grouped into 6 clusters of areas.Cluster 1 comprised the monitoring sites in Heilongjiang Province,Jilin Province,and Liaoning Province;Cluster 2 was composed of those in Fujian Province,Guangdong Province,Hainan Province,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,south Hunan Province,and south Jiangxi Province;Cluster 3 consisted of those in Beijing Municipal City,Tianjin Municipal City,Hebei Province,Shandong Province,north Jiangsu Province,and north Anhui Province;Cluster 4 was made up of those in Zhejiang Province,Shanghai Municipal City,south Anhui Province,south Jiangsu Province,north Hunan Province,north Jiangxi Province,Hubei Province,Henan Province,Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region;Cluster 5 consisted of those in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,Gansu Province and Qinghai Province;and Cluster 6 included those in Shaanxi Province,Sichuan Province,Chongqing Municipal City,Yunnan Province,Guizhou Province,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Province and Tibet Autonomous Region.CONCLUSION:The findings in this research allow the display of the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in
Yang, Jiao; Jiang, Yi-Lin; Li, Lin-Jie; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Mei-Zhen
2016-04-21
Due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and rapid electron transfer, two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets with ultrathin thicknesses are synthesized by using a bottom-up strategy and these self-assembled nanosheet (NS)-based photocatalysts and photodetectors were explored for the first time. The influence of calcination temperature on microstructures and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets were discovered and presented. The as-obtained TiO2 nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The following heat treatment process induced phase evolution from rutile to anatase. The TiO2 nanosheets calcined at 500 °C exhibited the best activity for photo-degradation of organic dyes under UV light irradiation. The obtained photodetector exhibits excellent performance with a high photocurrent to dark current ratio and fast response and recovery times. Additionally, we demonstrated that the device may have potential applications in the future low-power optoelectronics system.
Consequences of Spatial Antisymmetry on Light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mascarenhas, Angelo; Fluegel, Brian
2016-12-21
Light propagation in two and three dimensional lattices for which the index of refraction exhibits spatial antisymmetry is investigated in the ray and photonic crystal regimes. In these regimes, all the two dimensional antisymmetry groups for which light fails to propagate are identified. In the ray-regime, it is observed that in tilings described by 7 of the 46 two dimensional antisymmetric groups, light is localized within a fundamental domain and does not propagate through the tiling, in contrast to the behavior in the other 39 groups. To understand the above phenomenon, a rule based on the number of anti-mirror planes passing through a single Bravais lattice point is derived. In the wave regime for photonic crystals, it is observed that there are no propagating eigensolutions for the same 7 tilings as above, whereas propagating solutions and energy pass band dispersion curves can be obtained for the other 39 groups. The reasons underlying this peculiar behavior are analyzed using the topological approach for modeling flow in dynamical billiards to shed light on the applicability of Bloch's theorem for these periodic antisymmetric lattices.
Kamataki, K.; Morita, Y.; Shiratani, M.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Itagaki, N.
2012-04-01
We have developed a simple in-situ method for measuring the size distribution (the mean size (mean diameter) and size dispersion) of nano-particles generated in reactive plasmas using the 2 dimensional laser light scattering (2DLLS) method. The principle of the method is based on thermal coagulation of the nano-particles, which occurs after the discharge is turned off, and the size and density of the nano-particles can then be deduced. We first determined the 2D spatial distribution of the density and size of the nano-particles in smaller particle size (a few nm) range than ones deduced from the conventional 2DLLS method. From this 2D dataset, we have for the first time been able to determine the size distribution of nano-particles generated in a reactive plasma without ex-situ measurements.
Klift, van der E.J.C.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Claassen, F.W.; Holthoon, van F.L.; Beek, van T.A.
2008-01-01
An improved comprehensive two-dimensional (LC × LC) HPLC system for the analysis of triacylglycerols was developed. In the first-dimension, a Ag(I)-coated cation exchanger (250 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ¿m) was employed with a gradient from 100% MeOH to 6% MeCN in MeOH at 20 ¿L/min. Using a 10-way valve with t
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenqiang Zhao
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This work studies the long-time behavior of two-dimensional micropolar fluid flows perturbed by the generalized time derivative of the infinite dimensional Wiener processes. Based on the omega-limit compactness argument as well as some new estimates of solutions, it is proved that the generated random dynamical system admits an H^1-random attractor which is compact in H^1 space and attracts all tempered random subsets of L^2 space in H^1 topology. We also give a general abstract result which shows that the continuity condition and absorption of the associated random dynamical system in H^1 space is not necessary for the existence of random attractor in H^1 space.
Liu, Zhengqi; Liu, Long; Lu, Haiyang; Zhan, Peng; Du, Wei; Wan, Mingjie; Wang, Zhenlin
2017-03-01
Recently, techniques involving random patterns have made it possible to control the light trapping of microstructures over broad spectral and angular ranges, which provides a powerful approach for photon management in energy efficiency technologies. Here, we demonstrate a simple method to create a wideband near-unity light absorber by introducing a dense and random pattern of metal-capped monodispersed dielectric microspheres onto an opaque metal film; the absorber works due to the excitation of multiple optical and plasmonic resonant modes. To further expand the absorption bandwidth, two different-sized metal-capped dielectric microspheres were integrated into a densely packed monolayer on a metal back-reflector. This proposed ultra-broadband plasmonic-photonic super absorber demonstrates desirable optical trapping in dielectric region and slight dispersion over a large incident angle range. Without any effort to strictly control the spatial arrangement of the resonant elements, our absorber, which is based on a simple self-assembly process, has the critical merits of high reproducibility and scalability and represents a viable strategy for efficient energy technologies.
Robinson, Brian E
2016-06-01
Areas of high biodiversity often coincide with communities living in extreme poverty. As a livelihood support, these communities often harvest wild products from the environment. But harvest activities can have negative impacts on fragile and globally important ecosystems. This paper examines trade-offs in ecological protection and community welfare from the harvest of wild products. With a novel model and empirical evidence, I show that management of harvest activity does not always resolve these trade-offs. In a model of continuous harvests in a two-dimensional landscape, managed harvest activity improves welfare, but is uniformly bad for other ecosystem services that are sensitive to the presence (as opposed to the intensity) of human activity. Empirical results from a unique dataset of mushroom harvesters in Yunnan, China suggest more experienced, poorer, and more vulnerable individuals tend to rely on more distant harvests. Thus, policies that limit the extent of forest travel, such as protected areas, may protect fragile ecosystems but can have a disproportionately negative effect on those most vulnerable.
de Sousa, N; García-Martín, A; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Marqués, M I
2014-01-01
The effect of spatial correlations on the Purcell effect in a bidimensional dispersion of resonant nanoparticles is analyzed. We perform extensive calculations of the fluorescence decay rate of a point emitter embedded in a system of nanoparticles statistically distributed according to a sim- ple 2D lattice-gas model near the critical point. For short range correlations (high temperature thermalization) the Purcell factors present a non-Gaussian long-tailed statistics which evolves to- wards a bimodal distribution as approaching the critical point where the spatial correlation length diverges. Our results suggest long range correlations as a possible origin of the large fluctuations of experimental decay rates in disordered metal films.
Adams, Bernhard W; Mane, Anil U; Elam, Jeffrey W; Obaid, Razib; Wetstein, Matthew; Chollet, Matthieu
2015-09-01
X-ray detectors that combine two-dimensional spatial resolution with a high time resolution are needed in numerous applications of synchrotron radiation. Most detectors with this combination of capabilities are based on semiconductor technology and are therefore limited in size. Furthermore, the time resolution is often realised through rapid time-gating of the acquisition, followed by a slower readout. Here, a detector technology is realised based on relatively inexpensive microchannel plates that uses GHz waveform sampling for a millimeter-scale spatial resolution and better than 100 ps time resolution. The technology is capable of continuous streaming of time- and location-tagged events at rates greater than 10(7) events per cm(2). Time-gating can be used for improved dynamic range.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Bernhard W.; Mane, Anil; Elam, Jeffrey; Obaid, Razib; Wetstein, Matthew J.
2015-09-01
X-ray detectors that combine two-dimensional spatial resolution with a high time resolution are needed in numerous applications of synchrotron radiation. Most detectors with this combination of capabilities are based on semiconductor technology and are therefore limited in size. Furthermore, the time resolution is often realised through rapid time-gating of the acquisition, followed by a slower readout. Here, a detector technology is realised based on relatively inexpensive microchannel plates that uses GHz waveform sampling for a millimeter-scale spatial resolution and better than 100 ps time resolution. The technology is capable of continuous streaming of time- and location-tagged events at rates greater than 10(7) events per cm(2). Time-gating can be used for improved dynamic range.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goh, Vicky; Sanghera, Bal [Mount Vernon Hospital, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Wellsted, David M.; Sundin, Josefin [University of Hertfordshire, Research and Development Support Unit, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology, London (United Kingdom)
2009-06-15
The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of fractal analysis for assessing the spatial pattern of colorectal tumour perfusion at dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT). Twenty patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent a 65-s perfusion CT study from which a perfusion parametric map was generated using validated commercial software. The tumour was identified by an experienced radiologist, segmented via thresholding and fractal analysis applied using in-house software: fractal dimension, abundance and lacunarity were assessed for the entire outlined tumour and for selected representative areas within the tumour of low and high perfusion. Comparison was made with ten patients with normal colons, processed in a similar manner, using two-way mixed analysis of variance with statistical significance at the 5% level. Fractal values were higher in cancer than normal colon (p {<=} 0.001): mean (SD) 1.71 (0.07) versus 1.61 (0.07) for fractal dimension and 7.82 (0.62) and 6.89 (0.47) for fractal abundance. Fractal values were lower in 'high' than 'low' perfusion areas. Lacunarity curves were shifted to the right for cancer compared with normal colon. In conclusion, colorectal cancer mapped by perfusion CT demonstrates fractal properties. Fractal analysis is feasible, potentially providing a quantitative measure of the spatial pattern of tumour perfusion. (orig.)
Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.
2017-03-01
The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.
Williams, R. D.; Brasington, J.; Hicks, M.; Measures, R.; Rennie, C. D.; Vericat, D.
2013-09-01
Gravel-bed braided rivers are characterized by shallow, branching flow across low relief, complex, and mobile bed topography. These conditions present a major challenge for the application of higher dimensional hydraulic models, the predictions of which are nevertheless vital to inform flood risk and ecosystem management. This paper demonstrates how high-resolution topographic survey and hydraulic monitoring at a density commensurate with model discretization can be used to advance hydrodynamic simulations in braided rivers. Specifically, we detail applications of the shallow water model, Delft3d, to the Rees River, New Zealand, at two nested scales: a 300 m braid bar unit and a 2.5 km reach. In each case, terrestrial laser scanning was used to parameterize the topographic boundary condition at hitherto unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Dense observations of depth and velocity acquired from a mobile acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), along with low-altitude aerial photography, were then used to create a data-rich framework for model calibration and testing at a range of discharges. Calibration focused on the estimation of spatially uniform roughness and horizontal eddy viscosity, νH, through comparison of predictions with distributed hydraulic data. Results revealed strong sensitivity to νH, which influenced cross-channel velocity and localization of high shear zones. The high-resolution bed topography partially accounts for form resistance, and the recovered roughness was found to scale by 1.2-1.4 D84 grain diameter. Model performance was good for a range of flows, with minimal bias and tight error distributions, suggesting that acceptable predictions can be achieved with spatially uniform roughness and νH.
Simonsen, Ingve; Kryvi, Jacob B; Maradudin, Alexei A
2015-01-01
An expression is obtained on the basis of phase perturbation theory for the contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane co-polarized component of the light scattered diffusely from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface when the latter is illuminated by s-polarized light. This result forms the basis for an approach to inverting experimental light scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Several parametrized forms of this correlation function, and the minimization of a cost function with respect to the parameters defining these representations, are used in the inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the dielectric substrate if it is not known in advance. The input data used in validating this inversion consists of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, withou...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H; Yang, D; Xiao, Z [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Driewer, J [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Han, Z [Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports our attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. Methods: A thin layer of KCl:Eu2+ was deposited on a substrate of borosilicate glass (e.g., laboratory slides) with a PVD system. For tape casting, a homogenous suspension containing storage phosphor particles, liquid vehicle and polymer binder was formed and subsequently cast by doctor-blade onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate to form a 150 μm thick SPF. Results: X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 μm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl−) centers were the electron storage centers post x ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 μm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a Result of its intrinsic high radiation hardness. Conclusions: This discovery research provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could Result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of
2012-05-10
light (Schmelzle, 1994 and Albano , 1994). The kinetic mechanisms were incorporated into the flow field model by introducing the species mass... Albano , M., 1994. Computer Simulation of a Photolytic Reactor to Study the Effects of a Variety of Wavelengths, A Thesis in Environmental Pollution
Duin, van E.H.S.
1992-01-01
This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data
Olbrich, Carsten; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Liebers, Joerg; Aghtar, Mortaza; Struempfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus; Knoester, Jasper; Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich; Strümpfer, Johan
2011-01-01
The experimental observation of long-lived quantum coherences in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex at low temperatures has challenged general intuition in the field of complex molecular systems and provoked considerable theoretical effort in search of explanations. Here we repo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
We numerically simulated the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structure on the top surface in order to enhance light extraction. We considered InGaN-based LED chips with a typical emission wavelength of λ{sub o} = 460 nm and an emission wavelength inside the LED chip of λ = λ{sub 0}/n{sub GaN} , where n{sub GaN} is the refractive index of GaN. We used positive (relief) and negative (intaglio) patterns for the PC structures with square arrangements. The pattern period (Λ), width (d), and height (h) of the PC structure were varied systematically in the PC-LEDs; then the light-extraction efficiency of each PC-LED was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to optimize the PC structure in terms of light extraction. The PC LED with a square pillar pattern with Λ ∼ 1.4λ, d ∼ 0.75Λ, and h ∼ 0.75Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for positive patterns while the cylindrical hole pattern with Λ ∼ 1.2λ, d ∼ 0.5Λ, and h ∼ 0.5Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for negative patterns.
Yudin, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan A.
2016-10-01
A nonperturbative interaction of an electronic system with a laser field can substantially modify its physical properties. In particular, in two-dimensional (2D) materials with a lack of inversion symmetry, the achievement of a regime of strong light-matter coupling allows direct optical tuning of the strength of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Capitalizing on these results, we build a theory of the dynamical conductivity of a 2D electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOIs coupled to an off-resonant high-frequency electromagnetic wave. We argue that strong light-matter coupling modifies qualitatively the dispersion of the electrons and can be used as a powerful tool to probe and manipulate the coupling strengths and adjust the frequency range where optical conductivity is essentially nonzero.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.
1992-01-21
Two independent high-resolution moisture-sensing techniques, x-ray absorption and light transmission, have been developed for use in two-dimensional, thin-slab experimental systems. The techniques yield full-field measurement capabilities with exceptional resolution of moisture content in time and space. These techniques represent powerful tools for the experimentalist to investigate processes governing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured and nonfractured porous media. Evaluation of these techniques has been accomplished by direct comparison of data obtained by means of the x-ray and light techniques as well as comparison with data collected by gravimetric and gamma-ray densitometry techniques. Results show excellent agreement between data collected by the four moisture-content measurement techniques. This program was established to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.
Zhang, Hanyu; Choi, Jungwook; Ramani, Arjun; Voiry, Damien; Natoli, Sean N; Chhowalla, Manish; McMillin, David R; Choi, Jong Hyun
2016-09-19
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, its application in light harvesting has been limited in part due to crystal defects, often related to small crystallite sizes, which diminish charge separation and transfer. Here we demonstrate a surface-engineering strategy for 2D MoS2 to improve its photoelectrochemical properties. Chemically exfoliated large-area MoS2 thin films were interfaced with eight molecules from three porphyrin families: zinc(II)-, gallium(III)-, iron(III)-centered, and metal-free protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, GaPP, FePP, H2 PP); metal-free and zinc(II) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2 T4, ZnT4); and metal-free and zinc(II) tetraphenylporphyrin (H2 TPP, ZnTPP). We found that the photocurrents from MoS2 films under visible-light illumination are strongly dependent on the interfacial molecules and that the photocurrent enhancement is closely correlated with the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of the porphyrins, which suppress the recombination of electron-hole pairs in the photoexcited MoS2 films. A maximum tenfold increase was observed for MoS2 functionalized with ZnPP compared with pristine MoS2 films, whereas ZnT4-functionalized MoS2 demonstrated small increases in photocurrent. The application of bias voltage on MoS2 films can further promote photocurrent enhancements and control current directions. Our results suggest a facile route to render 2D MoS2 films useful for potential high-performance light-harvesting applications.
van der Vegte, C P; Prajapati, J D; Kleinekathöfer, U; Knoester, J; Jansen, T L C
2015-01-29
The Light Harvesting 2 (LH2) complex is a vital part of the photosystem of purple bacteria. It is responsible for the absorption of light and transport of the resulting excitations to the reaction center in a highly efficient manner. A general description of the chromophores and the interaction with their local environment is crucial to understand this highly efficient energy transport. Here we include this interaction in an atomistic way using mixed quantum-classical (molecular dynamics) simulations of spectra. In particular, we present the first atomistic simulation of nonlinear optical spectra for LH2 and use it to study the energy transport within the complex. We show that the frequency distributions of the pigments strongly depend on their positions with respect to the protein scaffold and dynamics of their local environment. Furthermore, we show that although the pigments are closely packed the transition frequencies of neighboring pigments are essentially uncorrelated. We present the simulated linear absorption spectra for the LH2 complex and provide a detailed explanation of the states responsible for the observed two-band structure. Finally, we discuss the energy transfer within the complex by analyzing population transfer calculations and 2D spectra for different waiting times. We conclude that the energy transfer from the B800 ring to the B850 ring is mediated by intermediate states that are delocalized over both rings, allowing for a stepwise downhill energy transport.
