Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
Maximizing bandgaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals a variational algorithm
Paul, P; Paul, Prabasaj; Ndi, Francis C.
2002-01-01
We present an algorithm for the maximization of photonic bandgaps in two-dimensional crystals. Once the translational symmetries of the underlying structure have been imposed, our algorithm finds a global maximal (and complete, if one exists) bandgap. Additionally, we prove two remarkable results related to maximal bandgaps: the so-called `maximum contrast' rule, and about the location in the Brillouin zone of band edges.
Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Modes with Deformed Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Xiang-Hua; ZHENG Wan-Hua; MA Xiao-Tao; REN Gang; XIA Jian-Bai
2005-01-01
@@ A numerical study of the defect modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed triangular lattice is presented by using the supercell method and the finite-difference time-domain method We find the stretch or shrink of the lattice can bring the change not only on the frequencies of the defect modes but also on their magnetic field distributions. We obtain the separation of the doubly degenerate dipole modes with the change of the lattice and find that both the stretch and the shrink of the lattice can make the dipole modes separate large enough to realize the single-mode emission. These results may be advantageous to the manufacture of photonic crystal lasers and provide a new way to realize the single-mode operation in photonic crystal lasers.
Complete Band-Gap in Two-Dimensional Quasiperiod Photonic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Zhi-Fang; FENG Shuai; REN Kun; LI Zhi-Yuan; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong
2005-01-01
@@ The transmission properties of quasiperiodic photonic crystals (QPCs) based on the random square-triangle tilingsystem are investigated by the multiple scattering method. The hollow cylinders are introduced in our calculation. It is found that QPCs with hollow cylinders also possess a complete band gap common to s- and p-polarized waves when the inner radius of hollow cylinders is larger than a certain value. The QPCs possessing the complete band gap can be applied to the fields of light emitting, wave-guides, optical filters, high-Q resonators and antennas.
Jiang, Liyong; Jia, Wei; Zheng, Gaige; Li, Xiangyin
2012-05-01
We proposed a novel two-dimensional photonic crystal slab comprised of a number of silicon rods with different radii and locations in the square-lattice unit cell pattern. Such rod-type photonic crystal slabs were automatically optimized by the genetic algorithm and fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator wafer. In particular, the measured transmission spectra of the five-rods sample have shown a large accepted high-order bandgap between 1498 and 1648 nm (gap size is 9.54%). Based on the theories of multiple Bragg and Mie scattering effects, we have given a reasonable explanation to the large high-order bandgaps found in the present study.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
1999-01-01
Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨毅彪; 王伟军; 费宏明; 梁伟; 王云才
2012-01-01
利用平面波展开法对空气背景中介质圆柱和方柱构造的二维Archimedes A7晶格光子晶体的禁带结构随介质折射率、填充比的变化关系进行了研究,并进一步计算了介质方柱的旋转角度对完全光子禁带宽度的影响.研究发现,介质圆柱构造的Archimedes A7晶格结构在介质柱折射率最低为n=2.40时出现完全光子禁带,当n=2.60时禁带宽度达到最大值.介质方柱构造的Archimedes A7晶格结构在介质柱折射率n=3.80时完全禁带宽度达到最大值,且随着折射率的增加禁带宽度变化很小；在介质方柱折射率恒定情况下,其最大禁带宽度与旋转角度无关,但旋转后出现完全禁带的填充比范围明显扩大.%Plane wave expansion method is introduced to simulate the band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of Archimedes A7 lattice of circular and square dielectric rod in air. The bandgaps of Archimedes A7 lattice with dielectric rods is also discussed as functions of the refractive index, filling fraction and rotation angle. The results show that the complete bandgap can be obtained when the refractive index is greater than 2.40. The width of complete bandgap reaches the maximum when the dielectric refractive index of the circular rod is equal to 2.60. For the Archimedes A7 lattice of square dielectric rod, the complete bandgap reaches the maximum when the dielectric refractive index equals 3. 80. The maximum complete bandgap changes in a narrow range as the refractive index increases. When the rotation angle of the square dielectric rods changes, the maximum bandgap keeps constant for a fixed refractive index. However after the change of rotation angle, the complete bandgap appears in a large scale of the filling fraction.
Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules
Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.
Quasi-two-dimensional optomechanical crystals with a complete phononic bandgap
Alegre, Thiago P Mayer; Winger, Martin; Painter, Oskar
2010-01-01
A fully planar two-dimensional optomechanical crystal formed in a silicon microchip is used to create a structure devoid of phonons in the GHz frequency range. A nanoscale photonic crystal cavity is placed inside the phononic bandgap crystal in order to probe the properties of the localized acoustic modes. By studying the trends in mechanical damping, mode density, and optomechanical coupling strength of the acoustic resonances over an array of structures with varying geometric properties, clear evidence of a complete phononic bandgap is shown.
Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda
2003-08-01
We introduce a solution based on the source-model technique for periodic structures for the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a two-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal slab illuminated by a transverse-magnetic plane wave. The proposed technique takes advantage of the periodicity of the slab by solving the problem within the unit cell of the periodic structure. The results imply the existence of a frequency bandgap and provide a valuable insight into the relationship between the dimensions of a finite periodic structure and its frequency bandgap characteristics. A comparison shows a discrepancy between the frequency bandgap obtained for a very thick slab and the bandgap obtained by solving the corresponding two-dimensionally infinite periodic structure. The final part of the paper is devoted to explaining in detail this apparent discrepancy.
Photonic Band Gap Structures with Periodically Arranged Atoms in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Zhi-Yu; CHEN Fang; ZHOU Jian-Ying
2005-01-01
@@ Linear transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for a new two-dimensional photonic crystal with periodically arranged resonant atoms are examined. Numerical results show that a twin-gap structure with forbidden bands displaced from a non-doped bandgap structure can be produced as a result of atomic polarization. The absorption spectrum is also significantly altered compared to the single atom entity.
Photonic Bandgap in Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals of Germanium Columns%锗圆柱构造的二维光子晶体带隙结构分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭普庆; 梁建; 杨毅彪; 许并社
2011-01-01
Plane wave expansion method was adopted to calculate the bandgap of 2-D photonic crystals with triangular lattice, kagome lattice and graphite lattice. The structural parameters of photonic crystals with the largest complete bandgap were obtained by optimization calculation.Complete bandgap for graphite lattice appeaed when filling ratio changed in a wide range, and the maximum width of complete bandgap was △=0.053 in the low-energy region.%采用平面波展开法研究了由锗圆柱构成的Triangular格子、Kagome格子和Graphite 格子二维光子晶体的带隙结构,发现Kagome格子和Graphite格子结构的光子晶体具有完全光子带隙,并得到了使完全带隙最大化的结构参数.数值计算结果表明,Graphite结构二维光子晶体在填充比从f=0.058到f=0.605连续变化的很大范围内都有完全带隙出现,在低能区出现了△=0.053(ωa/2πc)的较大带隙.为二维光子晶体材料的制备和应用提供理论依据.为二维光子晶体材料的制备和应用提供理论依据.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Contact and Bandgap Engineering in Two Dimensional Crystal
Chu, Tao
At the heart of semiconductor research, bandgap is one of the key parameters for materials and determine their applications in modern technologies. For traditional bulk semiconductors, the bandgap is determined by the chemical composition and specific arrangement of the crystal lattices, and usually invariant during the device operation. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable for many optoelectronic and electronic applications to have materials with continuously tunable bandgap available. In the past decade, 2D layered materials including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have sparked interest in the scientific community, owing to their unique material properties and tremendous potential in various applications. Among many newly discovered properties that are non-existent in bulk materials, the strong in-plane bonding and weak van der Waals inter-planar interaction in these 2D layered structures leads to a widely tunable bandgap by electric field. This provides an extra knob to engineer the fundamental material properties and open a new design space for novel device operation. This thesis focuses on this field controlled dynamic bandgap and can be divided into three parts: (1) bilayer graphene is the first known 2D crystal with a bandgap can be continuously tuned by electric field. However, the electrical transport bandgaps is much smaller than both theoretical predictions and extracted bandgaps from optical measurements. In the first part of the thesis, the limiting factors of preventing achieving a large transport bandgap in bilayer graphene are investigated and different strategies to achieve a large transport bandgap are discussed, including the vertically scaling of gate oxide and patterning channel into ribbon structure. With a record large transport bandgap of ~200meV, a dual-gated semiconducting bilayer graphene P/N junction with extremely scaled gap of 20nm in-between is fabricated. A tunable local maxima feature, associated with 1D v
Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2000-01-01
We present the first analysis of polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers. Strong birefringence may be obtained for modest non-uniformities in and around the core region, suggesting the use of photonic bandgap fibers as polarization maintaining components.......We present the first analysis of polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers. Strong birefringence may be obtained for modest non-uniformities in and around the core region, suggesting the use of photonic bandgap fibers as polarization maintaining components....
Marco, Pisco; Antonello, Cutolo
2012-01-01
This E-Book covers the research and the development of a novel generation of photonic devices for sensing applications. Key features of this book include a brief review of basic PhCs related design and fabrication concepts, a selection of crossover topics for the development of novel technological platforms for physical, chemical and biological sensing and a description of the main PhCs sensors to date by representing many of the exciting sensing applications that utilize photonic crystal structures.
Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2007-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.
Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer
Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2010-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...
Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing
2007-01-01
The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.
Optical gaps, mode patterns and dipole radiation in two-dimensional aperiodic photonic structures
Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Gopinath, Ashwin; Negro, Luca Dal
2009-05-01
Based on the rigorous generalized Mie theory solution of Maxwell's equations for dielectric cylinders we theoretically investigate the optical properties of two-dimensional deterministic structures based on the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro aperiodic sequences. In particular, we investigate bandgap formation and mode localization properties in aperiodic photonic structures based on the accurate calculation of their local density of states (LDOS). In addition, we explore the potential of photonic structures based on aperiodic order for the engineering of radiative rates and emission patterns in erbium-doped silicon-rich nitride photonic structures.
Spontaneous emission in two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas
2000-01-01
The properties of the radiation field in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with and without a microcavity introduced are investigated through the concept of the position-dependent photon density of states. The position-dependent rate of spontaneous radiative decay for a two-level atom with random...
Bandgaps and directional properties of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, Siegen 57068 (Germany)
2014-12-15
In this paper we propose four kinds of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattice structures and study their bandgaps and directional propagation of elastic waves. The band structures are calculated by using the finite element method. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane waves are investigated simultaneously via the three-dimensional Euler beam elements. The mechanism of the bandgap generation is analyzed by studying the vibration modes at the bandgap edges. The effects of the geometry parameters of the xy- and z-zigzag lattices on the bandgaps are investigated and discussed. Multiple complete bandgaps are found owing to the separation of the degeneracy by introducing bending arms. The bandgaps are sensitive to the geometry parameters of the periodic systems. The deformed displacement fields of the harmonic responses of a finite lattice structure subjected to harmonic loads at different positions are illustrated to show the directional wave propagation. An extension of the proposed concept to the hexagonal lattices is also presented. The research work in this paper is relevant to the practical design of cellular structures with enhanced vibro-acoustics performance.
Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.
Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;
2010-01-01
The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...
Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different dielectric materials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E D V Nagesh; G Santosh Babu; V Subramanian; V Sivasubramanian; V R K Murthy
2005-12-01
We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The selected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen are PTFE ( = 2.1), PVC ( = 2.38) and glass ( = 5.5). Using the plane-wave expansion method, proper lattice spacing is selected for each structure and material. The observed experimental results are analyzed with the help of the theoretical prediction.
Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals
Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad
2016-11-01
We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.
Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals
Barik, Sabyasachi; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad
2016-01-01
We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.
Actively doped solid core Photonic Bandgap Fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broeng, Jes; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian;
2010-01-01
Solid photonic bandgap fibers offer distributed spectral filtering with extraordinary high suppression. This opens new possibilities of artificially tailoring the gain spectrum of fibers. We present record-performance of such fibers and outline their future applications....
Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)
2003-01-01
The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.
Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals
Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed
2016-04-01
The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.
Solitons and vortices in nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals of the Kronig-Penney type.
Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A; Roeksabutr, Athikom
2011-08-29
Solitons in the model of nonlinear photonic crystals with the transverse structure based on two-dimensional (2D) quadratic- or rhombic-shaped Kronig-Penney (KP) lattices are studied by means of numerical methods. The model can also applies to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a superposition of linear and nonlinear 2D periodic potentials. The analysis is chiefly presented for the self-repulsive nonlinearity, which gives rise to several species of stable fundamental gap solitons, dipoles, four-peak complexes, and vortices in two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. Stable solitons with complex shapes are found, in particular, in the second bandgap of the KP lattice with the rhombic structure. The stability of the localized modes is analyzed in terms of eigenvalues of small perturbations, and tested in direct simulations. Depending on the value of the KP's duty cycle (DC, i.e., the ratio of the void's width to the lattice period), an internal stability boundary for the solitons and vortices may exist inside of the first bandgap. Otherwise, the families of the localized modes are entirely stable or unstable in the bandgaps. With the self-attractive nonlinearity, only unstable solitons and vortices are found in the semi-infinite gap.
Deformable two-dimensional photonic crystal slab for cavity optomechanics
Antoni, T; Briant, T; Cohadon, P -F; Heidmann, A; Braive, R; Beveratos, A; Abram, I; Gatiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Robert-Philip, I
2011-01-01
We have designed photonic crystal suspended membranes with optimized optical and mechanical properties for cavity optomechanics. Such resonators sustain vibration modes in the megahertz range with quality factors of a few thousand. Thanks to a two-dimensional square lattice of holes, their reflectivity at normal incidence at 1064 nm reaches values as high as 95%. These two features, combined with the very low mass of the membrane, open the way to the use of such periodic structures as deformable end-mirrors in Fabry-Perot cavities for the investigation of cavity optomechanical effects
Advances in photonic bandgap fiber functionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian
In order to take advantage of the many intriguing optical properties of photonic bandgap fibers, there are some technological challenges that have to be addressed. Among other things this includes transmission loss and the fibers ability to maintain field polarization. The work presented...... in this thesis addresses these two fundamental properties in both hollow core photonic crystal fibers and solid photonic bandgap fibers. Transmission loss in hollow core photonic crystal fibers is dominated by light scattering at the silica surfaces inside the fiber. In the current work it has been...... experimentally demonstrated that the minimum loss wavelength is located in the spectral region around 2000 nm, where the transmission loss in these fibers is significantly lower than in conventional solid silica fibers. Additionally it has been shown that transmission loss can be lowered roughly 40...
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates
Band structure of absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystals
van der Lem, Han; Tip, Adriaan; Moroz, Alexander
2003-06-01
The band structure for an absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystal made from cylinders consisting of a Drude material is calculated. Absorption causes the spectrum to become complex and form islands in the negative complex half-plane. The boundaries of these islands are not always formed by the eigenvalues calculated for Bloch vectors on the characteristic path, and we find a hole in the spectrum. For realistic parameter values, the real part of the spectrum is hardly influenced by absorption, typically less than 0.25%. The employed method uses a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker procedure together with analytical continuation. This results in an efficient approach that allows these band-structure calculations to be done on a Pentium III personal computer.
Two-dimensional lateral heterojunction through bandgap engineering of MoS2 via oxygen plasma
Choudhary, Nitin; Islam, Muhammad R.; Kang, Narae; Tetard, Laurene; Jung, Yeonwoong; Khondaker, Saiful I.
2016-09-01
The present study explores the structural, optical (photoluminescence (PL)), and electrical properties of lateral heterojunctions fabricated by selective exposure of mechanically exfoliated few layer two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes under oxygen (O2)-plasma. Raman spectra of the plasma exposed MoS2 flakes show a significant loss in the structural quality due to lattice distortion and creation of oxygen-containing domains in comparison to the pristine part of the same flake. The PL mapping evidences the complete quenching of peak A and B consistent with a change in the exciton states of MoS2 after the plasma treatment, indicating a significant change in its band gap properties. The electrical transport measurements performed across the pristine and the plasma-exposed MoS2 flake exhibit a gate tunable current rectification behavior with a rectification ratio up to 1.3 × 103 due to the band-offset at the pristine and plasma-exposed MoS2 interface. Our Raman, PL, and electrical transport data confirm the formation of an excellent lateral heterojunction in 2D MoS2 through its bandgap modulation via oxygen plasma.
Compact triplexer in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongliang Ren; Jianping Ma; Hao Wen; Yali Qin; Zhefu Wu; Weisheng Hu; Chun Jiang; Yaohui Jin
2011-01-01
We design a contpact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs). A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides. Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained. The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finites-difference time-domain method. The footprint of the triplexer is about 12× 9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -4O dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device ii future fiber-to-the-home networks.%@@ We design a compact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs).A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides.Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained.The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.The footprint of the triplexer is about 12×9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -40 dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device in future fiber-to-the-home networks.
Liquid Crystal photonic Bandgap Fiber Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei
In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure....... The presence of liquid crystals (LCs) in the air-holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a total internal reflection (TIR) guiding type into a photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding type. The light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-filled air-holes and the transmission spectrum...... of each LCPBG fiber. Finally, the applications for LCPBG fiber devices based on the on-chip platform design have been demonstrated in realizing microwave true-time delay and creating an electrically tunable fiber laser. Referatet mailes...
Liquid Crystal photonic Bandgap Fiber Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei
In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure....... The presence of liquid crystals (LCs) in the air-holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a total internal reflection (TIR) guiding type into a photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding type. The light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-filled air-holes and the transmission spectrum...... of each LCPBG fiber. Finally, the applications for LCPBG fiber devices based on the on-chip platform design have been demonstrated in realizing microwave true-time delay and creating an electrically tunable fiber laser. Referatet mailes...
Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene
Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Xu, Zai-Quan; Chander Dhanabalan, Sathish; Mu, Haoran; Wang, Yusheng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Pengfei; Thakur, Siddharatha; Ashrafi, Mursal; Mccoubrey, Kenneth; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Shaojuan; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang
2016-11-01
Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review. We have started the article with an overview of the electronic properties and continued by highlighting their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The production of TIs and TMDs by different methods is detailed. The following main applications focused towards device fabrication are elaborated: (1) photodetectors, (2) photovoltaic devices, (3) light-emitting devices, (4) flexible devices and (5) laser applications. The possibility of employing these 2D materials in different fields is also suggested based on their properties in the prospective part. This review will not only greatly complement the detailed knowledge of the device physics of these materials, but also provide contemporary perception for the researchers who wish to consider these materials for various applications by following the path of graphene.
Wavelength dependence of focusing properties of two-dimensional photonic quasicrystal flat lens.
Liu, Jianjun; Fan, Zhigang; Hu, Haili; Yang, Maohua; Guan, Chunying; Yuan, Libo; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong
2012-05-15
We investigated the wavelength dependence of the focusing properties of a germanium-cylinder-based two-dimensional (2D) decagonal Penrose-type photonic quasicrystal (PQC) flat lens for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We found that near the second bandgap and in the high-frequency side (between the bandgap boundary and the first light intensity peak) of the pass band, the flat lens can exhibit a focusing effect for a point light source and that the focusing wavelengths can directly be drawn from the photonic band structure. For all the focusing wavelengths, the summation of the object distance and the image distance is less than the thickness of the flat lens when the object distance is half the thickness of the flat lens. As the wavelength increases, the image distance, the image quality, and the effective refractive index of the flat lens increase, whereas the image power of the point light source decreases. The effective refractive index of the flat lens is less than -1.
Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice
Gao, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to $0.890\\pm0.001$. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated phot...
Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda
2008-02-01
We introduce a time-domain source-model technique for analysis of two-dimensional, transverse-magnetic, plane-wave scattering by a photonic crystal slab composed of a finite number of identical layers, each comprising a linear periodic array of dielectric cylinders. The proposed technique takes advantage of the periodicity of the slab by solving the problem within a unit cell of the periodic structure. A spectral analysis of the temporal behavior of the fields scattered by the slab shows a clear agreement between frequency bands where the spectral density of the transmitted energy is low and the bandgaps of the corresponding two-dimensionally infinite periodic structure. The effect of the bandwidth of the incident pulse and its center frequency on the manner it is transmitted through and reflected by the slab is studied via numerical examples.
Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic bandgap
Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A.
2017-01-01
Photonic crystals are a powerful tool for the manipulation of optical dispersion and density of states, and have thus been used in applications from photon generation to quantum sensing with nitrogen vacancy centres and atoms. The unique control provided by these media makes them a beautiful, if unexplored, playground for strong-coupling quantum electrodynamics, where a single, highly nonlinear emitter hybridizes with the band structure of the crystal. Here we demonstrate that such a hybridization can create localized cavity modes that live within the photonic bandgap, whose localization and spectral properties we explore in detail. We then demonstrate that the coloured vacuum of the photonic crystal can be employed for efficient dissipative state preparation. This work opens exciting prospects for engineering long-range spin models in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, as well as new opportunities for dissipative quantum state engineering.
Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays
Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2010-01-01
We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.
A new photonic bandgap cover for a patch antenna with a photonic bandgap substrate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林青春; 朱方明; 何赛灵
2004-01-01
A new photonic bandgap (PBG) cover for a patch antenna with a photonic bandgap substrate is introduced. The plane wave expansion method and the FDTD method were used to calculate such an antenna system. Numerical results for the input return loss, radiation pattern, surface wave, and the directivity of the antennas are presented. A comparison between the conventional patch antenna and the new PBG antenna is given. It is shown that the new PBG cover is very efficient for improving the radiation directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.
Modelling and design of complete photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha
2008-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the existence and variation of complete photonic band gap size with the introduction of asymmetry in the constituent dielectric rods with honeycomb lattices in two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC) using the plane-wave expansion (PWE) method. Two examples, one consisting of elliptical rods and the other comprising of rectangular rods in honeycomb lattices are considered with a view to estimate the design parameters for maximizing the complete photonic band gap. Further, it has been shown that complete photonic band gap size changes with the variation in the orientation angle of the constituent dielectric rods.
Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei;
2010-01-01
We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an al...
Polarizing 50micrometers Core Yb-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber
2015-02-08
properly. Recent reports demonstrate that the birefringence in photonic bandgap fibers (PBFs) can provide single-polarization operation by shifting the...add ref]. Here, we demonstrate a 50µm core Yb-doped polarizing photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for single-polarization operation 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...19-08-2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Polarizing 50µm core Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber The views, opinions and/or
Design of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Edge Emitting Laser for Photonic Integrated Circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Xiao-Tao; ZHENG Wan-Hua; REN Gang; CHEN Liang-Hui
2006-01-01
@@ An edge emitting laser based on two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs is proposed. The device consists of a square lattice microcavity, which is composed of two structures with the same period but different radius of air-holes, and a waveguide.
Air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Theis Peter
2005-01-01
Photonic bandgap fibers that guide light in an air core have attracted much interest since their first demonstration in 1999. The prospect of low-loss guiding of light in air has importance for a multitude of applications, such as data transmission, gas sensors, dispersion compensation and guiding...... of high-power pulses. The low overlap between light and glass affects both the loss and nonlinear properties of the fiber. At the same time, the strong overlap between light and air provides a mean for creating convenient gas-filled devices with extremely long interaction lengths. In this project...
Two-dimensional photon counting imaging detector based on a Vernier position sensitive anode readout
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鄢秋荣; 赵宝升; 刘永安; 杨颢; 盛立志; 韦永林
2011-01-01
A two-dimensional photon counting imaging detector based on a Vernier position sensitive anode is reported. The decode principle and design of a two-dimensional Vernier anode are introduced in detail. A photon counting imaging system was built based on a
Liquid Crystals and Photonic Bandgap Fiber Components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weirich, Johannes; Wei, Lei; Scolari, Lara
Liquid Crystal(LC)filled Photonic Crystal Fibers(PCFs) represent a promising platform for the design and the fabrication of tunable all-in fiber devices. Tunability is achieved by varying the refractive index of the LC thermally, optically or electrically. In this contribution we present important...... parts of the LC theory as well as an application of a LC infiltrated PCF subject to an external electrostatic field. The fiber is placed between two electrodes and the voltage is increased step by step leading to the reorientation of the LC in the fiber capillaries. This mechanism can be used to produce...... a swichable polarizer, and an on chip LC photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter is presented, which admits strong attenuation of one polarization direction while the other one is nearly unaffected....
Kang, Joongoo; Zhang, Lijun; Wei, Su-Huai
2016-02-18
Many important layered semiconductors, such as hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), are derived from a hexagonal lattice. A single layer of such hexagonal semiconductors generally has a direct bandgap at the high-symmetry point K, whereas it becomes an indirect, optically inactive semiconductor as the number of layers increases to two or more. Here, taking hBN and MoS2 as examples, we reveal the microscopic origin of the direct-to-indirect bandgap transition of hexagonal layered materials. Our symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations show that the bandgap transition arises from the lack of the interlayer orbital couplings for the band-edge states at K, which are inherently weak because of the crystal symmetries of hexagonal layered materials. Therefore, it is necessary to judiciously break the underlying crystal symmetries to design more optically active, multilayered semiconductors from hBN or TMDs.
Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-06-01
In this paper, bandgap and dynamic effective properties of two-dimensional elastic metamaterials with a chiral comb-like interlayer are studied by using the finite element method. The effects of the geometrical parameters of the chiral comb-like interlayer on the band edges are investigated and discussed. Combined with the analysis of the vibration modes at the band edges, equivalent spring-mass/pendulum models are developed to investigate the mechanisms of the bandgap generation. The analytically predicted results of the band edges, including the frequency where the double negative properties appear, and the numerical ones are generally in good agreement. The research findings in this paper have relevant engineering applications of the elastic metamaterials in the low frequency range.
Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei
2010-01-01
We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all......-spliced laser cavity based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065nm by applying...
Phase Transition and Superfluid of Photons and Photon Pairs in a Two-Dimensional Optical Microcavity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jian-Jun; YUAN Jian-Hui; ZHANG Jun-Pei; CHENG Ze
2012-01-01
We analyze the ground-state properties and the excitation spectrum of Bose Einstein condensates of photons and PPs in a two-dimensional optical microcavity. First, using the variational method, we discuss the ground- state phase transition of the two-component system. We also investigate the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. Moreover, by investigating the excitation spectrum, we also illustrate how the superfluid behavior of photons and PPs can be associated with the phase transition of the system.
Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.
2017-03-01
The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.
The research and progress of micro-fabrication technologies of two-dimensional photonic crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU XingSheng; ZHANG DaoZhong
2007-01-01
The novel material of photonic crystal makes it possible to control a photon, and the photonic integration will have breakthrough progress due to the application of photonic crystal. It is based on the photonic crystal device that the photonic crystal integration could be realized. Therefore, we should first investigate photonic crystal devices based on the active and the passive semiconductor materials,which may have great potential application in photonic integration. The most practical and important method to fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal is the micro-manufacture method. In this paper,we summarize and evaluate the fabrication methods of two-dimensional photonic crystal in near-infrared region, including electron beam lithography, selection of mask, dry etching, and some works of ours. This will be beneficial to the study of the photonic crystal in China.
Novel 1-D Sandwich Photonic Bandgap Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庞云波; 高葆新
2004-01-01
A sandwich photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is a novel PBG structure whose periodic lattice is buried in the middle of a substrate. Neither drilling nor suspending the substrate is required, and the integrity of the ground plane is maintained. This paper presents several modification techniques for sandwich PBG structure fabrication. The forbidden gap can be improved by adopting the chirping technique, applying the tapering technique, enlarging the periodic elements, adjusting the location of the periodic lattice in the substrate, and using different dielectric media H-shape elements. A finite difference time domain method is applied to analyze the structures. Deep and wide stopbands can be obtained using the modified sandwich structures. Experimental measurement results agree well with the theoretical analysis.
Thermalization of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a `white wall' photon box
Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2010-07-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered-corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalized two-dimensional photon gas with a freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye-filled optical microresonator, acting as a `white wall' box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon-number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors provide both an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example of the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.
Slow Light by Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Chao; HUANG Yan; MAO Xiao-Yu; CUI Kai-Yu; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De
2009-01-01
A simple and effective way to measure the group velocity of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWGs) is developed by using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A PCWG with perfect air-bridge structure is fabricated and slow light with group velocity slower than c/80 is demonstrated.
Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritar, Tuomo; Tuominen, J.; Ludvigsen, Hanne
2004-01-01
We demonstrate the high sensitivity of gas sensing using a novel air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber. The bandgap fiber is spliced to a standard single-mode fiber at the input end for easy coupling and filled with gas through the other end placed in a vacuum chamber. The technique is applied...
Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)
2000-01-01
By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.
Manipulating full photonic band gaps in two dimensional birefringent photonic crystals.
Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Verma, Prabhat; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi
2008-09-15
The probability to realize a full photonic band gap in two-dimensional birefringent photonic crystals can be readily manipulated by introducing symmetry reduction or air holes in the crystal elements. The results lie in either creation of new band gaps or enlargement of existing band gaps. In particular, a combination of the two processes produces an effect much stronger than a simple summation of their individual contributions. Materials with both relatively low refractive index (rutile) and high refractive index (tellurium) were considered. The combined effect of introduction of symmetry reduction and air holes resulted in a maximum enlargement of the band gaps by 8.4% and 20.2%, respectively, for the two materials.
Large-area single-mode photonic bandgap vcsels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Gregersen, N.; Bischoff, S.;
2003-01-01
We demonstrate that the photonic bandgap effect can be used to control the modes of large area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. We obtain more than 20 dB side mode suppression ratios in a 10-micron area device.......We demonstrate that the photonic bandgap effect can be used to control the modes of large area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. We obtain more than 20 dB side mode suppression ratios in a 10-micron area device....
Transmission properties of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Falk, Charlotte Ijeoma; Hald, Jan; Petersen, Jan C.
2010-01-01
Variations in optical transmission of four types of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers are measured as a function of laser frequency. These variations influence the potential accuracy of gas sensors based on molecular spectroscopy in hollow-core fibers.......Variations in optical transmission of four types of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers are measured as a function of laser frequency. These variations influence the potential accuracy of gas sensors based on molecular spectroscopy in hollow-core fibers....
Characteristics of local photonic state density in an infinite two-dimensional photonic crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Yun-Song; Wang Xue-Hua; Gu Ben-Yuan; Wang Fu-He
2005-01-01
The local density of photonic states (LDPS) of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) composed of rotated square-pillars in a 2D square lattice is calculated in terms of the plane-wave expansion method in a combination with the point group theory. The calculation results show that the LDPS strongly depends on the spatial positions.The variations of the LDPS as functions of the radial coordinate and frequency exhibit "mountain chain" structures with sharp peaks. The LDPS with large value spans a finite area and falls abruptly down to small value at the position corresponding to the interfaces between two different refractive index materials. The larger/lower LDPS occurs inward the lower/larger dielectric-constant medium. This feature can be well interpreted by the continuity of electricdisplacement vector at the interface. In the frequency range of the pseudo-PBG (photonic band gap), the LDPS keeps very low value over the whole Wiger-Seitz cell. It indicates that the spontaneous emission in 2D PCs cannot be prohibited completely, but it can be inhibited intensively when the resonate frequency falls into the pseudo-PBG.