Spatial Light Rebroadcaster Architecture Study
1992-12-01
linear photo-diode array (input side of spatial light rebroadcaster). Additional raytraces are shown in Fig. 3.2-3. The mask layout is shown in Fig...actual optical system use optical raytracing design 3 software. The literature generally shows only very simplified, schematic drawings of cylindrical...with low contrast irnfrared images and I speckled radar images. It has also been employed extensively in medicai image processing to, for example
Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM).
Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry; Mir, Mustafa; Ding, Huafeng; Unarunotai, Sakulsuk; Rogers, John; Gillette, Martha U; Popescu, Gabriel
2011-01-17
We present spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) as a new optical microscopy technique, capable of measuring nanoscale structures and dynamics in live cells via interferometry. SLIM combines two classic ideas in light imaging: Zernike's phase contrast microscopy, which renders high contrast intensity images of transparent specimens, and Gabor's holography, where the phase information from the object is recorded. Thus, SLIM reveals the intrinsic contrast of cell structures and, in addition, renders quantitative optical path-length maps across the sample. The resulting topographic accuracy is comparable to that of atomic force microscopy, while the acquisition speed is 1,000 times higher. We illustrate the novel insight into cell dynamics via SLIM by experiments on primary cell cultures from the rat brain. SLIM is implemented as an add-on module to an existing phase contrast microscope, which may prove instrumental in impacting the light microscopy field at a large scale.
Optical particle trapping and dynamic manipulation using spatial light modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, René Lynge
spots acting as tweezers beams are generated using phase-only spatial light modulation of an incident laser beam together with a generalized phase contrast (GPC) filter. The GPC method acts as a common-path interferometer, which converts encoded phase information into an appropriate intensity pattern...... suitable for optical trapping. A phaseonly spatial light modulator (SLM) is used for the phase encoding of the laser beam. The SLM is controlled directly from a standard computer where phase information is represented as gray-scale image information. Experimentally, both linear and angular movements...... proven capable of generating a phase pattern from an input amplitude distribution. The birefringent nature of liquid crystals in the SLM is utilized for the generation of an arbitrary two-dimensional state of polarization using two-cascaded SLMs. By means of elliptically polarized light, generated by one...
D'Abrusco, R; Mineo, S; Strader, J; Fragos, T; Kim, D W; Luo, B; Zezas, A
2014-01-01
We report significant anisotropies in the projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of Globular Clusters (GCs) of the giant Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC4649 (M60). Similar features are found in the 2D distribution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), both associated with GCs and in the stellar field. Deviations from azimuthal symmetry suggest an arc-like excess of GCs extending north at 4-15 kpc galactocentric radii in the eastern side of major axis of NGC4649. This feature is more prominent for red GCs, but still persists in the 2D distribution of blue GCs. High and low luminosity GCs also show some segregation along this arc, with high-luminosity GCs preferentially located in the southern end and low-luminosity GCs in the northern section of the arc. GC-LMXBs follow the anisotropy of red-GCs, where most of them reside; however, a significant overdensity of (high-luminosity) field LMXBs is present to the south of the GC arc. These results suggest that NGC4649 has experienced mergers and/or multiple ...
Thakral, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Sarat; Stephenson, Gregory A; Suryanarayanan, Raj
2015-01-05
Tablets of amorphous indomethacin were compressed at 10, 25, 50, or 100 MPa using either an unlubricated or a lubricated die and stored individually at 35 °C in sealed Mylar pouches. At selected time points, tablets were analyzed by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry (2D-XRD), which enabled us to profile the extent of drug crystallization in tablets, in both the radial and axial directions. To evaluate the role of lubricant, magnesium stearate was used as "internal" and/or "external" lubricant. Indomethacin crystallization propensity increased as a function of compression pressure, with 100 MPa pressure causing crystallization immediately after compression (detected using synchrotron radiation). However, the drug crystallization was not uniform throughout the tablets. In unlubricated systems, pronounced crystallization at the radial surface could be attributed to die wall friction. The tablet core remained substantially amorphous, irrespective of the compression pressure. Lubrication of the die wall with magnesium stearate, as external lubricant, dramatically decreased drug crystallization at the radial surface. The spatial heterogeneity in drug crystallization, as a function of formulation composition and compression pressure, was systematically investigated. When formulating amorphous systems as tablets, the potential for compression induced crystallization warrants careful consideration. Very low levels of crystallization on the tablet surface, while profoundly affecting product performance (decrease in dissolution rate), may not be readily detected by conventional analytical techniques. Early detection of crystallization could be pivotal in the successful design of a dosage form where, in order to obtain the desired bioavailability, the drug may be in a high energy state. Specialized X-ray diffractometric techniques (2D; use of high intensity synchrotron radiation) enabled detection of very low levels of drug crystallization and revealed the heterogeneity in
Nemšák, S.; Conti, G.; Gray, A. X.; Palsson, G. K.; Conlon, C.; Eiteneer, D.; Keqi, A.; Rattanachata, A.; Saw, A. Y.; Bostwick, A.; Moreschini, L.; Rotenberg, E.; Strocov, V. N.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitt, T.; Stolte, W.; Ueda, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Jackson, C. A.; Moetakef, P.; Janotti, A.; Bjaalie, L.; Himmetoglu, B.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Borek, S.; Minar, J.; Braun, J.; Ebert, H.; Plucinski, L.; Kortright, J. B.; Schneider, C. M.; Balents, L.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Stemmer, S.; Fadley, C. S.
2016-06-01
The interfaces between two condensed phases often exhibit emergent physical properties that can lead to new physics and novel device applications and are the subject of intense study in many disciplines. We here apply experimental and theoretical techniques to the characterization of one such interesting interface system: the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in multilayers consisting of SrTi O3 (STO) and GdTi O3 (GTO). This system has been the subject of multiple studies recently and shown to exhibit very high carrier charge densities and ferromagnetic effects, among other intriguing properties. We have studied a 2DEG-forming multilayer of the form [6unit cells (u .c .) STO /3 u .c .of GTO ] 20 using a unique array of photoemission techniques including soft and hard x-ray excitation, soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission, core-level spectroscopy, resonant excitation, and standing-wave effects, as well as theoretical calculations of the electronic structure at several levels and of the actual photoemission process. Standing-wave measurements below and above a strong resonance have been exploited as a powerful method for studying the 2DEG depth distribution. We have thus characterized the spatial and momentum properties of this 2DEG in detail, determining via depth-distribution measurements that it is spread throughout the 6 u.c. layer of STO and measuring the momentum dispersion of its states. The experimental results are supported in several ways by theory, leading to a much more complete picture of the nature of this 2DEG and suggesting that oxygen vacancies are not the origin of it. Similar multitechnique photoemission studies of such states at buried interfaces, combined with comparable theory, will be a very fruitful future approach for exploring and modifying the fascinating world of buried-interface physics and chemistry.
Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki
2016-07-01
An aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m has been designed and fabricated to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). A sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay in November 2010. It was verified that targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps. Recently, we have built a second prototype ANI system using an acoustic lens with a two-dimensional (2D) receiver array with 127 elements corresponding to a field of view (FOV) spanning 15° horizontally by 9° vertically. In this study, we investigated the effects of the direction of the FOV and the spatial noise distribution on the 2D target image obtained by ANI. Here, the noise sources in front of the target are called “front light”, and those at the rear of the target are called “back light”. The second sea trial was conducted to image targets arranged in the FOV and measure the positions of noise sources at Uchiura Bay in November 10-14, 2014. For front light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were greater than those in other directions owing to the dominant target scatterings. Reversely, for back light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were lower than those in other directions owing to the dominant direct noises such as “silhouette”.
Kryvi, J. B.; Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.
2016-09-01
The contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane, co-polarized scattering of p- polarized light from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface is used to invert scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Within phase perturbation theory this contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient possesses singularities (poles) when the polar scattering angle θs equals +/-θB= +/- tan-1√E, where E is the dielectric constant of the dielectric medium and θB is the Brewster angle. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that if the mean differential reflection coefficient is measured only in the angular range |θs| inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the scattering medium if it is not known in advance. The input data used in this minimization procedure consist of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, without and with the addition of multiplicative noise. The proposed inversion scheme is computationally efficient.
In, Hai-Jung; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2012-03-01
A novel driving method for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) switchable active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is proposed to extend emission time and data programming time during 3D display operation. The proposed pixel consists of six thin-film transistors (TFTs) and two capacitors, and the aperture ratio of the pixel is 45.8% under 40-in. full-high-definition television condition. By increasing emission time and programming time, the flicker problem can be reduced and the lifetime of AMOLED displays can be extended owing to the decrease in emission current density. Simulation results show that the emission current error range from -0.4 to 1.6% is achieved when the threshold voltage variation of driving TFTs is in the range from -1.0 to 1.0 V, and the emission current error is 1.0% when the power line IR-drop is 2.0 V.
Optical particle trapping and dynamic manipulation using spatial light modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, René Lynge
This thesis deals with the spatial phase-control of light and its application for optical trapping and manipulation of micron-scale objects. Utilizing the radiation pressure, light exerts on dielectric micron-scale particles, functionality of optical tweezers can be obtained. Multiple intensity...... of trapped colloidal micron-sized polystyrene particles and cell structures were accomplished. Furthermore, fixed arrays consisting of up to 25-trapped particles have been generated. Experimentally, ternary phase encoding has been demonstrated, supporting the GPC theory. Binary intensity patterns having...... proven capable of generating a phase pattern from an input amplitude distribution. The birefringent nature of liquid crystals in the SLM is utilized for the generation of an arbitrary two-dimensional state of polarization using two-cascaded SLMs. By means of elliptically polarized light, generated by one...
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
Hang, Da-Ren; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Chen, Chun-Hu; Islam, Sk Emdadul
2016-08-26
We exploit the utilization of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes as a co-catalyst for ZnO nanorods (NRs) to enhance their photocatalytic performance. The 2D nanoflakes of orthorhombic α-MoO3 were synthesized through a sonication-aided exfoliation technique. The 2D MoO3 nanoflakes can be further converted to substoichiometric quasi-metallic MoO3-x by using UV irradiation. Subsequently, 1D-2D MoO3 /ZnO NR and MoO3-x /ZnO NR composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized. The photocatalytic performances of the novel nanosystems in the decomposition of methylene blue are studied by using UV- and visible-illumination setup. The incorporated 2D nanoflakes show a positive influence on the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The obtained rate constant values follow the order of pristine ZnO NR
Calculating potential fields using microchannel spatial light modulators
Reid, Max B.
1993-01-01
We describe and present experimental results of the optical calculation of potential field maps suitable for mobile robot navigation. The optical computation employs two write modes of a microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM). In one mode, written patterns expand spatially, and this characteristic is used to create an extended two dimensional function representing the influence of the goal in a robot's workspace. Distinct obstacle patterns are written in a second, non-expanding, mode. A model of the mechanisms determining MSLM write mode characteristics is developed and used to derive the optical calculation time for full potential field maps. Field calculations at a few hertz are possible with current technology, and calculation time vs. map size scales favorably in comparison to digital electronic computation.
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Anna, Jessica M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D
2013-09-26
Excited state dynamics in LH2 complexes of two purple bacterial species were studied by broad-band two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The optical response was measured in the 500-600 nm spectral region on the 0-400 fs time scale. Global target analysis of two-dimensional (2D) transient spectra revealed the main energy transfer pathways between carotenoid S2, 1Bu(-) and S1 states and bacteriochlorophyll Qx state. Global analysis ascertained the evolutionary and vibration-associated spectra, which also indicated the presence of a higher-lying vibrational level in the carotenoid S1 state. The estimation of the spectral overlap between the 1Bu(-) state and the Qx state indicated a significant contribution of the 1Bu(-) state to the overall S2-to-Qx excitation energy transfer.
Pulse shaping using a spatial light modulator
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Botha, N
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
Spatial coherence and entanglement of light
Di Lorenzo Pires, Henrique
2011-01-01
In this thesis we investigate diverse aspects of spatial coherence of light. Non-classical fields containing two photons can be generated by a nonlinear optical process known as spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). Among the questions we consider are: What is so special about spatial
Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light modulator by optical diffraction
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad
2005-08-01
We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is based on optical diffraction from pixelated LC panel that has been modeled as a two-dimensional array of rectangular apertures. A novel yet simple, two-plane measurement technique is implemented to circumvent the difficulty in absolute distance measurement. Experimental results are presented for electrically addressed twisted nematic LC-SLM removed from the display projector.
Exploiting the spatial profiles of light
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We implement digital holograms for the creation and detection of the spatial modes of light. We make use of modal decomposition theory to determine the numerous properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information...
Levashov, V A; Stepanov, M G
2016-01-01
Considerations of local atomic-level stresses associated with each atom represent a particular approach to address structures of disordered materials at the atomic level. We studied structural correlations in a two-dimensional model liquid using molecular dynamics simulations in the following way. We diagonalized the atomic-level stress tensor of every atom and investigated correlations between the eigenvalues and orientations of the eigenvectors of different atoms as a function of distance between them. It is demonstrated that the suggested approach can be used to characterize structural correlations in disordered materials. In particular, we found that changes in the stress correlation functions on decrease of temperature are the most pronounced for the pairs of atoms with separation distance that corresponds to the first minimum in the pair density function. We also show that the angular dependencies of the stress correlation functions previously reported by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032301 (2015)10.1103/PhysRevE.91.032301] do not represent the anisotropic Eshelby's stress fields, as it is suggested, but originate in the rotational properties of the stress tensors.
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2007-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.
Spatial light modulation for mode conditioning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
We demonstrate patented techniques for generating tuneable complex field distributions for controllable coupling to high-order guided modes of micro-structured fibres. The optical Fourier transform of binary phase-only patterns which are encoded on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator...
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Shuai; LI Yu-xi; AO Ling; REN Cheng
2011-01-01
The light propagation characteristics through the annular coupled-resonator cavity waveguides are systematically analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found that this kind of waveguide has more minbands owing to the increasing of the cavity's size, compared with the traditional line-typed coupled-resonator waveguide. The group velocity of light propagation can be reduced for a further degree when the adjacent annular cavities are interlaced in the perpendicular direction, and a group velocity about 0.00067c (c is the light speed in vacuum) can be obtained.
Iida, K; Kiriyama, H; Fukai, A; Konings, WN; Nango, M
2001-01-01
The detergent-isolated light-harvesting polypeptide (LR)/bacteriochlorophyll alpha (BChl alpha) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was organized in thermostable liposomal membranes comprising membrane-spanning tetraether lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to develop a
Cell culture device using spatial light modulator
Ou, Chung-Jen; Shen, Ching-I.; Ou, Chung-Ming
2009-07-01
Spatial light modulator is introduced for cell culturing and related illumination experiment. Two kinds of designs were used. The first type put the cell along with the bio-medium directly on top of the analyzer of the microdisplay and set a cover glass on it to retain the medium environment, which turned the microdisplay into a bio-container. The second type introduced an optical lens system placed below the spatial light modulator to focus the light spots on specific position. Details of the advantages and drawbacks for the two different approaches are discussed, and the human melanocyte cell (HMC) is introduced to prove the feasibility of the concept. Results indicate that the second type is much more suitable than the first for precision required application.
Pu, Chenchen; Wan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou; Yin, Yunchao; Li, Juan; Ma, Yongning; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun
2017-03-01
Herein, porous protonated graphitic carbon nitride (pGCN) is prepared from bulk g-C3N4 (GCN) directly by acidic cutting and hydrothermal process. The holey structure not only provides a lot of bounds on the accelerated and photo induced charge transfer and thus reduce the aggregation, but also endows the GCN with more exposure to the active site. The pGCN is obtained with an increased band gap of 2.91 eV together with a higher specific surface area of 82.76 m2g-1. Meanwhile, the positively charged GCN resulted from the protonation pretreatment is beneficial for improving the interaction with negatively charged GO sheets. Compared with GCN, pGCN-rGO displays a significant decrease of PL intensities and an apparently enhancement of visible-light absorption, resulting a lower charge recombination rate and a better light absorption. Besides, the enhanced charge separation is demonstrated by photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and the transient photocurrent measurement. The photocatalytic performance studies for the degradation of MB indicate that pGCN-rGO exhibits the highest adsorption ability towards dye molecules. In addition, the pGCN-5 wt% rGO composite shows the optimal photocatalytic activity, the photodegradation rate of MB is 99.4% after 80 min of irradiation and the H2 evolution performance up to 557 μmol g-1h-1 under visible light, which is much higher than the other control samples.