Properties of photonic bandgap in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yi; WANG Qi
2006-01-01
Properties of photonic band gap and light propagation in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal have been studied with the optical transfer matrix method.We mainly analyze the relation of photonic band-gap property with the arrangement of components,the refractive index and the geometrical thickness.In this study,the methods to change the width and the location of the existing photonic band-gaps in multicomponent photonic crystal are proposed.
Effect of Dielectric Constant Contrast and Filling Factor to Photonic Bandgap
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The effect of dielectric constant contrast and the filling factor to the photonic bandgap in a 2-D square lattice photonic crystal is discussed. The location, width and number of photonic bandgap can be modulated.
High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Photonic-Bandgap Materials
Dowling, Jonathan; Lee, Hwang
2005-01-01
Solar photovoltaic cells would be designed to exploit photonic-bandgap (PBG) materials to enhance their energy-conversion efficiencies, according to a proposal. Whereas the energy-conversion efficiencies of currently available solar cells are typically less than 30 percent, it has been estimated that the energy-conversion efficiencies of the proposed cells could be about 50 percent or possibly even greater. The primary source of inefficiency of a currently available solar cell is the mismatch between the narrow wavelength band associated with the semiconductor energy gap (the bandgap) and the broad wavelength band of solar radiation. This mismatch results in loss of power from both (1) long-wavelength photons, defined here as photons that do not have enough energy to excite electron-hole pairs across the bandgap, and (2) short-wavelength photons, defined here as photons that excite electron- hole pairs with energies much above the bandgap. It follows that a large increase in efficiency could be obtained if a large portion of the incident solar energy could be funneled into a narrow wavelength band corresponding to the bandgap. In the proposed approach, such funneling would be effected by use of PBG materials as intermediaries between the Sun and photovoltaic cells.
Degenerate four wave mixing in solid core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole
2008-01-01
Degenerate four wave mixing in solid core photonic bandgap fibers is studied theoretically. We demonstrate the possibility of generating parametric gain across bandgaps, and propose a specific design suited for degenerate four wave mixing when pumping at 532nmm. the possibility of tuning the effi...... the efficency of the parametric gain by varying the temperature is also considered. The sults are verified by numerical simultations of pulse propagation....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.
2007-01-01
Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...
Two-dimensional photonic crystals from semiconductor material with polymer filled holes
Van der Heijden, R.; Kjellander, C.; Carlström, C.-F.; Snijders, J.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Bastiaansen, K.; Broer, D.; Karouta, F.; Nötzel, R.; Van der Drift, E.
2006-01-01
Polymer filling of the air holes of indiumphosphide based two-dimensional photonic crystals is reported. The filling is performed by infiltration with a liquid monomer and solidification of the infill in situ by thermal polymerization. Complete hole filling is obtained with infiltration under ambien
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper;
2014-01-01
uses no external excitation and determines the quasi-normal modes as unity eigenvalues of the cavity roundtrip matrix. We demonstrate the method and the quasi-normal modes for two types of two-dimensional photonic crystal structures, and discuss the quasi-normal mode eld distributions and Q...
InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers
Van der Heijden, R.; Carlström, C.F.; Snijders, J.A.P.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Karouta, F.; Nötzel, R.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Van der Drift, E.
2006-01-01
Polymer filling of the air holes of indium-phosphide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals is reported. After infiltration of the holes with a liquid monomer and solidification of the infill in situ by thermal polymerization, complete filling is proven using scanning electron microscopy. Optical t
Band Gap Computation of Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal for High Index Contrast Grating Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gagandeep Kaur
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Two Dimensional Photonic Crystal (PHc is convenient type of PHc, It refers to the fact that the dielectric is periodic in Two directions. The study of photonic structure by a simulation method is extremely momentous. At optical frequencies the optical density contained by two dimensional PHc changes periodically. They have the property to strong effect the propagation of light waves at these optical frequencies. A typical linearization method which solves the common nonlinear Eigen values difficulties has been used to achieve structures of the photonic band. There are two method plane wave expansion method (PWE and Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD. These Methods are most widely used for band gap calculation of PHc’s. FDTD Method has more smoothness and directness and can be explored effortlessly for simulation of the field circulation inside the photonic structure than PWE method so we have used FDTD Method for Two dimensional PHc’s calculation. In simulation of Two Dimensional band structures, silicon material has 0.543nm lattice constant and 1.46refractive index.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.
2007-01-01
Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing....
Ultrasensitive twin-core photonic bandgap fiber refractive index sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Scott Wu; Town, Graham; Bang, Ole
2009-01-01
We propose a microfluidic refractive index sensor based on new polymer twin-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF). The sensor can achieve ultrahigh detection limit, i.e. >1.4times10-7RIU refractive index unit (RIU), by measuring the coupling wavelength shift.......We propose a microfluidic refractive index sensor based on new polymer twin-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF). The sensor can achieve ultrahigh detection limit, i.e. >1.4times10-7RIU refractive index unit (RIU), by measuring the coupling wavelength shift....
Compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarizer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm.......An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm....
High extinction ratio bandgap of photonic crystals in LNOI wafer
Zhang, Shao-Mei; Cai, Lu-Tong; Jiang, Yun-Peng; Jiao, Yang
2017-02-01
A high-extinction-ratio bandgap of air-bridge photonic crystal slab, in the near infrared, is reported. These structures were patterned in single-crystalline LiNbO3 film bonded to SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate by focused ion beam. To improve the vertical confinement of light, the SiO2 layer was removed by 3.6% HF acid. Compared with photonic crystals sandwiched between SiO2 and air, the structures suspending in air own a robust photonic bandgap and high transmission efficiency at valence band region. The measured results are in good agreement with numerically computed transmission spectra by finite-difference time-domain method. The air-bridge photonic crystal waveguides were formed by removing one line holes. We reveal experimentally the guiding characteristics and calculate the theoretical results for photonic crystal waveguides in LiNbO3 film.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2016-01-15
The properties of omnidirectional photonic band gaps (OBGs) in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) are theoretically investigated by the modified plane wave expansion method. In the simulation, we consider the off-plane incident wave vector. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the triangular lattices filled with the nonmagnetized plasma cylinders in the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric background. The calculated results show that the proposed 2D PPCs possess a flatbands region and the OBGs. Compared with the OBGs in the conventional 2D dielectric-air PCs, it can be obtained more easily and enlarged in the 2D PPCs with a similar structure. The effects of configurational parameters of the PPCs on the OBGs also are studied. The simulated results demonstrate that the locations of OBGs can be tuned easily by manipulating those parameters except for changing plasma collision frequency. The achieved OBGs can be enlarged by optimizations. The OBGs of two novel configurations of PPCs with different cross sections are computed for a comparison. Both configurations have the advantages of obtaining the larger OBGs compared with the conventional configuration, since the symmetry of 2D PPCs is broken by different sizes of periodically inserted plasma cylinders or connected by the embedded plasma cylinders with thin veins. The analysis of the results shows that the bandwidths of OBGs can be tuned by changing geometric and physical parameters of such two PPCs structures. The theoretical results may open a new scope for designing the omnidirectional reflectors or mirrors based on the 2D PPCs.
Negative refraction and focusing of electromagnetic wave through two-dimensional photonic crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiang-dong
2006-01-01
The negative refraction of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals was recently demonstrated experimentally,and the physical properties were analyzed.Microsuperlenses based on two-dimensional photonic crystals were designed and the subwavelength images were observed.In this review,after providing a brief history of the research related to the above phenomena,we will summarize our research works in this field including the method of creating a negative refraction region,generating an absolute negative refraction,the focusing of unpolarized electromagnetic waves,and the effect of interface and disorder on the image by the two-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens.The discussion on the negative refraction and the focusing by high symmetric quasicrystals is also presented.
Bessel-Modal Method for Finite-Height Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Jun-Feng; HUANG Sheng-Ye; WANG Dong-Sheng
2005-01-01
@@ By applying the dyadic Green function, the dispersion relation of two-dimensional photonic crystal can be ex pressed as the cylindrical wave expansions of eigenmodes. With the aid of Green's theorem, the plane-wavecoefficients of eigenmodes are reconstructed and employed to formulate the scattering matrix of finite-height twodimensional photonic crystal. These operations make the convergence rate very rapid, and reduce the dimension of the scattering matrix. As a demonstration, we present the transmission and electromagnetic field distributions for an InGaAsIn photonic crystal, and investigate their convergence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshihiro Isobe
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The photonic bands of various TiO2 2D photonic crystals, i.e., cylindrical, square and hexagonal columns connected with/without walls and filled with acetonitrile, were investigated from the perspective of dye-sensitized solar cells. The finite-difference time-domain methods revealed that two-dimensional (2D photonic crystals with rods connected with walls composed of TiO2 and electrolytes had complete photonic band gaps under specific conditions. This optimally designed bandgap reaches a large Δω/ωmid value, 1.9%, in a triangular array of square rods connected with walls, which is the largest complete 2D bandgap thus far reported for a photochemical system. These discoveries would promote the photochemical applications of photonic crystals.
Two-dimensional ring-type photonic crystals in the near-infrared region
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Xing-Sheng; Wang Yi-Quan; Han Shou-Zhen; Cheng Bing-Ying; Zhang Dao-Zhong
2004-01-01
We propose a ring photonic crystal working in the near infrared region, where the air holes in the background material GaAs are arranged to form a series of rings. We find that the band gaps do not depend on the incident direction,and only a small number of rows are needed to create a frequency gap in the transmission spectrum. The transmission spectra of both P and S polarizations show that there is a complete bandgap in the hexagonal ring photonic crystals and the ratio of gap width to mid-gap frequency is as high as 11%.
Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band-gap
Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew
Quantum electrodynamics predicts the localization of light around an atom in photonic band-gap (PBG) medium or photonic crystal. Here we report the first experimental realization of the strong coupling between a single artificial atom and an one dimensional PBG medium using superconducting circuits. In the photonic transport measurement, we observe an anomalous Lamb shift and a large band-edge avoided crossing when the artificial atom frequency is tuned across the band-edge. The persistent peak within the band-gap indicates the single photon bound state. Furthermore, we study the resonance fluorescence of this bound state, again demonstrating the breakdown of the Born-Markov approximation near the band-edge. This novel architecture can be directly generalized to study many-body quantum electrodynamics and to construct more complicated spin chain models.
Zero- n bar band gap in two-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystals
Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Porras-Montenegro, N.
2015-04-01
We have theoretically studied metamaterial photonic crystals (PCs) composed by air and double negative (DNG) material. Numerical data were obtained by means of the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, with results indicating the possibility for the existence of the zero- n bar non-Bragg gap in two-dimensional metamaterial PCs, which has been previously observed only in one-dimensional photonic superlattices. Validity of the present FDTD algorithm for the study of one-dimensional metamaterial PCs is shown by comparing with results for the transmittance spectra obtained by means of the well known transfer matrix method (TMM). In the case of two-dimensional metamaterial PCs, we have calculated the photonic band structure (PBS) in the limiting case of a one-dimensional photonic superlattice and for a nearly one-dimensional PC, showing a very similar dispersion relation. Finally, we show that due to the strong electromagnetic field localization on the constitutive rods, the zero- n bar non-Bragg gap may only exist in two-dimensional systems under strict geometrical conditions.
Nonlinear two-dimensional terahertz photon echo and rotational spectroscopy in the gas phase
Lu, Jian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Fleischer, Sharly; Nelson, Keith A
2016-01-01
Ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy utilizes correlated multiple light-matter interactions for retrieving dynamic features that may otherwise be hidden under the linear spectrum. Its extension to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, where a rich variety of material degrees of freedom reside, remains an experimental challenge. Here we report ultrafast two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy of gas-phase molecular rotors at room temperature. Using time-delayed terahertz pulse pairs, we observe photon echoes and other nonlinear signals resulting from molecular dipole orientation induced by three terahertz field-dipole interactions. The nonlinear time-domain orientation signals are mapped into the frequency domain in two-dimensional rotational spectra which reveal J-state-resolved nonlinear rotational dynamics. The approach enables direct observation of correlated rotational transitions and may reveal rotational coupling and relaxation pathways in the ground electronic and vibrational state.
Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits
Cadman, D A
2003-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz...
Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials
Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1998-03-01
We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.
Mode Division Multiplexing Exploring Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Jing; Lyngso, Jens Kristian; Leick, Lasse
2013-01-01
We review our recent exploratory investigations on mode division multiplexing using hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs). Compared with traditional multimode fibers, HC-PBGFs have several attractive features such as ultra-low nonlinearities, low-loss transmission window around 2 µm etc....
Liquid Crystal Photonic bandgap Fibers: Modeling and Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weirich, Johannes
In this PhD thesis an experimental and numerical investigation of liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibers (LCPBGs) is presented. A simulation scheme for modeling LCPBG devices including electrical tunability is presented. New experimental techniques, boundary coating and the applicatio...
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong;
2005-01-01
Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...
Design of photonic bandgap fibers by topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Feurer, Thomas
2010-01-01
A method based on topology optimization is presented to design the cross section of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for minimizing energy loss by material absorption. The optical problem is modeled by the timeharmonic wave equation and solved with the finite element program Comsol Multiphysics...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Wen-Xing; ZHANG Yan; SHI Jun-Jie
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a one-dimensional periodic dielectric background is proposed. The photonic band modulation effects due to the periodic background are investigated based on the plane wave expansion method. We find that periodic modulation of the dielectric background greatly alters photonic band structures, especially for the E-polarization modes. The number, width and position of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) sensitively depend on the structure parameters (the layer thicknesses and dielectric constants) of the one-dimensional periodic background.
Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2002-12-31
This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.
Photonic bandgap fibers: theory and experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou
2000-01-01
to localize modes in the core region by the photonic band gap (PBG) effect. The photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) were first proposed for a high-index-core region, surrounded by a periodic dielectric structure consisting of a matrix of microscopic holes placed in a silica-glass-base material....
Dispersion properties of photonic Bandgap Fibres
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil; Søndergaard, Thomas
1999-01-01
Dispersion properties of new low-index core photonic crystal fibres are presented. Both wideband nearzero despersion and very large dispersion is shown possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.......Dispersion properties of new low-index core photonic crystal fibres are presented. Both wideband nearzero despersion and very large dispersion is shown possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range....
Two-dimensional photonic crystals from semiconductor material with polymer filled holes
van der Heijden, Rob; Kjellander, Charlotte; Carlström, Carl-Fredrik; Snijders, Juri; van der Heijden, Rob W.; Bastiaansen, Kees; Broer, Dick; Karouta, Fouad; Nötzel, Richard; van der Drift, Emile; Salemink, Huub W. M.
2006-04-01
Polymer filling of the air holes of indiumphosphide based two-dimensional photonic crystals is reported. The filling is performed by infiltration with a liquid monomer and solidification of the infill in situ by thermal polymerization. Complete hole filling is obtained with infiltration under ambient pressure. This conclusion is based both on cross-sectional scanning electron microscope inspection of the filled samples as well as on optical transmission measurements.
Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Trompeter, Henrike; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Neshev, Dragomir N; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Pertsch, Thomas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk
2006-02-10
We report on the first experimental observation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional periodic systems. We study the propagation of an optical beam in a square lattice superimposed on a refractive index ramp. We observe oscillations of the beam inside the first Brilloin zone and tunneling of light from the first to the higher-order bands of the lattice band gap spectrum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PU Yi-Ying; LIANG Guan-Quan; MAO Wei-Dong; DONG Jian-Wen; WANG He-Zhou
2007-01-01
We demonstrate a single-exposure holographic fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal witn roundband gaps exist in this structure.Our experimental results show that holographic lithography can be used to fabricate photonic crystals not only with various lattice structures but also with various kinds of structures of the atoms,to obtain absolute band gaps or a particular band gap structure.Furthermore,the single-exposure holographic method not only makes the fabrication process simple and convenient but also makes the structures of the atoms more perfect.
Vyas, Vivek M.; Panigrahi, Prasanta. K.; Banerji, J.
2013-01-01
A system of two dimensional photon gas has recently been realized experimentally. It is pointed out that this setup can be used to observe a universal breathing mode of photon gas. It is shown that a modification in the experimental setup would open up a possibility of observing the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in such a system. It is shown that the universal jump in the superfluid density of light in the output channel can be used as an unambiguous signature for the...
Vyas, Vivek M; Banerji, J
2013-01-01
A system of two dimensional photon gas has recently been realized experimentally. It is pointed out that this setup can be used to observe a universal breathing mode of photon gas. It is shown that a modification in the experimental setup would open up a possibility of observing the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in such a system. It is shown that the universal jump in the superfluid density of light in the output channel can be used as an unambiguous signature for the experimental verification of the BKT transition.
Modeling of pressure sensors based on two-dimensional photonic crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuehui XIONG; Ping LU; Deming LIU
2009-01-01
A pressure sensor based on the two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) has been proposed. Under the condition of different pressure, the photonic band gap of the sensor has been studied by means of the plane wave expansion method (PWM). The results show that there is a good linear relation between the cutoff wavelength and the pressure. Apart from being easily implemented, the presented 2D PC pressure sensor holds many characteristics such as high-pressure sensitivity and convenience in achieving demanded pressure range.
Tunable Goos-Haenchen shift for self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matthews, Aaron [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)], E-mail: afm124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au; Kivshar, Yuri [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2008-04-21
We present finite-difference time-domain studies of the Goos-Haenchen effect observed at the reflection of a self-collimated beam from the surface of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. We describe a method of tuning the shift of the reflected beam in photonic crystals through the modification of the surface, first structurally, as a change in the radius of the surface rods, and then all-optically, with the addition of nonlinear material to the surface layer. We demonstrate all-optical tunability and intensity-dependent control of the beam shift.
Selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals
Li, Yan
2013-01-01
We developed a selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals. The rule is derived from a perturbation theory and states that a non-zero, mode-coupling integral between the degenerate Bloch states guarantees a Dirac-like point, regardless of the type of the degeneracy. In fact, the selection rule can also be determined from the symmetry of the Bloch states even without computing the integral. Thus, the existence of Dirac-like points can be quickly and conclusively predicted for various photonic crystals independent of wave polarization, lattice structure, and composition. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Biased liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard
2008-01-01
We simulate the director structure of all capillaries in a biased photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with liquid crystals. Various mode simulations for different capillaries show the necessity to consider the entire structure.......We simulate the director structure of all capillaries in a biased photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with liquid crystals. Various mode simulations for different capillaries show the necessity to consider the entire structure....
Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications
Kuriki, Ken; Shapira, Ofer; Hart, Shandon D.; Benoit, Gilles; Kuriki, Yuka; Viens, Jean F.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel
2004-04-01
Here we report the fabrication of hollow-core cylindrical photonic bandgap fibers with fundamental photonic bandgaps at near-infrared wavelengths, from 0.85 to 2.28 μm. In these fibers the photonic bandgaps are created by an all-solid multilayer composite meso-structure having a photonic crystal lattice period as small as 260 nm, individual layers below 75 nm and as many as 35 periods. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, the smallest period lengths and highest period counts reported to date for hollow PBG fibers. The fibers are drawn from a multilayer preform into extended lengths of fiber. Light is guided in the fibers through a large hollow core that is lined with an interior omnidirectional dielectric mirror. We extend the range of materials that can be used in these fibers to include poly(ether imide) (PEI) in addition to the arsenic triselenide (As2Se3) glass and poly(ether sulfone) (PES) that have been used previously. Further, we characterize the refractive indices of these materials over a broad wavelength range (0.25 - 15 μm) and incorporated the measured optical properties into calculations of the fiber photonic band structure and a preliminary loss analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yan; SHI Jun-Jie
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional photonic crystal model with a periodic square dielectric background is proposed.The photonic band modulation effects due to the two-dimensional periodic background are investigated jn detail.It is found that periodic modulation of the dielectric background greatly alters photonic band structures,especially for the Epolarization modes.The number,width and position of the photonic band gaps sensitively depend on the dielectric constants of the two-dimensional periodic background.Complete band gaps are found,and the dependence of the widths of these gaps on the structural and material parameters of the two alternating rods/holes is studied.
Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara
2009-01-01
A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....
Electrially tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haakestad, Magnus W.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal;
2005-01-01
Tunable bandgap guidance is obtained by filling the holes of a solid core photonic crystal fiber with a nematic liquid crystal and applying an electric field. The response times are measured and found to be in the millisecond range.......Tunable bandgap guidance is obtained by filling the holes of a solid core photonic crystal fiber with a nematic liquid crystal and applying an electric field. The response times are measured and found to be in the millisecond range....
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Painter, Oskar
2010-07-05
In this paper we study and design quasi-2D optomechanical crystals, waveguides, and resonant cavities formed from patterned slabs. Two-dimensional periodicity allows for in-plane pseudo-bandgaps in frequency where resonant optical and mechanical excitations localized to the slab are forbidden. By tailoring the unit cell geometry, we show that it is possible to have a slab crystal with simultaneous optical and mechanical pseudo-bandgaps, and for which optical waveguiding is not compromised. We then use these crystals to design optomechanical cavities in which strongly interacting, co-localized photonic-phononic resonances occur. A resonant cavity structure formed by perturbing a ;;linear defect' waveguide of optical and acoustic waves in a silicon optomechanical crystal slab is shown to support an optical resonance at wavelength lambda(0) approximately 1.5 mum and a mechanical resonance of frequency omega(m)/2pi approximately 9.5 GHz. These resonances, due to the simultaneous pseudo-bandgap of the waveguide structure, are simulated to have optical and mechanical radiation-limited Q-factors greater than 10(7). The optomechanical coupling of the optical and acousticresonances in this cavity due to radiation pressure is also studied, with a quantum conversion rate, corresponding to the scattering rate of a single cavity photon via a single cavity phonon, calculated to be g/2pi = 292 kHz.
Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-08-18
We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.
Study on electro-optic properties of two-dimensional PLZT photonic crystal band structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Kai; WU Xiao-gang; WANG Mei-ting
2011-01-01
The band characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) photonic cystals are analyzed by finite element method. The electro-optic effect of PLZT can cause the refractive index change when it is imposed by the applied electric field, and the band structure of 2D photonic crystals based on PLZT varies accordingly. The effect of the applied electric field on the structural characteristics of the first and second band gaps in 2D PLZT photonic crystals is analyzed in detail. And the results show that for each band gap, the variations of start wavelength, cut-off wavelength and bandwidth are proportional to quadratic of the electric field.
Diaz-Valencia, B. F.; Calero, J. M.
2017-02-01
In this work, we use the plane wave expansion method to calculate photonic band structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals which consist of high-temperature superconducting hollow rods arranged in a triangular lattice. The variation of the photonic band structure with respect to both, the inner radius and the system temperature, is studied, taking into account temperatures below the critical temperature of the superconductor in the low frequencies regime and assuming E polarization of the incident light. Permittivity contrast and nontrivial geometry of the hollow rods lead to the appearance of new band gaps as compared with the case of solid cylinders. Such band gaps can be modulated by means of the inner radius and system temperature.
Brûlé, Yoann; Gralak, Boris
2015-01-01
Numerical calculation of modes in dispersive and absorptive systems is performed using the finite element method. The dispersion is tackled in the frame of an extension of Maxwell's equations where auxiliary fields are added to the electromagnetic field. This method is applied to multi-domain cavities and photonic crystals including Drude and Drude-Lorentz metals. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions for simple cavities and to previous results of the literature for photonic crystals, showing excellent agreement. The advantages of the developed method lie on the versatility of the finite element method regarding geometries, and in sparing the use of tedious complex poles research algorithm. Hence the complex spectrum of resonances of non-hermitian operators and dissipative systems, like two-dimensional photonic crystal made of absorbing Drude metal, can be investigated in detail. The method is used to reveal unexpected features of their complex band structures.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal sensors for visual detection of lectin concanavalin A.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Cai, Zhongyu; Kwak, Daniel H; Liu, Xinyu; Asher, Sanford A
2014-09-16
We fabricated a two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal lectin sensing material that utilizes light diffraction from a 2-D colloidal array attached to the surface of a hydrogel that contains mannose carbohydrate groups. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions create hydrogel cross-links that shrink the hydrogel volume and decrease the 2-D particle spacing. This mannose containing 2-D photonic crystal sensor detects Concanavalin A (Con A) through shifts in the 2-D diffraction wavelength. Con A concentrations can be determined by measuring the diffracted wavelength or visually determined from the change in the sensor diffraction color. The concentrations are easily monitored by measuring the 2-D array Debye ring diameter. Our observed detection limit for Con A is 0.02 mg/mL (0.7 μM). The 2-D photonic crystal sensors are completely reversible and can monitor Con A solution concentration changes.
Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides
Dulkeith, E; Vlasov, Y A; Dulkeith, Eric; Nab, Sharee J. Mc; Vlasov, Yurii A.
2005-01-01
We report on systematic experimental mapping of the transmission properties of two-dimensional silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides for a broad range of hole radii, slab thicknesses and waveguide lengths for both TE and TM polarizations. Detailed analysis of numerous spectral features allows a direct comparison of experimental data with 3D plane wave and finite-difference time-domain calculations. We find, counter-intuitively, that the bandwidth for low-loss propagation completely vanishes for structural parameters where the photonic band gap is maximized. Our results demonstrate that, in order to maximize the bandwidth of low-loss waveguiding, the hole radius must be significantly reduced. While the photonic band gap considerably narrows, the bandwidth of low-loss propagation in PhC waveguides is increased up to 125nm with losses as low as 8$\\pm$2dB/cm.
Two-dimensional photon counting imaging detector based on a Vernier position sensitive anode readout
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Qiu-Rong; ZHAO Bao-Sheng; LIU Yong-An; YANG Hao; SHENG Li-Zhi; WEI Yong-Lin
2011-01-01
A two-dimensional photon counting imaging detector based on a Vernier position sensitive anode is reported. The decode principle and design of a two-dimensionai Vernier anode axe introduced in detail. A photon counting imaging system was built based on a Vernier anode. The image of very weak optical radiation can be reconstructed by image processing in a period of integration time. The resolution is superior to 100 μm according to the resolution test. The detector may realize the imaging of very weak particle flow of high- energy photons, electrons and ions, so it can be used for high-energy physics, deep space exploration, spectral measurement and bio-luminescence detection.
Simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical crystal slabs.
Mohammadi, Saeed; Eftekhar, Ali A; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Adibi, Ali
2010-04-26
We demonstrate planar structures that can provide simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical (or phoxonic) crystal slabs. Different phoxonic crystal (PxC) structures, composed of square, hexagonal (honeycomb), or triangular arrays of void cylindrical holes embedded in silicon (Si) slabs with a finite thickness, are investigated. Photonic band gap (PtBG) maps and the complete phononic band gap (PnBG) maps of PxC slabs with different radii of the holes and thicknesses of the slabs are calculated using a three-dimensional plane wave expansion code. Simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps with band gap to midgap ratios of more than 10% are shown to be readily obtainable with practical geometries in both square and hexagonal lattices, but not for the triangular lattice.
Two dimensional tunable photonic crystal defect based drop filter at communication wavelength
D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent
2017-07-01
We propose a two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) based drop filter, at communication wavelength with more than 90% transmission. The filtering is achieved by introducing two line defects and three point defects in a two dimensional triangular array of ferroelectric rods in air. Using the electro-optic property of the ferroelectric, about 32 nm tuning in the resonance wavelength is obtained. For the calculation of transmission, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed. The operating frequency range is explored via the band structure which is obtained by the implementation of plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The influence of the radius of various rods on the filter wavelength as well as efficiency is also analyzed. The different possible configurations of this filter are also considered.
Low Loss Plastic Terahertz Photonic Band-Gap Fibres
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GENG You-Fu; TAN Xiao-Ling; ZHONG Kai; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan
2008-01-01
We report a numerical investigation on terahertz wave propagation in plastic photonic band-gap fibres which are characterized by a 19-unit-cell air core and hexagonal air holes with rounded corners in cladding. Using the finite element method, the leakage loss and absorption loss are calculated and the transmission properties are analysed.The lowest loss of 0.268 dB/m is obtained. Numerical results show that the fibres could liberate the constraints of background materials beyond the transparency region in terahertz wave band, and efficiently minimize the effect of absorption by background materials, which present great advantage of plastic photonic band-gap fibres in long distance terahertz delivery.
The density matrix method in photonic bandgap and antiferromagnetic materials
Barrie, Scott B.
In this thesis, a theory for dispersive polaritonic bandgap (DPBG) and photonic bandgap (PBG) materials is developed. An ensemble of multi-level nanoparticles, such as non-interacting two-, three- and four-level atoms doped in DPBG and PBG materials is considered. The optical properties of these materials such as spontaneous emission, line broadening, fluorescence and narrowing of the natural linewidth have been studied using the density matrix method. Numerical simulations for these properties have been performed for the DPBG materials SiC and InAs, and for a PBG material with a 20 percent gap-to-midgap ratio. When a three-level nanoparticle is doped into a DPBG material, it is predicted that one or two bound states exist when one or both resonance energies, respectively, lie in the bandgap. It is shown when a resonance energy lies below the bandgap, its spectral density peak weakens and broadens as the resonance energy increases to the lower band edge. For the first time it is predicted that when a nanoparticle's resonance energy lies above the bandgap, its spectral density peak weakens and broadens as the resonance energy increases. A relation is also found between spectral structure and gap-to-midgap ratios. The dressed states of a two-level atom doped into a DPBG material under the influence of an intense monochromatic laser field are examined. The splitting of the dressed state energies is calculated, and it is predicted that the splitting depends on the polariton density of states and the Rabi frequency of laser field. The fluoresence is also examined, and for the first time two distinct control processes are found for the transition from one peak to three peaks. It was previously known that the Rabi frequency controlled the Stark effect, but this thesis predicts that the local of the peak with respect to the optical bandgap can cause a transition from one to three peaks even with a weak Rabi frequency. The transient linewidth narrowing of PBG crystal
Wen, Feng; David, Sylvain; Checoury, Xavier; El Kurdi, Moustafa; Boucaud, Philippe
2008-08-04
Photonic crystals exhibiting a photonic band gap in both TE and TM polarizations are particularly interesting for a better control of light confinement. The simultaneous achievement of large band gaps in both polarizations requires to reduce the symmetry properties of the photonic crystal lattice. In this letter, we propose two different designs of two-dimensional photonic crystals patterned in high refractive index thin silicon slabs. These slabs are known to limit the opening of photonic band gaps for both polarizations. The proposed designs exhibit large complete photonic band gaps: the first photonic crystal structure is based on the honey-comb lattice with two different hole radii and the second structure is based on a "tri-ellipse" pattern in a triangular lattice. Photonic band gap calculations show that these structures offer large complete photonic band gaps deltaomega/omega larger than 10% between first and second photonic bands. This figure of merit is obtained with single-mode slab waveguides and is not restricted to modes below light cone.
Treating temperature effect on bandgap in polymer opal photonic crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The optical reflective spectra and microstruc- tures of polystyrene opal photonic crystals treated with dif- ferent temperatures have been investigated. With tempera- ture increasing, the polystyrene spheres in opal structure transform to dodecahedrons, and the peak of reflective spec- trum moves to shorter wavelength. The experiment result testifies the effect of the effective refractive index and the filling ratio to the bandgap position, and it corresponds to the theoretical simulative result.
Feasibility of detecting single atoms using photonic bandgap cavities
Lev, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Kartik; Barclay, Paul; Painter, Oskar; Mabuchi, Hideo
2004-01-01
We propose an atom-cavity chip that combines laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms with magnetic microtraps and waveguides to deliver a cold atom to the mode of a fiber taper coupled photonic bandgap (PBG) cavity. The feasibility of this device for detecting single atoms is analyzed using both a semi-classical treatment and an unconditional master equation approach. Single-atom detection seems achievable in an initial experiment involving the non-deterministic delivery of weakly trapped...
The micro-cavity of the two dimensional plasmonic photonic crystal
Tong, Kai; Zhang, Zhenguo; Yang, Qing
2015-02-01
In this manuscript, we proposed a novel and effective two dimensional hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal micro-cavity structure to confine the surface plasmon to a sub-wavelength scale mode volume and obtain a relatively high quality factor. By introducing a single-cell defect at the two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal layer, the defect cavity has been established to provide sub-wavelength scale plasmonic mode localization within the hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal structure TM band gap. Comprehensive analysis methods of three-dimensional finite difference time domain method (3D-FDTD) have been used to analyze the characteristics of the micro-cavity of this hybrid structure, including the effects of the radius of the nearest neighbor air holes around the defect, the cavity length of the defect and the thickness of the gain medium on the features of the micro-cavity. By using a quantum dots (QDs)-polymer as a gain medium for the low index thin layer, a gain threshold as low as gth = 534 cm-1 can be achieved with such structures, and deep sub-wavelength mode volume of 0.00201 (λ/n)3 is also obtained.
Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil;
1999-01-01
Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...... technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction...
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-05-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated.
Band gap of two-dimensional fiber-air photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Shu, E-mail: yangshu5678@163.com; Li, Masha
2016-04-15
A two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) composed of textile fiber and air is initially discussed in this paper. Textile materials are so called soft materials, which are different from the previous PCs composed of rigid materials. The plain wave expansion method is used to calculate band structure of different PCs by altering component properties or structural parameters. Results show that the dielectric constant of textile fibers, fiber filling ratio and lattice arrangement are effective factors which influence PCs' band gap. Yet lattice constant and fiber diameter make inconspicuous influence on the band gap feature.
Transmission Properties of W3 Y-Branch Filters in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Slabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Cheng; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong; REN Kun; LIU Rong-Juan; TAO Hai-Hua; FENG Shuai; XIONG Zhi-Gang; LIU Ya-Zhao; TIAN Jie; LI Zhi-Yuan
2007-01-01
A highly efficient W3 Y-branch filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with triangular lattice of air holes is designed and fabricated, and its transmission properties are measured. By accurately adjusting the size of the resonant cavities, the minimum wavelength spacing of 7nm between two channels is realized. The corresponding resonant wavelengths of the two cavities agree well with the calculated ones. This implies that this kind of filter may be promising in integrated wavelength division multiplexing system.
T-shaped polarization beam splitter based on two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide structures
Li, Xinlan; Shen, Hongjun; Li, Ting; Liu, Jie; Huang, Xianjian
2016-12-01
A T-shaped polarization beam splitter based on two-dimensional photonic crystal is proposed, which is composed of three waveguides: one input and two output. Unpolarized beams incident from the input port will be separated into two different polarization modes and outputted individually by two different coupling structures. Simulation results can be obtained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In the normalized frequency range of 0.3456 extinction ratio is all 30dB for both modes. The polarization beam splitter attains the requirement we expected by analyzing simulation results.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals
Vos, W L
2015-01-01
This paper gives an overview of recent work on three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a "full and complete" 3D photonic band gap. We review five main aspects: 1) spontaneous emission inhibition, 2) spatial localization of light within a tiny nanoscale volume (aka "a nanobox for light"), 3) the introduction of a gain medium leading to thresholdless lasers, 4) breaking of the weak-coupling approximation of cavity QED, both in the frequency and in the time-domain, 5) decoherence, in particular the shielding of vacuum fluctuations by a 3D photonic bandgap. In addition, we list and evaluate all known photonic crystal structures with a demonstrated 3D band gap.
Thermalization of a two-dimensional photon gas in a polymeric host matrix
Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2012-07-01
We investigate thermodynamic properties of a two-dimensional photon gas confined by a dye-filled optical microcavity. A thermally equilibrated state of the photon gas is achieved by radiative coupling to a heat bath that is realized with dye molecules embedded in a polymer at room temperature. The chemical potential of the gas is freely adjustable. The optical microcavity consisting of two curved mirrors induces both a non-vanishing effective photon mass and a harmonic trapping potential for the photons. While previous experiments of our group have used liquid dye solutions, the measurements described here are based on dye molecules incorporated into a polymer host matrix. The solid state material allows a simplified operation of the experimental scheme. We furthermore describe studies of fluorescence properties of dye-doped polymers, and verify the applicability of Kennard-Stepanov theory in this system. In the future, dye-based solid state systems hold promise for the realization of single-mode light sources in thermal equilibrium based on Bose-Einstein condensation of photons, as well as for solar energy concentrators.
High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150-1200 nm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shirakawa, A; Maruyama, H; Ueda, K
2009-01-01
Ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic bandgap fiber amplifiers operating at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are reported. The low-loss bandgap transmission window is formed in the very low gain region, whilst outside the bandgap, large attenuation inhibits the exponential growth...... knowledge, these are the highest output powers generating from active photonic bandgap fibers, as well as from ytterbium-doped fiber lasers at these wavelengths. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America...
Two-dimensional photon counting imaging detector based on PCB delay line anode
Zhu, Bingli; Bai, Yonglin; Lei, Fanpu; Bai, Xiaohong; Wang, Bo; Qin, Junjun; Cao, Weiwei; Gou, Yongsheng
2016-11-01
Delay line anode detector has high spatial resolution and high count rate. It has been an important technical means for single photon imaging from near earth space to deep space. A two dimensional delay line anode is designed using multilayer circuit board technology. A complete set of PCB delay line anode single photon detection system is established. The spatial resolution of the detector is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, the signal transmission characteristic of PCB delay line and the dark count rate of the detector are tested. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the detector spatial resolution is about 100um and the overall dark count rate is 4counts/cm2 at 2.3KV.
Fabricating centimeter-scale high quality factor two-dimensional periodic photonic crystal slabs.
Lee, Jeongwon; Zhen, Bo; Chua, Song-Liang; Shapira, Ofer; Soljačić, Marin
2014-02-10
We present a fabrication route for centimeter-scale two-dimensional defect-free photonic crystal slabs with quality factors bigger than 10,000 in the visible, together with a unique way to quantify their quality factors. We fabricate Si(3)N(4) photonic crystal slabs, and perform an angle-resolved reflection measurement. This measurement data is used to retrieve the quality factors of the slabs by fitting it to a model based on temporal coupled-mode theory. The macroscopic nature of the structure and the high quality factors of their resonances could open up new opportunities for realizing efficient macroscale optoelectronic devices such as sensors, lasers, and energy harvesting systems.
Hardhienata, Hendradi
2012-01-01
Two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are well known for its ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic wave inside the crystal. 1D and 2D photonic crystals are relatively easier to fabricate than 3D because the former work in the microwave and far infrared regions whereas the later work in the visible region and requires smaller lattice constants. In this paper, simulation for a modified 2D PC with two symmetric waveguide channels where a defect is located inside one of the channel is performed. The simulation results show that optical switching is possible by modifying the refractive index of the defect. If more than one structure is applied this feature can potentially be applied to produce a cascade optical switch.
Silica-air photonic crystal fiber design that permits waveguiding by a true photonic bandgap effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
1999-01-01
A theoretical investigation of a novel type of optical fiber is presented. The operation of the fiber relies entirely on wave guidance through the photonic bandgap effect and not on total internal reflection, thereby distinguishing that fiber from all other known fibers, including recently studied...... photonic crystal fibers. The novel fiber has a central low-index core region and a cladding consisting of a silica background material with air holes situated within a honeycomb lattice structure. We show the existence of photonic bandgaps for the silica–air cladding structure and demonstrate how light can...
Experimental investigation of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with five photonic band-gaps
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Jin-hui; HOU Lan-tian; WEI Dong-bin; WANG Hai-yun; ZHOU Gui-yao
2008-01-01
The hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) with integrity structure have been fabricated with an improved twice stack-and-draw technique. The transmission spectrum shows that five photonic band-gaps within 450-1100 nm have been obtained.And the green light transmission in the HC-PCFs'has been observed remarkably.
Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array
Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.
2016-03-01
Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husanu, M.A.; Ganea, C.P. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Anghel, I. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, 077125 Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor 405, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Florica, C.; Rasoga, O. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Popescu, D.G., E-mail: dana.popescu@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Laser ablation is used for drilling a periodic 2D photonic structure. • Confinement of radiation is revealed by infra-red spectromicroscopy correlated with numerical calculations. • Telecommunication range is accessible upon tuning conveniently the processing parameters. - Abstract: Light confinement in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) with hexagonal symmetry is studied using infra-red reflectance spectromicroscopy and numerical calculations. The structure has been realized by laser ablation, using a pulsed laser (λ = 775 nm), perforating an In-doped Ge wafer and creating a lattice of holes with well-defined symmetry. Correlating the spectral signature of the photonic gaps recorded experimentally with the results obtained in the finite difference time domain and finite difference frequency domain calculations, we established the relationship between the geometric parameters of the structure (lattice constants, shape of the hole) and its efficiency in trapping and guiding the radiation in a well-defined frequency range. Besides the gap in the low energy range of transversal electric modes, a second one is identified in the telecommunication range, originating in the localization of the leaky modes within the radiation continuum. The emerging picture is of a device with promising characteristics as an alternative to Si-based technology in photonic device fabrication with special emphasize in energy storage and conversion.
One-dimensional photonic bandgap structure in abalone shell
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu; LI Qi; HAN Shuo; HAO Zhibiao
2005-01-01
@@ Photonic bandgap (PBG) materials are periodic com- posites of dielectric materials in which electromagnetic waves of certain frequency range cannot propagate in any or a special direction. Recently, there has been great inter- est in synthetic PBG materials due to their ability in ma- nipulation of photons. Since 500 million years ago, the natural world has been exploiting photonic structures for specific biological purposes[1]. Different types of biologi- cal PBG materials have been discovered in recent years, such as the one-dimension PBG structure in the sea mouse Aphrodita[2], and the fruits Elaeocarpus[3,4]; two-dimension PBG structure in the male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[5], Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[6], Thaumantis diores butterfly[7] and the male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[8]; and three-dimension PBG structure in the weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[9].
Meng, Zi-Ming; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan
2014-07-01
Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Zi-Ming, E-mail: mengzm@gdut.edu.cn, E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: mengzm@gdut.edu.cn, E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-07-28
Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.
The Second Order Guided Modes Based on Photonic Bandgap Effects in Air/Glass Photonic Crystal Fibers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Lei; LOU Shu-Qin; JIAN Shui-Sheng
2009-01-01
We introduce a defect site in the periodic structure of a photonic bandgap fiber,to confine and guide the second order mode by photonic bandgap effects.Based on a high air-filling fraction photonic crystal cladding structure,a simplified model with an equivalent air cladding was proposed to explore and analyze the properties of this second order guided mode.
Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai
2005-01-01
Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.
Lyapunov exponents for one-dimensional aperiodic photonic bandgap structures
Kissel, Glen J.
2011-10-01
Existing in the "gray area" between perfectly periodic and purely randomized photonic bandgap structures are the socalled aperoidic structures whose layers are chosen according to some deterministic rule. We consider here a onedimensional photonic bandgap structure, a quarter-wave stack, with the layer thickness of one of the bilayers subject to being either thin or thick according to five deterministic sequence rules and binary random selection. To produce these aperiodic structures we examine the following sequences: Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period doubling, Rudin-Shapiro, as well as the triadic Cantor sequence. We model these structures numerically with a long chain (approximately 5,000,000) of transfer matrices, and then use the reliable algorithm of Wolf to calculate the (upper) Lyapunov exponent for the long product of matrices. The Lyapunov exponent is the statistically well-behaved variable used to characterize the Anderson localization effect (exponential confinement) when the layers are randomized, so its calculation allows us to more precisely compare the purely randomized structure with its aperiodic counterparts. It is found that the aperiodic photonic systems show much fine structure in their Lyapunov exponents as a function of frequency, and, in a number of cases, the exponents are quite obviously fractal.
Soliton formation in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper
2009-01-01
of an approximate scaling relation is tested. It is concluded that compression of input pulses of several ps duration and sub-MW peak power can lead to a formation of solitons with ∼100 fs duration and multi-megawatt peak powers. The dispersion slope of realistic hollow-core fibers appears to be the main obstacle......The formation of solitons upon compression of linearly chirped pulses in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers is investigated numerically. The dependence of soliton duration on the chirp and power of the input pulse and on the dispersion slope of the fiber is investigated, and the validity...
Accurate modelling of fabricated hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.
Fokoua, Eric Numkam; Sandoghchi, Seyed Reza; Chen, Yong; Jasion, Gregory T; Wheeler, Natalie V; Baddela, Naveen K; Hayes, John R; Petrovich, Marco N; Richardson, David J; Poletti, Francesco
2015-09-07
We report a novel approach to reconstruct the cross-sectional profile of fabricated hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers from scanning electron microscope images. Finite element simulations on the reconstructed geometries achieve a remarkable match with the measured transmission window, surface mode position and attenuation. The agreement between estimated scattering loss from surface roughness and measured loss values indicates that structural distortions, in particular the uneven distribution of glass across the thin silica struts on the core boundary, have a strong impact on the loss. This provides insight into the differences between idealized models and fabricated fibers, which could be key to further fiber loss reduction.
Liquid-impermeable inverse opals with invariant photonic bandgap.
Kang, Hyelim; Lee, Joon-Seok; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Shin-Hyun
2015-02-18
Omniphobic inverse opals are created by structurally and chemically modifying the surface of inverse opals through reactive ion etching. During the etching, void arrays of the inverse opal surface evolves to a triangular post array with re-entrant geometry. The elaborate structure can efficiently pin the air-liquid interface and retain air cavities against water and oil, thereby providing liquid-impermeable inverse opals with invariant photonic bandgap. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Photonic-Crystal Band-pass Resonant Filters Design Using the Two-dimensional FDTD Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadjira Badaoui
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Recently, band-pass photonic crystal filters have attracted great attention due to their important applications in the fields of optical interconnection network and ultrahigh speed information processing. In this paper we propose the design of a new type of photonic crystal band-pass resonant filters realized in one-missing-row waveguide by decreasing proper defects along the waveguide with broadband acceptable bandwidth. Two types of photonic crystal band-pass filters are utilized and optimized using the Two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. The first one is based on the Fabry-Perot cavities and in the second one a cavity is introduced in the middle by omitting two neighboring air holes in waveguide. Numerical results show that a band [1.47 and#956;m-1.57 and#956;m] around 1.55um is transmitted with a maximum transmission of about 68% and as a result wide band-pass filters are designed.
Surface polaritons in two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystals
Zeng Yong; Fu Ying; Chen Xiao Shuang; Lu Wei; Agren, Hans
2006-01-01
Using an extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method, the photonic band structures and the corresponding transmission spectrum of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal are calculated. Comparisons between the periodic structure with a single left-handed cylindric rod are made, and many interesting similarities are found. It is shown that, due to the localized surface polaritons presented by an isolated left-handed rod, there exist many exciting physical phenomena in high-dimensional left-handed photonic crystals. As direct results of coupling of the localized surface polaritons of neighboring left-handed rod, a lot of almost dispersionless bands, anti-crossing behavior, and a zero $\\bar{n}$ gap are exhibited in the left-handed periodic structure. Moreover, in a certain frequency region, except distorted by a lot of anti-crossing behavior, there exists a continual dispersion relation, which can be explained by the long-wavelength approximation. It is also pointed out that high-dimensional left-han...
Electrically controllable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber with dual-frequency control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Riishede, Jesper
2005-01-01
We present an electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based on a dual frequency liquid crystal with pre-tilted molecules that allows the bandgaps to be continuously tuned. The frequency dependent behavior of the liquid crystal enables active shifting of the bandgaps toward...
Two-Dimensional Phononic-Photonic Band Gap Optomechanical Crystal Cavity
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Hill, Jeff T.; Meenehan, Seán; Chan, Jasper; Gröblacher, Simon; Painter, Oskar
2014-04-01
We present the fabrication and characterization of an artificial crystal structure formed from a thin film of silicon that has a full phononic band gap for microwave X-band phonons and a two-dimensional pseudo-band gap for near-infrared photons. An engineered defect in the crystal structure is used to localize optical and mechanical resonances in the band gap of the planar crystal. Two-tone optical spectroscopy is used to characterize the cavity system, showing a large coupling (g0/2π≈220 kHz) between the fundamental optical cavity resonance at ωo/2π =195 THz and colocalized mechanical resonances at frequency ωm/2π ≈9.3 GHz.
Huang, Xueqin; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C T
2014-01-01
There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. As a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, it is natural to expect that an interface state should form more easily in the boundary that represents a strong perturbation. Here, we show on the contrary that in some two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) with a square lattice possessing Dirac-like cone at k=0, a small perturbation guarantees the existence of interface states. More specifically, we find that single-mode localized states exist in a deterministic manner at an interface formed by two PCs each with system parameters slightly perturbed from the conical dispersion condition. The conical dispersion guarantees the existence of gaps in the projected band structure which allows interface states to form and the assured existence of interface states stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands.
Sufficient condition for the existence of interface states in some two-dimensional photonic crystals
Huang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.
2014-08-01
There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. While a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, we show on the contrary that in some two-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) possessing a Dirac-like cone at k = 0 derived from monopole and dipoles excitation, a small perturbation is sufficient to create interface states. The conical dispersion together with the flat band at the zone center generates the existence of gaps in the projected band structure and the existence of single mode interface states inside the projected band gaps stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands. The underlying physics for the existence of an interface state is related to the sign change of the surface impedance in the gaps above and below the flat band. The established results are applicable for long wavelength regimes where there is only one propagating diffraction order for an interlayer scattering.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Shuai; Wang Yi-Quan
2011-01-01
Light propagation through a channel filter based on two-dimensional photonic crystals with elliptical-rod defects is studied by the finite-difference time-domain method.Shape alteration of the defects from the usual circle to an ellipse offers a powerful approach to engineer the resonant frequency of channel filters.It is found that the resonant frequency can be flexibly adjusted by just changing the orientation angle of the elliptical defects.The sensitivity of the resonant wavelength to the alteration of the oval rods' shape is also studied.This kind of multi-channel filter is very suitable for systems requiring a large number of output channel filters.
Reflectance measurement of two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities with embedded quantum dots
Stumpf, Wolfgang C; Kojima, Takanori; Fujita, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Noda, Susumu
2010-01-01
The spectra of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities with embedded InAs quantum dots are measured by photoluminescence and reflectance. In comparing the spectra taken by these two different methods, consistency with the nanocavities' resonant wavelengths is found. Furthermore, it is shown that the reflectance method can measure both active and passive cavities. Q-factors of nanocavities, whose resonant wavelengths range from 1280 to 1620 nm, are measured by the reflectance method in cross polarization. Experimentally, Q-factors decrease for longer wavelengths and the intensity, reflected by the nanocavities on resonance, becomes minimal around 1360 nm. The trend of the Q-factors is explained by the change of the slab thickness relative to the resonant wavelength, showing a good agreement between theory and experiment. The trend of reflected intensity by the nanocavities on resonance can be understood as effects that originate from the PC slab and the underlying air cladding thickness. In addition...
An Optical Power Divider Based on Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Structure
Mesri, Nazanin; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed
2017-05-01
In this paper, an optical power divider with one input and four outputs has been proposed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with triangular lattice and simulated using dielectric holes in an air substrate. The dividing properties of the power divider have been numerically simulated and analyzed using the plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The results show that the transmittance of this divider can be as high as 94.22 % for λ=1.55 µm; thus, the proposed structure is suitable for wavelength division multiplexing communication systems. Also, due to the small footprint of the proposed structure, this optical power divider is applicable for optical-integrated circuit design.
Men, Han; Freund, Robert M; Parrilo, Pablo A; Peraire, Jaume
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider the optimal design of photonic crystal band structures for two-dimensional square lattices. The mathematical formulation of the band gap optimization problem leads to an infinite-dimensional Hermitian eigenvalue optimization problem parametrized by the dielectric material and the wave vector. To make the problem tractable, the original eigenvalue problem is discretized using the finite element method into a series of finite-dimensional eigenvalue problems for multiple values of the wave vector parameter. The resulting optimization problem is large-scale and non-convex, with low regularity and non-differentiable objective. By restricting to appropriate eigenspaces, we reduce the large-scale non-convex optimization problem via reparametrization to a sequence of small-scale convex semidefinite programs (SDPs) for which modern SDP solvers can be efficiently applied. Numerical results are presented for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations at several fr...
Effect of pulse propagation on the two-dimensional photon echo spectrum of multilevel systems
Keusters, Dorine; Warren, Warren S.
2003-08-01
The effect of pulse propagation on the two-dimensional photon echo (2DPE) spectrum of multilevel systems is investigated using a perturbative method. At high optical densities (OD) peak profiles are broadened asymmetrically, in most cases more strongly along the ω2 direction than along the ω1 direction. The amount of broadening is determined both by the OD and by the dynamics of the system. In addition, especially if the different transitions in the system are of unequal strength, the relative intensity of the peaks changes with OD. But even if the transition strengths are the same, the behavior of the cross peaks is different from the diagonal peaks. Since peak shape and relative intensity are important parameters in the interpretation of 2DPE spectra, such OD effects should be taken into account.
Photonic Weyl point in a two-dimensional resonator lattice with a synthetic frequency dimension
Lin, Qian; Xiao, Meng; Yuan, Luqi; Fan, Shanhui
2016-12-01
Weyl points, as a signature of 3D topological states, have been extensively studied in condensed matter systems. Recently, the physics of Weyl points has also been explored in electromagnetic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. These structures typically have complex three-dimensional geometries, which limits the potential for exploring Weyl point physics in on-chip integrated systems. Here we show that Weyl point physics emerges in a system of two-dimensional arrays of resonators undergoing dynamic modulation of refractive index. In addition, the phase of modulation can be controlled to explore Weyl points under different symmetries. Furthermore, unlike static structures, in this system the non-trivial topology of the Weyl point manifests in terms of surface state arcs in the synthetic space that exhibit one-way frequency conversion. Our system therefore provides a versatile platform to explore and exploit Weyl point physics on chip.
Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard
2005-01-01
In this ph.d. work, an experimental and theoretical study on Liquid Crystal (LC) infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) has been carried out. PCFs usually, consists of an air/silica microstructure of air holes arranged in a triangular lattice surrounding a core defect defined by a missing air...... hole. The presence of a LC in the holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) guiding type into a Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding type, where light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-billed holes. The high dielectric and optical anisotropy...... of LCs combined with the unique waveguiding features of PBG fibers gives the LC filled PCFs unique tunable properties. PBG guidance has been demonstrated for different mesophases of LCs and various functional compact fibers has been demonstrated, which utilitzes the high thermo-optical and electro...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO San-Shui; HE Sai-Ling; ZHUANG Fei
2001-01-01
Guided modes in a two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of nearly-free-electron metals are considered. To avoid time-consuming convolution, modified time-stepping formulae are used in a finite-difference time-domain approach. The guided modes in the metallic photonic crystal waveguide are related to those in a conventional metallic waveguide. A cut-off frequency exists, and consequently a mode gap at low frequencies exists in the photonic crystal metallic waveguide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.
2001-08-15
Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system.
Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Tsitrin, Sam; Yadak, Polin; He, Yingquan; Cuneo, Daniel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Liner, Devin; Man, Weining
2014-09-26
Recently, disordered photonic materials have been suggested as an alternative to periodic crystals for the formation of a complete photonic bandgap (PBG). In this article we will describe the methods for constructing and characterizing macroscopic disordered photonic structures using microwaves. The microwave regime offers the most convenient experimental sample size to build and test PBG media. Easily manipulated dielectric lattice components extend flexibility in building various 2D structures on top of pre-printed plastic templates. Once built, the structures could be quickly modified with point and line defects to make freeform waveguides and filters. Testing is done using a widely available Vector Network Analyzer and pairs of microwave horn antennas. Due to the scale invariance property of electromagnetic fields, the results we obtained in the microwave region can be directly applied to infrared and optical regions. Our approach is simple but delivers exciting new insight into the nature of light and disordered matter interaction. Our representative results include the first experimental demonstration of the existence of a complete and isotropic PBG in a two-dimensional (2D) hyperuniform disordered dielectric structure. Additionally we demonstrate experimentally the ability of this novel photonic structure to guide electromagnetic waves (EM) through freeform waveguides of arbitrary shape.
Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing
2014-06-01
Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.
Line nodes, Dirac points, and Lifshitz transition in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic photonic crystals
Lin, Jun Yu; Hu, Nai Chao; Chen, You Jian; Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao
2017-08-01
Topological phase transitions, which have fascinated generations of physicists, are always demarcated by gap closures. In this work, we propose very simple two-dimensional photonic crystal lattices with gap closures, i.e., band degeneracies protected by nonsymmorphic symmetry. Our photonic structures are relatively easy to fabricate, consisting of two inequivalent dielectric cylinders per unit cell. Along high-symmetry directions, they exhibit line degeneracies protected by glide-reflection symmetry and time-reversal symmetry, which we explicitly demonstrate for p g ,p m g ,p g g , and p 4 g nonsymmorphic groups. They also exhibit point degeneracies (Dirac points) protected by a Z2 topological number associated only with crystalline symmetry. Strikingly, the robust protection of p g symmetry allows a Lifshitz transition to a type-II Dirac cone across a wide range of experimentally accessible parameters, thus providing a convenient route for realizing anomalous refraction. Further potential applications include a stoplight device based on electrically induced strain that dynamically switches the lattice symmetry from p g g to the higher p 4 g symmetry. This controls the coalescence of Dirac points and hence the group velocity within the crystal.
Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei
2010-01-01
We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate...... an all-spliced laser cavity based on the liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065 nm...
Optical tuning of photonic bandgaps in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic crystal fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Hermann, David Sparre;
2005-01-01
An all-optical modulator is demonstrated, which utilizes a pulsed 532 nm laser to modulate the spectral position of the bandgaps in a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. In order to investigate the time response of the LCPBG fiber device, a low-power CW probe...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Julsgaard, Brian; Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren
2008-01-01
We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy on InAs quantum dot ensembles in photonic crystal membranes. The influence of the photonic crystal is investigated by varying the lattice constant systematically. We observe a strong slow down of the quantum dots’ spontaneous emission rates as the two-...... the bandgap in good agreement with local density of states calculations.......We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy on InAs quantum dot ensembles in photonic crystal membranes. The influence of the photonic crystal is investigated by varying the lattice constant systematically. We observe a strong slow down of the quantum dots’ spontaneous emission rates as the two...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)
2016-05-06
In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.
Power-scalable long-wavelength Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Maurayama, Hiroki
2010-01-01
Ytterbium-doped photonic-bandgap fiber sources operationg at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are being investigated for high power amplification. Artificial shaping of the gain spectrum by the characteristic distributed filtering effect of the photonic bandgap enables...
True photonic band-gap mode-control in VCSEL structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Romstad, F.; Madsen, M.; Birkedal, Dan;
2003-01-01
Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect....
Reflection mode two-dimensional photonic-crystal-slab-waveguide-based micropressure sensor
Wang, Yi; Bakhtazad, Aref; Sabarinathan, Jayshri
2011-08-01
Photonic crystals (PhCs) have recently been the focus for the developing micro- and nano-optical sensors, due to its capability to control and manipulate light on planar devices. This paper presents a novel design of micro-optical pressure sensor based on 2-dimensional PhC slab suspended on Si substrate. A line defect was introduced to the PhC slab to guide and reflect light with frequency in the photonic bandgap in the plane of the slab. The structure, with certain surface treatment, can be used in miro-scale pressure catheters in heart ablation surgeries and other biomedical applications. The working principle of the device is to modify light reflection in the PhC line defect waveguide by moving a substrate vertically in the evanescent field of the PhC waveguide. Evanescent field coupling is the critical step that affects light transmission and reflection. High resolution electron-beam lithography and isotropic wet etching have been used to realize the device on the top layer of a Si-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer. The PhC slab is released by isotropic wet etch of the berried oxide layer. The output reflection spectrum of the device under different pressure conditions is simulated using 3-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The result showed that when the PhC slab is close enough to the substrate (less than 400 nm), the reflected light intensity decreases sharply when the substrate moves towards the PhC slab. Mechanical response of the sensor is also studied.
Sadhukhan, Banasree; Singh, Prashant; Nayak, Arabinda; Datta, Sujoy; Johnson, Duane D.; Mookerjee, Abhijit
2017-08-01
We present a real-space formulation for calculating the electronic structure and optical conductivity of random alloys based on Kubo-Greenwood formalism interfaced with augmented space recursion technique [Mookerjee, J. Phys. C 6, 1340 (1973), 10.1088/0022-3719/6/8/003] formulated with the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital basis with the van Leeuwen-Baerends corrected exchange potential [Singh, Harbola, Hemanadhan, Mookerjee, and Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 93, 085204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085204]. This approach has been used to quantitatively analyze the effect of chemical disorder on the configuration averaged electronic properties and optical response of two-dimensional honeycomb siliphene SixC1 -x beyond the usual Dirac-cone approximation. We predicted the quantitative effect of disorder on both the electronic structure and optical response over a wide energy range, and the results are discussed in the light of the available experimental and other theoretical data. Our proposed formalism may open up a facile way for planned band-gap engineering in optoelectronic applications.