Spatial Light Modulator for wavefront correction
Vyas, Akondi; Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Prasad, B Raghavendra
2009-01-01
We present a liquid crystal method of correcting the phase of an aberrated wavefront using a spatial light modulator. A simple and efficient lab model has been demonstrated for wavefront correction. The crux of a wavefront correcting system in an adaptive optics system lies in the speed and the image quality that can be achieved. The speeds and the accuracy of wavefront representation using Zernike polynomials have been presented using a very fast method of computation.
Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials
Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)
1990-01-01
Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
Beratan, David N. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A single material (not a multi-element structure) spatial light modulator may be written to, as well as read out from, using light. The device has tailorable rise and hold times dependent on the composition and concentration of the molecular species used as the active components. The spatial resolution of this device is limited only by light diffraction as in volume holograms. The device may function as a two-dimensional mask (transmission or reflection) or as a three-dimensional volume holographic medium. This device, based on optically-induced electron transfer, is able to perform incoherent to coherent image conversion or wavelength conversion over a wide spectral range (ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared regions).
Agustí, Gloria; Thompson, Amber L; Gaspar, Ana B; Muñoz, M Carmen; Goeta, Andrés E; Rodríguez-Velamazán, José Alberto; Castro, Miguel; Burriel, Ramón; Real, José Antonio
2008-02-07
A complete structural, calorimetric, and magnetic characterisation of the 2D coordination spin crossover polymer [Fe(pmd)(2)[Cu(CN)(2)](2)] is reported. The crystal structure has been investigated below room temperature at 180 K and 90 K, and at 30 K after irradiating the sample at low temperature with green light (lambda = 532 nm). The volume cell contraction through the thermal spin transition is only 18 A(3) which is lower than the usually observed value of around 25-30 A(3) while the average Fe-N bond distances decrease by the typical value of about 0.19 A. The structural data of the irradiated state indicate that the high spin state is well induced since the cell parameters are consistent with the data at 180 K. Calorimetric and photo-calorimetric experiments have also been performed. The entropy content for the thermal spin transition, DeltaS = 35-37 J mol(-1) K(-1) lies in the lowest range of the typical values and correlates with the low volume cell contraction. The combination of the crystallographic and calorimetric data predicts, in accordance with a mean-field approach, a linear pressure dependence of the critical temperature with a slope of 302 K GPa(-1). Magnetic measurements under pressure reveal an anomalous behaviour since the critical temperature and hysteresis do not change up to 0.22 GPa but an apparent linear dependence is obtained for higher pressures (up to 0.8 GPa) with a slope two times higher than the mean-field estimation.
Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; QIANG Tian
2009-01-01
We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Optical phase encryption by phase contrast using electrically addressed spatial light modulator
Nishchal, Naveen Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar
2003-03-01
We report the use of an electrically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator (EALCSLM) operating in the phase mode as a phase-contrast filter (PCF). As an application, an optical phase encryption system has been implemented. We encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional phase image obtained from an amplitude image. Encrypted image is holographically recorded in a Barium titanate crystal and is then decrypted by generating through phase conjugation, a conjugate of the encrypted image. The decrypted phase image is converted into an amplitude image using an EASLM as a PCF. The idea has been supported by the experimental results.
Optimisation of arbitrary light beam generation with spatial light modulators
Radwell, Neal; Offer, Rachel F.; Selyem, Adam; Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2017-09-01
Phase only spatial light modulators (SLMs) have become the tool of choice for shaped light generation, allowing the creation of arbitrary amplitude and phase patterns. These patterns are generated using digital holograms and are useful for a wide range of applications as well as for fundamental research. There have been many proposed methods for optimal generation of the digital holograms, all of which perform well under ideal conditions. Here we test a range of these methods under specific experimental constraints, by varying grating period, filter size, hologram resolution, number of phase levels, phase throw and phase nonlinearity. We model beam generation accuracy and efficiency and show that our results are not limited to the specific beam shapes, but should hold for general beam shaping. Our aim is to demonstrate how to optimise and improve the performance of phase-only SLMs for experimentally relevant implementations.
2016-06-22
dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials A.B. Khanikaev1, N. Arju2, Z. Fan2, D. Purtseladze2, F. Lu3, J. Lee3, P. Sarriugarte4, M. Schnell4, R. Hillenbrand4...M.A. Belkin3 & G. Shvets2 Optical activity and circular dichroism are fascinating physical phenomena originating from the interaction of light with...spatial symmetry of their building blocks is broken on a nanoscale. Although originally discovered in 3D structures, circular dichroism can also emerge
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Lu, Dingze; Fang, Pengfei; Ding, Junqian; Yang, Minchen; Cao, Yufei; Zhou, Yawei; Peng, Kui; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Liu, Min
2017-02-01
Two-dimensional TiO2-based nanosheets (TNSs) co-modified by surface-enriched carbon dots (CDs) and Gd2O3 nanoparticles: (Gd-C-TNSs), capable of exhibiting visible-light-driven photo catalysis were synthesized using a two-pot hydrothermal route. The samples had a sheet-like structure, thickness of approximately 3.6 nm, large specific surface area of 240-350 cm2/g. The CDs (2-3 nm) and Gd2O3 nanoparticles (1-2 nm) were highly dispersed over the surface of the nanosheets. The co-modification by Gd2O3 nanoparticles and CDs influenced the crystallinity, crystal structure, and surface area of the TNSs, and improved the visible-light absorption. Surface photocurrent and fluorescence spectral studies revealed that the photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency could be improved by an appropriate amount of modification. A very high efficiency was obtained using 0.5 at% Gd/Ti and 3.0 g/L of CDs. The visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity is enhanced under the isolated Cr(VI) system, isolated Rhodamin B (RhB) system, and the synergism between RhB degradation and Cr(VI) reduction for the Gd-C-TNSs photocatalysts. Initially, the photocatalytic activity gradually increased with an increase in the amount of CDs, and then decreased after attaining a maximum, in the case where 0.5 at% Gd/Ti and 3.0 g/L of CDs were used. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the synergetic effect of the Gd2O3 nanoparticles, TNSs, and CDs in the Gd-C-TNSs composites. The effect led to a fast separation and slow recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. An alternate mechanism for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity was also considered.
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
Wigner crystallization of electrons in deep traps in a two-dimensional dielectric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaimeev, S. S., E-mail: shaimeev@isp.nsc.ru; Gritsenko, V. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)
2011-03-15
A two-dimensional model is used to examine the spatial distribution of electrons in deep traps in a two-dimensional dielectric. When the trap concentration is much higher than the trapped electron concentration, Coulomb repulsion leads to the formation of a two-dimensional quasi-periodic hexagonal lattice of localized electrons (Wigner glass).
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra
2004-08-01
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng
2016-01-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁馨元; 陈笑; 王义全; 冯帅; 杨国建; 陈胥冲
2013-01-01
Light propagation in photonic band gaps in two-dimensional organic octagonal quasiperiodic photonic crystal slabs is investigated by finite-difference time-domain method. The transmission property and light localization in the polystyrene air-rod slab and air polystyrene-rod slab are compared in detail. The results show that even in extremely low-index dielectric contrast of rods, the photonic band gaps and eigenmodes are observed in the visible spectrum. Besides, the central position of bandgap is red-shifted with the increase of slab thickness. When defects are introduced into two quasiperiodic structures, the occurrence position of defect modes and property of red-shifting in wavelength of modes are different with the increase of size of defect nanocavities. The difference in property originates from the competition consequence of two physical mechanisms which are the energy levels of defects in photonic crystals and the resonance of modes in the defect cavity. The results may give theoretical support for fabricating luminescent devices based on organic quasicrystals.%采用时域有限差分法研究了二维八重准晶有机光子晶体的光传输特性,重点分析了光束在聚苯乙烯空气柱平板结构和聚苯乙烯介质柱结构中的透射特性与光局域特性.研究结果表明,即使在低折射率对比度的情况下,两种完整八重准晶平板结构中均出现了可见光波段的光子带隙和本征模,且光子带隙中心位置随着平板厚度的增大而红移.当在两种准晶结构中引入缺陷微腔时,带隙内的缺陷模产生位置和波长红移特性随着微腔结构的变化规律明显不同,这种差异性是由两种物理机制(即光子晶体缺陷能级变化与微腔所支持的驻波条件)共同作用的结果.这一研究结果将为实验制备有机准晶发光器件提供一定的理论基础.
Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei
2013-09-01
The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Shaping and detecting mid-IR light with a spatial light modulator
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Maweza, Elijah L
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the operation and calibration of a spatial light modulator in the mid-IR region by creating and measuring the modal content and wavefront of structured light fields at 2um for the first time....
Laser trapping and spatial light modulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper
2012-01-01
INVITED: Robotics at the macro-scale typically uses light for carrying information in machine vision for monitoring and feedback in intelligent robotic guidance systems. With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robots down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical...... optimization of the underlying light-matter interaction. The requirement of having tightly focused beams in optical tweezer systems exemplifies the need for optimal light-shaping in optical trapping. On the other hand, the recent report on stable optical lift shows that optical manipulation can be achieved...
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces
Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue
2012-12-01
Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.
Two-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging
Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping
2016-12-01
A two-dimensional (2D) Fibonacci grating is used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light field through objects in front of the 2D Fibonacci grating in free space at once, we can retrieve the image of objects with beyond λ/7 spatial resolution. We also find that the coherent illumination case can give a better resolution than incoherent illumination case by such 2D grating-assisted imaging system. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation.
Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media.
Hillman, Timothy R; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Park, YongKeun; Yaqoob, Zahid
2013-01-01
Optical transmission through complex media such as biological tissue is fundamentally limited by multiple light scattering. Precise control of the optical wavefield potentially holds the key to advancing a broad range of light-based techniques and applications for imaging or optical delivery. We present a simple and robust digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) implementation for suppressing multiple light scattering. Utilizing wavefront shaping via a spatial light modulator (SLM), we demonstrate its turbidity-suppression capability by reconstructing the image of a complex two-dimensional wide-field target through a highly scattering medium. Employing an interferometer with a Sagnac-like ring design, we successfully overcome the challenging alignment and wavefront-matching constraints in DOPC, reflecting the requirement that the forward- and reverse-propagation paths through the turbid medium be identical. By measuring the output response to digital distortion of the SLM write pattern, we validate the sub-wavelength sensitivity of the system.
Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems
Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.
2016-12-01
Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Observation of quantum entanglement using spatial light modulators.
Yao, Eric; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M
2006-12-25
We use spatial light modulators to observe the quantum entanglement of down-converted photon pairs. Acting as diffractive optical elements within one of the beams, they can be reconfigured in real time to set the spatial profile of the measured mode. Such configurations are highly applicable to the measurement of orbital angular momentum states or other spatial modes, such as those associated with quantum imaging.
All-Optical Photochromic Spatial Light Modulators
Beratan, David N.; Perry, Joseph W.
1989-01-01
Photochemical transfer of electrons enables fast reading and writing. New concept based on transfer of electrons between donor and acceptor molecules randomly distributed or covalently linked and dispersed in glassy-polymer host material. Transfer causes significant changes in optical-transmission characteristics of material and used to modulate transmission of reading beam of light impinging on material.
Dynamics and Spatial Distribution of Global Nighttime Lights
Pestalozzi, Nicola; Sornette, Didier
2013-01-01
Using open source data, we observe the fascinating dynamics of nighttime light. Following a global economic regime shift, the planetary center of light can be seen moving eastwards at a pace of about 60 km per year. Introducing spatial light Gini coefficients, we find a universal pattern of human settlements across different countries and see a global centralization of light. Observing 160 different countries we document the expansion of developing countries, the growth of new agglomerations, the regression in countries suffering from demographic decline and the success of light pollution abatement programs in western countries.
Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids
Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.
2015-11-01
Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
The effect of spatial light modulator (SLM) dependent dispersion on spatial beam shaping
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Spangenberg, D-M
2013-08-01
Full Text Available SLMs used for spatial modulation of lasers are often used in conjunction with very narrow bandwidth laser light where diffractive dispersion could be approximated as a constant. It is known that diffractive dispersion is inversely proportional...
The Spatial Sensitivity Function of a Light Sensor
Malakar, N. K.; Mesiti, A. J.; Knuth, K. H.
2009-12-01
The Spatial Sensitivity Function (SSF) is used to quantify a detector's sensitivity to a spatially-distributed input signal. By weighting the incoming signal with the SSF and integrating, the overall scalar response of the detector can be estimated. This project focuses on estimating the SSF of a light intensity sensor consisting of a photodiode. This light sensor has been used previously in the Knuth Cyberphysics Laboratory on a robotic arm that performs its own experiments to locate a white circle in a dark field (Knuth et al., 2007). To use the light sensor to learn about its surroundings, the robot's inference software must be able to model and predict the light sensor's response to a hypothesized stimulus. Previous models of the light sensor treated it as a point sensor and ignored its spatial characteristics. Here we propose a parametric approach where the SSF is described by a mixture of Gaussians (MOG). By performing controlled calibration experiments with known stimulus inputs, we used nested sampling to estimate the SSF of the light sensor using an MOG model with the number of Gaussians ranging from one to five. By comparing the evidence computed for each MOG model, we found that one Gaussian is sufficient to describe the SSF to the accuracy we require. Future work will involve incorporating this more accurate SSF into the Bayesian machine learning software for the robotic system and studying how this detailed information about the properties of the light sensor will improve robot's ability to learn.
Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.
1983-09-01
Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.
Spatiotemporal structure of femtosecond Bessel beams from spatial light modulators.
Froehly, L; Jacquot, M; Lacourt, P A; Dudley, J M; Courvoisier, F
2014-04-01
We numerically investigate the spatiotemporal structure of Bessel beams generated with spatial light modulators (SLMs). Grating-like phase masks enable the spatial filtering of undesired diffraction orders produced by SLMs. Pulse front tilt and temporal broadening effects are investigated. In addition, we explore the influence of phase wrapping and show that the spatiotemporal structure of SLM-generated femtosecond Bessel beams is similar to Bessel X-pulses at short propagation distance and to subluminal pulsed Bessel beams at long propagation distance.
Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
Baillie, C F
1992-01-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.
Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity
Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.
1992-07-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.
Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi
2011-12-05
We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.
Augmented reality simulator for training in two-dimensional echocardiography.
Weidenbach, M; Wick, C; Pieper, S; Quast, K J; Fox, T; Grunst, G; Redel, D A
2000-02-01
In two-dimensional echocardiography the sonographer must synthesize multiple tomographic slices into a mental three-dimensional (3D) model of the heart. Computer graphics and virtual reality environments are ideal to visualize complex 3D spatial relationships. In augmented reality (AR) applications, real and virtual image data are linked, to increase the information content. In the presented AR simulator a 3D surface model of the human heart is linked with echocardiographic volume data sets. The 3D echocardiographic data sets are registered with the heart model to establish spatial and temporal congruence. The heart model, together with an animated ultrasound sector represents a reference scenario, which displays the currently selected two-dimensional echocardiographic cutting plane calculated from the volume data set. Modifications of the cutting plane within the echocardiographic data are transferred and visualized simultaneously and in real time within the reference scenario. The trainee can interactively explore the 3D heart model and the registered 3D echocardiographic data sets by an animated ultrasound probe, whose position is controlled by an electromagnetic tracking system. The tracking system is attached to a dummy transducer and placed on a plastic puppet to give a realistic impression of a two-dimensional echocardiographic examination.
The Spatial Sensitivity Function of a Light Sensor
Malakar, N K; Knuth, K H
2014-01-01
The Spatial Sensitivity Function (SSF) is used to quantify a detector's sensitivity to a spatially-distributed input signal. By weighting the incoming signal with the SSF and integrating, the overall scalar response of the detector can be estimated. This project focuses on estimating the SSF of a light intensity sensor consisting of a photodiode. This light sensor has been used previously in the Knuth Cyberphysics Laboratory on a robotic arm that performs its own experiments to locate a white circle in a dark field (Knuth et al., 2007). To use the light sensor to learn about its surroundings, the robot's inference software must be able to model and predict the light sensor's response to a hypothesized stimulus. Previous models of the light sensor treated it as a point sensor and ignored its spatial characteristics. Here we propose a parametric approach where the SSF is described by a mixture of Gaussians (MOG). By performing controlled calibration experiments with known stimulus inputs, we used nested samplin...