Markos, Peter
2016-01-01
Frequency and transmission spectrum of two-dimensional array of metallic rods is investigated numerically. Based on the recent analysis of the band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystal with dielectric rods [P. Marko\\v{s}, Phys. Rev. A 92 043814 (2015)] we identify two types of bands in the frequency spectrum: Bragg (P) bands resulting from a periodicity and Fano (F) bands which arise from Fano resonances associated with each of the cylinders within the periodic structure. It is shown that the existence of Fano band in a certain frequency range is manifested by a Fano resonance in the transmittance. In particular, we re-examine the symmetry properties of the H- polarized band structure in the frequency range where the spectrum consists of the localized modes associated with the single scatterer resonances and we explore process of formation of Fano bands by identifying individual terms in the expansion of the LCAO states. We demonstrate how the interplay between the two scattering mechanisms affects p...
Guilhon, I.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.; Bechstedt, F.
2017-01-01
The (BN) 1 -x(C2)x alloys are promising materials for band-gap engineering in two-dimensional electronics. In this work, we provide a complete scenario of statistical possibilities for the distribution of atoms and its influence on electronic and optical properties. Using first-principles calculations combined with the generalized quasichemical approximation to account for disorder effects, we study the properties of these two-dimensional alloys as a function of their average composition. Our results show that atomic arrangements with C-C and B-N bonds are energetically favored over the ones with B-B and N-N bonds, explaining the known tendency to phase separation, verified by a T -x phase diagram. We calculate the energy gap as a function of the composition considering both composition fluctuation and phase separation effects. Experimental data are discussed in this context. Finally, we obtain absorption spectra reproducing a two-peak pattern for intermediate carbon concentrations found experimentally and identified with phase-segregated instead of homogeneous alloys.
Novel Photonic Bandgap Structure and Its Application in Amplifier
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PANGYunbo; GAOBaoxin
2003-01-01
A novel compact photonic bandgap (PBG)structural element, which is etched in the ground plane of the microstrip line, is proposed in this paper. A forbid-den gap, which is about 200MHz wide, is measured at the center frequency of 8.6GHz. The measured results agree with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. A harmonic-suppression amplifier is fabricated by utilizing this novel structural element. The suppression of the sec-ond order harmonic has been enhanced about 17dB when compared with a reference amplifier. Since no filters are needed and the structural element is etched in the ground plane, the whole circuit is compact.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庄飞; 吴良; 等
2002-01-01
The plane-wave expansion method is used to calculate the band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal formed by a hexagonal structure of anisotropic cylinders.Two cylindrical inclusions in the unit cell have two different radii,R1 and R2(R1
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng shuai; Wang Yi-Quan
2011-01-01
This paper studies the propagating characteristics of the electromagnetic waves through the coupled-resonator optical waveguides based on the two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals by the finite-difference time-domain method. When the traditional circular rods adjacent to the centre of the cavities are replaced by the oval rods, the simulated results show that the waveguide mode region can be adjusted only by the alteration of the oval rods' obliquity.When the obliquity of the oval rods around one cavity is different from the obliquity of that around the adjacent cavities,the group velocities of the waveguide modes can be greatly reduced and the information of different frequencies can be shared and chosen at the same time by the waveguide branches with different structures. If the obliquities of the oval rods around two adjacent cavities are equal and they alternate between two values, the group velocities can be further reduced and a maximum value of 0.0008c (c is the light velocity in vacuum) can be acquired.
A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Slab Mirror with Silicon on Insulator for Wavelength 1.3μm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Hai-Xia; ZUO Yu-Hua; YU Jin-Zhong; WANG Qi-Ming
2006-01-01
@@ A concrete two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with triangular lattice used as a mirror for the light at wavelength 1.3μm with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate is designed by the three-dimensional plane wave expansion method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)
2015-07-01
A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.
Photonic bandgap properties of void-based body-centered-cubic photonic crystals in polymer.
Zhou, Guangyong; Ventura, Michael; Gu, Min; Matthews, Aaron; Kivshar, Yuri
2005-06-13
We report on the fabrication and characterization of void-based body-centered-cubic (bcc) photonic crystals in a solidified transparent polymer by the use of a femtosecond laser-driven microexplosion method. The change in the refractive index in the region surrounding the void dots that form the bcc structures is verified by presenting confocal microscope images, and the bandgap properties are characterized by using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The effect of the angle of incidence on the photonic bandgaps is also studied. We observe multiple stop gaps with a suppression rate of the main gap of 47% for a bcc structure with a lattice constant of 2.77 microm, where the first and second stop gaps are located at 3.7 microm and 2.2 microm, respectively. We also present a theoretical approach to characterize the refractive index of the material for calculating the bandgap spectra, and confirm that the wavelengths of the observed bandgaps are in good correlation with the analytical predictions.
On the spectrum of waveguides in planar photonic bandgap structures
Brown, Malcolm; Plum, Michael; Wood, Ian
2012-01-01
We study a Helmholtz-type spectral problem related to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystal waveguides. The waveguide is created by introducing a linear defect into a two-dimensional periodic medium. The defect is infinitely extended and aligned with one of the coordinate axes. The perturbation is expected to introduce guided mode spectrum inside the band gaps of the fully periodic, unperturbed spectral problem. In the first part of the paper, we prove that, somewhat unexpectedly, guided mode spectrum can be created by arbitrarily "small" perturbations. Secondly we show that, after performing a Floquet decomposition in the axial direction of the waveguide, for any fixed value of the quasi-momentum $k_x$ the perturbation generates at most finitely many new eigenvalues inside the gap.
Modeling of realistic cladding structures for photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Niels Asger; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal
2004-01-01
. For the fundamental bandgap we find that the bandgap edges (the intersections with the air line) shift toward shorter wavelengths when the air-filling fraction f is increased. The bandgap also broadens, and the relative bandwidth increases exponentially with f2. Compared with recent experiments [Nature 424, 657 (2003...
167 W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178nm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.
2010-01-01
An ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier operating at the long wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band is investigated for high power amplification. The spectral filtering effect of the photonic bandgap efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional...... ytterbium gain wavelengths and thus enables high power amplification at 1178 nm. A record output power of 167 W, a slope efficiency of 61% and 15 dB saturated gain at 1178 nm have been demonstrated using the ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal are calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method in this paper.Through calculating the photonic band structures of the triangular-lattice photonic crystal consisting of Ge rods immersed in air with different shapes,it is found that a large absolute band gap of 0.098 (2c/a) can be obtained for the structures with hollow triangular Ge rods immersed in air,corresponding to 19.8% of the middle frequency.The influence of the different factors on the width of the absolute band gaps is also discussed.
Two-dimensional photonic crystals based on anodic porous TiO2 with ideally ordered hole arrangement
Kondo, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shota; Yanagishita, Takashi; Truong Nguyen, Nhat; Schmuki, Patrick; Masuda, Hideki
2016-10-01
Ideally ordered TiO2 hole arrays with high aspect ratios were prepared by the anodization of pretextured Ti. The obtained TiO2 acted as two-dimensional photonic crystals in which a photonic band gap is formed in all directions of light propagation in the lattice. The process allows the easy and low-cost fabrication of TiO2 photonic crystals and can be used for the preparation of functional optical devices, which require the precise control of light propagation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F Bakhshi Garmi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.
Application of pressure to shift the bandgap in polystyrene-based photonic crystals
Johnson, Nigel P.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; McLachlan, Martyn A.; McComb, David W.; De La Rue, Richard M.
2004-09-01
We describe a simple technique for the selective area modification of the bandgap in planar 3-D photonic crystals (PhC). The PhCs are grown by controlled drying of monosized polystyrene spheres. Uniaxial pressure of 41 MPa can produce a shift in the bandgap of ~90 nm from 230 nm spheres. An unexpected broadening of the bandgap is attributed to the change in topology associated with large necks formed between spheres at pressures greater than 10 MPa.
High Thermal and Electrical Tunability of Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes;
2008-01-01
We infiltrate photonic crystal fibers with negative dielectric liquid crystals. 400nm bandgap shift is obtained in the range 22ºC-80ºC and 119nm shift of the long-wavelength bandgap edge is achieved by applying a voltage of 200V....
Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.
2016-12-01
In this study, we analyze complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals with triangular and square lattices, composed of plasma rods with different geometrical shapes in the anisotropic tellurium background. Using the finite-difference time-domain method we discuss the maximization of the complete photonic band gap width as a function of plasma frequency and plasma rods parameters with different shapes and orientations. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed structures represent significantly wide complete photonic band gaps in comparison to previously studied dielectric-plasma photonic crystals.
Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.
2014-01-01
Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA.......Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....
167 W, 1178 nm Ytterbium-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier with Power Scalability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Chen, Meishin
2010-01-01
We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm.......We have generated 167 W of output power at 1178 nm using an ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber. Distributed spectral filtering efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at shorter wavelengths and enables power scalable amplification at 1178nm....
Power-scalable long-wavelength Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Shirakawa, Akira; Maurayama, Hiroki
2010-01-01
Ytterbium-doped photonic-bandgap fiber sources operationg at the long-wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band are being investigated for high power amplification. Artificial shaping of the gain spectrum by the characteristic distributed filtering effect of the photonic bandgap enables...... spontaneous-emission-free power svaling. As high as 167 W power and 16 dB saturated gain at 1178 nm have been demonstrated...
Modeling of Z-scan characteristics for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials.
Chen, Shuqi; Zang, Weiping; Schülzgen, Axel; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jianguo; Moloney, Jerome V; Peyghambarian, Nasser
2009-12-01
We propose a Z-scan theory for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials. The Z-scan characteristics for this material are analyzed. Results show that the Z-scan curves for photonic bandgap materials with nonlinear refraction are similar to those of uniform materials exhibiting both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption simultaneously. Effects of nonlinear absorption on reflected and transmitted Z-scan results are also discussed.
Time-Domain Measurement of Optical True-Time Delay in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Geng-Yan; ZHOU Qiang; CUI Kai-Yu; ZHANG Wei; HUANG Yi-Dong
2010-01-01
@@ We report on the realization of optical true-time delay(TTD)by a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide(PCWG).Design and fabrication of the PCWG are investigated.The spectral dependence of the group delay is measured by detecting the phase shifts of a 10 GHz modulating signal,and a maximum delay of 25 ± 2.5 ps is obtained.
Effect of the defect on the focusing in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based flat lens
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Zhi-Fang; Wang Xiu-Guo; Li Zhi-Yuan; Zhang Dao-Zhong
2008-01-01
We have investigated in detail the influence of defect on the focusing of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal flat lens by using the finite-difference time-domain mcthod. The result shows that many focusings can be observed at the symmetrical positions when a defect is introduced into the lens. Furthermore, the wave-guides in the lens can confine the transmission wave effectively and improve the quality of the focusing.
Highly tunable large core single-mode liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard;
2006-01-01
We demonstrate a highly tunable photonic bandgap fiber, which has a large-core diameter of 25 mu m and an effective mode area of 440 mu m(2). The tunability is achieved by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber with an optimized liquid-crystal mixture having a large temperature...... gradient of the refractive indices at room temperature. A bandgap tuning sensitivity of 27 nm/degrees C is achieved at room temperature. The insertion loss is estimated to be less than 0.5 dB and caused mainly by coupling loss between the index-guided mode and the bandgap-guided mode. (c) 2006 Optical...
Miller, Benjamin L.; Baker, James E.; Sriram, Rashmi
2017-05-01
Because of their compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication, small footprint, and exceptional sensitivity, Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals (2D PhCs) have been posited as attractive components for the development of real-time integrated photonic virus sensors. While detection of single virus-sized particles by 2D PhCs has been demonstrated, specific recognition of a virus simulant under conditions relevant to sensor use (including aqueous solution and microfluidic flow) has remained an unsolved challenge. This talk will describe the design and testing of a W1 waveguide-coupled 2D PhC in the context of addressing that challenge.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何江平; 沈林放; 张全; 何赛灵
2002-01-01
A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for calculating the band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Maxwell's equations are rewritten in terms of period fields by using the Bloch theorem. Instead of spatial finite differences, the fast Fourier transform is used to calculate the spatial derivatives. To reach a similar accuracy, fewer sample points are required in the present PSTD method as compared to the conventional finite-difference time-domain methods. Our numerical simulation shows that the present PSTD method is an efficient and accurate method for calculating the band structure of a photonic crystal.
Photonic Bandgap Properties of Atom-lattice Photonic Crystals in Polymer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Lin; WANG Dian; SUN Gui-ting; NIU Li-gang; YANG Han; SONG Jun-feng
2011-01-01
The present paper covers the various photonic crystals(PhCs) structures mimicking real atom-lattice structures in electronic crystals by using the femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 resin. The bandgap properties were investigated by varying the crystal orientations in ＜111＞, ＜110＞ and ＜100＞ of diamond-lattice PhCs. lhe photonic stop gaps were present at λ=3.88 μm in ＜111＞ direction, λ=4.01 μtm in ＜110＞ direction and λ=5.30 μm in ＜100＞ direction, respectively. In addition, defects were introduced in graphite-lattice PhCs and the strong localization of photons in this structure with defects at λ=5 μm was achieved. All the above work shows the powerful capability of femtosecond laser fabrication in manufacturing various complicated threedimensional photonic crystals and of controlling photons by inducing defects in the PhCs samples.
Fast-light Assisted Four-Wave-Mixing in Photonic Bandgap
Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Jinmei; Zhan, Li
2014-01-01
Since the forward and backward waves are coupled with each other and a standing wave with no net propagation of energy is formed in the photonic bandgap, it is a commonsense of basic physics that, any kinds of effects associated with wave propagation including four-wave-mixing (FWM) are thought to be impossible. However, we lay great emphasis here on explaining that this commonsense could be broken under specific circumstances. In this article, we report with the first experimental observation of the energy conversion in the photonic bandgap into other channel via FWM. Owing to the phase manipulation by fast light effect in the photonic bandgap, we manage to achieve the phase-match condition and thus occurred FWM transfer energy into other channels outside the photonic bandgap efficiently. As one-dimensional photonic crystal, simulations on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with and without fast light were conducted respectively, and an enhanced FWM in photonic bandgap of FBG was observed. The experimental result sho...
Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F
2016-08-05
We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.
Rybin, Mikhail V.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.
2016-08-01
We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.
Xie, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Hailiang; Shi, Lina; Hua, Yilei; Liu, Ming
2012-02-15
In this Letter, we report a significant step forward in the design of single-optical-element optics for two-dimensional (2D) hard X-ray differential-interference-contrast (DIC) imaging based on modified photon sieves (MPSs). MPSs were obtained by a modified optic, i.e., combining two overlaid binary gratings and a photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The superior performance of MPSs was demonstrated. Compared to Fresnel zone plates-based DIC diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which help to improve contrast only in one direction, MPSs can provide better resolution and 2D DIC imaging. Compared to normal photon sieves, MPSs are capable of imaging at a significantly higher image contrast. We anticipate that MPSs can provide a complementary and versatile high-resolution nondestructive imaging tool for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits at 45 nm node and below.
Light Extraction Enhancement of GaN LED with a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Slab
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Hong-Wei; KAN Qiang; WANG Chun-Xia; HU Hai-Yang; XU Xing-Sheng; CHEN Hong-Da
2011-01-01
Light extraction effects of a photonic crystal slab with a micrometer scale lattice constant are studied. A GaN light emitting diode (LED) with a photonic crystal slab is fabricated. The light extraction effects and the enhancement mechanism are investigated. From theoretical analysis, it is found that the characteristics of LED light emission are modulated by the photonic crystal slab. Experimental results show that the LED light emission intensity is enhanced by 38％ due to guide mode extracting by the photonic crystal.%@@ Light extraction effects ora photonic crystal slab with a micrometer scale lattice constant are studied.A GaN light emitting diode(LED) with a photonic crystal slab is fabricated.The light extraction effects and the enhancement mechanism are investigated.From theoretical analysis,it is found that the characteristics of LED light emission are modulated by the photonic crystal slab.Experimental results show that the LED light emission intensity is enhanced by 38% due to guide mode extracting by the photonic crystal.
Enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystals at band-gap pumping
Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gorbunov, Evgeny A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zotov, Arsen K.; Masalov, Vladimir M.; Emelchenko, Gennadi A.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.
2017-02-01
More than one order enhancement of third-harmonic generation is observed experimentally at band-gap pumping of globular photonic crystals. Due to a lateral modulation of the dielectric permittivity in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, sharp peaks of light intensity (light localization) arise in the media at the band-gap pumping. The light localization enhances significantly the nonlinear light conversion, in particular, third-harmonic generation, in the near-surface volume of photonic crystal. The observed way to enhance the nonlinear conversion can be useful for creation of novel compact elements of nonlinear and laser optics.
Enhanced bandgap in annular photonic-crystal silicon-on-insulator asymmetric slabs.
Hou, Jin; Citrin, D S; Wu, Huaming; Gao, Dingshan; Zhou, Zhiping
2011-06-15
Photonic band structures of annular photonic-crystal (APC) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) asymmetric slabs with finite thickness were investigated by the three-dimensional plane-wave expansion method. The results show that for a broad range of air-volume filling factors, APC slabs can exhibit a significantly larger bandgap than conventional circular-hole photonic-crystal (PC) slabs. Bandgap enhancements over conventional air hole PC SOI slabs as large as twofold are predicted for low air-volume filling factors below 15%. This desirable behavior suggests a potential for APC SOI slabs to serve as the basis of various optical cavities, waveguides, and mirrors.
Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng
2015-01-01
A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index.
Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng
2015-12-01
A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522 nm to 480 nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11 nm and 126±16 nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states.
Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper
2004-01-01
Photonic bandgap fibres fabricated by infiltrating the holes of a microstructured optical fibre with high-index material are investigated numerically in the low- and intermediate-frequency regime. Bandgaps, transmission windows and the distribution of field energy between high- and low-index regi......Photonic bandgap fibres fabricated by infiltrating the holes of a microstructured optical fibre with high-index material are investigated numerically in the low- and intermediate-frequency regime. Bandgaps, transmission windows and the distribution of field energy between high- and low......-index regions are investigated. It is shown that the numerical results found can be rationalized in a simple way by considering the properties of guided modes in a conventional step-index fibre....
Photonic Band Gaps in Two-Dimensional Crystals with Fractal Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘征; 徐建军; 林志方
2003-01-01
We simulate the changes of the photonic band structure of the crystal in two dimensions with a quasi-fractal structure when it is fined to a fractal. The result shows that when the dielectric distribution is fined, the photonic band structure will be compressed on the whole and the ground photonic band gap (PBG) closed while the next PBGs shrunk, in conjunction with their position declining in the frequency spectrum. Furthermore, the PBGs in the high zone are much more sensitive than those in low zones.
Analysis of two-dimensional photonic band gap structure with a rhombus lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Limei Qi; Ziqiang Yang; Xi Gao; Zheng Liang
2008-01-01
@@ The relative band gap for a rhombus lattice photonic crystal is studied by plane wave expansion method and high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) simulation. General wave vectors in the first Briliouin zone are derived. The relative band gap as a function of air-filling factor and background material is investigated, respectively, and the nature of photonic band gap for different lattice angles is analyzed by the distribution of electric energy. These results would provide theoretical instruction for designing optical integrated devices using photonic crystal with a rhombus lattice.
Photon-assisted spin transport in a two-dimensional electron gas
Fistul, M. V.; Efetov, K. B.
2007-01-01
We study spin-dependent transport in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to an external step-like potential $V(x)$ and irradiated by an electromagnetic field (EF). In the absence of EF the electronic spectrum splits into spin sub-bands originating from the "Rashba" spin-orbit coupling. We show that the resonant interaction of propagating electrons with the component EF parallel to the barrier induces a \\textit{% non-equilibrium dynamic gap} $(2\\Delta_{R})$ between the spin sub-bands. Exist...
Left-Handed Properties in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Formed by Holographic Lithography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Xiao-Xia; YANG Xiu-Lun; CAI Lv-Zhong; WANG Yu-Rong; DONG Guo-Yan; MENG Xiang-Feng; XU Xian-Feng
2008-01-01
We give an analysis of the frequency distribution trends in the four lowest bands of two-dimensional square lattices formed by holographic lithography (HL) and in the lattices of the same kind but with regular dielectric columns with increasing filling ratios, and then present a comparative study on the left-handed properties in these two kinds of structures using plane wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations.The results show that the left-handed properties are more likely to exist in structures with large high-epsilon filling ratios or in a connected lattice.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Yin; LU Yan-Wu
2009-01-01
@@ Light propagation through a coupled-defect waveguide with a 63.5°bend in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal is investigated. The waveguide modes are non-degenerate monopole state and dipole defect state of a square lattice for two different branches. To increase the transmission in the bending waveguide, we propose a method to rotate the localized state by introducing a new type defect with a sheared square rod into coupled cavity. The higher coupling efficiency and transmission in the bending waveguide are obtained with proper shear shift.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guangyong Zhou; Michael James Ventura; Min Gu
2003-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) triangular void channel photonic crystals with different lattice constants stacked in two different directions were fabricated by using femtosecond laser micro-explosion in solid polymer material. Fundamental and higher-order stop gaps were observed both in the infrared transmission and reflection spectra. There is an approximately linear relationship between the gap position and the lattice constant. The suppression of the fundamental gap is as high as 70% for 24-layer structures stacked in the Г-M direction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xuan; CHEN Shu-Wen; LIAO Qing-Hua; YU Tian-Bao; LIU Nian-Hua; HUANG Yong-Zhen
2011-01-01
@@ We propose and analyze a novel ultra-compact polarization beam splitter based on a resonator cavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal.The two polarizations can be separated efficientlyby the strong coupling between the microcavities and the waveguides occurring around the resonant frequency of the cavities.The transmittance of two polarized light around 1.55 iim can be more than 98.6%, and the size of the device is less than 15 μm x 13μm,so these features will play an important role in future integrated optical circuits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Shuai; Ren Cheng; Wang Wen-Zhong; Wang Yi-Quan
2012-01-01
Self-collimation characteristics of the two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal (PC) consisting of metal rods immersed in silicon are studied by the finite-difference time-domain method.The Drude dispersion model is adopted to describe the metal rod,and the self-collimation behaviours of the near-infrared light through the PC are studied.The frequency region and the tolerance of incident angle for the self-collimation behaviour can be controlled by changing the shape of the metal rods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kyu; Hwan; Hwang; G.; Hugh; Song; Chanmook; Lim; Soan; Kim; Kyung-Won; Chun; Mahn; Yong; Park
2003-01-01
A channel-drop filter has been designed based on the two-dimensional triangular-lattice hole photonic-crystal structure, which consists of two line defects and two point defects, by a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation.
Two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based Fabry-Perot etalon.
Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Jian; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuandong; Lee, Chengkuo
2015-06-15
We demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polycrystalline-silicon-based photonic crystal Fabry-Perot etalon, which is aimed to work in the mid-infrared wavelengths. The highly reflective mirrors required in a Fabry-Perot etalon are realized by freestanding polycrystalline-silicon-based photonic crystal membranes with etched circular air holes. A peak reflection of 96.4% is observed at 3.60 μm. We propose a monolithic CMOS-compatible fabrication process to configure two such photonic crystal mirrors to be in parallel to form a Fabry-Perot etalon; a filtered transmission centered at 3.51 μm is observed. The quality factor measured is around 300, which is significantly higher than in existing works. This creates the possibility of using such devices for high-resolution applications such as gas sensing and hyperspectral imaging.
Polarization Beam Splitter Based on Self-Collimation Effect in Two-Dimensional Photonics Crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jie; ZHAO De-Yin; ZHOU Chnan-Hong; JIANG Xun-Ya
2007-01-01
A photonic crystal polarization beam splitter based on the self-collimation effect is proposed. By means of the plane wave expansion method and the finite-difference time-domain method, we analyse the splitting mechanism in two alternative ways: performing a band gap structure analysis and simulating the field distribution. The results indicate that two beams of different polarizations can be split with an extinction ratio of nearly 20 dB in a wavelength range of 90nm. The splitter may have practical applications in integrated photonic circuits.
Zhou Yun Song; Wang Fu He
2003-01-01
We investigate the properties of guide modes localized at the interfaces of photonic crystal (PC) heterostructures which are composed of two semi-infinite two-dimensional PCs consisting of non-circular air cylinders with different rotating angles embedded in a homogeneous host dielectric. Photonic band gap structures are calculated with the use of the plane-wave expansion method in combination with a supercell technique. We consider various configurations, for instance, rectangular (square) lattice-rectangular (square) air cylinders, and different rotating angles of the cylinders in the lattices on either side of the interface of a heterostructure. We find that the absolute gap width and the number of guide modes strongly depend on geometric and physical parameters of the heterostructures. It is anticipated that the guide modes in such heterostructures can be engineered by adjusting parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Wen-Qian; Liu Yu-Min; Wang Dong-Lin; Han Li-Hong; Guo Xuan; Yu Zhong-Yuan
2013-01-01
We investigate the effect of disorder and mechanical deformation on a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide.The dispersion characteristics and transmittance of the waveguide are studied using the finite element method.Results show that the geometric change of the dielectric material perpendicular to the light propagation direction has a larger influence on the waveguide characteristics than that parallel to the light propagation direction.Mechanical deformation has an obvious influence on the performance of the waveguide.In particular,longitudinal deformed structure exhibits distinct optical characteristics from the ideal one.Studies on this work will provide useful guideline to the fabrication and practical applications based on photonic crystal waveguides.
Samokhvalova, Ksenia R; Liang Qian, Bao
2005-01-01
Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.
Gao, Dingshan; Zhou, Zhiping; Citrin, David S
2008-03-01
The photonic crystal structure with parallelogram lattice, capable of bending a self-collimated wave with free angles and partial bandgap reflection, is presented. The equifrequency contours show that the direction of the collimation wave can be turned by tuning the angle between the two basic vectors of the lattice. Acute, right, and obtuse angles of collimating waveguide bends have been realized by arc lattices of parallelogram photonic crystals. Moreover, partial bandgap reflection of the parallelogram lattice photonic crystals is validated from the equifrequency contours and the projected band structures. A waveguide taper based on this partial bandgap reflection is also designed and proved to have above 85% transmittance over a very wide operating bandwidth of 180 nm.
Photon-Phonon-Enhanced Infrared Rectification in a Two-Dimensional Nanoantenna-Coupled Tunnel Diode
Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.
2016-12-01
The interplay of strong infrared photon-phonon coupling with electromagnetic confinement in nanoscale devices is demonstrated to have a large impact on ultrafast photon-assisted tunneling in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures. Infrared active optical phonon modes in polar oxides lead to strong dispersion and enhanced electric fields at material interfaces. We find that the infrared dispersion of SiO2 near a longitudinal optical phonon mode can effectively impedance match a photonic surface mode into a nanoscale tunnel gap that results in large transverse-field confinement. An integrated 2D nanoantenna structure on a distributed large-area MOS tunnel-diode rectifier is designed and built to resonantly excite infrared surface modes and is shown to efficiently channel infrared radiation into nanometer-scale gaps in these MOS devices. This enhanced-gap transverse-electric field is converted to a rectified tunneling displacement current resulting in a dc photocurrent. We examine the angular and polarization-dependent spectral photocurrent response of these 2D nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diodes in the photon-enhanced tunneling spectral region. Our 2D nanoantenna-coupled infrared tunnel-diode rectifier promises to impact large-area thermal energy harvesting and infrared direct detectors.
Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals
Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.
2015-09-01
Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.
Suppression of spontaneous emission for two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystal microcavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Spontaneous emission represents a loss mechanism that fundamentally limits the performance of semiconductor lasers. The rate of spontaneous emission may, however, be controlled by a new class of periodic dielectric structures known as photonic crystals. Although a three...
Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas
2005-01-01
-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of -20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....
Bandgaps of the Chalcogenide Glass Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shu-Guang; ZHOU Hong-Song; YIN Guo-Bing
2011-01-01
Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method. A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps. For enlarging the bandgap width, an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward, the normalized frequency kA of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap. The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1μm to 3.7μm.%Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method.A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps.For enlarging the bandgap width,an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward,the normalized frequency κA of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap.The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm.Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) can be classified into total internal reflection PCFs and photonic bandgap (PBG) PCFs[1] Solid core PCFs are one kind of the total internal reflection PCFs;hollow-core PCFs (HC-PCFs) are a kind of typical PBG fibers.The conception of HC-PCFs was first proposed by Russel in 1991.[2] Later,it was theoretically demonstrated by Birks et al.[3] in 1995.A bandgap photonic crystal fiber was mde by Knight et al.[4] for the first time in 1998.On the basis of these works,the first HC-PCF was designed and made by Cregan et al.[5] in 1999.
Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui
2009-01-01
Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....
Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui;
2009-01-01
Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....
Compact Electrically tunable Waveplate Based on Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Keller, Stephan Urs
2009-01-01
A compact tunable waveplate based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers is presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm.......A compact tunable waveplate based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers is presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm....
Three-dimensional single gyroid photonic crystals with a mid-infrared bandgap
Peng, Siying; Chen, Valerian H; Khabiboulline, Emil T; Braun, Paul; Atwater, Harry A
2016-01-01
A gyroid structure is a distinct morphology that is triply periodic and consists of minimal isosurfaces containing no straight lines. We have designed and synthesized amorphous silicon (a-Si) mid-infrared gyroid photonic crystals that exhibit a complete bandgap in infrared spectroscopy measurements. Photonic crystals were synthesized by deposition of a-Si/Al2O3 coatings onto a sacrificial polymer scaffold defined by two-photon lithography. We observed a 100% reflectance at 7.5 \\mum for single gyroids with a unit cell size of 4.5 \\mum, in agreement with the photonic bandgap position predicted from full-wave electromagnetic simulations, whereas the observed reflection peak shifted to 8 um for a 5.5 \\mum unit cell size. This approach represents a simulation-fabrication-characterization platform to realize three-dimensional gyroid photonic crystals with well-defined dimensions in real space and tailored properties in momentum space.
Double Doppler effect in two-dimensional photonic crystal with negative effective index
Jiang, Qiang; Chen, Jiabi; Liang, Binming; Zhuang, Songlin
2016-11-01
The inverse Doppler effect in photonic crystal with negative refractive index had been proofed experimentally in our previous research. In this paper, we studied the spatial harmonics of Bloch wave propagating in such PhCs by FFT method. The lagging and front phase evolutions reveal that both backward wave and forward wave exist in these harmonics. Subsequently, we studied the double Doppler effect phenomenon that both the normal and inverse Doppler exist in one photonic crystal simultaneously by using the improved dynamic FDTD method which we made it suitable for dealing with moving objects. The simulative Doppler frequency shifts were consistent with the theoretical values. Our study provides a potential technology in measurement area.
Dirac points and line degeneracies in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic photonic crystals
Lin, Jun Yu; Chen, You Jian; Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao
2016-01-01
Topological phase transitions, which have fascinated generations of physicists, are always demarcated by gap closures. In this work, we study the topological properties of gap closure points, i.e. band degeneracies, in photonic crystal lattices exhibiting nonsymmorphic group symmetries. Despite their relatively esoteric symmetries, such lattice structures are relatively easy to fabricate, and thus experimentally study, in photonic systems. We show that the combination of glide symmetry and time reversal symmetry can protect point degeneracies. Line degeneracies along two high symmetry momenta are, however, only protected by one glide symmetry. By defining a topological winding number for point degeneracies, Dirac points with windings of $\\pm 1,\\ -1,\\ -2$ are found in lattices with $pmg$, $pgg$ and $p4g$ nonsymmorphic group symmetries respectively. More interestingly, the breaking of time reversal symmetry in systems with symmetry groups $pgg$ and $p4g$ yield Chern insulators with nontrivial edge states as sol...
Parametric Optomechanical Oscillations in Two-dimensional Slot-type High-Q Photonic Crystal Cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng J.; Stein A.; Li, Y.; Aras, M.S.; Shepard, K.L.; Wong, C.W.
2012-05-22
We experimentally demonstrate an optomechanical cavity based on an air-slot photonic crystal cavity with optical quality factor Q{sub o} = 4.2 x 10{sup 4} and a small modal volume of 0.05 cubic wavelengths. The optical mode is coupled with the in-plane mechanical modes with frequencies up to hundreds of MHz. The fundamental mechanical mode shows a frequency of 65 MHz and a mechanical quality factor of 376. The optical spring effect, optical damping, and amplification are observed with a large experimental optomechanical coupling rate g{sub om}/2{pi} of 154 GHz/nm, corresponding to a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g*/2{pi} of 707 kHz. With sub-mW or less input power levels, the cavity exhibits strong parametric oscillations. The phase noise of the photonic crystal optomechanical oscillator is also measured.
Bandgaps of the Chalcogenide Glass Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber
Li, Shu-Guang; Zhou, Hong-Song; Yin, Guo-Bing
2011-11-01
Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method. A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps. For enlarging the bandgap width, an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward, the normalized frequency kΛ of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap. The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2 μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm.
Band structure of germanium carbides for direct bandgap silicon photonics
Stephenson, C. A.; O'Brien, W. A.; Penninger, M. W.; Schneider, W. F.; Gillett-Kunnath, M.; Zajicek, J.; Yu, K. M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Stillwell, R. A.; Wistey, M. A.
2016-08-01
Compact optical interconnects require efficient lasers and modulators compatible with silicon. Ab initio modeling of Ge1-xCx (x = 0.78%) using density functional theory with HSE06 hybrid functionals predicts a splitting of the conduction band at Γ and a strongly direct bandgap, consistent with band anticrossing. Photoreflectance of Ge0.998C0.002 shows a bandgap reduction supporting these results. Growth of Ge0.998C0.002 using tetrakis(germyl)methane as the C source shows no signs of C-C bonds, C clusters, or extended defects, suggesting highly substitutional incorporation of C. Optical gain and modulation are predicted to rival III-V materials due to a larger electron population in the direct valley, reduced intervalley scattering, suppressed Auger recombination, and increased overlap integral for a stronger fundamental optical transition.
Várallyay, Z; Saitoh, K; Fekete, J; Kakihara, K; Koshiba, M; Szipocs, R
2008-09-29
Higher-order-mode solid and hollow core photonic bandgap fibers exhibiting reversed or zero dispersion slope over tens or hundreds of nanometer bandwidths within the bandgap are presented. This attractive feature makes them well suited for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond pulse fiber lasers, amplifiers and optical parametric oscillators. The canonical form of the dispersion profile in photonic bandgap fibers is modified by a partial reflector layer/interface placed around the core forming a 2D cylindrical Gires-Tournois type interferometer. This small perturbation in the index profile induces a frequency dependent electric field distribution of the preferred propagating higher-order-mode resulting in a zero or reversed dispersion slope.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedghi, Aliasghar [Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiaghaie, Soma [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi [Islamic Azad University, Sufian (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-10-15
By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.
Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi
2014-10-01
By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MAO Xiao-Yu; YAO Di-Bi; ZHAO Ling-Yun; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De
2008-01-01
We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal singleline defect photonic crystal(PC)waveguide,which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide.When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices,the dip has a wavelength shift.By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength,a sensitivity of 1.2×10-4is feasible.This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source.In addition,high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte.
Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in OLED with two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rongjin Yan; Qingkang Wang
2006-01-01
Light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on various photonic crystal slab (PCS) structures was studied. By using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigated the effect of several parameters, including filling factor and lattice constant, on the enhancement of light extraction efficiency of three basic PCSs, and got the most effective one. Two novel designs of "interlaced"and "double-interlaced" PCS structures based on the most effective basic PCS structure were introduced,and the "interlaced" one was proved to be even more efficient than its prototype. Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency resulted from the coupling to leaky modes in the expended light cone of a band structure, the diffraction in the space between columns, as well as the strong scattering at indium-tinoxide/glass interfaces.
High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate
Vico Triviño, N.; Rossbach, G.; Dharanipathy, U.; Levrat, J.; Castiglia, A.; Carlin, J.-F.; Atlasov, K. A.; Butté, R.; Houdré, R.; Grandjean, N.
2012-02-01
We report on the achievement of freestanding GaN photonic crystal L7 nanocavities with embedded InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on Si (111). GaN was patterned by e-beam lithography, using a SiO2 layer as a hard mask, and usual dry etching techniques. The membrane was released by underetching the Si (111) substrate. Micro-photoluminescence measurements performed at low temperature exhibit a quality factor as high as 5200 at ˜420 nm, a value suitable to expand cavity quantum electrodynamics to the near UV and the visible range and to develop nanophotonic platforms for biofluorescence spectroscopy.
Nano-scale optical actuation based on two-dimensional heterostructure photonic crystal cavities
Lin, Tong; Zhou, Guangya; Chau, Fook Siong; Tian, Feng; Deng, Jie
2015-03-01
Nowadays, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) actuators using electrostatic forces are facing the bottleneck of the electromagnetic interference which greatly degrades their performances. On the contrary, the hybrid circuits driven by optical gradient forces which are immune to the electromagnetic interference show prominent advantages in communication, quantum computation, and other application systems. In this paper we propose an optical actuator utilizing the optical gradient force generated by a hetero-structure photonic crystal cavity. This type of cavity has a longitudinal air-slot and characteristics of ultrahigh quality factor (Q) and ultra-small mode volume (V) which is capable of producing a much larger force compared with the waveguide-based structures. Due to the symmetry property, attractive optical gradient force is generated. Additionally, the optomechanical coefficient (gom) of this cavity is two orders of magnitude larger than that of the coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities. The 2D hetero-structure cavity, comb drives, folded beam suspensions and the displacement sensor compose the whole device. The cavity serves as the optical actuator whilst the butt-coupled waveguide acts as the displacement sensor which is theoretically proved to be insensitive to the temperature variations. As known, the thermo-optic effect prevails especially in the cavity-based structures. The butt-coupled waveguide can be used to decouple the thermal effect and the optoemchanical effect (OM) with the aid of comb drives. The results demonstrate that the proposed optical gradient force actuator show great potential in the future of all-optical reconfigurable circuits.
Dovzhenko, Dmitriy; Terekhin, Vladimir; Vokhmincev, Kirill; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor
2017-01-01
Multiplex detection of different antigens in human serum in order to reveal diseases at the early stage is of interest nowadays. There are a lot of biosensors, which use the fluorescent labels for specific detection of analytes. For instance, common method for detection of antigens in human serum samples is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One of the most effective ways to improve the sensitivity of this detection method is the use of a substrate that could enhance the fluorescent signal and make it easier to collect. Two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are very suitable structures for these purposes because of the ability to enhance the luminescent signal, control the light propagation and perform the analysis directly on its surface. In our study we have calculated optimal parameters for 2D-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of the array of silicon nano-rods, fabricated such photonic crystal on a silicon substrate using reactive ion etching and showed the possibility of its efficient application as a substrate for ELISA detection of human cancer antigens.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Trabelsi
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional quasi-periodic band gap structures were investigated theoretically in microwave frequency range. Quasiperiodic photonic crystal based on the square range, arranged in a quasi-periodical fashion which follows Thue Morse or Fibonaci period substitutional sequences were obtained by the inflation rules emerging from the quasi-periodic sequence. The introduction of 2D quasi-periodicity distribution like Thue Morse or Fibonacci order and deterministic aperiodicity give some interesting microwave properties and offers amultitude of adjacent pseudo-band gap in different frequency range. The potential of photonic structures are explored by varying the structural parameters. The photonic band gap formation was explored as function of geometries of the structures such as pillar radius and parameters of quasi-periodical sequences. The electromagnetic field distribution can be described as a quasi-localized state varied by some defect carried by Thue Morse order. These structures provide interesting properties, which could be used to design novelmicrowave devices.
Tunable polarisation-maintaining filter based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Weirich, Johannes
2008-01-01
A tunable and polarisation-maintaining all-in-fibre filter based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre is demonstrated. Its polarisation extinction ratio reaches 14 dB at 1550 nm wavelength. Its spectral tunability range spans over 250 nm in the temperature range 30–70°C. The measured...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Falk, C. I.; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian
2008-01-01
We demonstrate suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030 nm in a cladding-pumped polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic crystal fibre. The fibre works through combined index and bandgap guiding. Furthermore, we show...
30W, 1178nm Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shirakawa, Akira; Maruyama, Hiroki; Ueda, Ken-ichi
2009-01-01
High-power, high-efficiency ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of the Yb gain band is reported. Amplified-spontaneous-emission-free, 30W nonpolarized and 25W linearly-polarized 1178nm outputs have been achieved with
Tunable All-in-Fiber Waveplates Based on Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;
2008-01-01
Tunable all-in-fiber waveplates based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers are presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically and thermally to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the range 1520 nm-1580 nm....
On-chip tunable long-period grating devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard;
2009-01-01
We design and fabricate an on-chip tunable long-period grating device by integrating a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber on silicon structures. The transmission axis of the device can be electrically rotated in steps of 45° as well as switched on and off with the response time in the millisec...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard
2011-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a single-stage Q-switched single-mode (SM) ytterbium-doped rod fiber laser delivering record breaking pulse energies at visible and UV light. We use a photonic bandgap rod fiber with a mode field diameter of 59μm based on a new distributed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
We experimentally investigate the temperature influence on electrically controlled liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fiber device. The phase shift in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm for realizing quarter and half wave plates at different temperatures by applying a certain voltage...
Compression of realistic laser pulses in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper; Roberts, John
2009-01-01
Dispersive compression of chirped few-picosecond pulses at the microjoule level in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber is studied numerically. The performance of ideal parabolic input pulses is compared to pulses from a narrowband picosecond oscillator broadened by self-phase modulation during...
Transmission properties of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers in relation to molecular spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Falk, Charlotte Ijeoma; Hald, Jan; Petersen, Jan C.;
2010-01-01
The transmission properties of five types of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBFs) are characterized in the telecom wavelength range around 1:5 μm. The variations in optical transmission are measured as a function of laser frequency over a 2GHz scan range as well as a function of time over...
Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.
2004-01-01
In this paper, a number of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures, which are formed by periodic circuit elements printed oil transmission-line circuits, are studied by using a well-known numerical method, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results validate the band-stop filter...
Low index-contrast photonic bandgap fiber for transmission of short pulsed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riishede, Jesper; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Broeng, Jes
2004-01-01
The use of low-index-contrast photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber for transmission of short pulsed light is discussed. PBG fibers have positive waveguide dispersion at long wavelengths at which conventional index-guiding fibers have negative waveguide dispersion. PBG fibers with low-index contrast can...
Reflection-induced bias error in an air-core photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope.
Zhang, Zuchen; Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhihao; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Chunxi
2016-01-15
Analysis of the bias error induced by reflections in an air-core photonic bandgap fiber gyroscope is performed by both simulation and experiment. The bias error is sinusoidally periodic under modulation, and its intensity is related to the relative positions of the reflection points. A simple and effective method for the suppression of the error is proposed, and it has been verified experimentally.
Quantum information processing in localized modes of light within a photonic band-gap material
Vats, N; John, S; Vats, Nipun; Rudolph, Terry; John, Sajeev
1999-01-01
The single photon occupation of a localized field mode within an engineered network of defects in a photonic band-gap (PBG) material is proposed as a unit of quantum information (qubit). Qubit operations are mediated by optically-excited atoms interacting with these localized states of light as the atoms traverse the connected void network of the PBG structure. We describe conditions under which this system can have independent qubits with controllable interactions and very low decoherence, as required for quantum computation.
Transmission Bandwidth Tunability of a Liquid-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fiber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZOU Bing; LIU Yan-Ge; DU Jiang-Sing; WANG Zhi; HAN Ting-Ting; XU Jian-Bo; LI Yuan; LIU Bo
2009-01-01
@@ A temperature tunable photonic bandgap tiber (PBGF) is demonstrated by an index-guiding photonic crystal fiber filled with high-index liquid. The temperature tunable characteristics of the fiber axe experimentally and numerically investigated. Compression of transmission bandwidth of the PBGF is demonstrated by changing the temperature of part of the fiber. The tunable transmission bandwidth with a range of 250 nm is achieved by changing the temperature from 30℃ to 90℃.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes-Ayona, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Halevi, P. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)
2012-06-15
We calculate the band structure of a magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity. Namely, the permittivity (permeability) is periodic in a plane (single direction). The metallic and magnetic properties are described, respectively, by means of the Drude model and a specific permeability model for Barium-M ferrite. Because of the dispersion of both the permeability and the permittivity, we obtain a non-standard eigenvalue problem which is possible to solve by means of a linearization technique. We found that the first band of this PC is very sensitive to the filling fraction of the magnetic component: by changing this fraction from 0.20 to 0.16 the slope - and effective index of refraction - changes from positive to negative. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Sun, Xiankai; Poot, Menno; Wong, Chee Wei; Tang, Hong X
2012-01-01
We demonstrate a new optomechanical device system which allows highly efficient transduction of femtogram nanobeam resonators. Doubly clamped nanomechanical resonators with mass as small as 25 fg are embedded in a high-finesse two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity. Optical transduction of the fundamental flexural mode around 1 GHz was performed at room temperature and ambient conditions, with an observed displacement sensitivity of 0.94 fm/Hz^(1/2). Comparison of measurements from symmetric and asymmetric double-beam devices reveals hybridization of the mechanical modes where the structural symmetry is shown to be the key to obtain a high mechanical quality factor. Our novel configuration opens the way for a new category of "NEMS-in-cavity" devices based on optomechanical interaction at the nanoscale.
A compact T-branch beam splitter based on anomalous reflection in two-dimensional photonic crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yifeng Shen; Jian Sun; Xiaopeng Shen; Juan Wang; Lulu Sun; Kui Han; Guozhong Wang
2008-01-01
@@ We project a compact T-branch beam splitter with a micron scale using a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). For TE polarization, one light beam can be split into two sub-beams along opposite directions. The propagating directions of the two splitting beams remain unchanged when the incident angle varies in a certain range. Coupled-mode theory is used to analyze the truncating interface structure in order to investigate the energy loss of the splitter. Simulation results and theoretical analysis show that choosing an appropriate location of the truncating interface (PC-air interface) is very important for obtaining high efficiency due to the effect of defect modes. The most advantage of this kind of beam splitter is being fabricated and integrated easily.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ren Cheng; Cheng Li-Feng; Kang Feng; Gan Lin; Zhang Dao-Zhong; Li Zhi-Yuan
2012-01-01
We have designed and fabricated two types of two-port resonant tunneling filters with a triangular air-hole lattice in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs.In order to improve the filtering efficiency,a feedback method is introduced by closing the waveguide.It is found that the relative position between the closed waveguide boundary and the resonator has an important impact on the dropping efficiency.Based on our analyses,two different types of filters are designed.The transmission spectra and scattering-light far-field patterns are measured,which agree well with theoretical prediction.In addition,the resonant filters are highly sensitive to the size of the resonant cavities,which are useful for practical applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jun [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, 453007 Xinxiang, Henan (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, Beijing 100081 (China)
2015-09-28
Simultaneous negative refraction for both the fundamental frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) fields in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals have been found through both the physical analysis and exact numerical simulation. By combining such a property with the phase-matching condition and strong second-order susceptibility, we have designed a SH lens to realize focusing for both the FF and SH fields at the same time. Good-quality non-near field images for both FF and SH fields have been observed. The physical mechanism for such SH focusing phenomena has been disclosed, which is different from the backward SH generation as has been pointed out in the previous investigations. In addition, the effect of absorption losses on the phenomena has also been discussed. Thus, potential applications of these phenomena to biphotonic microscopy technique are anticipated.
Two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based double switch-divider.
Dmitriev, Victor; Martins, Leno
2016-05-01
We propose and investigate a new multifunctional component, consisting of a T-junction of three waveguides in 2D photonic crystal with a square lattice. One waveguide is the input port, while the other two serve as output ports. This component can fulfil three functions: First, it can switch OFF the two output ports; second, our component can be used as a 3 dB divider of the input power; and third, it can switch ON any one of the two output ports. Changing the regime is achieved by a DC magnetic field that magnetizes a cylindrical ferrite resonator placed in the T-junction. We present an analysis of the scattering matrices of the component and calculated frequency characteristics in the low terahertz region. In the frequency band of about 1 GHz with a central frequency of f=98.46 GHz, the device has the following parameters: isolation of the output ports from the input port in the first regime is better than -30 dB, division of the input signal is about (-3.8±1.0) dB in the second regime, and isolation in the regime switch ON, where any one of the two output ports is higher than -15 dB and the insertion loss is lower than -2.0 dB.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Hong; Lou Shu-Qin; Guo Tie-Ying; Yao Lei; Li nong-Lei; Jian ShuiSheng
2008-01-01
A simple model for approximate bandgap structure caculation of all-solid photonic bandgap fibre based on an array of rings is proposed.In this model calculated are only the potential modes of a unit cell,which is a high-index ring in the low-index background for this fibre,rather than the whole cladding periodic structure based on Bloch's theorem to find the bandgap.Its accuracy is proved by comparing its results with the results obtained by using the accurate full-vector plane-wave method.High speed in computation is its great advantage over the other exact methods,because it only needs to find the roots of one-dimensional analytical expressions.And the results of this model,mode plots,offer an ideal environment to explore the basic properties of photonic bandgap clearly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fathollahi Khalkhali, T., E-mail: tfathollahi@aeoi.org.ir; Bananej, A.
2016-12-16
In this study, we analyze complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals with triangular and square lattices, composed of plasma rods with different geometrical shapes in the anisotropic tellurium background. Using the finite-difference time-domain method we discuss the maximization of the complete photonic band gap width as a function of plasma frequency and plasma rods parameters with different shapes and orientations. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed structures represent significantly wide complete photonic band gaps in comparison to previously studied dielectric-plasma photonic crystals. - Highlights: • In this paper, we have investigated plasma photonic crystals. • Plasma is a kind of dispersive medium with its equivalent refractive index related to the frequency of an incident EM wave. • In this work, our simulations are performed using the Meep implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. • For this study, the lattice structures investigated are triangular and square. • Extensive calculations reveal that almost all of these structures represent wide complete band gaps.
Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on twin-core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Scott Wu; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole
We have theoretically investigated twin-core all-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) for evanescent wave sensing of refractive index within one single microfluidic analyte channel centered between the two cores. The sensor can achieve ultrahigh sensitivity by detecting the change in transmission....... We find novel features in the sensing characteristics: the sensitivity is higher at the short wavelength edge of a bandgap than at the long wavelength edge, the effective index of the odd supermode (nodd) is more sensitive to ambient refractive index change compared with that of the even supermode...
Refractive index sensing in an all-solid twin-core photonic bandgap fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Scott Wu; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole
2010-01-01
We describe a highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on a twin-core coupler in an all-solid photonic bandgap guiding optical fiber. A single hole acts as a microfluidic channel for the analyte, which modifies the coupling between the cores, and avoids the need for selective filling....... By operating in the bandgap guiding regime the proposed sensor is capable of measuring refractive indices around that of water, and because the analyte varies the coupling coefficient (i.e., instead of phase matching condition) the device is capable of both high sensitivity and a relatively large dynamic range....
Study on the photonic bandgaps of hollow-core microstructured fibers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhaolun Liu; Guiyao Zhou; Lantian Hou
2006-01-01
A simple method is presented to measure the transmission spectrum of hollow-core microstructured fibers in the visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared regions. The plane wave expansion method is applied to analyze the photonic bandgaps of hollow-core microstructured fibers. The experimental results indicate that there are several strong transmission bands in the near-infrared and mid-infrared region, but hardly any transmission phenomena in the visible region, which shows that there are some bandgaps in nearinfrared wavelength. The experimental results are consistent with the numerically simulative results using a plane wave expansion method.
First Evidence of Near-Infrared Photonic Bandgap in Polymeric Rod-Connected Diamond Structure
Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Xu; Lin, Jia-De; Oulton, Ruth; Lopez-Garcia, Martin; Ho, Ying-Lung D; Rarity, John G
2015-01-01
We present the simulation, fabrication, and optical characterization of low-index polymeric rod-connected diamond (RCD) structures. Such complex three-dimensional photonic crystal structures are created via direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement at near-infrared wavelengths, showing partial photonic bandgaps. We characterize structures in transmission and reflection using angular resolved Fourier image spectroscopy to visualize the band structure. Comparison of the numerical simulations of such structures with the experimentally measured data show good agreement for both P- and S-polarizations.
THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias
2012-01-01
We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...
Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei;
2010-01-01
We investigate the tunability of splay-aligned liquid crystals for the use in solid core photonic crystal fibers. Finite element simulations are used to obtain the alignment of the liquid crystals subject to an external electric field. By means of the liquid crystal director field the optical per...
Synthesis and photonic bandgap characterization of polymer inverse opals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miguez, H.; Meseguer, F.; Lopez, C. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Centro Tecnologico de Ondas; Lopez-Tejeira, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada
2001-03-16
Polymer inverse opals with long-range order have been fabricated and their photonic crystal behavior examined. Good agreement between band structure calculations and experiment is found. It is envisaged that these inverse opals could be used for the modification of the electronic properties of incorporated luminescent materials and as matrices for the synthesis of spherical colloidal particles. (orig.)
Hollow core photonic bandgap fiber with microfluid-infiltrated air holes for slow-light propagation
Ren, Liyong; Liang, Jian; Yun, Maojin
2012-10-01
Slow light plays an important role in the fields of all-optical signal processing and integration photonics. It has shown many potential applications, such as realizing optical delay lines or buffers, enhancing linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions, as well as increasing the sensitivity of the interferometers and transducers. In this paper, hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers made from high index glasses are designed by infiltrating microfluid into the air-holes to tailor the fiber dispersion for slow-light propagation under low pulse distortion. In such a fiber made from Si material, group index ng~8 is obtained with a bandwidth up to 30 nm, where the group index fluctuation is restricted in ±10 % of the ng, while ng~6 is obtained with a bandwidth over 100 nm when the chalcogenide material is selected instead. Such a ±10 % criterion determines a regarded flatland region accordingly, and in this region the group velocity dispersion can be negligible. It is found that for the same fiber length the slow-light time delay in the photonic bandgap fiber is much larger as compared with that in the single mode fiber. This kind of photonic bandgap fiber may have many potential applications in short-distance fiber communications and delay lines.
Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling
2007-09-01
that block copolymers could be self-assembled into 3-D periodic arrays with photonic properties. Instead of using solid spheres as templates, Imhof and...bubble stabilization. Imhof and Pine (11) used a technique called emulsion templating to produce an ordered ceramic foam with potential... Imhof and Pine (11), involves making a monodisperse emulsion with a ceramic precursor as the continuous phase. The emulsion technique could produce
Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for orbital angular momentum applications
Li, H.; Ren, G.; Gao, Y.; Zhu, B.; Wang, J.; Yin, B.; Jian, S.
2017-04-01
We present a study on the potential and challenges of guiding orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs). Two 19-cell HC-PBGFs with different structural parameters are comparably investigated. The OAM mode properties in a 37-cell HC-PBGF are also discussed to explore the scalability of OAM states. Characteristics of vector modes and OAM modes are comprehensively analyzed with numerical simulations. The results show HC-PBGF with a larger core could effectively support more OAM modes with lower confinement loss and a larger effective area. In addition, HC-PBGF with a deeper and wider photonic bandgap is advantageous for achieving low crosstalk OAM transmission over a broader band-width. 19-cell HC-PBGFs could support OAM modes with purity beyond 0.9, and the value can be further improved by exploiting the 37-cell HC-PBGF.
Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zuchen; Zhang, Zhihao; Jin, Jing; Song, Ningfang
2014-11-01
Air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) is an excellent choice for fiber optic gyroscope owing to its incomparable adaptability of environment. Strong and continuous polarization mode coupling is found in PBFs with an average intensity of ~-30 dB, but the coupling arrives at the limit when the maximum optical path difference between the primary waves and the polarization-mode-coupling-induced secondary waves reaches ~10mm, which is corresponding to the PBF length of ~110 m according to the birefringence in the PBF. Incident light with the low extinction ratio (ER) can suppress the birth of the polarization-mode-coupling-induced secondary waves, but the low-ER light obtained by the conventional Lyot depolarizers does not work here. Consequently, a large nonreciprocity and a bias error of ~13°/h are caused in the air-core photonic bandgap fiber optical gyroscope (PBFOG) with a PBF coil of ~268 m.
Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia
2016-12-01
The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Jian-Wen; Hu Xin-Hua; Wang He-Zhou
2007-01-01
This paper has theoretically studied the characteristic frequencies of band structures in two-dimensional metallicdielectric photonic crystals. It is demonstrated that a large filling fraction benefits the existence of absolute photonic band gap, while a smaller filling fraction benefits an absolute negative refraction band. In addition, it also finds that the relation between the cut-off frequency of E-polarized wave and the filling fraction exceeding 10% is content with a linear increasing function, whose coefficients are exponential to the normalized lattice constant. These investigations have significant implications for tuning the operational frequencies to desired applications and manufacturing photonic crystals.
Influence of air pressure on soliton formation in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper; Roberts, Peter John
2009-01-01
Abstract Soliton formation during dispersive compression of chirped few-picosecond pulses at the microjoule level in a hollow-core photonic bandgap (HC-PBG) fiber is studied by numerical simulations. Long-pass filtering of the emerging frequency-shifted solitons is investigated with the objective...... at high powers. This allows a scaling of the output pulse energy toward the microjoule level. © 2009 Optical Society of America...
Impact of structural distortions on the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers
2014-01-01
We present a generic model for studying numerically the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs) with arbitrary cross-sectional distortions. Fully vectorial finite element simulations reveal that distortions beyond the second ring of air holes have an impact on the leakage loss and bandwidth of the fiber, but do not significantly alter its surface scattering loss which remains the dominant contribution to the overall fiber loss (providing that a sufficient number of rings...
Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes
2008-01-01
A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed by in...... by increasing the temperature from 25°C to 100°C. The measurements are compared to a simulated spectrum obtained by means of a vectorial Beam Propagation Method model....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
SU-8 structures are built up to increase the fiber coupling efficiency of liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber components. The resolution reduction of UV exposure is minimized to 4%, and insertion loss is reduced to 2.7dB.......SU-8 structures are built up to increase the fiber coupling efficiency of liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber components. The resolution reduction of UV exposure is minimized to 4%, and insertion loss is reduced to 2.7dB....
Numerical simulation and analysis of losses in air-core plastic photonic bandgap fibers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tieshan Guan; Mingyang Chen; Zhilong Zhang; Rongjin Yu
2005-01-01
@@ The loss properties of air-core plastic photonic bandgap fibers are analyzed by multipole method. Despite the relatively large absorption loss of plastics (PMMA), the contribution of material absorption loss can be reduced significantly through appropriate selection of operating wavelength, number of cladding air-hole rings, radius of air-core, and position of photonic band gap. The transmission loss in this type of fiber can be decreased by an order of magnitude in comparison with that of conventional plastic optical fiber.
Continuous generation of Rubidium vapor in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers
Donvalkar, Prathamesh S; Clemmen, Stephane; Gaeta, Alexander L
2015-01-01
We demonstrate high optical depths (50+/-5), lasting for hours in Rubidium-filled hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, which represents a 1000X improvement over operation times previously reported. We investigate the vapor generation mechanism using both a continuous-wave and a pulsed light source and find that the mechanism for generating the Rubidium atoms is primarily due to thermal vaporization. Continuous generation of large vapor densities should enable measurements at the single-photon level by averaging over longer time scales.
Frequency translation via four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in Rb filled photonic bandgap fibers.
Donvalkar, Prathamesh S; Venkataraman, Vivek; Clemmen, Stéphane; Saha, Kasturi; Gaeta, Alexander L
2014-03-15
We demonstrate frequency translation at microwatt pump power levels in Rubidium vapor confined to a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering. The 5S(1/2)→5D(3/2) two-photon transition in 85Rb is employed for the four-wave mixing process. Using continuous-wave pump beams at 780 and 795 nm, a weak signal beam at 776 nm is translated to a wavelength of 762 nm with a 21% conversion efficiency at pump powers of 300 μW.
Stability and bandgaps of layered perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castelli, Ivano Eligio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Hüser, Falco
2013-01-01
Direct production of hydrogen from water and sunlight requires stable and abundantly available semiconductors with well positioned band edges relative to the water red-ox potentials. We have used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate 300 oxides and oxynitrides...... in the Ruddlesden–Popper phase of the layered perovskite structure. Based on screening criteria for the stability, bandgaps and band edge positions, we suggest 20 new materials for the light harvesting photo-electrode of a one-photon water splitting device and 5 anode materials for a two-photon device with silicon...
Olkhovsky, V. S.
2014-05-01
The formal mathematical analogy between time-dependent quantum equation for the nonrelativistic particles and time-dependent equation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves had been studied in [A. I. Akhiezer and V. B. Berestezki, Quantum Electrodynamics (FM, Moscow, 1959) [in Russian] and S. Schweber, An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Field Theory, Chap. 5.3 (Row, Peterson & Co, Ill, 1961)]. Here, we deal with the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for nonrelativistic particles and with time-dependent Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. Then, using this similarity, the tunneling and multiple internal reflections in one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particle and photon tunneling are studied. Finally, some conclusions and future perspectives for further investigations are presented.