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.
Spatially Varying Image Based Lighting by Light Probe Sequences, Capture, Processing and Rendering
Unger, Jonas; Gustavson, Stefan; Ynnerman, Anders
2007-01-01
We present a novel technique for capturing spatially or temporally resolved light probe sequences, and using them for image based lighting. For this purpose we have designed and built a real-time light probe, a catadioptric imaging system that can capture the full dynamic range of the lighting incident at each point in space at video frame rates, while being moved through a scene. The real-time light probe uses a digital imaging system which we have programmed to capture high quality, photome...
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy.
Wang, Zhuo; Chun, Ik Su; Li, Xiuling; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Pop, Eric; Millet, Larry; Gillette, Martha; Popescu, Gabriel
2010-01-15
Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a novel method developed in our laboratory that provides quantitative phase images of transparent structures with a 0.3 nm spatial and 0.03 nm temporal accuracy owing to the white light illumination and its common path interferometric geometry. We exploit these features and demonstrate SLIM's ability to perform topography at a single atomic layer in graphene. Further, using a decoupling procedure that we developed for cylindrical structures, we extract the axially averaged refractive index of semiconductor nanotubes and a neurite of a live hippocampal neuron in culture. We believe that this study will set the basis for novel high-throughput topography and refractometry of man-made and biological nanostructures.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.
Two-dimensional temperature determination in sooting flames by filtered Rayleigh scattering
Hoffman, D.; Münch, K.-U.; Leipertz, A.
1996-04-01
We present what to our knowledge are the first filtered Rayleigh scattering temperature measurements and use them in sooting flame. This new technique for two-dimensional thermography in gas combustion overcomes some of the major disadvantages of the standard Rayleigh technique. It suppresses scattered background light from walls or windows and permits detection of two-dimensional Rayleigh intensity distributions of the gas phase in the presence of small particles by spectral filtering of the scattered light.
Are weed patches stable in location? Application of an explicitly two-dimensional methodology
Heijting, S.; Werf, van der W.; Stein, A.; Kropff, M.J.
2007-01-01
Field observations were made in three years continuous maize cultivation in the Netherlands to study the spatial pattern and stability of spatial pattern over time in agricultural weeds. Two-dimensional correlograms were made, using data from single years, to characterise spatial correlation and pat
Are weed patches stable in location? Application of an explicitly two-dimensional methodology
Heijting, S.; Werf, van der W.; Stein, A.; Kropff, M.J.
2007-01-01
Field observations were made in three years continuous maize cultivation in the Netherlands to study the spatial pattern and stability of spatial pattern over time in agricultural weeds. Two-dimensional correlograms were made, using data from single years, to characterise spatial correlation and
Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn
2017-04-25
We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.
Electronic Transmission Properties of Two-Dimensional Quasi-Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯志林; 傅秀军; 刘有延
2002-01-01
In the framework of the tight binding model, the electronic transmission properties of two-dimensional Penrose lattices with free boundary conditions are studied using the generalized eigenfunction method (Phys. Rev. B 60(1999)13444). The electronic transmission coefficients for Penrose lattices with different sizes and widths are calculated, and the result shows strong energy dependence because of the quasiperiodic structure and quantum coherent effect. Around the Fermi level E = 0, there is an energy region with zero transmission amplitudes,which suggests that the studied systems are insulating. The spatial distributions of several typical electronic states with different transmission coefficients are plotted to display the propagation process.
On two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform resistivity
Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Kulsrud, Russell M.
2010-12-01
In this paper, two theoretical approaches for the calculation of the rate of quasi-stationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform anomalous resistivity are considered in the framework of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In the first, 'global' equations approach, the MHD equations are approximately solved for a whole reconnection layer, including the upstream and downstream regions and the layer center. In the second, 'local' equations approach, the equations are solved across the reconnection layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. Both approaches give the same approximate answer for the reconnection rate. Our theoretical model is in agreement with the results of recent simulations of reconnection with spatially nonuniform resistivity.
Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets
Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon
2016-10-01
We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.
Method and apparatus for two-dimensional spectroscopy
DeCamp, Matthew F.; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2010-10-12
Preferred embodiments of the invention provide for methods and systems of 2D spectroscopy using ultrafast, first light and second light beams and a CCD array detector. A cylindrically-focused second light beam interrogates a target that is optically interactive with a frequency-dispersed excitation (first light) pulse, whereupon the second light beam is frequency-dispersed at right angle orientation to its line of focus, so that the horizontal dimension encodes the spatial location of the second light pulse and the first light frequency, while the vertical dimension encodes the second light frequency. Differential spectra of the first and second light pulses result in a 2D frequency-frequency surface equivalent to double-resonance spectroscopy. Because the first light frequency is spatially encoded in the sample, an entire surface can be acquired in a single interaction of the first and second light pulses.
Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.
2015-01-01
Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. With picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement. PMID:26503116
Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy.
Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Majeed, Hassaan; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Spatiotemporal patterns of intracellular transport are very difficult to quantify and, consequently, continue to be insufficiently understood. While it is well documented that mass trafficking inside living cells consists of both random and deterministic motions, quantitative data over broad spatiotemporal scales are lacking. We studied the intracellular transport in live cells using spatial light interference microscopy, a high spatiotemporal resolution quantitative phase imaging tool. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (directed, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). Furthermore, we studied the behavior of the two-dimensional mass density over 30 h in HeLa cells and focused on the active component. We determined the standard deviation of the velocity distribution at the point of cell division for each cell and compared the standard deviation velocity inside the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We found that the velocity distribution in the cytoplasm is consistently broader than in the nucleus, suggesting mechanisms for faster transport in the cytosol versus the nucleus. Future studies will focus on improving phase measurements by applying a fluorescent tag to understand how particular proteins are transported inside the cell.
Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Augulis, Ramūnas; Gall, Andrew; Büchel, Claudia; Robert, Bruno; Zigmantas, Donatas; Valkunas, Leonas; Abramavicius, Darius
2015-06-07
Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Qy transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Qy transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.
Khanikaev, A B; Arju, N; Fan, Z; Purtseladze, D; Lu, F; Lee, J; Sarriugarte, P; Schnell, M; Hillenbrand, R; Belkin, M A; Shvets, G
2016-06-22
Optical activity and circular dichroism are fascinating physical phenomena originating from the interaction of light with chiral molecules or other nano objects lacking mirror symmetries in three-dimensional (3D) space. While chiral optical properties are weak in most of naturally occurring materials, they can be engineered and significantly enhanced in synthetic optical media known as chiral metamaterials, where the spatial symmetry of their building blocks is broken on a nanoscale. Although originally discovered in 3D structures, circular dichroism can also emerge in a two-dimensional (2D) metasurface. The origin of the resulting circular dichroism is rather subtle, and is related to non-radiative (Ohmic) dissipation of the constituent metamolecules. Because such dissipation occurs on a nanoscale, this effect has never been experimentally probed and visualized. Using a suite of recently developed nanoscale-measurement tools, we establish that the circular dichroism in a nanostructured metasurface occurs due to handedness-dependent Ohmic heating.
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L
2010-01-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory
Zak, M.
1979-01-01
The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Spatial and temporal localization of light in two dimensions
Bachelard, Romain
Despite decades of active research, punctuated by several contradictory experimental and theoretical claims, the mere existence of Anderson localization of light, a regime where light cannot propagate due to interference effects between randomly distributed scatterers, has not been demonstrated yet. Recent theoretical works suggest that the vectorial nature of light might actually prohibit localization. We here present a study on the scattering of light in two dimensions, a regime where both scalar or as a vectorial electromagnetic waves coexist. The scaling analysis reveals that although both kinds of wave present long-lived subradiant modes, only scalar ones do localize, supporting the theoretical claim in 3D. Yet we also observe a lack of correlation between lifetimes and localization length, calling for a differentiation between temporal (subradiant) and spatial (Anderson) localization. Finally, we discuss the implication of localization, following the original idea that the localization of the modes induces a metal to insulator transition, bringing transport to a halt. Indeed, in the case of light, the scattering is characterized by the presence of a few long-range (superradiant) modes, which appear to alter dramatically the transport properties.
The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI XinYuan; LIU SiMin; GUO Ru; LU Yi; GAO YuanMei; LIU ZhaoHong; HUANG ChunFu; ZHANG XiaoHua; ZHU Nan; XU JingJun
2009-01-01
An overview of our research group's experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlateddegree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one-or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time,the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.
The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
An overview of our research group’s experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlated degree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one- or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time, the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.
Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates
Khoukaz, Alfons; Grieser, Silke; Hergemöller, Ann-Katrin; Köhler, Esperanza; Täschner, Alexander
2013-01-01
An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCP) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This inf...
Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities
Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.
1994-05-01
We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions
Schuman, Adam William
The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Diffuserless holographic projection working on twin spatial light modulators.
Siemion, Andrzej; Sypek, Maciej; Suszek, Jarosław; Makowski, Michał; Siemion, Agnieszka; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew
2012-12-15
An improved efficient projection of holographic images is presented. It uses two phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) with two iteratively optimized Fresnel holograms displayed simultaneously--each for one modulator. The phase distribution on the second modulator is taking into account the light distribution coming from the first one. A pixelated structure of the modulator and fluctuations of liquid-crystal molecules cause a zero-order peak that was separated in experiment. Use of two SLMs gives clear and containing almost no speckles images. Thanks to the compensation of phase distribution from the first modulator, we can abandon diffusers in the iterative process and that is why we can control both amplitude and phase distribution in the image plane independently.
Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources
Zhang, Erfeng; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing
2016-02-01
We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.
Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khoukaz, A., E-mail: khoukaz@uni-muenster.de; Bonaventura, D.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.-K.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.
2014-01-21
An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in a vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCPs) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images is dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of σ≈100μm. -- Highlights: • We present a MCP system for a 2D real time visualization of cluster target beams. • With this device the vertex region of storage ring experiments can be investigated. • Time resolved 2D information about the target thickness distribution is accessible. • A spatial resolution of the MCP device of 0.1 mm was achieved. • The presented MCP system also allows for measurements on cluster masses.
Preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits with a single phase-only spatial light modulator
Varga, J. J. M.; Solís-Prosser, A. M. A.; Rebón, L.; Arias, A.; Neves, L.; Iemmi, C.; Ledesma, S.
2015-04-01
We present a new method for preparing multidimensional spatial qudits by means of a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). This method improves previous ones that use two SLMs, one working in amplitude regime and the other in phase regime. To that end, we addressed diffraction gratings on the slits that define the state and then we performed a spatial filtering in the Fourier plane. The amplitude of the coefficients of the quantum state are determined by the modulation deep of the diffraction gratings, and the relative phase is the mean phase value of the diffraction gratings. This encoding result to be more compact, less expensive and use the photons more efficiently.
Preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits with a single phase-only spatial light modulator
Solís-Prosser, M A; Varga, J J M; Rebón, L; Ledesma, S; Iemmi, C; Neves, L
2013-01-01
Spatial qudits are D-dimensional ($D\\geq 2$) quantum systems carrying information encoded in the discretized transverse momentum and position of single photons. We present a proof-of-principle demonstration of a method for preparing arbitrary pure states of such systems by using a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). The method relies on the encoding of the complex transmission function corresponding to a given spatial qudit state onto a preset diffraction order of a phase-only grating function addressed at the SLM. Fidelities of preparation above 94% were obtained with this method, which is simpler, less costly, and more efficient than those that require two SLMs for the same purpose.
Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities
Constantinou, Navid C
2010-01-01
Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-06
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics
Lyubich, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵强松; 梁芬
2015-01-01
In order to take full advantages of the solar energy ,a two‐dimensional solar light automatic tracking system based on AVRmegal16 microcontroller is designed .This system consists of a signal acquisition module , a controller module ,and mechanical execution part .The experiment results show that it can adjust automatically and keep the photovoltaic panels and the sun incident angle vertical consistently .The system has advantages such as high tracking accuracy ,simple structure ,low power consumption ,and no tracking dead zone .%为了最大效率地利用太阳能，设计了基于AVRmegal16单片机的二维太阳光自动跟踪系统。该系统包括信号采集模块、控制器模块和机械执行部分。经测试，可以在不同天气状况下自动调整并使光伏电池板始终和太阳光入射角保持垂直。具有跟踪精度高、结构简单、能耗低等优点，且不存在追踪死区，具有较高的使用价值。
Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter
2017-06-01
Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSRdias) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSsys) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLSsys and E/GLSRdias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLSsys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLSsys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLSsys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.
On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1975-01-01
The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....
Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.
Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Morozov, S V; Jiang, D; Katsnelson, M I; Grigorieva, I V; Dubonos, S V; Firsov, A A
2005-11-10
Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.
Spatial fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy by means of a spatial light modulator
Blancquaert, Yoann; Derouard, Jacques; Delon, Antoine
2008-01-01
Spatial Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy is a rarely investigated version of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, in which the fluorescence signals from differ-ent observation volumes are cross-correlated. In the reported experiments, two observation volumes, typically shifted by a few $\\mu$m, are produced, with a Spatial Light Modulator and two adjustable pinholes. We illustrated the feasibility and potentiality of this technique by: i) measuring molecular flows, in the range 0.2 - 1.5 $\\mu$m/ms, of solutions seeded with fluorescent nanobeads or rhodamine molecules (simulating active transport phenomenons); ii) investigating the perme-ability of phospholipidic membrane of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles versus hydrophilic or hydrophobic molecules (in that case the laser spots were set on both sides of the mem-brane). Theoretical descriptions are proposed together with a discussion about FCS based, alternative methods.
SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer
Yurimoto, Hisayoshi
2014-05-01
Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40
Vanadium dioxide spatial light modulator for applications beyond 1200 nm
Anh Do, Phuong; Hendaoui, Ali; Mortazy, Ebrahim; Chaker, Mohamed; Haché, Alain
2013-02-01
Spatial light modulators based on vanadium dioxide are used to demonstrate all-optical spectral filtering in the near infrared, up to 1700 nm, with potential to application into the mid-infrared. By spectrally dispersing the shaped beam and transmitting the beam through a vanadium dioxide thin film, the transmission is modified by optically pumping the film locally with a laser beam. Heating causes the film to undergo an insulator-to-metal transition, along with a drop in transmission. The spectrum can be shaped by pumping with a beam at different location and/or different intensity profiles. The method is promising for longer wavelength since the film is more efficient further in the infrared.
Parallel optical interconnects utilizing VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators
Genco, Sheryl M.
1991-12-01
Interconnection architectures are a cornerstone of parallel computing systems. However, interconnections can be a bottleneck in conventional computer architectures because of queuing structures that are necessary to handle the traffic through a switch at very high data rates and bandwidths. These issues must find new solutions to advance the state of the art in computing beyond the fundamental limit of silicon logic technology. Today's optoelectronic (OE) technology in particular VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators (SLMs) can provide a unique and innovative solution to these issues. This paper reports on the motivations for the system, describes the major areas of architectural requirements, discusses interconnection topologies and processor element alternatives, and documents an optical arbitration (i.e., control) scheme using `smart' SLMs and optical logic gates. The network topology is given in section 2.1 `Architectural Requirements -- Networks,' but it should be noted that the emphasis is on the optical control scheme (section 2.4) and the system.
Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy
Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.
Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-01-01
In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-12-01
The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-01-01
We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
Symmetry breaking of solitons in two-dimensional complex potentials
Yang, Jianke
2014-01-01
Symmetry breaking is reported for continuous families of solitons in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with a two-dimensional complex potential. This symmetry-breaking bifurcation is forbidden in generic complex potentials. However, for a special class of partially parity-time-symmetric potentials, such symmetry breaking is allowed. At the bifurcation point, two branches of asymmetric solitons bifurcate out from the base branch of symmetry-unbroken solitons. Stability of these solitons near the bifurcation point are also studied, and two novel stability properties for the bifurcated asymmetric solitons are revealed. One is that at the bifurcation point, zero and simple imaginary linear-stability eigenvalues of asymmetric solitons can move directly into the complex plane and create oscillatory instability. The other is that the two bifurcated asymmetric solitons, even though having identical powers and being related to each other by spatial mirror reflection, can possess different types of unstable eigenval...
Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials
Sinclair, Josiah
2011-01-01
We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or under-fill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2d lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles.
Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)
1990-11-01
The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.
Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2014-09-16
We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.
High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator
Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun
2014-06-01
SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.
Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems.
Koppens, F H L; Mueller, T; Avouris, Ph; Ferrari, A C; Vitiello, M S; Polini, M
2014-10-01
Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms. The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies. Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides.