Stability and bandgaps of layered perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting
Castelli, Ivano E.; María García-Lastra, Juan; Hüser, Falco; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.
2013-10-01
Direct production of hydrogen from water and sunlight requires stable and abundantly available semiconductors with well positioned band edges relative to the water red-ox potentials. We have used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate 300 oxides and oxynitrides in the Ruddlesden-Popper phase of the layered perovskite structure. Based on screening criteria for the stability, bandgaps and band edge positions, we suggest 20 new materials for the light harvesting photo-electrode of a one-photon water splitting device and 5 anode materials for a two-photon device with silicon as photo-cathode. In addition, we explore a simple rule relating the bandgap of the perovskite to the number of octahedra in the layered structure and the B-metal ion. Finally, the quality of the GLLB-SC potential used to obtain the bandgaps, including the derivative discontinuity, is validated against G0W0@LDA gaps for 20 previously identified oxides and oxynitrides in the cubic perovskite structure.
Novel photonic bandgap based architectures for quantum computers and networks
Guney, Durdu
All of the approaches for quantum information processing have their own advantages, but unfortunately also their own drawbacks. Ideally, one would merge the most attractive features of those different approaches in a single technology. We envision that large-scale photonic crystal (PC) integrated circuits and fibers could be the basis for robust and compact quantum circuits and processors of the next generation quantum computers and networking devices. Cavity QED, solid-state, and (non)linear optical models for computing, and optical fiber approach for communications are the most promising candidates to be improved through this novel technology. In our work, we consider both digital and analog quantum computing. In the digital domain, we first perform gate-level analysis. To achieve this task, we solve the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with time-dependent coupling parameters under the dipole and rotating-wave approximations for a 3D PC single-mode cavity with a sufficiently high Q-factor. We then exploit the results to show how to create a maximally entangled state of two atoms and how to implement several quantum logic gates: a dual-rail Hadamard gate, a dual-rail NOT gate, and a SWAP gate. In all of these operations, we synchronize atoms, as opposed to previous studies with PCs. The method has the potential for extension to N-atom entanglement, universal quantum logic operations, and the implementation of other useful, cavity QED-based quantum information processing tasks. In the next part of the digital domain, we study circuit-level implementations. We design and simulate an integrated teleportation and readout circuit on a single PC chip. The readout part of our device can not only be used on its own but can also be integrated with other compatible optical circuits to achieve atomic state detection. Further improvement of the device in terms of compactness and robustness is possible by integrating with sources and detectors in the optical regime. In the analog
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Jiang, Yu-Chi [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2014-09-15
In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi
2014-09-01
In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maksim Skorobogatiy
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We review application of microstructured and photonic bandgap fibers for designing resonant optical sensors of changes in the value of analyte refractive index. This research subject has recently invoked much attention due to development of novel fiber types, as well as due to development of techniques for the activation of fiber microstructure with functional materials. Particularly, we consider two sensors types. The first sensor type employs hollow core photonic bandgap fibers where core guided mode is confined in the analyte filled core through resonant effect in the surrounding periodic reflector. The second sensor type employs metalized microstructured or photonic bandgap waveguides and fibers, where core guided mode is phase matched with a plasmon propagating at the fiber/analyte interface. In resonant sensors one typically employs fibers with strongly nonuniform spectral transmission characteristics that are sensitive to changes in the real part of the analyte refractive index. Moreover, if narrow absorption lines are present in the analyte transmission spectrum, due to Kramers-Kronig relation this will also result in strong variation in the real part of the refractive index in the vicinity of an absorption line. Therefore, resonant sensors allow detection of minute changes both in the real part of the analyte refractive index (10−6–10−4 RIU, as well as in the imaginary part of the analyte refractive index in the vicinity of absorption lines. In the following we detail various resonant sensor implementations, modes of operation, as well as analysis of sensitivities for some of the common transduction mechanisms for bio- and chemical sensing applications. Sensor designs considered in this review span spectral operation regions from the visible to terahertz.
Waveguiding and bending modes in a plasma photonic crystal bandgap device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Waveguiding and bending modes are investigated in a fully tunable plasma photonic crystal. The plasma device actively controls the propagation of free space electromagnetic waves in the S to X band of the microwave spectrum. An array of discharge plasma tubes form a square crystal lattice exhibiting a well-defined bandgap, with individual active switching of the plasma elements to allow for waveguiding and bending modes to be generated dynamically. We show, through simulations and experiments, the existence of transverse electric (TE mode waveguiding and bending modes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard
2009-01-01
Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in an anisotropically etched V-groove is investigated for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices. The photoresist step coverage at the convex corners is compared with and without soft baking after photoresist spin...... coating. Two-step UV exposure is applied to achieve a complete exposure for the thick photoresist layer at the bottom of the V-groove, and minimise the reduction in resolution and image distortion. The resolution reduction of the different open window width for electrode pattern transfer is also...
Metallic Photonic Bandgap Resonant Antennas with High Directivity and High Radiation Resistance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林青春; 符建; 何赛灵; 章坚武
2002-01-01
A metallic photonic bandgap (MPBG) resonant antenna is introduced, which has novel characteristics (such as high directivity and high radiation resistance for a certain range of frequencies) as compared to conventional MPBG antennas. The linear MPBG resonant antenna is formed by infinitely long metallic rods in vacuum. The numerical results for the radiation pattern and the radiation resistance are presented. By adjusting the struct ure of the MPBG resonant antenna and its working frequency, an optimal structure is achieved. The physical reasons for the novel characteristics of the MPBG resonant antenna are also explained.
Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber gas sensor with high sensitivity and fast response
Yang, Fan; Jin, Wei; Cao, Yingchun; Ho, Hoi Lut
2014-05-01
The effects of modal interference (MI) on the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) gas sensors are investigated. By optimizing mode launch, applying wavelength modulation with proper modulation parameters as well as appropriate digital signal processing, an estimated lower detection limit of drilling side-hole on the MI and response time are also studied. With a 62-cm long sensing HC-PBF drilled with multiple side-holes, an acetylene sensor with a lower detection limit of 11 ppmv and a recovery time of 2 minute is demonstrated.
Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography.
Chan, Timothy Y M; Toader, Ovidiu; John, Sajeev
2006-04-01
We demonstrate an approach for fabricating photonic crystals with large three-dimensional photonic band gaps (PBG's) using single-exposure, single-beam, optical interference lithography based on diffraction of light through an optical phase mask. The optical phase mask (OPM) consists of two orthogonally oriented binary gratings joined by a thin, solid layer of homogeneous material. Illuminating the phase mask with a normally incident beam produces a five-beam diffraction pattern which can be used to expose a suitable photoresist and produce a photonic crystal template. Optical-phase-mask Lithography (OPML) is a major simplification from the previously considered multibeam holographic lithography of photonic crystals. The diffracted five-beam intensity pattern exhibits isointensity surfaces corresponding to a diamondlike (face-centered-cubic) structure, with high intensity contrast. When the isointensity surfaces in the interference patterns define a silicon-air boundary in the resulting photonic crystal, with dielectric contrast 11.9 to 1, the optimized PBG is approximately 24% of the gap center frequency. The ideal index contrast for the OPM is in the range of 1.7-2.3. Below this range, the intensity contrast of the diffraction pattern becomes too weak. Above this range, the diffraction pattern may become too sensitive to structural imperfections of the OPM. When combined with recently demonstrated polymer-to-silicon replication methods, OPML provides a highly efficient approach, of unprecedented simplicity, for the mass production of large-scale three-dimensional photonic band-gap materials.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Tao; ZHU Xing; ZHANG Bei; ZHANG Zhen-Sheng; LIU Dan; WANG Xiao; BAO Kui; KANG Xiang-Ning; XU Jun; Yu Da-Peng
2007-01-01
A two-dimensional array of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal(12PQC)is fabricated on the surface of current injected GaN-based LEDs to out-couple guided modes.The spatially-resolved surface light extraction mapping of 12PQC is observed and compared with that of triangular lattice photonic crystal (3PC)by microscopic electrical luminescence and scanning near-field microscopy.The higher enhancement factor of 12PQC is obtained to be larger than that of 3PC.It is shown that 12PQC is more favourable and efficient for light extraction of guided lights.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Ding, Guo-Wen; Li, Hai-Ming; Liu, Shao-Bin [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2015-02-15
In this paper, the properties of complete photonic band gaps (CPBGs) and tunable self-collimation in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) with a new structure in square lattices, whose dielectric fillers (GaAs) are inserted into homogeneous and nomagnetized plasma background are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method with a novel technique. The novel PWE method can be utilized to compute the dispersion curves of 2D PPCs with arbitrary-shaped cross section in any lattices. As a comparison, CPBGs of PPCs for four different configurations are numerically calculated. The computed results show that the proposed design has the advantages of achieving the larger CPBGs compared to the other three configurations. The influences of geometric parameters of filled unit cell and plasma frequency on the properties of CPBGs are studied in detail. The calculated results demonstrate that CPBGs of the proposed 2D PPCs can be easily engineered by changing those parameters, and the larger CPBGs also can be obtained by optimization. The self-collimation in such 2D PPCs also is discussed in theory under TM wave. The theoretical simulations reveal that the self-collimation phenomena can be found in the TM bands, and both the frequency range of self-collimation and the equifrequency surface contours can be tuned by the parameters as mentioned above. It means that the frequency range and direction of electromagnetic wave can be manipulated by designing, as it propagates in the proposed PPCs without diffraction. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications based on the proposed PPCs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai-Feng Zhang
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs under a transverse-magnetic (TM wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin
2016-08-01
In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.
Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures
Men, Han; Freund, Robert M; Peraire, Jaime; Johnson, Steven G
2014-01-01
We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniq...
Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Celine Caillaud
2014-08-01
Full Text Available An original way to obtain fibers with special chromatic dispersion and single-mode behavior is to consider microstructured optical fibers (MOFs. These fibers present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. In this study, the first all-solid all-chalcogenide MOFs exhibiting photonic bandgap transmission have been achieved and optically characterized. The fibers are made of an As38Se62 matrix, with inclusions of Te20As30Se50 glass that shows a higher refractive index (n = 2.9. In those fibers, several transmission bands have been observed in mid infrared depending on the geometry. In addition, for the first time, propagation by photonic bandgap effect in an all-chalcogenide MOF has been observed at 3.39 µm, 9.3 µm, and 10.6 µm. The numerical simulations based on the optogeometric properties of the fibers agree well with the experimental characterizations.
Study on ceramic photonic bandgap structure with three-dimensional diamond lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haiqing Yin; Wenbin Cao; Y. Miyamoto
2006-01-01
A novel process, which was based on powder injection molding, was investigated for the fabrication of ceramic photonic bandgap structure with three-dimensional diamond lattice. The SiO2-TiO2 ceramic powder was mixed with a water-soluble agent to produce slurry. The slurry was then injected into an epoxy mold with inverse diamond lattice, fabricated by the stereolitographic rapid prototyping process. To increase the density of the green compact, cold isostatic pressing was applied on the unit. Using thermal debinding, the water-soluble agent and the epoxy were extracted at 360 and 650 K, respectively. Sintering was immediately done at 950 K for 5 h and the desired three-dimensional ceramic structure was obtained. The calculated band diagram for this structure indicated the existence of an absolute photonic bandgap for all wave vectors. At 14.7-18.5 GHz, a complete band gap was located with a maximum attenuation of 30 dB at 17 GHz, when transmission was measured in the 〈100〉 direction between 10 and 20 GHz.
Wang, Hsiao-Tsung; Timofeev, Ivan V; Chang, Kai; Zyryanov, Victor Ya; Lee, Wei
2014-06-16
A one-dimensional asymmetric photonic crystal with dual-frequency liquid crystal as a central defect layer was demonstrated. Such asymmetric structure was characterized by the dramatic increase in intensity of the electric field of light localized at the overlapped photonic bandgap edges, thereby enhancing the observed transmittance of the spectral windows originating from the defect layer. The defect layer was made of a dual-mode liquid crystal that exhibited not only electrical tunability and switchability but also optical bistability. Consequently, tunable and bistable defect modes can be realized in the photonic structure. This asymmetric photonic crystal structure is promising and should be further explored for photonic device applications.
High-Power Yb-Doped Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier at 1150-1200nm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maruyama, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.
2008-01-01
Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained.......Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained....
Jiang, Qiang; Chen, Jiabi; Wang, Yan; Liang, Binming; Hu, Jinbing; Zhuang, Songlin
2016-04-01
Although the inverse Doppler effect has been observed experimentally at optical frequencies in photonic crystal with negative effective refractive index, its explanation is based on phenomenological theory rather than a strict theory. Elucidating the physical mechanism underlying the inverse Doppler shift is necessary. In this article, the primary electrical field component in the photonic crystal that leads to negative refraction was extracted, and the phase evolution of the entire process when light travels through a moving photonic crystal was investigated using static and dynamic finite different time domain methods. The analysis demonstrates the validity of the use of np (the effective refractive index of the photonic crystal in the light path) in these calculations, and reveals the origin of the inverse Doppler effect in photonic crystals.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Falk, Charlotte Ijeoma; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian
2009-01-01
We demonstrate suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030 nm in a cladding-pumped polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped solid core photonic crystal fibre. The fibre works through combined index and bandgap guiding. Furthermore, we...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;
2008-01-01
A dual-function all-in-fiber device based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers is presented. This device can work both as an electrically tunable waveplate in the range 1520nm-1580nm, and as a polarimeter at 1310nm....
Singh, Gurpreet; Tan, Eng Leong; Chen, Zhi Ning
2012-02-01
This Letter presents a split-step (SS) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the efficient analysis of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) with anisotropic media. The proposed SS FDTD method is formulated with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions and caters for inhomogeneous anisotropic media. Furthermore, the proposed method is derived using the efficient SS1 splitting formulas with simpler right-hand sides that are more efficient and easier to implement. A 2-D PhC cavity with anisotropic media is used as an example to validate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique.
Cusano, Andrea; Iadicicco, Agostino; Paladino, Domenico; Campopiano, Stefania; Cutolo, Antonello
2008-09-29
Localized heat treatments combined with local non-adiabatic tapering is proposed as suitable tool for the engineering of photonic band-gaps in UV-written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). In particular, here, we propose the use of the electric arc discharge to achieve localized defects along the FBG structure, however differently from previously reported works, we demonstrate how this post processing tool properly modified can be exploited to achieve the full control of the spectral characteristics of the final device. Also, we show how the suitable choice of the grating features and the correct selection of the defect geometry can be efficiently used to achieve interesting features for both communication and sensing applications.
Impact of structural distortions on the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.
Fokoua, Eric Numkam; Richardson, David J; Poletti, Francesco
2014-02-10
We present a generic model for studying numerically the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs) with arbitrary cross-sectional distortions. Fully vectorial finite element simulations reveal that distortions beyond the second ring of air holes have an impact on the leakage loss and bandwidth of the fiber, but do not significantly alter its surface scattering loss which remains the dominant contribution to the overall fiber loss (providing that a sufficient number of rings of air holes (≥ 5) are used). We have found that while most types of distortions in the first two rings are generally detrimental, enlarging the core defect while keeping equidistant and on a circular boundary the glass nodes surrounding the core may produce losses half those compared to "idealized" fiber designs and with no penalty in terms of the transmission bandwidth.
Gamma irradiation of minimal latency Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibres
Olanterae, L; Richardson, D J; Vasey, F; Wooler, J P; Petrovich, M N; Wheeler, N V; Poletti, F; Troska, J
2013-01-01
Hollow-Core Photonic-Bandgap Fibres (HC-PBGFs) offer several distinct advantages over conventional fibres, such as low latency and radiation hardness; properties that make HC-PBGFs interesting for the high energy physics community. This contribution presents the results from a gamma irradiation test carried out using a new type of HC-PBGF that combines sufficiently low attenuation over distances that are compatible with high energy physics applications together with a transmission bandwidth that covers the 1550 nm region. The radiation induced attenuation of the HC-PBGF was two orders of magnitude lower than that of a conventional fibre during a 67.5 h exposure to gamma-rays, resulting in a radiation-induced attenuation of only 2.1 dB/km at an accumulated dose of 940 kGy.
Backward Secondary-Wave Coherence Errors in Photonic Bandgap Fiber Optic Gyroscopes
Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing
2016-01-01
Photonic bandgap fiber optic gyroscope (PBFOG) is a novel fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with excellent environment adaptability performance compared to a conventional FOG. In this work we find and investigate the backward secondary-wave coherence (BSC) error, which is a bias error unique to the PBFOG and caused by the interference between back-reflection-induced and backscatter-induced secondary waves. Our theoretical and experimental results show a maximum BSC error of ~4.7°/h for a 300-m PBF coil with a diameter of 10 cm. The BSC error is an important error source contributing to bias instability in the PBFOG and has to be addressed before practical applications of the PBFOG can be implemented. PMID:27338388
Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin
2016-01-01
Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way. PMID:27698465
Singh, Bipin K.; Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.
2014-12-01
We have demonstrated control of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) in 1-D photonic crystals using linear graded index material. The analysis of PBG has been done in THz region by considering photonic crystals in the form of ten periods of second, third and fourth generation of the Fibonacci sequence as unit cell. The unit cells are constituted of two kinds of layers; one is taken of linear graded index material and other of normal dielectric material. For this investigation, we used a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method. We have obtained a large number of PBGs and their bandwidths can be tuned by changing the grading profile and thicknesses of linear graded index layers. The number of PBGs increases with increase in the thicknesses of layers and their bandwidths can be controlled by the contrast of initial and final refractive index of the graded layers. In this way, we provide more design freedom for photonic devices such as reflectors, filters, optical sensors, couplers, etc.
Fontana, Y.; Grzela, G.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Gomez Rivas, J.
2012-01-01
Controlling the dispersion and directionality of the emission of nanosources is one of the major goals of nanophotonics research. This control will allow the development of highly efficient nanosources even at the single-photon level. One of the ways to achieve this goal is to couple the emission to
Growth and Characterization of GaAs/AlGaAs Thue-Morse Quasicrystal Photonic Bandgap Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yong-Gang; JIANG Xun-Ya; ZHU Cheng; GU Yi; LI Ai-Zhen; QI Ming; FENG Song-Lin
2005-01-01
@@ One-dimensional quasicrystal structures composed of Ⅲ-V semiconductor GaAs/AlGaAs multilayers in deterministic Thue-Morse (TM) sequences have been grown by using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy to investigate both the structural and the photonic bandgap properties. The x-ray measurements show that this aperiodic system exhibits obvious periodic spatial correlations, from which the precise thickness of the constitutive layers could be determined. Transmission and reflection measurements experimentally demonstrated plenty of photonic bandgaps with traditional or fractal features existing in those quasicrystal structures, which are in good agreement with the transfer matrix simulations. The diversity of this TM system makes it a good candidate for photonic device applications.
Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures.
Men, H; Lee, K Y K; Freund, R M; Peraire, J; Johnson, S G
2014-09-22
We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniques such as a simple approach to impose symmetry constraints. We also demonstrate a technique for robust topology optimization, in which some uncertainty is included in each voxel and we optimize the worst-case gap, and we show that the resulting band gaps have increased robustness to systematic fabrication errors.
Park, Byoungchoo; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sun Woong; Ho Park, Jin
2008-09-15
We studied 1-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) films with three alternating layers to investigate multi-mode photonic band-gaps (PBGs) at red, green, and blue color regions. From simulations, it was shown that PCs with three alternating layered elements of [a/b/c] structure have sharp PBGs at the three color regions with the central wavelengths of 459 nm, 527 nm, and 626 nm, simultaneously. Experimentally, it was proven that red, green, and blue PBGs were generated clearly by the PCs, which were made of multilayers of [SiO(2)/Ta(2)O(5)/TiO(2)], based on the simulation. It was also shown that the measured wavelengths of the PBGs corresponded exactly to those of the simulated results. Moreover, it was demonstrated that a 1-D PC of [a/b/c] structure can be used for making white organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with improved color rendering index (CRI) for color display or lighting.
Photonic band-gap and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic crystal under localized compression
Sánchez, A.; Porta, A. V.; Orozco, S.
2017-05-01
The rupture of periodicity caused by one defect (defect layer) in a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPhC) results in a narrow transmission spectral line in the photonic band-gap, and the field distribution shows a strong confinement in the proximity of the defect layer. In this work, we present a theoretical model to calculate the frequency of defect modes caused by defect layers induced by localized mechanical stress. Two periodical arrangements were studied: one with layers of poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), PMMA-PS; the other with layers of PMMA and fused silica (SiO2), PMMA-SiO2. The defect layers were induced by localized compression (tension). The frequencies of the defect modes were calculated using elasto-optical theory and plane wave expansion and perturbation methods. Numerical results show that the frequency of the defect mode increases (decreases) when the compression (tension) increases. Based on the theoretical model developed, we show that compression of n layers of a 1DPhC induces n defect modes whose frequencies depend on the compression magnitude in the case of normal incidence of electromagnetic waves, in accordance with the results reported for other types of defect layers. The methodology shows the feasibility of the plane wave expansion and perturbation methods to study the frequency of the defect modes. Both periodical arrangements are suitable for designing mechanically tunable (1DPhC)-based narrow pass band filters and narrow reflectors in the (60, 65) THz range.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Hua-Yong; Xu Xing-Sheng
2013-01-01
An electrically driven,single-longitudinal-mode GaAs based photonic crystal (PC) ridge waveguide (RWG) laser emitting at around 850 nm is demonstrated.The single-longitudinal-mode lasing characteristic is achieved by introducing the PC to the RWG laser.The triangle PC is etched on both sides of the ridge by photolithography and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching.The lasing spectra of the RWG lasers with and without the PC are studied,and the result shows that the PC purifies the longitudinal mode.The power per facet versus current and current-voltage characteristics have also been studied and compared.
Kim, Sejong
Photonic crystals (PC) are structures in which the refractive index is a periodic function in space. The ability of photonic crystals to localize and manipulate electromagnetic waves has attracted considerable attention from the scientific community. The self-assembly of monodisperse micrometer scale colloidal spheres into hexagonal closed-packed colloidal crystals provides a simple, fast, and cheap materials chemistry approach to PCs. Employing DNA supramolecular recognition, 2-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal monolayer was fabricated with monodisperse polystyrene colloidal microspheres. Amine-terminated DNA oligomers were covalently attached onto carboxy-decorated microspheres and enabled their DNA-functionalization while preserving their colloidal stability and organization properties. Following a capillary-force-assisted organization of DNA-decorated microspheres into close-packed 2D opaline arrays, the first monolayer was immobilized by DNA hybridization. Insertion of vacancies at predetermined sites within the lattice of colloidal crystals is a prerequisite in order to realize high-quality, opaline-based photonic devices. The previously obtained DNA-hybridization type binding of 2D-opaline arrays provides a heat-sensitive "adhesive" between substrate and microspheres within a surrounding aqueous medium that enables tuning the hybridization strength of DNA linker as well as a mechanism to facilitate the removal of unbound microspheres. Focusing a laser beam onto a single microsphere of the opaline array induces localized heating that enables the microsphere to detach, leaving behind vacancies. By repeating this process, line vacancies were successfully obtained. The effects of salt concentration, laser power, light-absorbing dyes, DNA length and refractive index mismatch were investigated and found to correlate with heat-induced DNA dehybridization. In addition, AC (alternating current) electrokinetic force was also utilized to obtain assembly of colloidal
Liu, Zhengqi; Liu, Long; Lu, Haiyang; Zhan, Peng; Du, Wei; Wan, Mingjie; Wang, Zhenlin
2017-03-01
Recently, techniques involving random patterns have made it possible to control the light trapping of microstructures over broad spectral and angular ranges, which provides a powerful approach for photon management in energy efficiency technologies. Here, we demonstrate a simple method to create a wideband near-unity light absorber by introducing a dense and random pattern of metal-capped monodispersed dielectric microspheres onto an opaque metal film; the absorber works due to the excitation of multiple optical and plasmonic resonant modes. To further expand the absorption bandwidth, two different-sized metal-capped dielectric microspheres were integrated into a densely packed monolayer on a metal back-reflector. This proposed ultra-broadband plasmonic-photonic super absorber demonstrates desirable optical trapping in dielectric region and slight dispersion over a large incident angle range. Without any effort to strictly control the spatial arrangement of the resonant elements, our absorber, which is based on a simple self-assembly process, has the critical merits of high reproducibility and scalability and represents a viable strategy for efficient energy technologies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁馨元; 陈笑; 王义全; 冯帅; 杨国建; 陈胥冲
2013-01-01
Light propagation in photonic band gaps in two-dimensional organic octagonal quasiperiodic photonic crystal slabs is investigated by finite-difference time-domain method. The transmission property and light localization in the polystyrene air-rod slab and air polystyrene-rod slab are compared in detail. The results show that even in extremely low-index dielectric contrast of rods, the photonic band gaps and eigenmodes are observed in the visible spectrum. Besides, the central position of bandgap is red-shifted with the increase of slab thickness. When defects are introduced into two quasiperiodic structures, the occurrence position of defect modes and property of red-shifting in wavelength of modes are different with the increase of size of defect nanocavities. The difference in property originates from the competition consequence of two physical mechanisms which are the energy levels of defects in photonic crystals and the resonance of modes in the defect cavity. The results may give theoretical support for fabricating luminescent devices based on organic quasicrystals.%采用时域有限差分法研究了二维八重准晶有机光子晶体的光传输特性,重点分析了光束在聚苯乙烯空气柱平板结构和聚苯乙烯介质柱结构中的透射特性与光局域特性.研究结果表明,即使在低折射率对比度的情况下,两种完整八重准晶平板结构中均出现了可见光波段的光子带隙和本征模,且光子带隙中心位置随着平板厚度的增大而红移.当在两种准晶结构中引入缺陷微腔时,带隙内的缺陷模产生位置和波长红移特性随着微腔结构的变化规律明显不同,这种差异性是由两种物理机制(即光子晶体缺陷能级变化与微腔所支持的驻波条件)共同作用的结果.这一研究结果将为实验制备有机准晶发光器件提供一定的理论基础.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;
2009-01-01
We infiltrate photonic crystal fibers with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal. 396nm bandgap shift is obtained in the temperature range 22°C-80°C, and 67 nm shift of long-wavelength bandgap edge is achieved by applying a voltage of 200Vrms. The polarization sensitivity and correspond...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Jin-Hui; Yu Chong-Xiu; Sang Xin-Zhu; Zhang Jin-Long; Zhou Gui-Yao; Li Shu-Guang; Hou Lan-Tian
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the guided-mode characteristics of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibre (HC-PBGF) with interstitial holes fabricated by an improved twice stack-and-draw technique at visible wavelengths. Based on the simulation model with interstitial holes, the influence of glass interstitial apexes on photonic band-gaps is discussed.The existing forms of guided-mode in part band gaps are shown by using the full-vector plane-wave method. In the experiment, the observed transmission spectrum corresponds to the part band gaps obtained by simulation. The fundamental and second-order guided-modes with mixture of yellow and green light are observed through choosing appropriate fibre length and adjusting coupling device. The loss mechanism of guided-modes in HC-PBGF is also discussed.
Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers.
Hensley, Christopher J; Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Gaeta, Alexander L; Venkataraman, Natesan; Gallagher, Michael T; Koch, Karl W
2007-03-19
We measure the effective nonlinearity of various hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Our findings indicate that differences of tens of nanometers in the fiber structure result in significant changes to the power propagating in the silica glass and thus in the effective nonlinearity of the fiber. These results show that it is possible to engineer the nonlinear response of these fibers via small changes to the glass structure.
Phase sensitivity of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber to acoustic pressure
Pang, M.; Jin, W.
2009-10-01
Detection of acoustic pressure with optical fiber interferometers has been studied for many years1-3. The conventional solid silica fiber hydrophone was sufficient to prove the concept; however, it has low acoustic sensitivity. This is because 1) the silica glass material has relatively high Young's modulus, which makes the conventional fiber incompressible; 2) the refractive index change resulted from fiber strain has opposite sign with respective to the strain term and hence compromises the acoustic sensitivity. In a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF), the fundamental mode is almost entirely confined to the air core, the effective Young's modulus of fiber is expected to be reduced and the undesirable "negative" index effect is anticipated to be greatly decreased. We experimentally measured that the phase sensitivity of the commercial HC-1550-02 PBF and found it is improved by a factor of 15dB compared to a conventional (HNSM-155) single mode fiber, which agrees well with theoretical prediction.
Design of a second cyclotron harmonic gyrotron oscillator with photonic band-gap cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Gaofeng; Chen Xiaoan; Tang Changjian, E-mail: angelchen765@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)
2011-07-27
A photonic band-gap cavity (PBGC) gyrotron with a frequency of about 98 GHz is designed. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are made for the PBGC operating at fundamental and second cyclotron harmonic with a TE{sub 34} waveguide mode to demonstrate the beam-wave interaction. The results show that mode competition is successfully eliminated in the PBGC using mode selectivity and choosing the appropriate operating parameters. As a result, the second harmonic PBGC gyrotron operating at TE{sub 34} mode achieves a higher output efficiency than that of the fundamental. It is also demonstrated that, in the case of the chosen parameters for TE{sub 34} waveguide mode, the use of PBG structure in the second harmonic gyrotron brings about not only a lower operating B-field but also a weaker mode competition. The results show that the high-order electromagnetic mode can be developed to interact with the high cyclotron harmonic using the selectivity of the PBGC, which gives an encouraging outlook for the development of high-harmonic gyrotrons.