Li, Xinghui; Cai, Yindi; Aihara, Ryo; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei
2015-07-01
This paper presents a fabrication method of two-dimensional micro patterns for adaptive optics with a micrometric or sub-micrometric period to be used for fabrication of micro lens array or two-dimensional diffraction gratings. A multibeam two-axis Lloyd's mirror interferometer is employed to carry out laser interference lithography for the fabrication of two-dimensional grating structures. In the proposed instrument, the optical setup consists of a light source providing a laser beam, a multi-beam generator, two plane mirrors to generate a two-dimensional XY interference pattern and a substrate on which the XY interference pattern is to be exposed. In this paper, pattern exposure tests are carried out by the developed optical configuration optimized by computer simulations. Some experimental results of the XY pattern fabrication will be reported.
UV Microstereolithography System that uses Spatial Light Modulator Technology.
Chatwin, C; Farsari, M; Huang, S; Heywood, M; Birch, P; Young, R; Richardson, J
1998-11-10
A new stereophotolithography technique utilizing a spatial light modulator (SLM) to create three-dimensional components with a planar, layer-by-layer process of exposure is described. With this procedure it is possible to build components with dimensions in the range of 50 mum-50 mm and feature sizes as small as 5 mum with a resolution of 1 mum. A polysilicon thin-film twisted nematic SVGA SLM is used as the dynamic photolithographic mask. The system consists of eight elements: a UV laser light source, an optical shutter, beam-conditioning optics, a SLM, a multielement reduction lens system, a high-resolution translation stage, a control system, and a computer-aided-design system. Each of these system components is briefly described. In addition, the optical characteristics of commercially available UV curable resins are investigated with nondegenerate four-wave mixing. Holographic gratings were written at a wavelength of 351.1 nm and read at 632.8 nm to compare the reactivity, curing speed, shrinkage, and resolution of the resins. These experiments were carried out to prove the suitability of these photopolymerization systems for microstereolithography.
Creating Airy beams employing a transmissive spatial light modulator
Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner
2016-01-01
We present a detailed study of two novel methods for shaping the light optical wavefront by employing a transmissive spatial light modulator (SLM). Conventionally, optical Airy beams are created by employing SLMs in the so-called all phase mode. In this mode, a cubic phase distribution is transferred onto an SLM and its Fourier transform generates an Airy beam. The Fourier transform is obtained at the back focal plane of the lens, by employing a physical lens behind the SLM. We show that such an approach fails when a transmissive SLM is used; we present an alternative method for creating Airy beams. In our method, a numerically simulated lens phase distribution is transferred directly onto the SLM, together with the cubic phase distribution. An Airy beam is obtained by the Fourier transform of the cubic phase distribution and is generated behind the SLM, at the focal plane of the numerical lens. We study the deflection properties of the so formed Airy beam and derive the formula for deflection of the intensit...
Discrete Holomorphicity at Two-Dimensional Critical Points
Cardy, John
2009-12-01
After a brief review of the historical role of analyticity in the study of critical phenomena, an account is given of recent discoveries of discretely holomorphic observables in critical two-dimensional lattice models. These are objects whose correlation functions satisfy a discrete version of the Cauchy-Riemann relations. Their existence appears to have a deep relation with the integrability of the model, and they are presumably the lattice versions of the truly holomorphic observables appearing in the conformal field theory (CFT) describing the continuum limit. This hypothesis sheds light on the connection between CFT and integrability, and, if verified, can also be used to prove that the scaling limit of certain discrete curves in these models is described by Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE).
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
2015-08-15
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Extension of the approximate two-dimensional electron gas formulation
Pierret, R. F.
1985-07-01
The functional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formalism employed in the analysis of modulation-doped field-effect transistors is extended to properly account for the bulk charge and to more accurately model sub- and near-threshold behavior. The implemented changes basically transform the functional formulation from an above-threshold formalism for lightly doped structures to one of additional utility which automatically approaches expected limits under widely divergent conditions. Sample computations of the surface carrier concentration, relevant energy level positionings, and the semiconductor depletion width as a function of surface potential and doping are also presented and examined. These computations exhibit the general utility of the extended theory and provide an indirect evaluation of the standard two-level 2DEG theory.
Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.
Merano, Michele
2016-01-01
The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-08-01
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.
Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States
2017-07-17
Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.
Intensity Coding in Two-Dimensional Excitable Neural Networks
Copelli, Mauro
2016-01-01
In the light of recent experimental findings that gap junctions are essential for low level intensity detection in the sensory periphery, the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automaton is employed to model the response of a two-dimensional sensory network to external stimuli. We show that excitable elements (sensory neurons) that have a small dynamical range are shown to give rise to a collective large dynamical range. Therefore the network transfer (gain) function (which is Hill or Stevens law-like) is an emergent property generated from a pool of small dynamical range cells, providing a basis for a "neural psychophysics". The growth of the dynamical range with the system size is approximately logarithmic, suggesting a functional role for electrical coupling. For a fixed number of neurons, the dynamical range displays a maximum as a function of the refractory period, which suggests experimental tests for the model. A biological application to ephaptic interactions in olfactory nerve fascicles is proposed.
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane
Rupley, John A.; Siemankowski, Linda; Careri, Giorgio; Bruni, Fabio
1988-01-01
The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, hc ≈ 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/2H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level hc is frequency independe...
Phase-only spatial light modulation by the reverse phase contrast method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, J.; Mogensen, P.C.; Eriksen, R.L.
2002-01-01
A new approach to phase-only spatial light modulation is proposed in which a given amplitude pattern can be converted into a spatially identical binary phase pattern. A spatial filtering approach is applied to transform spatial amplitude modulation into spatial phase modulation using the Reverse...... Phase Contrast (RPC) method. The analytical method for achieving this is outlined and experimental results are shown for the generation of a binary phase-only distribution using an amplitude spatial light modulator and a phase-only spatial filter....
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao
2016-11-14
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. Â© 2016 Author(s).
Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy
Fayer, Michael
2011-03-01
The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific
Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials
Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter
2017-02-01
Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging
Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures
Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.
2014-06-01
We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.
Prum, R. O.; Torres, R.; Williamson, S.; Dyck, J.
1999-01-01
We conducted two-dimensional (2D) discrete Fourier analyses of the spatial variation in refractive index of the spongy medullary keratin from four different colours of structurally coloured feather barbs from three species of bird: the rose-faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis (Psittacidae), the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittacidae), and the Gouldian finch, Poephila guttata (Estrildidae). These results indicate that the spongy medullary keratin is a nanostructured tissue that functions as an array of coherent scatterers. The nanostructure of the medullary keratin is nearly uniform in all directions. The largest Fourier components of spatial variation in refractive index in the tissue are of the appropriate size to produce the observed colours by constructive interference alone. The peaks of the predicted reflectance spectra calculated from the 2D Fourier power spectra are congruent with the reflectance spectra measured by using microspectrophotometry. The alternative physical models for the production of these colours, the Rayleigh and Mie theories, hypothesize that medullary keratin is an incoherent array and that scattered waves are independent in phase. This assumption is falsified by the ring-like Fourier power spectra of these feathers, and the spacing of the scattering air vacuoles in the medullary keratin. Structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by constructive interference of coherently scattered light waves from the optically heterogeneous matrix of keratin and air in the spongy medullary layer.
Two-dimensional point spread matrix of layered metal-dielectric imaging elements
Kotynski, Rafal; Krol, Karol; Panajotov, Krassimir
2010-01-01
We describe the change of the spatial distribution of the state of polarisation occurring during two-dimensional imaging through a multilayer and in particular through a layered metallic flat lens. Linear or circular polarisation of incident light is not preserved due to the difference in the amplitude transfer functions for the TM and TE polarisations. In effect, the transfer function and the point spread function that characterize 2D imaging through a multilayer both have a matrix form and cross-polarisation coupling is observed for spatially modulated beams with a linear or circular incident polarisation. The point spread function in a matrix form is used to characterise the resolution of the superlens for different polarisation states. We demonstrate how the 2D PSF may be used to design a simple diffractive nanoelement consisting of two radial slits. The structure assures the separation of non-diffracting radial beams originating from two slits in the mask and exhibits an interesting property of a backwar...
Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials
Wang, Qiaoming
Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We
Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy
Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel
2015-11-01
The standard practice in histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope to diagnose whether a lesion is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on a manual, qualitative inspection, making it subject to investigator bias and resulting in low throughput. Hence, a quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis method is highly desirable. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated phase maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). As a first step toward quantitative diagnosis based on SLIM, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of our label-free images. These images were shown to two pathologists who classified each case as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on corresponding H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. The agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was 88% for the first pathologist and 87% for the second. Our results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis.
Diffractive characteristics of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Hu Li-Fa; Liu Yong-Gang; Xuan Li
2007-01-01
The liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) is very suitable for wavefront correction and optical testing and can produce a wavefront with large phase change and high accuracy. The LC SLM is composed of thousands of pixels and the pixel size and shape have effects on the diffractive characteristics of the LC SLM. This paper investigates the pixel effect on the phase of the wavefront with the scalar diffractive theory. The results show that the maximum optical path difference modulation is 41 μm to produce the paraboloid wavefront with the peak to valley accuracy better than λ/10. Effects of the mismatch between the pixel and the period, and black matrix on the diffraction efficiency of the LC SLM are also analysed with the Fresnel phase lens model. The ability of the LC SLM is discussed for optical testing and wavefront correction based on the calculated results. It shows that the LC SLM can be used as a wavefront corrector and a compensator.
Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride
Ju, Long
This dissertation describes the use of optical spectroscopy in studying the physical properties of two dimensional nano materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Compared to bulk materials, atomically thin two dimensional materials have a unique character that is the strong dependence of physical properties on external control. Both electronic band structure and chemical potential can be tuned in situ by electric field-which is a powerful knob in experiment. Therefore the optical study at atomic thickness scale can greatly benefit from modern micro-fabrication technique and electric control of the material properties. As will be shown in this dissertation, such control of both gemometric and physical properties enables new possibilities of optical spectroscopic measurement as well as opto-electronic studies. Other experimental techniques like electric transport and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are also combined with optical spectroscopy to reveal the physics that is beyond the reach of each individual technique. There are three major themes in the dissertation. The first one is focused on the study of plasmon excitation of Dirac electrons in monolayer graphene. Unlike plasmons in ordinary two dimensional electron gas, plasmons of 2D electrons as in graphene obey unusual scaling laws. We fabricate graphene micro-ribbon arrays with photolithography technique and use optical absorption spectroscopy to study its absorption spectrum. The experimental result demonstrates the extraordinarily strong light-plasmon coupling and its novel dependence on both charge doping and geometric dimensions. This work provides a first glance at the fundamental properties of graphene plasmons and forms the basis of an emerging subfield of graphene research and applications such as graphene terahertz metamaterials. The second part describes the opto-electronic response of heterostructures composed of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We found that there is
Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G
2011-03-23
We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.
Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Erfeng, E-mail: efzhang@163.com; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing
2016-02-15
Highlights: • Second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field is investigated. • The role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. • The difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced. - Abstract: We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.
Glentis, George-Othon; Slump, Cornelis H.; Hermann, Otto E.
2000-01-01
In this paper a novel algorithm is presented for the efficient two-dimensional (2-D), mean squared error (MSE), FIR filtering and system identification. Filter masks of general boundaries are allowed. Efficient order updating recursions are developed by exploiting the spatial shift invariance
Calibration of spatial light modulators suffering from spatially varying phase response.
Engström, David; Persson, Martin; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Goksör, Mattias
2013-07-01
We present a method for converting the desired phase values of a hologram to the correct pixel addressing values of a spatial light modulator (SLM), taking into account detailed spatial variations in the phase response of the SLM. In addition to thickness variations in the liquid crystal layer of the SLM, we also show that these variations in phase response can be caused by a non-uniform electric drive scheme in the SLM or by local heating caused by the incident laser beam. We demonstrate that the use of a global look-up table (LUT), even in combination with a spatially varying scale factor, generally does not yield sufficiently accurate conversion for applications requiring highly controllable output fields, such as holographic optical trapping (HOT). We therefore propose a method where the pixel addressing values are given by a three-dimensional polynomial, with two of the variables being the (x, y)-positions of the pixels, and the third their desired phase values. The coefficients of the polynomial are determined by measuring the phase response in 8 × 8 sub-sections of the SLM surface; the degree of the polynomial is optimized so that the polynomial expression nearly replicates the measurement in the measurement points, while still showing a good interpolation behavior in between. The polynomial evaluation increases the total computation time for hologram generation by only a few percent. Compared to conventional phase conversion methods, for an SLM with varying phase response, we found that the proposed method increases the control of the trap intensities in HOT, and efficiently prevents the appearance of strong unwanted 0th order diffraction that commonly occurs in SLM systems.
Optimized generation of spatial qudits by using a pure phase spatial light modulator
Varga, J. J. M.; Rebón, L.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.; Ledesma, S.; Iemmi, C.
2014-11-01
We present a method for preparing arbitrary pure states of spatial qudits, namely, D-dimensional (D≥slant 2) quantum systems carrying information in the transverse momentum and position of single photons. For this purpose, a set of D slits with complex transmission are displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). In a recent work we have shown a method that requires a single phase-only SLM to control independently the complex coefficients which define the quantum state of dimension D. The amplitude information was codified by introducing phase gratings inside each slit, and the phase value of the complex transmission was added to the phase gratings. After a spatial filtering process, we obtained in the image plane the desired qudit state. Although this method has proven to be a good alternative to compact the previously reported architectures, it presents some features that could be improved. In this paper we present an alternative scheme to codify the required phase values that minimizes the effects of temporal phase fluctuations associated to the SLM where the codification is carried out. In this scheme, the amplitudes are set by appropriate phase gratings addressed at the SLM, while the relative phases are obtained by a lateral displacement of these phase gratings. We show that this method improves the quality of the prepared state and provides very high fidelities of preparation for any state. An additional advantage of this scheme is that a complete 2π modulation is obtained by shifting the grating by one period; hence the encoding is not limited by the phase modulation range achieved by the SLM. Numerical simulations, that take into account the phase fluctuations, show high fidelities for thousands of qubit states covering the whole Bloch sphere surface. Similar analyses are performed for qudits with D = 3 and D = 7.
The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG CHI
2013-01-01
In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.
Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.
Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz
2016-05-11
Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.
A spatial interpretation of emerging superconductivity in lightly doped cuprates
Deutscher, Guy; de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles
The formation of domains comprising alternating 'hole rich' and 'hole poor' ladders recently observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy by Kohsaka et al., on lightly hole doped cuprates, is interpreted in terms of an attractive mechanism which favors the presence of doped holes on Cu sites located each on one side of an oxygen atom. This mechanism leads to a geometrical pattern of alternating hole-rich and hole-poor ladders with a periodicity equal to 4 times the lattice spacing in the CuO plane, as observed experimentally. Cuprates supraconducteurs peu dopés : une interprétation des structures spatiales. Des arrangements électroniques réguliers ont été détectés récemment par Kohsaka et al. dans des cuprates sous dopés (via une sonde tunnel locale). Certaines paires Cu-O-Cu sont « actives », et forment une échelle. Les autres sites sont peu actifs. Pour expliquer ces structures, nous postulons que, lorsqu'une liaison Cu-O-Cu est occupée par deux trous, la distance (Cu-Cu) rétrécit et l'intégrale de transfert (t) est fortement augmentée. Ceci peut engendrer des paires localisées (réelles ou virtuelles). Aux taux de dopage étudiés, la période de répétition vaudrait 4 mailles élémentaires.
The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs
De, Sanchari
2014-01-01
In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...
Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.
Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong
2009-01-01
By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.
Sturz, Bradley R; Edwards, Joshua E; Boyer, Ty W
2014-01-01
Nativists have postulated fundamental geometric knowledge that predates linguistic and symbolic thought. Central to these claims is the proposal for an isolated cognitive system dedicated to processing geometric information. Testing such hypotheses presents challenges due to difficulties in eliminating the combination of geometric and non-geometric information through language. We present evidence using a modified matching interference paradigm that an incongruent shape word interferes with identifying a two-dimensional geometric shape, but an incongruent two-dimensional geometric shape does not interfere with identifying a shape word. This asymmetry in interference effects between two-dimensional geometric shapes and their corresponding shape words suggests that shape words activate spatial representations of shapes but shapes do not activate linguistic representations of shape words. These results appear consistent with hypotheses concerning a cognitive system dedicated to processing geometric information isolated from linguistic processing and provide evidence consistent with hypotheses concerning knowledge of geometric properties of space that predates linguistic and symbolic thought.
The nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal
Merano, Michele
2015-01-01
The theory of Bloembergen and Persham for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is applied to a nonlinear two-dimensional atomic crystal placed in between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real two-dimensional system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. The nonlinear polarization of these special materials is very sensitive to the substrate on which they are deposited. Experiments on second harmonic generation of a $\\rm MoS_{2}$ monolayer are discussed to elucidate this point.
Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunrong Zhu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.
Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators
Menezes, N; Smith, C Morais
2016-01-01
It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this non-Fermi-liquid phase based on the gauge-theory approach. Firstly, we derive a gauge theory for the edge states by simply assuming that the interactions between the Dirac fermions at the edge are mediated by a quantum dynamical electromagnetic field. Here, the massless Dirac fermions are confined to live on the one-dimensional boundary, while the (virtual) photons of the U(1) gauge field are free to propagate in all the three spatial dimensions that represent the physical space where the topological insulator is embedded. We then determine the effective 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) given by the conformal quantum electrodynamics (CQED). By integrating out the gauge field in the corresponding partition function, ...
Dynamic Properties of Two-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We propose a two-dimensional model of polydisperse granular mixtures with a power-law size distribution in the presence of stochastic driving. A fractal dimension D is introduced as a measurement of the inhomogeneity of the size distribution of particles. We define the global and partial granular temperatures of the multi-component mixture. By direct simulation Monte Carlo, we investigate how the inhomogeneity of the size distribution influences the dynamic properties of the mixture, focusing on the granular temperature, dissipated energy, velocity distribution, spatial clusterization, and collision time. We get the following results: a single granular temperature does not characterize a multi-component mixture and each species attains its own "granular temperature"; The velocity deviation from Gaussian distribution becomes more and more pronounced and the partial density of the assembly is more inhomogeneous with the increasing value of the fractal dimension D; The global granular temperature decreases and average dissipated energy per particle increases as the value of D augments.
Quantifying leaf venation patterns: two-dimensional maps.
Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Amin, Mira; Pakulska, Malgosia
2009-01-01
The leaf vasculature plays crucial roles in transport and mechanical support. Understanding how vein patterns develop and what underlies pattern variation between species has many implications from both physiological and evolutionary perspectives. We developed a method for extracting spatial vein pattern data from leaf images, such as vein densities and also the sizes and shapes of the vein reticulations. We used this method to quantify leaf venation patterns of the first rosette leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana throughout a series of developmental stages. In particular, we characterized the size and shape of vein network areoles (loops), which enlarge and are split by new veins as a leaf develops. Pattern parameters varied in time and space. In particular, we observed a distal to proximal gradient in loop shape (length/width ratio) which varied over time, and a margin-to-center gradient in loop sizes. Quantitative analyses of vein patterns at the tissue level provide a two-way link between theoretical models of patterning and molecular experimental work to further explore patterning mechanisms during development. Such analyses could also be used to investigate the effect of environmental factors on vein patterns, or to compare venation patterns from different species for evolutionary studies. The method also provides a framework for gathering and overlaying two-dimensional maps of point, line and surface morphological data.
DISCRETE MODELLING OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID FOAMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qicheng Sun
2003-01-01
Liquid foam is a dense random packing of gas or liquid bubbles in a small amount of immiscible liquid containing surfactants. The liquid within the Plateau borders, although small in volume, causes considerable difficulties to the investigation of the spatial structure and physical properties of foams, and the situation becomes even more complicated as the fluid flows. To solve these problems, a discrete model of two-dimensional liquid foams on the bubble scale is proposed in this work. The bubble surface is represented with finite number of nodes, and the liquid within Plateau borders is discretized into lattice particles. The gas in bubbles is treated as ideal gas at constant temperatures. This model is tested by choosing an arbitrary shape bubble as the initial condition. This then automatically evolves into a circular shape, which indicates that the surface energy minimum routine is obeyed without calling external controlling conditions. Without inserting liquid particle among the bubble channels, periodic ordered and disordered dry foams are both simulated, and the fine foam structures are developed. Wet foams are also simulated by inserting fluid among bubble channels. The calculated coordination number, as a function of liquid fractions, agrees well with the standard values.
Two-dimensional model for circulating fluidized-bed reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schoenfelder, H.; Kruse, M.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
1996-07-01
Circulating fluidized bed reactors are widely used for the combustion of coal in power stations as well as for the cracking of heavy oil in the petroleum industry. A two-dimensional reactor model for circulating fluidized beds (CFB) was studied based on the assumption that at every location within the riser, a descending dense phase and a rising lean phase coexist. Fluid mechanical variables may be calculated from one measured radial solids flux profile (upward and downward). The internal mass-transfer behavior is described on the basis of tracer gas experiments. The CFB reactor model was tested against data from ozone decomposition experiments in a CFB cold flow model (15.6-m height, 0.4-m ID) operated in the ranges 2.5--4.5 m/s and 9--45 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) of superficial gas velocity and solids mass flux, respectively. Based on effective reaction rate constants determined from the ozone exit concentration, the model was used to predict the spatial reactant distribution within the reactor. Model predictions agreed well with measurements.
Schlosser, Malte; Gierl, Christian; Teichmann, Stephan; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard; 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/123034
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles...
Investigation of local spatial spectra of Bessel light beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Belyi, VN
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of spatial frequencies (SFS) of Bessel beams properties emerging at their spatial localization is investigated. The case, when limiting aperture has a circular shape and a center at any distance from the optical axis, was studied...
Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electron systems
Kuehnel, Frank Oliver
density fluctuations. Due to this field, spatial diffusion of electrons in a (comparatively strong) random potential of defects gives rise to energy diffusion of each individual electron, with a diffusion coefficient Depsilon = gammae2h/mo c. In combination with the known power-law asymptotic of the single-electron conductivity for sigmase(o) for o → 0, this allows us to find the static many-electron conductivity sigma me.
Nonlinear two-dimensional terahertz photon echo and rotational spectroscopy in the gas phase
Lu, Jian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Fleischer, Sharly; Nelson, Keith A
2016-01-01
Ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy utilizes correlated multiple light-matter interactions for retrieving dynamic features that may otherwise be hidden under the linear spectrum. Its extension to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, where a rich variety of material degrees of freedom reside, remains an experimental challenge. Here we report ultrafast two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy of gas-phase molecular rotors at room temperature. Using time-delayed terahertz pulse pairs, we observe photon echoes and other nonlinear signals resulting from molecular dipole orientation induced by three terahertz field-dipole interactions. The nonlinear time-domain orientation signals are mapped into the frequency domain in two-dimensional rotational spectra which reveal J-state-resolved nonlinear rotational dynamics. The approach enables direct observation of correlated rotational transitions and may reveal rotational coupling and relaxation pathways in the ground electronic and vibrational state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Augulis, Ramūnas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gall, Andrew; Robert, Bruno [Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, Bât 532, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Büchel, Claudia [Institut für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Straße 9, Frankfurt (Germany); Zigmantas, Donatas [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Abramavicius, Darius, E-mail: darius.abramavicius@ff.vu.lt [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)
2015-06-07
Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin–chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Q{sub y} transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Q{sub y} transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.
Taudt, Ch.; Baselt, T.; Nelsen, B.; Aßmann, H.; Greiner, A.; Koch, E.; Hartmann, P.
2016-05-01
Within this work a scan-free, low-coherence interferometry approach for surface profilometry with nm-precision is presented. The basic setup consist of a Michelson-type interferometer which is powered by a super-continuum light-source (Δλ= 400-1700 nm). The introduction of an element with known dispersion delivers a controlled phase variation which can be detected in the spectral domain and used to reconstruct height differences on a sample. In order to enable scan-free measurements, the interference signal is spectrally decomposed with a grating and imaged onto a two-dimensional detector. One dimension of this detector records spectral, and therefore height information, while the other dimension stores the spatial position of the corresponding height values. In experiments on a height standard, it could be shown that the setup is capable of recording multiple height steps of 101 nm over a range of 500 m with an accuracy of about 11.5 nm. Further experiments on conductive paths of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor demonstrated that the approach is also suitable to precisely characterize nanometer-sized structures on production-relevant components. The main advantage of the proposed measurement approach is the possibility to collect precise height information over a line on a surface without the need for scanning. This feature makes it interesting for a production-accompanying metrology.
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions
Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.
2016-09-01
Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.
Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur
2016-05-03
The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area.
Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry.
Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A
1986-11-01
A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.
Transparent Conductive Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide Epitaxial Thin Films.
Halim, Joseph; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Cook, Kevin M; Lu, Jun; Smith, Cole R; Näslund, Lars-Åke; May, Steven J; Hultman, Lars; Gogotsi, Yury; Eklund, Per; Barsoum, Michel W
2014-04-08
Since the discovery of graphene, the quest for two-dimensional (2D) materials has intensified greatly. Recently, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) was discovered that is both conducting and hydrophilic, an uncommon combination. To date MXenes have been produced as powders, flakes, and colloidal solutions. Herein, we report on the fabrication of ∼1 × 1 cm(2) Ti3C2 films by selective etching of Al, from sputter-deposited epitaxial Ti3AlC2 films, in aqueous HF or NH4HF2. Films that were about 19 nm thick, etched with NH4HF2, transmit ∼90% of the light in the visible-to-infrared range and exhibit metallic conductivity down to ∼100 K. Below 100 K, the films' resistivity increases with decreasing temperature and they exhibit negative magnetoresistance-both observations consistent with a weak localization phenomenon characteristic of many 2D defective solids. This advance opens the door for the use of MXenes in electronic, photonic, and sensing applications.
Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene
Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Xu, Zai-Quan; Chander Dhanabalan, Sathish; Mu, Haoran; Wang, Yusheng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Pengfei; Thakur, Siddharatha; Ashrafi, Mursal; Mccoubrey, Kenneth; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Shaojuan; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang
2016-11-01
Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review. We have started the article with an overview of the electronic properties and continued by highlighting their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The production of TIs and TMDs by different methods is detailed. The following main applications focused towards device fabrication are elaborated: (1) photodetectors, (2) photovoltaic devices, (3) light-emitting devices, (4) flexible devices and (5) laser applications. The possibility of employing these 2D materials in different fields is also suggested based on their properties in the prospective part. This review will not only greatly complement the detailed knowledge of the device physics of these materials, but also provide contemporary perception for the researchers who wish to consider these materials for various applications by following the path of graphene.
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets
Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.
2016-07-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.
Stray-light contamination and spatial deconvolution of slit-spectrograph observations
Beck, C; Fabbian, D
2011-01-01
Stray light caused by scattering on optical surfaces and in the Earth's atmosphere degrades the spatial resolution of observations. We study the contribution of stray light to the two channels of POLIS. We test the performance of different methods of stray-light correction and spatial deconvolution to improve the spatial resolution post-facto. We model the stray light as having two components: a spectrally dispersed component and a component of parasitic light caused by scattering inside the spectrograph. We use several measurements to estimate the two contributions: observations with a (partly) blocked FOV, a convolution of the FTS spectral atlas, imaging in the pupil plane, umbral profiles, and spurious polarization signal in telluric lines. The measurements allow us to estimate the spatial PSF of POLIS and the main spectrograph of the German VTT. We use the PSF for a deconvolution of both spectropolarimetric data and investigate the effect on the spectra. The parasitic contribution can be directly and accu...
Measured Two-Dimensional Ice-Wedge Polygon Thermal Dynamics
Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Robert
2016-04-01
necessarily found in areas of higher MAGT. Active layer thickness does not appear to be correlated to mean annual air temperature but rather is a function of summer air temperature or thawing degree-days. While the refreezing of the active layer initiated at nearly the same time for all locations and polygons, we find differences in the proportion of top-down versus bottom-up freezing and the length of time required to complete the refreezing process. Examination of the daily temperature dynamics using interpolated two-dimensional temperature fields reveal that during the summer, the predominate temperature gradient is vertical while the isotherms tend to follow the topography. However, as the active layer begins to refreeze and snow accumulates, the thermal regime diverges. The fall shows an increased temperature gradient horizontally with landscape positions containing higher soil moisture and/or snow depth (low centers and troughs) cooling more slowly than the adjacent ground (rims and high centers). This two-dimensional effect is greatest as the active layer refreezes and persists until mid-winter, by which time the temperature gradients are again mostly vertical and the isotherms follow the topography. Our findings demonstrate the complexity and two-dimensionality of the temperature dynamics in these landscapes.
Spatial Switching of Slow Light in Periodic Photonic Structures
Sukhorukov, Andrey A.
The speed of light sets the maximum possible rate for transmission of information, in excess of 108 meters per second. Light pulses in optical fibers carry bits of data around the world in sub-second time frame, enabling interactive global communications. There is a constant demand for increasing the network performance in view of steadily growing information flows. It is envisioned that the presently required multiple conversions between optical pulses and electronic signals at network hubs may be eliminated in future when routing and switching of data flows is performed all-optically. This vision can be realized if the speed of light is dynamically controlled, allowing for synchronization and multiplexing of signals. Furthermore, by temporarily making the light slower it becomes possible to compress optical signals and perform their manipulation in compact photonic chips. Additionally, in the regime of slow light the photon-matter interactions are dramatically enhanced, enabling the active control of light and nonlinear transformations of signals. Slowing down the light is a challenging physical problem. In conventional dielectrics, the speed of light can only be reduced by a factor less than four which is limited by the optical refractive index of available materials. The most dramatic slowing down of light to a complete stop was reported in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency [1]. This phenomenon is based on a resonant interaction of light with an atomic system and accordingly the speed of light is very sensitive to the frequency detuning. This restricts the effect to narrow frequency ranges limiting its applicability to communication networks with demands for data rates in excess of 100Gb per second. In contrast, dielectric photonic structures with a periodic modulation of the optical refractive index at a sub-micrometer scale can be engineered to operate at any frequency range. Periodic modulation results in resonant light scattering, and
Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway
2012-09-01
ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located
RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang
2006-01-01
The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates
Structural information in two-dimensional patterns: entropy convergence and excess entropy.
Feldman, David P; Crutchfield, James P
2003-05-01
We develop information-theoretic measures of spatial structure and pattern in more than one dimension. As is well known, the entropy density of a two-dimensional configuration can be efficiently and accurately estimated via a converging sequence of conditional entropies. We show that the manner in which these conditional entropies converge to their asymptotic value serves as a measure of global correlation and structure for spatial systems in any dimension. We compare and contrast entropy convergence with mutual-information and structure-factor techniques for quantifying and detecting spatial structure.
A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin
2006-01-01
By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.
UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟
2003-01-01
In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.
Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.
1979-01-01
The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....
Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor
Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R
2016-01-01
We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.
Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGill Stephen A.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.
Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion
Lavrov, P M
1999-01-01
We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.
Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.
Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Wen-Chao
2004-01-01
We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.
A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.
Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji
2012-02-05
Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.
Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra
2003-10-01
Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.
Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation
Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.
2016-01-01
International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...
Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation
T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University
1997-01-01
Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...
Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers
2016-06-15
polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan
2002-05-01
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.
The flow of a foam in a two-dimensional porous medium
Géraud, Baudouin; Jones, Siân. A.; Cantat, Isabelle; Dollet, Benjamin; Méheust, Yves
2016-02-01
Foams have been used for decades as displacing fluids for enhanced oil recovery and aquifer remediation, and more recently, for remediation of the vadose zone, in which case foams carry chemical amendments. Foams are better injection fluids than aqueous solutions due to their low sensitivity to gravity and because they are less sensitive to permeability heterogeneities, thus allowing a more uniform sweep. The latter aspect results from their peculiar rheology, whose understanding motivates the present study. We investigate foam flow through a two-dimensional porous medium consisting of circular obstacles positioned randomly in a horizontal transparent Hele-Shaw cell. The local foam structure is recorded in situ, which provides a measure of the spatial distribution of bubble velocities and sizes at regular time intervals. The flow exhibits a rich phenomenology including preferential flow paths and local flow nonstationarity (intermittency) despite the imposed permanent global flow rate. Moreover, the medium selects the bubble size distribution through lamella division-triggered bubble fragmentation. Varying the mean bubble size of the injected foam, its water content, and mean velocity, we characterize those processes systematically. In particular, we measure the spatial evolution of the distribution of bubble areas, and infer the efficiency of bubble fragmentation depending on the various control parameters. We furthermore show that the distributions of bubble sizes and velocities are correlated. This study sheds new light on the local rheology of foams in porous media and opens the way toward quantitative characterization of the relationship between medium geometry and foam flow properties. It also suggests that large-scale models of foam flows in the subsurface should account for the correlation between bubble sizes and velocities.
Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seba Sara Varghese
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.
Special features of local spatial spectrum of Bessel light beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Belyi, VN
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider the angular spectrum of an apertured Bessel beam when the aperture is circular and shifted laterally with respect to the optical axis. Since the perturbation of the resulting angular spectrum is due to a spatially...
Characterization of mode group transfer matrix in multimode couplers using spatial light modulation
Stepniak, G.; Bunge, C. A.
2016-09-01
In this paper, spatial light modulation is applied to investigate the selective mode properties of multimode fibers (MMF) and MMF couplers. Spatial light modulator is applied only on the MMF input to excite a selected linearly polarized eigenmode of the MMF. At the system output the impulse and frequency response is studied. By an additional time separation of mode groups achieved during propagation in the MMF, a mode group to mode group transfer matrix of the MMF coupler can be obtained.
Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM)
2010-01-01
Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM) is a novel method developed in our laboratory that provides quantitative phase images of transparent structures with 0.3 nm spatial and 0.03 nm temporal accuracy owing to the white light illumination and its common path interferometric geometry. We exploit these features and demonstrate SLIM's ability to perform topography at a single atomic layer in graphene. Further, using a decoupling procedure that we developed for cylindrical structures, we ex...