Studies on Inverse Opal and Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystals%反Opal及二维非线性光子晶体的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
倪培根; 程丙英; 张道中
2006-01-01
通过向SiO2 Opal模板中填充钛酸乙酯制备TiO2光子晶体,观测到光子晶体带隙位置的移动达62nm,并发现光子晶体的有序度随填充率的升高而下降.向聚苯乙烯Opal模板中填充钛酸乙酯,制备成当时填充率最高、带隙最短的紫外波段TiO2反Opal光子晶体(中心波长～380nm),并根据测量的其透射谱估算出其填充率约为12%,即Opal模板孔隙的50%被填充.本文还对二维PPLN光子晶体进行了研究.建立了一套高压极化装置和电压数据采集装置,通过外加电场极化法成功制备出了具有正方形和矩形两种晶格形状二维PPLN光子晶体.利用二维PPLN的二阶准相位匹配,测量了其对1.064μm激光的二次谐波转换效率,并研究了晶体的温度、激光的入射角度及占空比对二次谐波转换效率的影响.利用矩形晶格实现了多方向、多波长倍频高效输出.%In this paper, we report some results on inverse opal photonic crystal and two-dimensional periodically poled lithium niobate photonic crystal. First, the process of infiltrating TiO2 into SiO2 Opal was systematically studied. Because of the infiltration of TiO2, the gap of SiO2 Opal was shifted to longer wavelength and a maximum shift of 62nm was observed. Furthermore, an inverse TiO2 Opal with larger filling fraction, ～ 12%, was fabricated, whose band gap in the Γ-L direction is located in the ultraviolet region ( ～ 380nm). Then two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals of lithium nlobate with uniform square lattices were fabricated by applying external electric fields. The variations of second-harmonic output with crystal temperatures, incident angles and reversed duty cycles were measured. Red, yellow,green, blue, and violet coherent radiations were generated in the nonlinear photonic crystal with rectangular lattice in the collinearly and non-collinearly quasi-phase matching geometries. The results showed that two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
In this letter, a compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal (LC) photonic bandgap fiber polarizer is designed and fabricated. A good fiber coupling quality between two single-mode fibers and one 10-mm-long LC-filled photonic crystal fiber is obtained and protected by using SU-8 fiber...... fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....
Bandgap Engineering of Double Perovskites for One- and Two-photon Water Splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
2013-01-01
Computational screening is becoming increasingly useful in the search for new materials. We are interested in the design of new semiconductors to be used for light harvesting in a photoelectrochemical cell. In the present paper, we study the double perovskite structures obtained by combining 46...... stable cubic perovskites which was found to have a finite bandgap in a previous screening-study. The four-metal double perovskite space is too large to be investigated completely. For this reason we propose a method for combining different metals to obtain a desired bandgap. We derive some bandgap design...... rules on how to combine two cubic perovskites to generate a new combination with a larger or smaller bandgap compared with the constituent structures. Those rules are based on the type of orbitals involved in the conduction bands and on the size of the two cubic bandgaps. We also see that a change...
X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC
2012-06-11
In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Jin-Hui; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu; Xin Xiang-Jun; Zhang Jin-Long; Zhou Gui-Yao; Li Shu-Guang; Hou Lan-Tian
2011-01-01
With the full-vector plane-wave method (FVPWM) and the full-vector beam propagation method (FVBPM), the dependences of the band-gap and mode characteristics on material index and cladding structure parameter in anti-resonance guiding photonic crystal fibres (ARGPCFs) are sufficiently analysed. An ARGPCF operating in the near-infrared wavelength is shown. The influences of the high index cylinders, glass interstitial apexes and silica structure on the characteristics of band-gaps and modes are deeply investigated. The equivalent planar waveguide theory is used for analysing such an ARGPCF filled by the isotropic materials, and the resonance and the anti-resonance characteristics can be well predicted.
Zhao, Li-Ming; Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Ai-Hua
2017-02-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) in a two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC) with finite width along z-direction that is embedded in air is investigated, without adopting the traditional approximations such as a plane-wave approximation (PWA) and slowly varying amplitude approximation (SVAA). The so-called quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and the corresponding SHG conversion efficiency can be modulated significantly by the field of fundamental wave (FW). It is assumed that the incident light, along z-direction, is normally launched upon the surface of the sample, and QPM for different directions is investigated. It is found that the QPM shows significant differences, compared with the traditional QPM along the two different directions: in the direction of finite width of the sample, the peak value of SHG conversion efficiency is deviated from the traditional case and it gets to its peak values when the transmittance resonance occurs. However, in the other direction, the deviation from the traditional QPM arises from the field modulation of the second harmonic wave (SHW) and in this direction, it is investigated that the full width at half maximum of QPM is much wider than that in the direction of finite width of the sample. These results can be used to provide a theoretical guidance for achieving QPM SHG.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
We numerically simulated the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structure on the top surface in order to enhance light extraction. We considered InGaN-based LED chips with a typical emission wavelength of λ{sub o} = 460 nm and an emission wavelength inside the LED chip of λ = λ{sub 0}/n{sub GaN} , where n{sub GaN} is the refractive index of GaN. We used positive (relief) and negative (intaglio) patterns for the PC structures with square arrangements. The pattern period (Λ), width (d), and height (h) of the PC structure were varied systematically in the PC-LEDs; then the light-extraction efficiency of each PC-LED was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to optimize the PC structure in terms of light extraction. The PC LED with a square pillar pattern with Λ ∼ 1.4λ, d ∼ 0.75Λ, and h ∼ 0.75Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for positive patterns while the cylindrical hole pattern with Λ ∼ 1.2λ, d ∼ 0.5Λ, and h ∼ 0.5Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for negative patterns.
2016-01-01
This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflec...
Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco
2008-02-01
Dispersion curves of surface electromagnetic waves (SEWs) in 1D silicon nitride photonic crystals having periodic surface corrugations are considered. We experimentally demonstrate that a bandgap for SEWs can be obtained by fabricating a polymeric grating on the multilayered structure. Close to the boundary of the first Brillouin zone connected to the grating, we observe the splitting of the SEW dispersion curve into two separate branches and identify two regions of very low group velocity. The proper design of the structure allows the two folded branches to lie beyond the light line in a wide spectral range, thus doubling the density of modes available for SEWs and avoiding light scattering.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Uskov, Alexander; Gritti, Claudia;
2014-01-01
We model the electron photoemission frommetal nanoparticles into a semiconductor in a Schottky diode with a conductive oxide electrode hosting the nanoparticles. We show that plasmonic effects in the nanoparticles lead to a substantial enhancement in photoemission compared with devices with conti....... Such structure can form the dais of the development of plasmonic photoemission enhanced solar cells....... with continuous metal films. Optimally designed metal nanoparticles can provide an effectivemechanismfor the photon absorption in the infrared range below the semiconductor bandgap, resulting in the generation of a photocurrent in addition to the photocurrent from band-to-band absorption in a semiconductor...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄毓; 刘书田
2011-01-01
Periodic materials or structures own the capability of attenuating wave propagation over certain frequency bands, which is called band-gap characteristics, and the materials can be reasonably designed to adjust the location and width of band gaps. With the great potential applications such as filters, wave guides and sound or vibration isolation, the effect of the configuration in microstructure on the band-gap characteristics is investigated. First, the band-gap behaviors of elastic wave and the attenuation characteristics in localization in seven 2D periodic lattice topologies, namely triangular honeycomb, square honeycomb, ground honeycomb,hexagonal honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, Kagome honeycomb and diamond honeycomb, are analyzed and compared. Objective function to measure low and wide band-gap character is proposed, and the optimal bandgap material is then selected. Furthermore, the laws of geometry configuration parameters affecting on the band-gap characteristics are obtained and numerically demonstrated. The techniques developed in this work can be applied in design periodic band-gap materials by adjusting geometry configurations in the microstructure.%周期性材料或结构常表现出阻断特定频段的波传播的特异性质(带隙性质),通过合理设计可以调整带隙的位置和带宽等,带隙材料在滤波、导波、隔音、隔振等方面有巨大的应用潜力.据此背景,研究了材料微结构构型对带隙性质的影响.分析和比较了三角形、米字形、四边形、六边形、反六边形、Kagome形和钻石形等7种典型拓扑构形格栅材料的带隙性质与弹性波在其中的局部衰减特性,提出了可表征特定带隙性质的目标函数,从而对不同构型的材料进行选优;进一步得到并数值验证了材料微结构中几何参数对带隙性质的影响规律,为通过改变构型几何参数设计具有特定性质的带隙材料提供参考.
Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-12-01
The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.
Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes
2011-01-01
bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...
Stolyarov, Alexander M; Gumennik, Alexander; McDaniel, William; Shapira, Ofer; Schell, Brent; Sorin, Fabien; Kuriki, Ken; Benoit, Gilles; Rose, Aimee; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel
2012-05-21
We demonstrate an in-fiber gas phase chemical detection architecture in which a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction is spatially and spectrally matched to the core modes of hollow photonic bandgap (PBG) fibers in order to enhance detection efficiency. A peroxide-sensitive CL material is annularly shaped and centered within the fiber's hollow core, thereby increasing the overlap between the emission intensity and the intensity distribution of the low-loss fiber modes. This configuration improves the sensitivity by 0.9 dB/cm compared to coating the material directly on the inner fiber surface, where coupling to both higher loss core modes and cladding modes is enhanced. By integrating the former configuration with a custom-built optofluidic system designed for concomitant controlled vapor delivery and emission measurement, we achieve a limit-of-detection of 100 parts per billion (ppb) for hydrogen peroxide vapor. The PBG fibers are produced by a new fabrication method whereby external gas pressure is used as a control knob to actively tune the transmission bandgaps through the entire visible range during the thermal drawing process.
Two-Dimentional Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim
1999-01-01
possible a novel class of optical microcavities, whereas line defects make possible a novel class of waveguides. In this paper we will analyze two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides based on photonic crystals with rods arranged on a triangular and a square lattice using a plane-wave expansion method......In the recent years a new class of periodic high-index contrast dielectric structures, known as photonic bandgap structures, has been discovered. In these structures frequency intervals, known as photonic bandgaps, where propagation of electromagnetic waves is not allowed, exist due to the periodic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, C.K.; Jespersen, Kim Giessmann; Keiding, S.R.
2006-01-01
We demonstrate a 158 fs 5.3 nJ mode-locked laser system based on a fiber oscillator, fiber amplifier and fiber compressor. Dispersion compensation in the fiber oscillator was obtained with a solid-core photonic bandgap (SC-PBG) fiber spliced to standard fibers, and external compression is obtaine...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Hongwei [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); Teng, Jinghua [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Chua, Soo Jin, E-mail: elecsj@nus.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2016-01-07
A photonic bandgap structure was created on the 100 nm thick GaAs barrier layer with Au nanodisks deposited inside the holes. To mitigate the nonradiative surface recombination of GaAs, the Au nanodisks were formed on top of a 15 nm SiO{sub 2} deposited in the holes. A maximum 7.6-fold increase in photoluminescence intensity was obtained at the etch depth of 80 nm. In this configuration, the Au nanodisk is separated from the quantum well by 20 nm of GaAs and 15 nm of SiO{sub 2}. The experimental result was verified by the simulation based on this structure. There was a good agreement between experiments with simulation results.
Gaponov, D A; Février, S; Devautour, M; Roy, P; Likhachev, M E; Aleshkina, S S; Salganskii, M Y; Yashkov, M V; Guryanov, A N
2010-07-01
Very large-mode-area Yb(3+)-doped single-mode photonic bandgap (PBG) Bragg fiber oscillators are considered. The transverse hole-burning effect is numerically modeled, which helps properly design the PBG cladding and the Yb(3+)-doped region for the high-order mode content to be carefully controlled. A ratio of the Yb(3+)-doped region diameter to the overall core diameter of 40% allows for single-mode emission, even for small spool diameters of 15 cm. Such a fiber was manufactured and subsequently used as the core element of a cw oscillator. Very good beam quality parameter M(2)=1.12 and slope efficiency of 80% were measured. Insensitivity to bending, exemplified by the absence of temporal drift of the beam, was demonstrated for curvature diameter as small as 15 cm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张中杰; 沈义峰; 赵浩
2015-01-01
利用偶然简并方法在二维正方格子介质环形柱结构光子晶体中成功实现了Dirac点，并利用平面波展开法对实现Dirac点的过程进行了研究.研究结果表明，对于二维正方格子介质环形柱结构光子晶体，在一定的外径RO范围内(0.37a1.4)，介质环内径RI与外径RO满足一个不随介质环折射率n变化的恒定关系式.同时， Dirac点对应的光子约化频率f随折射率n及外径RO的增大而减小.利用所得的关系式对特定介质环折射率n条件下能实现Dirac点的环形光子晶体进行了预判设计.%The Dirac cones in photonic crystals have aroused much interest in the last few years. Annular photonic crystals have also been well studied for designing and controlling the band gap because they have more parameters than usual photonic crystal. In this paper, we study a two-dimensional square lattice dielectric annular photonic crystal to explore the formation of the photonic Dirac cone by the accidental degeneracy method. The theoretical tool is the plane wave expansion method. The results show that this system can provide a Dirac point in the center of the Brillouin-zone in the photonic band if both the outer radius and the inner radius of each scatterer are chosen to be appreciate values when the dielectric refractive index of the annular rod is fixed. For example, there is a Dirac point at the photonic normalized frequency f = 0.438(c/a) when n = 3.4, RO = 0.42a, RI = 0.305a, where f is the frequency, c is the light speed in vacuum, a is the lattice constant, n is the refractive index, RO is the outer radius, and RI is the inner radius. It is also found that within a confined region of outer radius RO(0.37a 1.4), the inner radius RI and the outer radius RO obey a relation of RI =−1.104+8.167RO+(−11.439)R2O, which is unrelated to the refractive index n of the dielectric annular rod. If n is less than 1.4, this rule is not valid. At the same time, the normalized
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Xuemin [Advanced Laboratory for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Centre for Functional Photonics, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lei, Ngai-Yu; Hu, Peng [Centre for Functional Photonics, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lei, Zhang; Ong, Daniel Hock-Chun [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Ge, Xuewu [Advanced Laboratory for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Zhicheng, E-mail: zczhang@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Laboratory for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lam, Michael Hon-Wah, E-mail: bhmhwlam@cityu.edu.hk [Advanced Laboratory for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou 215123 (China); Centre for Functional Photonics, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2013-07-17
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fabrication of pH-responsive photonic colloidal crystalline microspheres. •Specific photonic band-gap responses occurred in the pH range of 4–5. •Remarkably low in vivo toxicity to Japanese medaka (Oryzia latipes). •In vivo imaging of the morphology and pH along GI tract of Japanese medaka. •Demonstrates bio-imaging potentials of stimuli-responsive photonic materials. -- Abstract: Colloidal crystalline microspheres with photonic band-gap properties responsive to media pH have been developed for in vivo imaging purposes. These colloidal crystalline microspheres were constructed from monodispersed core–shell nano-size particles with poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PS-co-PAA) cores and poly(acrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PAA-co-PNIPAM) hydrogel shells cross-linked by N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide. A significant shift in the photonic band-gap properties of these colloidal crystalline microspheres was observed in the pH range of 4–5. This was caused by the discontinuous volume phase transition of the hydrogel coating, due to the protonation/deprotonation of its acrylic acid moieties, on the core–shell nano-sized particles within the microspheres. The in vivo imaging capability of these pH-responsive photonic microspheres was demonstrated on a test organism – Japanese medaka, Oryzia latipes – in which the morphology and change in pH along their gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were revealed under an ordinary optical microscope. This work illustrates the potential of stimuli-responsive photonic band-gap materials in tissue-/organ-level in vivo bio-imaging.
Hypersonic modulation of light in three-dimensional photonic and phononic band-gap materials.
Akimov, A V; Tanaka, Y; Pevtsov, A B; Kaplan, S F; Golubev, V G; Tamura, S; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M
2008-07-18
The elastic coupling between the a-SiO2 spheres composing opal films brings forth three-dimensional periodic structures which besides a photonic stop band are predicted to also exhibit complete phononic band gaps. The influence of elastic crystal vibrations on the photonic band structure has been studied by injection of coherent hypersonic wave packets generated in a metal transducer by subpicosecond laser pulses. These studies show that light with energies close to the photonic band gap can be efficiently modulated by hypersonic waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu Zhifang [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry [OPTIMUS, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Quyen Dinh, Xuan [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Thales Solutions Asia Pte Ltd, R and T Department, 28 Changi North Rise, Singapore 498755 (Singapore)
2012-10-01
We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.
Design of Photonic Bandgap Fibre with Novel Air-Hole Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing; ZHANG Wei-Gang; DU Jiang-Bing; WANG Zhi; LIU Yan-Ge; DONG Xiao-Yi
2008-01-01
We introduce PBGFs with the cladding made of our newly designed quasi-hexagonal air holes and demonstrate how it actually operates. This cladding structure is introduced for the first time to the best of our knowledge, and is realized by making use of the hydrofluoric acid's corrosive properties. The fibre corrosion can be accurately controlled, thus opening us the gate for the design and fabrication of new PBGFs with more complex and more efficient cladding structures. Numerical results and actual simulations indicate that PBGFs built with this cladding structure have improved bandgap properties and guiding bands as wide as 500nm have been theoretically reached. Using the same method, we have also been able to design two other types of PBGFs with improved cladding structure.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李未; 陈小玲
2011-01-01
利用二维三角晶格介质柱光子晶体TE偏振的禁带与介质柱半径的变化关系,分析了二维光子晶体的带隙分布及斜边耦合特性.结果表明,光子禁带的大小受到构成光子晶体的介电材料的空间排列分布以及介质柱半径大小的影响;束缚在光子晶体中的光波可以在波导和谐振腔中进行传输,达到选择输出光波的目的.%The paper study the relation between two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal band gap for TE polarizationand dielectric cylinder radius, and study distribution of two dimensional photonic crystal defect state. Results show, the photonic crystal band gaps were distributed by dielectric material space distribution and medium size of the radius; Tied in the photon crystals of light waves can transmission in waveguides and resonator cavity to select the output of light waves.
Tsitrin, Sam; Nahal, Geev; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining; San Francisco State University Team; University of Surrey Team
2015-03-01
A novel class of disordered photonic materials, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDS), attracted more attention. Recently they have been experimentally proven to provide complete photonic band gap (PBG) when made with Alumina or Si; as well as single-polarization PBG when made with plastic with refract index of 1.6. These PBGs were shown to be real energy gaps with zero density of photonic states, instead of mobility gaps of low transmission due to scattering, etc. Using cm-scale samples and microwave experiments, we reveal the nature of photonic modes existing in these disordered materials by analyzing phase delay and mapping field distribution profile inside them. We also show how to extend the proof-of-concept microwave studies of these materials to proof-of-scale studies for real applications, by designing and fabricating these disordered photonic materials at submicron-scale with functional devices for 1.55 micron wavelength. The intrinsic isotropy of the disordered structure is an inherent advantage associated with the absence of limitations of orientational order, which is shown to provide valuable freedom in defect architecture design impossible in periodical structures. NSF Award DMR-1308084, the University of Surrey's FRSF and Santander awards.
Nonlinear optical sub-bandgap excitation of ZnO-based photonic resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bader, Christina A.; Zeuner, Franziska; Bader, Manuel H. W.; Zentgraf, Thomas; Meier, Cedrik [Department of Physics and Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)
2015-12-07
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile candidate for photonic devices due to its highly efficient optical emission. However, for pumping of ZnO photonic devices UV-sources are required. Here, we investigate the alternative usage of widely available pulsed near-infrared (NIR)-sources and compare the efficiency of linear and nonlinear excitation processes. We found that bulk ZnO, ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisk devices exhibit strong nonlinear response when excited with NIR pulses (λ ≈ 1060 nm). In addition, we show that the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisks exhibit sharp whispering gallery modes over the blue-yellow part of the visible spectrum for both excitation conditions and high Q-factors up to Q = 4700. The results demonstrate that nonlinear excitation is an efficient way to pump ZnO photonic devices.
Lempert, W.; Kumar, V.; Glesk, I.; Miles, R.; Diskin, G.
1991-01-01
The use of a tunable ArF laser at 193.26 nm to record simultaneous single-laser-shot, planar images of molecular hydrogen and hot oxygen in a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame. Excitation spectra of fuel and oxidant-rich flame zones confirm a partial overlap of the two-photon H2 and single-photon O2 Schumann-Runge absorption bands. UV Rayleigh scattering images of flame structure and estimated detection limits for the H2 two-photon imaging are also presented.
Coupled-mode theory for photonic band-gap inhibition of spatial instabilities.
Gomila, Damià; Oppo, Gian-Luca
2005-07-01
We study the inhibition of pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems using intracavity photonic crystals. We consider mean-field models for singly and doubly degenerate optical parametric oscillators. Analytical expressions for the new (higher) modulational thresholds and the size of the "band gap" as a function of the system and photonic crystal parameters are obtained via a coupled-mode theory. Then, by means of a nonlinear analysis, we derive amplitude equations for the unstable modes and find the stationary solutions above threshold. The form of the unstable mode is different in the lower and upper parts of the band gap. In each part there is bistability between two spatially shifted patterns. In large systems stable wall defects between the two solutions are formed and we provide analytical expressions for their shape. The analytical results are favorably compared with results obtained from the full system equations. Inhibition of pattern formation can be used to spatially control signal generation in the transverse plane.
Simple expressions for the maximum omnidirectional bandgap of bilayer photonic crystals.
Hsueh, W J; Wun, S J
2011-05-01
We propose three dimensionless approximate expressions to predict the thickness filling factor, gap center, and gap width of the maximum omnidirectional gap (MODG) for various refractive indices in one-dimensional photonic crystals. These expressions are simple and do not include trigonometric or inverse trigonometric functions. It is easy to obtain the MODG from given refractive indices but also to estimate the refractive indices from the MODG based on the results.
Reduction of Refractive Index Contrast Threshold for Photonic Band-Gap in Square Lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian-Feng; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De
2005-01-01
@@ The threshold of refractive index contrast (RIC) to open a photonic band gap can be reduced by symmetry breaking. For the case of square lattice composed by dielectric cylinders, the absolute band gap is demonstrated by inserting small rods in the centre of the lattices, and the threshold RIC is reduced to 3.8. As for the square lattices composed by air holes in dielectric, the minimal RIC required for an absolute band gap decreases to 2.20.
Temperature dependence of beat-length and confinement loss in an air-core photonic band-gap fiber
Xu, Zhenlong; Li, Xuyou; Hong, Yong; Liu, Pan; Yang, Hanrui; Ling, Weiwei
2016-05-01
The temperature dependence of polarization-maintaining (PM) property and loss in a highly-birefringent air-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) is investigated. The effects of temperature variation on the effective index, beat-length and confinement loss are studied numerically by using the full-vector finite element method (FEM). It is found that, the PM property of this PBF is insensitive to the temperature, and the temperature-dependent beat-length coefficient can be as low as 2.86×10-8 m/°C, which is typically 200 times less than those of conventional panda fibers, the PBF has a stable confinement loss of 0.01 dB/m over the temperature range of -30 to 20 °C for the slow axis at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. The PBF with ultra-low temperature-dependent PM property and low loss can reduce the thermally induced polarization instability apparently in interferometric applications such as resonant fiber optic gyroscope (RFOG), optical fiber sensors, and so on.
Shurgalin, Max; Anastassiou, Charalambos
2008-01-01
Carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have become one of the most common surgical lasers due to excellent tissue interaction properties that offer precise control of cutting and ablation depth, minimal thermal damage to surrounding tissue, and good hemostasis. However, realization of the benefits offered by using surgical CO2 lasers in many endoscopic, minimally invasive surgical procedures has been inhibited by the absence of reliable, flexible fiber laser beam delivery systems. Recently, novel hollow-core photonic bandgap optical fibers for CO2 lasers were developed that offer high flexibility and mechanical robustness with good optical performance under tight bends. These fibers can be used through rigid and flexible endoscopes and various handpieces and will allow surgeons to perform delicate and precise laser surgery procedures in a minimally invasive manner. This paper describes the basic design of laser beam delivery system, different surgical fiber designs and their characteristics, and usage with existing surgical CO2 laser models. A few examples of successful CO2 laser surgeries performed with these fibers are presented.
Enhanced four-wave mixing via photonic bandgap coupled defect resonances.
Blair, S
2005-05-16
Frequency conversion efficiency via four-wave mixing in coupled 1-D photonic crystal defect structures is studied numerically. In structures where all interacting frequencies coincide with intraband defect resonances, energy conversion efficiencies greater than 5% are predicted. Because the frequency spacings are determined by the free-spectral range, thereby requiring long defects for small spacings using intraband resonances, four-wave mixing using coupled-defect miniband resonances in more compact structures is also studied. Conversion efficiencies of greater than 1% are obtained in this case.
Polarization Properties of Elliptical-Hole Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tartarini, Giovanni; Pansera, Marco; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard;
2007-01-01
ellipticity allow some phenomena that are not predicted yet, such as polarization-dependent losses and birefringence sign change in the wavelength range used for standard telecom fibers. Control of these features allows the design of new devices for sensing or telecommunication applications......The characteristics of triangular photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with elliptical holes filled with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) are investigated theoretically. The analysis that is carried out using the finite-element method, including material dispersion effects, shows that LC anisotropy and hole...
Photonic band-gap properties for two-component slow light
Ruseckas, J; Juzeliunas, G; Unanyan, R G; Otterbach, J; Fleischhauer, M
2011-01-01
We consider two-component "spinor" slow light in an ensemble of atoms coherently driven by two pairs of counterpropagating control laser fields in a double tripod-type linkage scheme. We derive an equation of motion for the spinor slow light (SSL) representing an effective Dirac equation for a massive particle with the mass determined by the two-photon detuning. By changing the detuning the atomic medium acts as a photonic crystal with a controllable band gap. If the frequency of the incident probe light lies within the band gap, the light tunnels through the sample. For frequencies outside the band gap, the transmission probability oscillates with increasing length of the sample. In both cases the reflection takes place into the complementary mode of the probe field. We investigate the influence of the finite excited state lifetime on the transmission and reflection coefficients of the probe light. We discuss possible experimental implementations of the SSL using alkali atoms such as Rubidium or Sodium.
Shakoor, A; Cardile, P; Portalupi, S L; Gerace, D; Welna, K; Boninelli, S; Franzo, G; Priolo, F; Krauss, T F; Galli, M; Faolain, L O
2013-01-01
Silicon is now firmly established as a high performance photonic material. Its only weakness is the lack of a native electrically driven light emitter that operates CW at room temperature, exhibits a narrow linewidth in the technologically important 1300- 1600 nm wavelength window, is small and operates with low power consumption. Here, an electrically pumped all-silicon nano light source around 1300-1600 nm range is demonstrated at room temperature. Using hydrogen plasma treatment, nano-scale optically active defects are introduced into silicon, which then feed the photonic crystal nanocavity to enahnce the electrically driven emission in a device via Purcell effect. A narrow ({\\Delta}{\\lambda} = 0.5 nm) emission line at 1515 nm wavelength with a power density of 0.4 mW/cm2 is observed, which represents the highest spectral power density ever reported from any silicon emitter. A number of possible improvements are also discussed, that make this scheme a very promising light source for optical interconnects a...
Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; Sipe, J E
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the propagation of large-wavevector waves (volume plasmon polaritons) in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials with two levels of structuring. We show that when the parameters of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer ("substructure") are modulated ("superstructured") on a larger, wavelength scale, the propagation of volume plasmon polaritons in the resulting multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials is subject to photonic band gap phenomena. A great degree of control over such plasmons can be exerted by varying the superstructure geometry. When this geometry is periodic, stop bands due to Bragg reflection are shown to form within the volume plasmonic band. When a cavity layer is introduced in an otherwise periodic superstructure, resonance peaks of the Fabry-P\\'erot nature are shown to be present within the stop bands. More complicated superstructure geometries are also considered. For example, fractal Cantor-like multiscale metamaterials are found to exhibit characteristic self-similar s...
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
Colorful titanium oxides: a new class of photonic materials
Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai
2015-11-01
In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions.In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05374a
Cirio, R.; Garelli, E.; Schulte, R.; Amerio, S.; Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Coutrakon, G.; Donetti, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Koss, P.; Madon, E.; Marchetto, F.; Nastasi, U.; Peroni, C.; Santuari, D.; Sardo, A.; Scielzo, G.; Stasi, M.; Trevisiol, E.
2004-08-01
Two detectors for fast two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) verification of the dose delivered by radiotherapy beams have been developed at University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) of Torino. The Magic Cube is a stack of strip-segmented ionization chambers interleaved with water-equivalent slabs. The parallel plate ionization chambers have a sensitive area of 24 × 24 cm2, and consist of 0.375 cm wide and 24 cm long strips. There are a total of 64 strips per chamber. The Magic Cube has been tested with the clinical proton beam at Loma Linda University Medical Centre (LLUMC), and was shown to be capable of fast and precise quasi-3D dose verification. The Pixel Ionization Chamber (PXC) is a detector with pixel anode segmentation. It is a 32 × 32 matrix of 1024 cylindrical ionization cells arranged in a square 24 × 24 cm2 area. Each cell has 0.4 cm diameter and 0.55 cm height, at a pitch of 0.75 cm separates the centre of adjacent cells. The sensitive volume of each single ionization cell is 0.07 cm3. The detectors are read out using custom designed front-end microelectronics and a personal computer-based data acquisition system. The PXC has been used to verify dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head-and-neck and breast cancers.
Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor
Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Proux, Raphaël; Gerardot, Brian D
2017-01-01
An outstanding challenge in quantum photonics is scalability, which requires positioning of single quantum emitters in a deterministic fashion. Site positioning progress has been made in established platforms including defects in diamond and self-assembled quantum dots, albeit often with compromised coherence and optical quality. The emergence of single quantum emitters in layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors offers new opportunities to construct a scalable quantum architecture. Here, using nanoscale strain engineering, we deterministically achieve a two-dimensional lattice of quantum emitters in an atomically thin semiconductor. We create point-like strain perturbations in mono- and bi-layer WSe2 which locally modify the band-gap, leading to efficient funnelling of excitons towards isolated strain-tuned quantum emitters that exhibit high-purity single photon emission. We achieve near unity emitter creation probability and a mean positioning accuracy of 120±32 nm, which may be improved with further optimization of the nanopillar dimensions. PMID:28530219
Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor
Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Proux, Raphaël; Gerardot, Brian D.
2017-05-01
An outstanding challenge in quantum photonics is scalability, which requires positioning of single quantum emitters in a deterministic fashion. Site positioning progress has been made in established platforms including defects in diamond and self-assembled quantum dots, albeit often with compromised coherence and optical quality. The emergence of single quantum emitters in layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors offers new opportunities to construct a scalable quantum architecture. Here, using nanoscale strain engineering, we deterministically achieve a two-dimensional lattice of quantum emitters in an atomically thin semiconductor. We create point-like strain perturbations in mono- and bi-layer WSe2 which locally modify the band-gap, leading to efficient funnelling of excitons towards isolated strain-tuned quantum emitters that exhibit high-purity single photon emission. We achieve near unity emitter creation probability and a mean positioning accuracy of 120+/-32 nm, which may be improved with further optimization of the nanopillar dimensions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rieben, R; White, D; Rodrigue, G
2004-01-13
In this paper we motivate the use of a novel high order time domain vector finite element method that is of arbitrary order accuracy in space and up to 5th order accurate in time; and in particular, we apply it to the case of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. Such structures have been extensively studied in the literature with several practical applications; in particular, for the low loss transmission of electromagnetic energy around sharp 90 degree bends [1]. Typically, such structures are simulated via a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations either in the frequency domain or directly in the time domain over a computational grid. The majority of numerical simulations performed for such structures make use of the widely popular finite difference time domain (FDTD) method [2], where the time dependent electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a ''dual'' grid to second order accuracy in space and time. However, such methods do not generalize to unstructured, non-orthogonal grids or to higher order spatial discretization schemes. To simulate more complicated structures with curved boundaries, such as the structure of [3], a cell based finite element method with curvilinear elements is preferred over standard stair-stepped Cartesian meshes; and to more efficiently reduce the effects of numerical dispersion, a higher order method is highly desirable. In this paper, the high order basis functions of [5] are used in conjunction with the high order energy conserving symplectic time integration algorithms of [6] resulting in a high order, fully mimetic, mixed vector finite element method.