Discriminating image textures with the multiscale two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane
Zunino, Luciano
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to further explore the usefulness of the two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane as a texture image descriptor. A multiscale generalization is introduced in order to distinguish between different roughness features of images at small and large spatial scales. Numerically generated two-dimensional structures are initially considered for illustrating basic concepts in a controlled framework. Then, more realistic situations are studied. Obtained results allow us to confirm that intrinsic spatial correlations of images are successfully unveiled by implementing this multiscale symbolic information-theory approach. Consequently, we conclude that the proposed representation space is a versatile and practical tool for identifying, characterizing and discriminating image textures.
Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gochin, M.
1987-02-01
Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.
Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms
Lembège, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe; Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2009-03-01
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used for analyzing in detail different nonstationary behaviors of a perpendicular supercritical shock. A recent study by Hellinger et al. (2007) has shown that the front of a supercritical shock can be dominated by the emission of large-amplitude whistler waves. These waves inhibit the self-reformation driven by the reflected ions; then, the shock front appears almost ``quasi-stationary.'' The present study stresses new complementary results. First, for a fixed β i value, the whistler waves emission (WWE) persists for high M A above a critical Mach number (i.e., M A >= M A WWE). The quasi-stationarity is only apparent and disappears when considering the full 3-D field profiles. Second, for lower M A , the self-reformation is retrieved and becomes dominant as the amplitude of the whistler waves becomes negligible. Third, there exists a transition regime in M A within which both processes compete each other. Fourth, these results are observed for a strictly perpendicular shock only as B 0 is within the simulation plane. When B 0 is out of the simulation plane, no whistler waves emission is evidenced and only self-reformation is recovered. Fifth, the occurrence and disappearance of the nonlinear whistler waves are well recovered in both 2-D PIC and 2-D hybrid simulations. The impacts on the results of the mass ratio (2-D PIC simulations), of the resistivity and spatial resolution (2-D hybrid simulations), and of the size of the simulation box along the shock front are analyzed in detail.
Image interpolation by two-dimensional parametric cubic convolution.
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E
2006-07-01
Cubic convolution is a popular method for image interpolation. Traditionally, the piecewise-cubic kernel has been derived in one dimension with one parameter and applied to two-dimensional (2-D) images in a separable fashion. However, images typically are statistically nonseparable, which motivates this investigation of nonseparable cubic convolution. This paper derives two new nonseparable, 2-D cubic-convolution kernels. The first kernel, with three parameters (designated 2D-3PCC), is the most general 2-D, piecewise-cubic interpolator defined on [-2, 2] x [-2, 2] with constraints for biaxial symmetry, diagonal (or 90 degrees rotational) symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The second kernel, with five parameters (designated 2D-5PCC), relaxes the constraint of diagonal symmetry, based on the observation that many images have rotationally asymmetric statistical properties. This paper also develops a closed-form solution for determining the optimal parameter values for parametric cubic-convolution kernels with respect to ensembles of scenes characterized by autocorrelation (or power spectrum). This solution establishes a practical foundation for adaptive interpolation based on local autocorrelation estimates. Quantitative fidelity analyses and visual experiments indicate that these new methods can outperform several popular interpolation methods. An analysis of the error budgets for reconstruction error associated with blurring and aliasing illustrates that the methods improve interpolation fidelity for images with aliased components. For images with little or no aliasing, the methods yield results similar to other popular methods. Both 2D-3PCC and 2D-5PCC are low-order polynomials with small spatial support and so are easy to implement and efficient to apply.
Design and experimental study of a two-dimensional position sensitive X-ray detector
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A prototype of a two-dimensional position sensitive X-ray detector was designed and constructed for small angle X-ray scattering experiments at BSFR (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility). The detector is based on MWPC with cathode strip readout, and has a sensitive area of 200 mmx200 mm. The spatial resolution (FWHM) of about 210 μm along the anode wire direction was obtained from the 55Fe X-ray test of the detector.
Shaping of light beams with photonic crystals : spatial filtering, beam collimation and focusing
2014-01-01
The research developed in the framework of this PhD thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of light beam shaping (spatial filtering, beam collimation and focusing) in the visible frequency range using photonic crystal structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) are materials with periodic, spatially modulated refractive index on the wavelength scale. They are primarily known for their chromatic dispersion properties. However, they can also modify the spatial dispersion, which allo...
Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics
Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.
Dynamic patterns in a two-dimensional neural field with refractoriness.
Qi, Yang; Gong, Pulin
2015-08-01
The formation of dynamic patterns such as localized propagating waves is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended systems including neural systems, in which they might play important functional roles. Here we derive a type of two-dimensional neural-field model with refractoriness to study the formation mechanism of localized waves. After comparing this model with existing neural-field models, we show that it is able to generate a variety of localized patterns, including stationary bumps, localized waves rotating along a circular path, and localized waves with longer-range propagation. We construct explicit bump solutions for the two-dimensional neural field and conduct a linear stability analysis on how a stationary bump transitions to a propagating wave under different spatial eigenmode perturbations. The neural-field model is then partially solved in a comoving frame to obtain localized wave solutions, whose spatial profiles are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations. We demonstrate that when there are multiple such propagating waves, they exhibit rich propagation dynamics, including propagation along periodically oscillating and irregular trajectories; these propagation dynamics are quantitatively characterized. In addition, we show that these waves can have repulsive or merging collisions, depending on their collision angles and the refractoriness parameter. Due to its analytical tractability, the two-dimensional neural-field model provides a modeling framework for studying localized propagating waves and their interactions.
Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;
2009-01-01
We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...
Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander;
2012-01-01
and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...
Low insertion loss highly mode-selective spatial multiplexers using multi-plane light conversion
Morizur, Jean-François; Barré, Nicolas; Pinel, Olivier; Lenglé, Kevin; Garcia, Lionel; Jaffres, Lionel; Jian, Pu; Labroille, Guillaume
2016-02-01
Multi-Plane Light Conversion enables novel beam shaping devices, including spatial multiplexers. After a presentation of the achievable performances of these spatial multiplexers, which can combine 10 spatial modes with cross-talk below -22 dB and insertion loss below 4 dB, we review the performances of Multi-Plane Light Con-version in multiple application cases. These application cases include mode-multiplexed optical amplification, high-power beam shaping and combining and LAN fiber capacity upgrade.
The spatial light receiver and its coupling characteristics
Hu, Qinggui; Li, Chengzhong
2017-07-01
The effective couple of the space light into the optical fiber is the key point of the free-space optical communication. In order to solve this problem, the novel tapered optical fiber head is proposed. The special tapered structure could improve coupling efficiency through expanding the light receiving area. In order to study its coupling characteristics, the longitudinal propagation constant of the connector is expanded by Taylor series according to the wave theory. And the approximate solution of the power distribution is obtained. Then, the coupling efficiency measurement experiment with the tapered connectors and the conmmon connector is finished. The experimental result is consistent with the theoretical analysis basically. This work provides a theoretical reference for the design of the new tapered connector, which could be adopted in the free-space optical communication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopeliovich, A.I. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering, NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Pyshkin, P.V., E-mail: pavel.pyshkin@gmail.com [Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science 48011, Bilbao (Spain); Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kalinenko, A.N.; Yanovsky, A.V. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering, NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine)
2016-02-15
It is shown that the normal electron–electron scattering is a source of electrical resistance on non-contact current excitation in two-dimensional spin–split electron systems. In contrast to the contact current injection, non-contact current excitation causes spatially inhomogeneous polarization in a two-dimensional conductor leading to new resistivity mechanisms.
Depth measurement using structured light and spatial frequency.
Chan, Shih-Yu; Shih, Hsi-Fu; Chen, Jenq-Shyong
2016-07-01
This paper proposes a novel design of an optical system for depth measurement, adopting a computer-generated hologram to project a periodic line pattern from which a coaxial triangulation is performed. The spatial periodicity of diffraction images captured in the system is converted to the frequency domain, and the relative depth of the plane of interest is acquired. The experimental results show that the system could achieve resolution in the range of 1 mm over a relative depth range of ∼300-600 mm from the camera. The standard deviations are 0.71 and 0.46 mm for two experiments.
Coarse error analysis and correction of a two-dimensional triangulation range finder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huaqiao Gui; Liang Lü; Wei Huang; Jun Xu; Deyong He; Huanqin Wang; Jianping Xie; Tianpeng Zhao; Hai Ming
2006-01-01
@@ A real-time two-dimensional (2D) triangulation range finder is presented, which is composed of two linear complementary metal oxidation semiconductor (CMOS) chips, two camera lenses, and four light emitting diodes (LEDs). The high order distortion in image aberrations is the main factor responsible for the coarse errors. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement with experiments and the correction equation is used to obtain more reliable results with the unique distortion coefficient in the whole working region.
Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Trompeter, Henrike; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Neshev, Dragomir N; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Pertsch, Thomas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk
2006-02-10
We report on the first experimental observation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional periodic systems. We study the propagation of an optical beam in a square lattice superimposed on a refractive index ramp. We observe oscillations of the beam inside the first Brilloin zone and tunneling of light from the first to the higher-order bands of the lattice band gap spectrum.
Band Gap Computation of Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal for High Index Contrast Grating Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gagandeep Kaur
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal (PHc is convenient type of PHc, It refers to the fact that the dielectric is periodic in Two directions. The study of photonic structure by a simulation method is extremely momentous. At optical frequencies the optical density contained by two dimensional PHc changes periodically. They have the property to strong effect the propagation of light waves at these optical frequencies. A typical linearization method which solves the common nonlinear Eigen values difficulties has been used to achieve structures of the photonic band. There are two method plane wave expansion method (PWE and Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD. These Methods are most widely used for band gap calculation of PHc’s. FDTD Method has more smoothness and directness and can be explored effortlessly for simulation of the field circulation inside the photonic structure than PWE method so we have used FDTD Method for Two dimensional PHc’s calculation. In simulation of Two Dimensional band structures, silicon material has 0.543nm lattice constant and 1.46refractive index.
Multi-wavelength holography with a single spatial light modulator for ultracold atom experiments.
Bowman, David; Ireland, Philip; Bruce, Graham D; Cassettari, Donatella
2015-04-06
We demonstrate a method to independently and arbitrarily tailor the spatial profile of light of multiple wavelengths and we show possible applications to ultracold atoms experiments. A single spatial light modulator is programmed to create a pattern containing multiple spatially separated structures in the Fourier plane when illuminated with a single wavelength. When the modulator is illuminated with overlapped laser beams of different wavelengths, the position of the structures is wavelength-dependent. Hence, by designing their separations appropriately, a desired overlap of different structures at different wavelengths is obtained. We employ regional phase calculation algorithms and demonstrate several possible experimental scenarios by generating light patterns with 670 nm, 780 nm and 1064 nm laser light which are accurate to the level of a few percent. This technique is easily integrated into cold atom experiments, requiring little optical access.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pu Wang
Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in light supply is common in nature. Many studies have examined the effects of heterogeneous light supply on growth, morphology, physiology and biomass allocation of clonal plants, but few have tested those effects on intraspecific competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (no competition or nine ramets (with intraspecific competition of a stoloniferous clonal plant, Duchesnea indica, in three homogeneous light conditions (high, medium and low light intensity and two heterogeneous ones differing in patch size (large and small patch treatments. The total light in the two heterogeneous treatments was the same as that in the homogeneous medium light treatment. Both decreasing light intensity and intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets and total stolon length of D. indica. As compared with the homogeneous medium light treatment, the large patch treatment significantly increased the growth of D. indica without intraspecific competition. However, the growth of D. indica with competition did not differ among the homogeneous medium light, the large and the small patch treatments. Consequently, light heterogeneity significantly increased intraspecific competition intensity, as measured by the decreased log response ratio. These results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in light supply can alter intraspecific interactions of clonal plants.
Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James D Hale
Full Text Available Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.
Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape.
Hale, James D; Davies, Gemma; Fairbrass, Alison J; Matthews, Thomas J; Rogers, Christopher D F; Sadler, Jon P
2013-01-01
Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.
Spatial and temporal localization of light in two dimensions
Máximo, Carlos E; Courteille, Philippe W; Kaiser, Robin; Bachelard, Romain
2015-01-01
Quasi-resonant scattering of light in two dimensions can be described either as a scalar or as a vectorial electromagnetic wave. Performing a scaling analysis we observe in both cases long lived modes, yet only the scalar case exhibits Anderson localized modes together with extremely long mode lifetimes. We show that the localization length of these modes is influenced only by their position, and not their lifetime. Investigating the reasons for the absence of localization, it appears that both the coupling of several polarizations and the presence of near-field terms are able to prevent long lifetimes and Anderson localization.
Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks
Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si
2009-12-01
We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.
Pavlov, Maxim V
2014-12-08
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.
Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Augustus REJU
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G
2015-06-22
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Finite Differences and Collocation Methods for the Solution of the Two Dimensional Heat Equation
Kouatchou, Jules
1999-01-01
In this paper we combine finite difference approximations (for spatial derivatives) and collocation techniques (for the time component) to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. We employ respectively a second-order and a fourth-order schemes for the spatial derivatives and the discretization method gives rise to a linear system of equations. We show that the matrix of the system is non-singular. Numerical experiments carried out on serial computers, show the unconditional stability of the proposed method and the high accuracy achieved by the fourth-order scheme.
Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness
Uchihashi, Takashi
2017-01-01
Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1995-01-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....
Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2008-06-01
We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers
Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.
1995-05-01
A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.
Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun
2004-01-01
Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...
Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation
Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark
2004-01-01
Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.
Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.
Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold
2002-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.
Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes
Lopez-Ortega, A
2011-01-01
We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.
Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank
2014-01-01
We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...
Modeling two-dimensional water flow and bromide transport in a heterogeneous lignitic mine soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)
2006-02-15
Water and solute fluxes in lignitic mine soils and in many other soils are often highly heterogeneous. Here, heterogeneity reflects dumping-induced inclined structures and embedded heterogeneous distributions of sediment mixtures and of lignitic fragments. Such two-scale heterogeneity effects may be analyzed through the application of two-dimensional models for calculating water and solute fluxes. The objective of this study was to gain more insight to what extent spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters contributes to preferential flow at a lignitic mine soil. The simulations pertained to the 'Barenbrucker Hohe' site in Germany where previously water fluxes and applied tracers had been monitored with a cell lysimeter, and from where a soil block had been excavated for detailed two-dimensional characterization of the hydraulic parameters using pedotransfer functions. Based on those previous studies, scenarios with different distributions of hydraulic parameters were simulated. The results show that spatial variability of hydraulic parameters alone can hardly explain the observed flow patterns. The observed preferential flow at the site was probably caused by additional factors such as hydrophobicity, the presence of root channels, anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, and heterogeneous root distributions. To study the relative importance of these other factors by applying two-dimensional flow models to such sites, the experimental database must be improved. Single-continuum model approaches may be insufficient for such sites.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Quan; Tian Qiang
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.
A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna for millimeter-wave scattering in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910, Japan (JP)); Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia))
1990-06-01
A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for use with a tunable gyrotron in order to carry out millimeter-wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. The advantages of this antenna are the following: (1) The elliptical reflector focuses the radiation beam in the toroidal direction, while the parabolic reflector focuses in the direction of major radius. This gives excellent two-dimensional focusing in the plasma region, and consequently excellent spatial resolution. (2) The focal point can be easily swept along the direction of major radius in the whole plasma region, simply by changing the angle of the parabolic reflector by a small amount. These features have been demonstrated experimentally using the tunable gyrotron source, GYROTRON III, and in computations of the radiated fields.
Short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional scattering media by natural element method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping
2014-04-01
The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer (TRT) in two-dimensional semitransparent media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. The least-squares (LS) weighted residuals approach is employed to spatially discretize the transient radiative heat transfer equation. First, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LSNEM solutions to TRT are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Effects of the incident angle on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Afterward, the accuracy of this algorithm for the case of the refractive index mismatched boundary is studied. Finally, the LSNEM is extended to study the TRT in a two-dimensional semitransparent medium with refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. The effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness, scattering phase function, and refractive index on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated. Several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Quan; Tian Qiang
2013-01-01
Using numerical method,we investigate whether periodic,quasiperiodic,and chaotic breathers are supported by the two-dimensional discrete Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with linear dispersion term.The spatial profile and time evolution of the two-dimensional discrete β-FPU lattice are segregated by the method of separation of variables,and the numerical simulations suggest that the discrete breathers (DBs) are supported by the system.By introducing a periodic interaction into the linear interaction between the atoms,we achieve the coupling of two incommensurate frequencies for a single DB,and the numerical simulations suggest that the quasiperiodic and chaotic breathers are supported by the system,too.
Two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves due to time-delayed feedback in cavity nonlinear optics
Tlidi, Mustapha; Panajotov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
We demonstrate a way to generate two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in the model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. The rogue waves are exited and controlled by the delay feedback. We characterize their formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. The long-tailed statistical contribution, which is often considered as a signature of the presence of rogue waves, appears for sufficiently strong feedback. The generality of our analysis suggests that the feedback induced instability leading to the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional rogue waves is a universal phenomenon.
Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy
Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper
We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen
1993-04-01
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))
1993-04-12
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prokhorenko V.I.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.
Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems
Schaapman, Maaike Ruth
2004-01-01
This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting
Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D
1991-01-01
Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem
Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards
Fel, Leonid G.
2002-05-01
The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).
Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....
Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations
Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K
2011-01-01
We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.
Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps
Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique
2015-02-01
For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.
Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2010-01-01
A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...
Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets
Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.
2015-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent
Numerical blowup in two-dimensional Boussinesq equations
Yin, Zhaohua
2009-01-01
In this paper, we perform a three-stage numerical relay to investigate the finite time singularity in the two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation equations. The initial asymmetric condition is the middle-stage output of a $2048^2$ run, the highest resolution in our study is $40960^2$, and some signals of numerical blowup are observed.
Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.
Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay
2013-02-08
We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals.
Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas
Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.
2013-01-01
We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f
Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.
2016-01-01
Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...
Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory
Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D
1991-01-01
This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.
Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Black-Holes
Nappi, Chiara R.; Pasquinucci, Andrea
1992-01-01
We explore the thermodynamics of a general class of two dimensional dilatonic black-holes. A simple prescription is given that allows us to compute the mass, entropy and thermodynamic potentials, with results in agreement with those obtained by other methods, when available.
Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;
2010-01-01
The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...
Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies
Georgescu, M
2008-01-01
This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the
Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.
1988-06-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.
Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources
Melis, M
2004-01-01
We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.
Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies
Georgescu, M
2008-01-01
This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r
Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.
Wintner, Claude E.
1983-01-01
The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating
Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.
1995-01-01
The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi
Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems
Schaapman, Maaike Ruth
2004-01-01
This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of
Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells: Two-Dimensional Approximation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Sabu
2003-08-01
In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra
Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.
2006-01-01
We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t
Two Dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz Gravity
Kluson, J
2016-01-01
We study two-dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity from the Hamiltonian point of view. We determine constraints structure with emphasis on the careful separation of the second class constraints and global first class constraints. We determine number of physical degrees of freedom and also discuss gauge fixing of the global first class constraints.
Localization of Tight Closure in Two-Dimensional Rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kamran Divaani-Aazar; Massoud Tousi
2005-02-01
It is shown that tight closure commutes with localization in any two-dimensional ring of prime characteristic if either is a Nagata ring or possesses a weak test element. Moreover, it is proved that tight closure commutes with localization at height one prime ideals in any ring of prime characteristic.
Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Preneel
2005-07-01
Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.
New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neto, A H Castro [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Novoselov, K, E-mail: phycastr@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: konstantin.novoselov@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
Graphene is possibly one of the largest and fastest growing fields in condensed matter research. However, graphene is only one example in a large class of two-dimensional crystals with unusual properties. In this paper we briefly review the properties of graphene and look at the exciting possibilities that lie ahead.
Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems
Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik
2000-01-01
The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess
On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra
De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.
2000-01-01
The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp
Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics
Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r
SAR Processing Based On Two-Dimensional Transfer Function
Chang, Chi-Yung; Jin, Michael Y.; Curlander, John C.
1994-01-01
Exact transfer function, ETF, is two-dimensional transfer function that constitutes basis of improved frequency-domain-convolution algorithm for processing synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR data. ETF incorporates terms that account for Doppler effect of motion of radar relative to scanned ground area and for antenna squint angle. Algorithm based on ETF outperforms others.
Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls
Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.
Confined two-dimensional fermions at finite density
De Francia, M; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M; De Francia, M; Falomir, H; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M
1995-01-01
We introduce the chemical potential in a system of two-dimensional massless fermions, confined to a finite region, by imposing twisted boundary conditions in the Euclidean time direction. We explore in this simple model the application of functional techniques which could be used in more complicated situations.
Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors
Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.
2017-01-01
To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions
Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.
1972-01-01
Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Spontaneous emission in two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas
2000-01-01
The properties of the radiation field in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with and without a microcavity introduced are investigated through the concept of the position-dependent photon density of states. The position-dependent rate of spontaneous radiative decay for a two-level atom with random...
Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing
te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J
1993-01-01
In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro
Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities
Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.
1997-01-01
We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects
Two-dimensional manifold with point-like defects
Gani, Vakhid A; Rubin, Sergei G
2014-01-01
We study a class of two-dimensional extra spaces isomorphic to the $S^2$ sphere in the framework of the multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.
Instability of two-dimensional heterotic stringy black holes
Azreg-Ainou, M
1999-01-01
We solve the eigenvalue problem of general relativity for the case of charged black holes in two-dimensional heterotic string theory, derived by McGuigan et al. For the case of $m^{2}>q^{2}$, we find a physically acceptable time-dependent growing mode; thus the black hole is unstable. The extremal case $m^{2}=q^{2}$ is stable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Lei; LI haijiao; ZHANG Lewen
2008-01-01
The fourth-order B spline wavelet scaling functions are used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation. The calculations from a case history indicate that the method provides high accuracy and the computational efficiency is enhanced due to the small matrix derived from this method.The respective features of 3-spline wavelet scaling functions, 4-spline wavelet scaling functions and quasi-wavelet used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation are compared. The proposed method has potential applications in many fields including marine science.
Progress in fabrication of waveguide spatial light modulators via femtosecond laser micromachining
Savidis, Nickolaos; Jolly, Sundeep; Datta, Bianca; Moebius, Michael; Karydis, Thrasyvoulos; Mazur, Eric; Gershenfeld, Neil; Bove, V. Michael
2017-02-01
We have previously introduced a femtosecond laser micromachining-based scheme for the fabrication of anisotropic waveguides in lithium niobate for use in a guided-wave acousto-optic spatial light modulator. This spatial light modulation scheme is extensible to off-plane waveguide holography via the integration of a Bragg reflection grating. In this paper, we present femtosecond laser-based direct-write approaches for the fabrication of (1) waveguide in-coupling gratings and (2) volume Bragg reflection gratings via permanent refractive index changes within the lithium niobate substrate. In combination with metal surface-acoustic-wave transducers, these direct-write approaches allow for complete fabrication of a functional spatial light modulator via femtosecond laser direct writing.
Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huan; Huang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Yifeng; Tzvetanov, Tzvetomir
2017-01-01
The contrast sensitivity function that spans the two dimensions of contrast and spatial frequency is crucial in predicting functional vision both in research and clinical applications. In this study, the use of Bayesian inference was proposed to determine the parameters of the two-dimensional contrast sensitivity function. Two-dimensional Bayesian inference was extensively simulated in comparison to classical one-dimensional measures. Its performance on two-dimensional data gathered with different sampling algorithms was also investigated. The results showed that the two-dimensional Bayesian inference method significantly improved the accuracy and precision of the contrast sensitivity function, as compared to the more common one-dimensional estimates. In addition, applying two-dimensional Bayesian estimation to the final data set showed similar levels of reliability and efficiency across widely disparate and established sampling methods (from classical one-dimensional sampling, such as Ψ or staircase, to more novel multi-dimensional sampling methods, such as quick contrast sensitivity function and Fisher information gain). Furthermore, the improvements observed following the application of Bayesian inference were maintained even when the prior poorly matched the subject's contrast sensitivity function. Simulation results were confirmed in a psychophysical experiment. The results indicated that two-dimensional Bayesian inference of contrast sensitivity function data provides similar estimates across a wide range of sampling methods. The present study likely has implications for the measurement of contrast sensitivity function in various settings (including research and clinical settings) and would facilitate the comparison of existing data from previous studies. PMID:28119563
Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator
Deng, Xuejiao; Zhang, Nanyang; Zeng, Yanan; Yin, Shiliang; Wang, Weiyu
2011-02-01
Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .
Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng Xuejiao; Zhang Nanyang; Zeng Yanan; Yin Shiliang; Wang Weiyu, E-mail: daisydelring@yahoo.com.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China)
2011-02-01
Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .
A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction
Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.
2011-03-01
The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.
Optics and Optoelectronics of Two-dimensional Semiconducting Monolayers and Heterostructures
Ross, Jason Solomon
Until recently, the physics of truly two-dimensional (2D) excitons could only be explored theoretically. Following the discovery of graphene, many 2D materials were quickly identified and isolated, one system being the semiconducting Group VI-B transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). These semiconductors are the first air-stable materials that are atomically thin (three atomics thick), and yet can be produced in arbitrarily large lateral sheets. They have a direct band gap in which confinement leads to large spatial overlap of electrons and holes resulting in strongly coupled excitonic transitions that dominate light-matter interactions. The direct band-gap of monolayer TMDs occurs at the corners of the hexagonal Brillouin zone, referred to as the K valleys. Entirely unique to these materials, excitons in adjacent K valleys selectively couple to light of opposite circular polarization, i.e. the K (K') valley is selective to right (left) circularly polarized photons. This property offers the possible realization of novel devices that will manipulate the valley index, known as valleytronics. Further, creating a stacked heterostructure (HS) of two TMD monolayers of different molecular species can exhibit type-II band alignment leading to the first atomically sharp built-in p-n junction and a bright interlayer exciton with long lifetimes. Being flat 2D sheets, it is easy to couple these materials to nearby systems such as microfabricated electrodes and photonic crystal cavities allowing for unique modulation and device schemes. Here, I employ both optical and electronic techniques to study the unique physics of 2D excitons in TMDs as well as demonstrate some of their first optoelectronic and valleytronic devices. The most notable achievement is perhaps the first demonstrations of both atomically thin and 2D heterostructure light emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Other breakthroughs include the first demonstration of exciton charging tunability in a 2D system
Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)
2015-01-19
Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.
Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light.
Smolka, S; Huck, A; Andersen, U L; Lagendijk, A; Lodahl, P
2009-05-15
We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing the full quantum model of multiple scattering.
Non-approximated numerical modeling of propagation of light in any state of spatial coherence.
Castañeda, Román; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2011-12-01
Due to analytical and numerical difficulties, the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is traditionally computed under severe approximations. The paraxial approach in the Fresnel-Fraunhofer domain is one of the most widely used. These approximations provide a rough knowledge of the actual light behavior as it propagates, which is not enough for supporting applications, such as light propagation under a high numerical aperture (NA). In this paper, a non-approximated model for the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is presented. The method is applicable in very practical cases, as high-NA propagations, because of its simplicity of implementation. This approach allows for studying unaware behaviors of light as it propagates. The light behavior close to the diffracting transmittances can also be analyzed with the aid of the proposed tool.
An all-optical spatial light modulator for field-programmable silicon photonic circuits
Bruck, Roman; Lalanne, Philippe; Mills, Ben; Thomson, David J; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Reed, Graham T; Muskens, Otto L
2016-01-01
Reconfigurable photonic devices capable of routing the flow of light enable flexible integrated-optic circuits that are not hard-wired but can be externally controlled. Analogous to free-space spatial light modulators, we demonstrate all-optical wavefront shaping in integrated silicon-on-insulator photonic devices by modifying the spatial refractive index profile of the device employing ultraviolet pulsed laser excitation. Applying appropriate excitation patterns grants us full control over the optical transfer function of telecommunication-wavelength light travelling through the device, thus allowing us to redefine its functionalities. As a proof-of-concept, we experimentally demonstrate routing of light between the ports of a multimode interference power splitter with more than 97% total efficiency and negligible losses. Wavefront shaping in integrated photonic circuits provides a conceptually new approach toward achieving highly adaptable and field-programmable photonic circuits with applications in optica...
Qi, Wei; Ishimaru, Ichiro
2010-02-01
We propose an image-producing Fourier spectroscopic technology that enables two-dimensional spectroscopic images to be obtained within the focusing plane alone. This technology incorporates auto-correlational phase-shift interferometry that uses only object light generated by the bright points that optically make up the object. We are currently involved in studies of non-invasive technologies used to measure blood components such as glucose and lipids, which are measured for use in daily living. Previous studies have investigated non-invasive technologies that measure blood glucose levels by utilizing near-infrared light that permeates the skin well. It has been confirmed that subtle changes in the concentration of a glucose solution, a sample used to measure the glucose level, can be measured by analyzing the spectroscopic characteristics of near-infrared light; however, when applied to a biomembrane, technology such as this is incapable of precisely measuring the glucose level because light diffusion within the skin disturbs the measurement. Our proposed technology enables two-dimensional spectroscopy to a limited depth below the skin covered by the measurement. Specifically, our technology concentrates only on the vascular territory near the skin surface, which is only minimally affected by light diffusion, as discussed previously; the spectroscopic characteristics of this territory are obtained and the glucose level can be measured with good sensitivity. In this paper we propose an image-producing Fourier spectroscopy method that is used as the measuring technology in producing a three-dimensional spectroscopic image.
Simulation of two-dimensional adjustable liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens
Le, Zichun; Wu, Xiang; Sun, Yunli; Du, Ying
2017-07-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed which can be used in adjusting focusing direction and focal spot of light beam. Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the convection diffusion process happening in core inlet flow and cladding inlet flow. And the ray tracing method shows us the light beam focusing effect including the extrapolation of focal length and output beam spot size. When the flow rates of the core and cladding fluids are held the same between the internal and external, left and right, and upper and lower inlets, the focal length varied from 313 μm to 53.3 μm while the flow rate of liquids ranges from 500 pL/s to 10,000 pL/s. While the core flow rate is bigger than the cladding inlet flow rate, the light beam will focus on a light spot with a tunable size. By adjusting the ratio of cladding inlet flow rate including Qright/Qleft and Qup/Qdown, we get the adjustable two-dimensional focus direction rather than the one-dimensional focusing. In summary, by adjusting the flow rate of core inlet and cladding inlet, the focal length, output beam spot and focusing direction of the input light beam can be manipulated. We suppose this kind of flexible microlens can be used in integrated optics and lab-on-a-chip system.
Fast two-photon neuronal imaging and control using a spatial light modulator and ruthenium compounds
Peterka, Darcy S.; Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Fino, Elodie; Araya, Roberto; Etchenique, Roberto; Yuste, Rafael
2010-02-01
We have developed a spatial light modulator (SLM) based microscope that uses diffraction to shape the incoming two-photon laser source to any arbitrary light pattern. This allows the simultaneous imaging or photostimulation of different regions of a sample with three-dimensional precision at high frame rates. Additionally, we have combined this microscope with a new class of two photon active neuromodulators with Ruthenium BiPyridine (RuBi) based cages that offer great flexibility for neuronal control.
Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice
Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen
2016-11-01
Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.
The separation of whale myoglobins with two-dimensional electrophoresis.
Spicer, G S
1988-10-01
Five myoglobins (sperm whale, Sei whale, Hubbs' beaked whale, pilot whale, and Amazon River dolphin) were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Previous reports indicated that none of these proteins could be separated by using denaturing (in the presence of 8-9 M urea) isoelectric focusing. This result is confirmed in the present study. However, all the proteins could be separated by using denaturing nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis in the first dimension. Additionally, all the myoglobins have characteristic mobilities in the second dimension (sodium dodecyl sulfate), but these mobilities do not correspond to the molecular weights of the proteins. We conclude that two-dimensional electrophoresis can be more sensitive to differences in primary protein structure than previous studies indicate and that the assessment seems to be incorrect that this technique can separate only proteins that have a unit charge difference.
Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters
Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301
2012-01-01
The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...
The Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence
Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul
2010-01-01
We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter {\\Lambda} to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with a universal exponent {\\theta} = 3.1 \\pm 0.2.
On Dirichlet eigenvectors for neutral two-dimensional Markov chains
Champagnat, Nicolas; Miclo, Laurent
2012-01-01
We consider a general class of discrete, two-dimensional Markov chains modeling the dynamics of a population with two types, without mutation or immigration, and neutral in the sense that type has no influence on each individual's birth or death parameters. We prove that all the eigenvectors of the corresponding transition matrix or infinitesimal generator \\Pi\\ can be expressed as the product of "universal" polynomials of two variables, depending on each type's size but not on the specific transitions of the dynamics, and functions depending only on the total population size. These eigenvectors appear to be Dirichlet eigenvectors for \\Pi\\ on the complement of triangular subdomains, and as a consequence the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered in a specific way. As an application, we study the quasistationary behavior of finite, nearly neutral, two-dimensional Markov chains, absorbed in the sense that 0 is an absorbing state for each component of the process.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
Bouchet, Freddy
2011-01-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter's troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equi...
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used...... for prediction purposes. However, we suggest that life insurance companies use the estimation technique and the cross-validation for bandwidth selection when analyzing their portfolio mortality. The non-parametric approach may give valuable information prior to developing more sophisticated prediction models...
Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao
2006-01-01
The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panjit MUSIK
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-01
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.