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
Murao, Tadashi; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori
2011-01-31
In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for suppression of higher-order modes (HOMs), namely multiple resonant coupling, in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) with effectively large core diameters. In an analogy to the well-known tight-binding theory in solid-state physics, multiple anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) modes bound in designedly arranged defects in the cladding make up Bloch states and resultant photonic bands with a finite effective-index width, which contribute to the suppression of HOMs. In particular, contrary to the conventional method for the HOM suppression using the index-matching of the HOMs in the core of the PBGF and the defect mode arranged in the cladding, the proposed mechanism guarantees a broadband HOM suppression without a precise structural design. This effect is explained by the multiple resonant coupling, as well as an enhanced confinement loss mechanism which occurs near the condition satisfying the multiple resonant coupling. Moreover, we show that the proposed structure exhibits a lower bending loss characteristic when compared to the conventional all-solid PBGFs. The simultaneous realization of the single-mode operation and the low bending loss property is due to the novel cladding concept named as heterostructured cladding. The proposed structure also resolves the issue for the increased confinement loss property in the first-order photonic bandgap (PBG) at the same time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagner D.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sensitive millimeter wave diagnostics need often to be protected against unwanted radiation like, for example, stray radiation from high power Electron Cyclotron Heating applied in nuclear fusion plasmas. A notch filter based on a waveguide Bragg reflector (photonic band-gap may provide several stop bands of defined width within up to two standard waveguide frequency bands. A Bragg reflector that reflects an incident fundamental TE11 into a TM1n mode close to cutoff is combined with two waveguide tapers to fundamental waveguide diameter. Here the fundamental TE11 mode is the only propagating mode at both ends of the reflector. The incident TE11 mode couples through the taper and is converted to the high order TM1n mode by the Bragg structure at the specific Bragg resonances. The TM1n mode is trapped in the oversized waveguide section by the tapers. Once reflected at the input taper it will be converted back into the TE11 mode which then can pass through the taper. Therefore at higher order Bragg resonances, the filter acts as a reflector for the incoming TE11 mode. Outside of the Bragg resonances the TE11 mode can propagate through the oversized waveguide structure with only very small Ohmic attenuation compared to propagating in a fundamental waveguide. Coupling to other modes is negligible in the non-resonant case due to the small corrugation amplitude (typically 0.05·λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength. A Bragg reflector for 105 and 140 GHz was optimized by mode matching (scattering matrix simulations and manufactured by SWISSto12 SA, where the required mechanical accuracy of ± 5 μm could be achieved by stacking stainless steel rings, manufactured by micro-machining, in a high precision guiding pipe. The two smooth-wall tapers were fabricated by electroforming. Several measurements were performed using vector network analyzers from Agilent (E8362B, ABmm (MVNA 8-350 and Rohde&Schwarz (ZVA24 together with frequency multipliers. The
Hu, Xiongwei; Shen, Xiang; Wu, Jianjun; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Lvyun; Li, Jinyan; Li, Haiqin; Dai, Nengli
2016-09-19
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a high temperature fiber sensor using a hetero-structured cladding solid-core photonic bandgap fiber (HCSC-PBGF) for the first time to our knowledge. A hetero-structured cladding solid-core photonic bandgap fiber is designed and fabricated that supports vibrant core mode and cladding mode transmission. Then, an all fiber M-Z interference sensor is constructed by splicing single mode fiber at both ends of HCSC-PBGF without any other micromachining. The transmission characteristics of HCSC-PBGF are analyzed with a full-vector beam propagation method and a full-vector finite element method, and the simulation results are consistent with experiment results. The sensitivity of this fiber sensor is as high as 0.09 nm/°C when operating from room temperature to 1000 °C, and the fringe contrast keeps stable and clear. It is obvious that this all fiber sensor will have great application prospects in fiber sensing with the advantages of a compact structure, high sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨毅彪; 王云才; 李秀杰; 梁伟
2006-01-01
采用平面波展开法模拟计算了由空气背景中的介质柱构成的二维Kagome格子光子晶体的能带结构,得到了使完全光子禁带最大化的结构参量.计算结果表明:由圆形、正六边形和正四边形三种不同形状锗介质柱构成的Kagome格子光子晶体都出现了完全光子禁带,最大禁带分别为Δ=0.014(ωa/2πc)、Δ=0.013(ωa/2πc)、Δ=0.011(ωa/2πc).发现由圆形和正六边形两种介质柱构成的Kagome格子光子晶体在填充比连续变化的较大的范围内都有宽度较为稳定的完全禁带,且它们具有非常相似的能带结构.
带有KTP缺陷的2维光子晶体设计与能带特性%Design and characteristics of two-dimensional photonic crystal with KTP defect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李志全; 刘正君
2011-01-01
设计了一种通过改变缺陷介质折射率实现能带特性改变的可调谐2维光子晶体激光器微腔,在光子晶体中引入点缺陷磷酸氧钛钾(KTP),在KTP两端施加交流电场控制KTP晶体折射率变化.实验过程中观察到了正方排列的光子晶体随着KTP晶体折射率逐渐增大,晶体禁带数量减少,且向归一化频率小的方向移动,禁带宽度基本不变;而三角排列的晶格能带随着KTP折射率增大,禁带逐渐变窄,且有向低频方向移动的趋势.用平面波展开法分析了晶体的能带结构,得到理上的描述.%The plane wave expansion method is applied to simulate the band gap of a tunable two-dimensional photonic crystal micro cavity based on controlling the refractive index of defect medium. KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal is introduced to the planar photonic crystal as point defect, with its refractive index controlled by alternating current according to electro-optic effect. Numerical calculations and experimental results show that, with the refractive index of KTP increasing, the normalized frequencies of defect modes shift downward. The number of band gaps of the square lattice reduces, and the band gap of the triangle lattice narrows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Liefeng, E-mail: fengliefeng@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: lihongru@nankai.edu.cn; Yang, Xiufang; Wang, Cunda; Yao, Dongsheng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Yang [Business and Vocational College of Hainan, Haikou 570203 (China); Li, Ding; Hu, Xiaodong [Research Center for Wide Band Gap Semiconductors, State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Hongru, E-mail: fengliefeng@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: lihongru@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry and Biology, College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2015-04-15
The junction behavior of different narrow band-gap multi-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) confirmed that the jump in the junction voltage in the threshold region is a general characteristic of narrow band-gap LDs. The relative change in the 1310 nm LD is the most obvious. To analyze this sudden voltage change, the threshold region is divided into three stages by I{sub th}{sup l} and I{sub th}{sup u}, as shown in Fig. 2; I{sub th}{sup l} is the conventional threshold, and as long as the current is higher than this threshold, lasing exists and the IdV/dI-I plot drops suddenly; I{sub th}{sup u} is the steady lasing point, at which the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels of electron and holes across the active region (V{sub j}) is suddenly pinned. Based on the evolutionary model of dissipative structure theory, the rate equations of the photons in a single-mode LD were deduced in detail at I{sub th}{sup l} and I{sub th}{sup u}. The results proved that the observed behavior of stimulated emission suddenly substituting for spontaneous emission, in a manner similar to biological evolution, must lead to a sudden increase in the injection carriers in the threshold region, which then causes the sudden increase in the junction voltage in this region.
Pineda-Vadillo, Pablo; Lynch, Michael; Charlton, Christy; Donegan, John F; Weldon, Vincent
2009-12-07
In this paper the application of Wavelength Modulation (WM) techniques to non-resonant saturation spectroscopy in acetylene-filled Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibres (HC-PBFs) and modulation-free Laser Diode (LD) frequency stabilisation is investigated. In the first part WM techniques are applied to non-resonant pump-probe saturation of acetylene overtone rotational transitions in a HC-PBF. A high-power DFB chip-on-carrier mounted LD is used in conjunction with a tuneable External Cavity Laser (ECL) and the main saturation parameters are characterized. In the second part a novel feedback system to stabilize the DFB emission wavelength based on the WM saturation results is implemented. Modulation-free locking of the DFB laser frequency to the narrow linewidth saturation feature is achieved for both constant and variable LD temperatures.
Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors
Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.
2017-01-01
To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵年顺; 孙剑
2014-01-01
采用时域有限差分技术分析了非线性光子晶体点缺陷的双稳态特性，选择一定频率失谐的连续波入射并观察透射现象。分析发现，当连续波功率增加到阈值点时透射率达到最大值。采用大功率脉冲辅助连续波的方式发现点缺陷的透射率一直处于高透射状态，直至连续波功率下降到很低时，透射率才迅速下降。双稳态特性由频率失谐δ、缺陷谐振频率ω0及非线性系数 n2等3个参数决定。采用空间电磁场的摄动理论验证所得结果与数值模拟结果一致。%This paper conducts a research on the bistable characteristics of point defect in two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals with finite-difference time-domain technique. It analyzes the transmission be-havior of input continuous wave with frequency detuning,and the results show that the maximum transmis-sion is detected when the continuous wave reaches the threshold power. What’s more,the defect can be boosted into high transmission state by superposing continuous wave with a high peak-power pulse,and it won’t decrease rapidly until the continuous wave power is brought down to a very low degree. The fre-quency detuning,the resonant frequency,the nonlinear coefficient n2 are needed to characterize a bistable switch. In addition,the dynamic shift of the cavity modes is derived by using the perturbation theory. The conclusion provides some reference for the design of all optical devices based on PC defect.
Farrell, Daniel J; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Wang, Yunpeng; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Okada, Yoshitaka
2015-11-06
The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity can be broadly separated into two main categories: photovoltaics and thermal photovoltaics, where the former utilizes gradients in electrical potential and the latter thermal gradients. Conventional thermal photovoltaics has a high theoretical efficiency limit (84%) but in practice cannot be easily miniaturized and is limited by the engineering challenges of sustaining large (>1,000 K) temperature gradients. Here we show a hot-carrier-based thermophotonic solar cell, which combines the compact nature of photovoltaic devices with the potential to reach the high-efficiency regime of thermal photovoltaics. In the device, a thermal gradient of 500 K is established by hot electrons, under Stokes illumination, rather than by raising the temperature of the material itself. Under anti-Stokes (sub-bandgap) illumination we observe a thermal gradient of ∼20 K, which is maintained by steady-state Auger heating of carriers and corresponds to a internal thermal up-conversion efficiency of 30% between the collector and solar cell.
Quantum effect and the bandgap of anisotropic rectangle photonic crystal%各向异性矩形光子晶体禁带结构及量子效应
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙涛; 刘启能
2011-01-01
The quantum effect of light wave mode is studied under a condition that the light wave is restricted in 1-D anisotropic rectangle photonic crystal.The bandgap character of TE wave and TM wave are calculated by characteristic matrix method.New bandgap structure of 1-D anisotropic rectangle photonic crystal is obtained.The bandgap frequency and transmission angle increase with increasing quantum number.The bandgap frequency of the same pattern decreases with increasing rectangle side length.%利用光波在一维各向异性矩形光子晶体中横向受限的条件,研究了光波在其中出现的模式量子效应,并利用特征矩阵法计算了TE波和TM波各模式的禁带的变化规律,得出了一些一维各向异性矩形光子晶体禁带的新结构.禁带的频率和透射角都随模式量子数的增加而增大.同一模式禁带的频率随矩形边长的增加而减小.
Nutz, Fabian A; Retsch, Markus
2017-06-21
We introduce the in situ characterization of the dry sintering process of face-centred cubic colloidal crystals by two complementary techniques: thermal transport and photonic stopband characterization. Therefore, we employed time-dependent, isothermal laser flash analysis and specular reflectivity experiments close to the glass transition temperature of the colloidal crystal. Both methods yield distinctly different time constants of the film formation process. This discrepancy can be attributed to a volume- (photonic stopband) and interface-driven (thermal transport) sensitivity of the respective characterization method. Nevertheless, both methods yield comparable apparent activation energies. Finally, we extended the sintering process characterization to further polymer compositions, with vastly different glass transition temperatures. We could show that the film formation rate is governed by the viscoelastic properties of the polymers at the respective annealing temperature.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eickhoff, Christian
2010-10-27
By combining ultrafast laser excitation with energy-, angle- and time-resolved twophoton photoemission (2PPE), the electronic properties of bulk silicon and the Si(001) surface are investigated in this thesis. A custom-built laser- and UHV-systemequipped with a display type 2D-CCD-detector gives new insight into the relaxation dynamics of excited carriers on a femtosecond timescale. The bandgap between occupied valence bands and unoccupied conduction bands characteristically influences the dynamics of excited electrons in the bulk, as well as in surface states and resonances. For the electron-phonon interaction this leads to the formation of a bottleneck during the relaxation of hot electrons in the conduction band, which maintains the elevated electronic temperature for several picoseconds. During relaxation, excited electrons also scatter from the conduction band into the unoccupied dangling-bond surface state D{sub down}. Depending on the excitation density this surface recombination is dominated by electron-electron- or electron-phonon scattering. The relaxation of the carriers in the D{sub down}-band is again slowed down by the formation of a bottleneck in electron-phonon coupling. Furthermore, the new laser system has allowed detection of the Rydberg-like series of image-potential resonances on the Si(001)-surface. It is shown that the lifetime of these image-potential resonances in front of the semiconducting surface exhibits the same behavior as those in front of metallic surfaces. Moreover the electron-phonon coupling in the first image-potential resonance was investigated and compared to the D{sub down}-surface state. For the first time, Fano-type lineprofiles are demonstrated and analyzed in a 2PPEprocess on a surface. Tuning the photon energy of the pump-laser across the resonance between the occupied dangling-bond state D{sub up}, and the unoccupied image-potential resonance n=1, reveals a clear intensity variation that can be successfully described
Xu, Zhenlong; Li, Xuyou; Zhang, Chunmei; Ling, Weiwei; Liu, Pan; Xia, Linlin; Yang, Hanrui
2016-12-01
A novel (to our knowledge) type of single-polarization (SP) coupler based on a dual-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) is proposed. The effects of structure parameters on the performance of this coupler are studied numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Finally, an optimal design with a length of 0.377 mm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved, and its implication in PBF-based fiber ring resonator (FRR), the effect of angular misalignment on the SP coupler are analyzed as well. When the SP coupler is incorporated into a PBF-based FRR, it functions as the power splitter and the polarizer simultaneously, and can extinct the secondary eigenstate of polarization (ESOP) propagating in the FRR. The mode field of SP coupler can match with the polarization-maintaining (PM) PBF with ultra-low temperature sensitivity proposed in previous study, and an all PM-PBF based FRR can be established, which is of great significance in suppressing the temperature-related polarization fluctuation and improving the long-term stability for RFOG, and the SP coupler has high angular misalignment tolerance as well.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Asger Christian; Zhang, Min; Groothoff, Nathaniel
2011-01-01
We present TE transmission measurements of photonic crystal waveguides with high hole radius to period ratio r/Λ=0.388. This geometry introduces a unique low loss transmission band in addition to the traditional PhC guiding band and very sharp transmission edges for devices with a length of 50 μm...... or longer. Finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion simulations confirm the results and show that the sharpness of the cutoffs can be explained by the spectral shape of the guiding mode in the band diagram....
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Zeng, Jianhua
2013-01-01
It is commonly known that stable bright solitons in periodic potentials, which represent gratings in photonics/plasmonics, or optical lattices in quantum gases, exist either in the spectral semi-infinite gap (SIG) or in finite bandgaps. Using numerical methods, we demonstrate that, under the action of the cubic self-focusing nonlinearity, defects in the form of "holes" in two-dimensional (2D) lattices support continuous families of 2D solitons \\textit{embedded} into the first two Bloch bands of the respective linear spectrum, where solitons normally do not exist. The two families of the \\textit{embedded defect solitons} (EDSs) are found to be continuously linked by the branch of \\textit{gap defect solitons} (GDSs) populating the first finite bandgap. Further, the EDS branch traversing the first band links the GDS family with the branch of regular defect-supported solitons populating the SIG. Thus, we construct a continuous chain of regular, embedded, and gap-mode solitons ("superfamily") threading the entire ...
Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng
2016-01-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Non-linear excitation of quantum emitters in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride
Schell, Andreas W; Takashima, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Aharonovich, Igor
2016-01-01
Two-photon absorption is an important non-linear process employed for high resolution bio-imaging and non-linear optics. In this work we realize two-photon excitation of a quantum emitter embedded in a two-dimensional material. We examine defects in hexagonal boron nitride and show that the emitters exhibit similar spectral and quantum properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation. Furthermore, our findings are important to deploy two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride for quantum non-linear photonic applications.
Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates
Hsu, Jin-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Hsun
2015-05-01
We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.
Interface-driven formation of a two-dimensional dodecagonal fullerene quasicrystal
Paßens, M.; Caciuc, V.; Atodiresei, N.; Feuerbacher, M.; Moors, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Blügel, S.; Waser, R.; Karthäuser, S.
2017-05-01
Since their discovery, quasicrystals have attracted continuous research interest due to their unique structural and physical properties. Recently, it was demonstrated that dodecagonal quasicrystals could be used as bandgap materials in next-generation photonic devices. However, a full understanding of the formation mechanism of quasicrystals is necessary to control their physical properties. Here we report the formation of a two-dimensional dodecagonal fullerene quasicrystal on a Pt3Ti(111) surface, which can be described in terms of a square-triangle tiling. Employing density functional theory calculations, we identify the complex adsorption energy landscape of the Pt-terminated Pt3Ti surface that is responsible for the quasicrystal formation. We demonstrate the presence of quasicrystal-specific phason strain, which provides the degree of freedom required to accommodate the quasicrystalline structure on the periodic substrate. Our results reveal detailed insight into an interface-driven formation mechanism and open the way to the creation of tailored fullerene quasicrystals with specific physical properties.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Topological Quantum Optics in Two-Dimensional Atomic Arrays
Perczel, J.; Borregaard, J.; Chang, D. E.; Pichler, H.; Yelin, S. F.; Zoller, P.; Lukin, M. D.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate that two-dimensional atomic emitter arrays with subwavelength spacing constitute topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers and topologically protected, long-lived edge states. Due to the inherent nonlinearity of constituent emitters, such systems provide a platform for exploring quantum optical analogs of interacting topological systems.
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪杰; 朱娜; 成超; 颜晓
2011-01-01
研究了正方形和圆形介质柱混合排列的二维光子晶体的能带特性.运用平面波展开法在正方形和正三角形晶格下将混合柱形与统一柱形光子晶体的禁带特性进行计算比较.仿真结果表明:对于正方形晶格,混合柱形使光子晶体的TM模高阶能带向低频方向移动,禁带的宽度和位置介于正方形柱体和圆形柱体之间.在正三角形晶格中,混合柱形光子晶体出现了明显的TE模禁带,而在全正方形和全圆形柱体中几乎不存在TE模禁带.同时能带频率向低频方向移动的现象也存在于正三角形品格混合柱形光子晶体中.%The band gap properties of photonic crystals with square and circular dielectric rods mixed arrangement are analyzed. The band gap properties of mixed shapes rods photonic crystal are compared with square rods and round rods ones compared by using plane wave expansion method. Simulation results show that for the square lattice, mixed shapes of rods make the higher-order bands of TM modes moving towards the low frequency range, whose width and location are between the square and round rods photonic crystal. In triangle lattice, a significant band gap is presented in photonic crystal with mixed shapes of rods in TE mode, while it is almost not presented in square and round rods crystals. The phenomenon of bands moving towards the low frequency range is also found in the triangle lattice mixed shapes rods photonic crystal.
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation
Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.
2016-11-01
The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol
2010-06-08
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prelas, M.A.
1996-01-24
This report describes progress made to develop a high bandgap photovoltaic materials for direct conversion to electricity of excimer radiation produced by fission energy pumped laser. This report summarizes the major achievements in sections. The first section covers n-type diamond. The second section covers forced diffusion. The third section covers radiation effects. The fourth section covers progress in Schottky barrier and heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The fifth section covers cell and reactor development.
Acoustic resonances in two dimensional radial sonic crystals shells
Torrent, Daniel
2010-01-01
Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction. They have been recently introduced and are only possible thanks to the anisotropy of specially designed acoustic metamaterials [see Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 103} 064301 (2009)]. We present here a comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional RSC shells, which consist of a cavity defect centered at the origin of the crystal and a finite thickness crystal shell surrounded by a fluidlike background. We develop analytic expressions demonstrating that, like for other type of crystals (photonic or phononic) with defects, these shells contain Fabry-Perot like resonances and strongly localized modes. The results are completely general and can be extended to three dimensional acoustic structures and to their photonic counterparts, the radial photonic crystals.
Peijun, Yao; Xiyao, Chen; Bo, Chen; Yonghua, Lu; Pei, Wang; Xiaojin, Jiao; Hai, Ming; Jianping, Xie
2004-06-01
In this paper, we investigated the reflectivity of the reflector based on two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide on defect's position, defect's radius and defect's index by finite difference time domain method. It is found that the reflectivity of the reflector strongly depends on the position of the defect, the reflectivity increases when the defect moves away from the grid point along the direction perpendicular to the waveguide, and we can obtain reflectivity of almost 100% in some suitable position. Meanwhile, we discuss that the reflectivity change with the defect's radius and its refractive index. Moreover, we have designed and simulated a high quality factor ( Q) filter constructed by one-defect reflectors in a simple structure. In our design, the Q will be increased by three times without any more constructional complexity.
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana M. Cubillas
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres (HC-PBFs have emerged as a novel technology in the field of gas sensing. The long interaction pathlengths achievable with these fibres are especially advantageous for the detection of weakly absorbing gases. In this work, we demonstrate the good performance of a HC-PBF in the detection of the ÃŽÂ½2 + 2ÃŽÂ½3 band of methane, at 1.3 ÃŽÂ¼m. The Q-branch manifold, at 1331.55 nm, is targeted for concentration monitoring purposes. A computationally optimized multi-line model is used to fit the Q-branch. Using this model, a detection limit of 98 ppmv (parts per million by volume is estimated.
Three-Dimensional All-Dielectric Photonic Topological Insulator
Slobozhanyuk, Alexey; Ni, Xiang; Smirnova, Daria; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B
2016-01-01
The discovery of two-dimensional topological photonic systems has transformed our views on electromagnetic propagation and scattering of classical waves, and a quest for similar states in three dimensions, known to exist in condensed matter systems, has been put forward. Here we demonstrate that symmetry protected three-dimensional topological states can be engineered in an all-dielectric platform with the electromagnetic duality between electric and magnetic fields ensured by the structure design. Magneto-electric coupling playing the role of a synthetic gauge field leads to a topological transition to an insulating regime with a complete three-dimensional photonic bandgap. An emergence of surface states with conical Dirac dispersion and spin-locking is unimpeded. Robust propagation of surface states along two-dimensional domain walls defined by the reversal of magneto-electric coupling is confirmed numerically by first principle studies. It is shown that the proposed system represents a table-top platform f...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
巴诺; 王磊; 张岩
2014-01-01
基于电磁感应透明技术，将相干耦合的Tripod型原子俘获在一维光晶格中并使其呈高斯型分布，由于介质的折射率被一维光晶格周期性调制，从而实现动态调控的三光子带隙结构。通过求解光场与原子相互作用密度矩阵方程以及光波在周期性介质中散射的传输矩阵方程，计算出探测场在相干驱动介质中的稳态反射谱和透射谱。计算结果表明：光子带隙的位置、宽度以及反射率可以通过改变两个耦合场的失谐、强度和几何布拉格失谐来调谐。%Using the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency, three photonic bandgaps can be established and manipulated at any time due to the refraction modulated periodically by the one-dimensional optical lattice in a tripod atomic system which is trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a Gaussian density distribution. Using the density-matrix equations to describe the interaction between laser and atoms and the transfer-matrix equation to describe the scattering of light waves in periodic media, we can obtain the steady reflection and transmission spectra. It can be found that the position and width as well as the reflectivity of the photonic band-gap could be tuned by changing the detunings and intensities of the coupling fields and the geometric Bragg detuning.
Two-dimensional dispersive shock waves in dissipative optical media
Kartashov, Yaroslav V
2013-01-01
We study generation of two-dimensional dispersive shock waves and oblique dark solitons upon interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects embedded into defocusing material with linear gain and two-photon absorption. Different evolution regimes are encountered including the formation of well-localized disturbances for input tilts below critical one, and generation of extended shock waves containing multiple intensity oscillations in the "upstream" region and gradually vanishing oblique dark solitons in "downstream" region for input tilts exceeding critical one. The generation of stable dispersive shock waves is possible only below certain critical defect strength.
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
Optics and Optoelectronics of Two-dimensional Semiconducting Monolayers and Heterostructures
Ross, Jason Solomon
Until recently, the physics of truly two-dimensional (2D) excitons could only be explored theoretically. Following the discovery of graphene, many 2D materials were quickly identified and isolated, one system being the semiconducting Group VI-B transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). These semiconductors are the first air-stable materials that are atomically thin (three atomics thick), and yet can be produced in arbitrarily large lateral sheets. They have a direct band gap in which confinement leads to large spatial overlap of electrons and holes resulting in strongly coupled excitonic transitions that dominate light-matter interactions. The direct band-gap of monolayer TMDs occurs at the corners of the hexagonal Brillouin zone, referred to as the K valleys. Entirely unique to these materials, excitons in adjacent K valleys selectively couple to light of opposite circular polarization, i.e. the K (K') valley is selective to right (left) circularly polarized photons. This property offers the possible realization of novel devices that will manipulate the valley index, known as valleytronics. Further, creating a stacked heterostructure (HS) of two TMD monolayers of different molecular species can exhibit type-II band alignment leading to the first atomically sharp built-in p-n junction and a bright interlayer exciton with long lifetimes. Being flat 2D sheets, it is easy to couple these materials to nearby systems such as microfabricated electrodes and photonic crystal cavities allowing for unique modulation and device schemes. Here, I employ both optical and electronic techniques to study the unique physics of 2D excitons in TMDs as well as demonstrate some of their first optoelectronic and valleytronic devices. The most notable achievement is perhaps the first demonstrations of both atomically thin and 2D heterostructure light emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Other breakthroughs include the first demonstration of exciton charging tunability in a 2D system
Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems.
Koppens, F H L; Mueller, T; Avouris, Ph; Ferrari, A C; Vitiello, M S; Polini, M
2014-10-01
Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms. The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies. Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
Polymer-based Photonic Crystal Cavity Sensor for Optical Detection in the Visible Wavelength Region.
Maeno, Kenichi; Aki, Shoma; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Endo, Tatsuro
2016-01-01
In this study, a polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) cavity for visible-light-based optical-sensing applications was designed and fabricated for the first time. The PhC cavity configuration was designed to operate at 650 nm, and fabricated with a polymer (resist) on a silicon substrate using electron-beam lithography. For investigating sensing applications based on shifting of condition exhibiting a photonic bandgap (PBG), the polymer monolayer deposition (layer-by-layer method) was monitored as the light-intensity change at the cavity position. Consequently, the monolayer-level detection of polyions was achieved.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder
Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S
2013-01-01
Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
Mehlenbacher, Randy D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Grechko, Maksim; Wu, Meng-Yin; Arnold, Michael S.; Zanni, Martin T.
2015-04-01
Thin film networks of highly purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being explored for energy harvesting and optoelectronic devices because of their exceptional transport and optical properties. The nanotubes in these films are in close contact, which permits energy to flow through the films, although the pathways and mechanisms for energy transfer are largely unknown. Here we use a broadband continuum to collect femtosecond two-dimensional white-light spectra. The continuum spans 500 to 1,300 nm, resolving energy transfer between all combinations of bandgap (S1) and higher (S2) transitions. We observe ultrafast energy redistribution on the S2 states, non-Förster energy transfer on the S1 states and anti-correlated energy levels. The two-dimensional spectra reveal competing pathways for energy transfer, with S2 excitons taking routes depending on the bandgap separation, whereas S1 excitons relax independent of the bandgap. These observations provide a basis for understanding and ultimately controlling the photophysics of energy flow in CNT-based devices.
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao
2016-11-14
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. Â© 2016 Author(s).
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.
Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2010-07-01
Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sánchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.
Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)
Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.
2008-10-01
The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L
2010-01-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory
Zak, M.
1979-01-01
The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Li, Zhenyu; Abramavicius, Darius; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul
2007-11-15
The two dimensional (2D) photon echo spectrum of the amide ultraviolet (UV) bands of proteins are simulated. Two effective exciton Hamiltonian parameter sets developed by Woody and Hirst, which predict similar CD spectra, may be distinguished by their very different 2DUV spectra. These differences are enhanced in specific configurations of pulse polarizations which provide chirality-induced signals.
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry
Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities
Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.
1994-05-01
We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2.
Pogna, Eva A A; Marsili, Margherita; De Fazio, Domenico; Dal Conte, Stefano; Manzoni, Cristian; Sangalli, Davide; Yoon, Duhee; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C; Marini, Andrea; Cerullo, Giulio; Prezzi, Deborah
2016-01-26
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging as promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for optoelectronic and flexible devices. However, a microscopic explanation of their photophysics, of pivotal importance for the understanding and optimization of device operation, is still lacking. Here, we use femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, with pump pulse tunability and broadband probing, to monitor the relaxation dynamics of single-layer MoS2 over the entire visible range, upon photoexcitation of different excitonic transitions. We find that, irrespective of excitation photon energy, the transient absorption spectrum shows the simultaneous bleaching of all excitonic transitions and corresponding red-shifted photoinduced absorption bands. First-principle modeling of the ultrafast optical response reveals that a transient bandgap renormalization, caused by the presence of photoexcited carriers, is primarily responsible for the observed features. Our results demonstrate the strong impact of many-body effects in the transient optical response of TMDs even in the low-excitation-density regime.
Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities
Constantinou, Navid C
2010-01-01
Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-06
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics
Lyubich, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra
2004-08-01
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)