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Sample records for two-dimensional phase unwrapping

  1. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  2. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  3. Two-dimensional wavelet transform for reliability-guided phase unwrapping in optical fringe pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Su, Xianyu; Tang, Feng

    2012-04-20

    This paper theoretically discusses modulus of two-dimensional (2D) wavelet transform (WT) coefficients, calculated by using two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions, in an optical fringe pattern analysis. The discussion shows that neither is good enough to represent the reliability of the phase data. The differences between the two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions in the performance of 2D WT also are discussed. We propose a new 2D daughter wavelet definition for reliability-guided phase unwrapping of optical fringe pattern. The modulus of the advanced 2D WT coefficients, obtained by using a daughter wavelet under this new daughter wavelet definition, includes not only modulation information but also local frequency information of the deformed fringe pattern. Therefore, it can be treated as a good parameter that represents the reliability of the retrieved phase data. Computer simulation and experimentation show the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Two-dimensional unwrapped phase inversion with damping and a Gaussian filter

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Phase wrapping is one of main causes of the local minima problem in waveform inversion. However, the unwrapping process for 2D phase maps that includes singular points (residues) is complicated and does not guarantee unique solutions. We employ an exponential damping to eliminate the residues in the 2D phase maps, which makes the 2D phase unwrapping process easy and produce a unique solution. A recursive inversion process using the damped unwrapped phase provides an opportunity to invert for smooth background updates first, and higher resolution updates later as we reduce the damping. We also apply a Gaussian filter to the gradient to mitigate the edge artifacts resulting from the narrow shape of the sensitivity kernels at high damping. Numerical examples demonstrate that our unwrapped phase inversion with damping and a Gaussian filter produces good convergent results even for a 3Hz single frequency of Marmousi dataset and with a starting model far from the true model.

  5. Ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm for two-dimensional phase unwrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, D.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    The phase unwrapping is the final and trickiest step in any phase retrieval technique. Phase unwrapping by artificial intelligence methods (optimization algorithms) such as hybrid genetic algorithm, reverse simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, minimum cost matching showed better results than conventional phase unwrapping methods. In this paper, Ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm with parallel populations is proposed to solve the branch-cut phase unwrapping problem. In a single populated hybrid genetic algorithm, the selection, cross-over and mutation operators are applied to obtain new population in every generation. The parameters and choice of operators will affect the performance of the hybrid genetic algorithm. The ensemble of hybrid genetic algorithm will facilitate to have different parameters set and different choice of operators simultaneously. Each population will use different set of parameters and the offspring of each population will compete against the offspring of all other populations, which use different set of parameters. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by phase unwrapping examples and advantages of the proposed method are discussed.

  6. Spatio-temporal phase retrieval in speckle interferometry with Hilbert transform and two-dimensional phase unwrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyu; Huang, Zhanhua; Zhu, Meng; He, Jin; Zhang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Hilbert transform (HT) is widely used in temporal speckle pattern interferometry, but errors from low modulations might propagate and corrupt the calculated phase. A spatio-temporal method for phase retrieval using temporal HT and spatial phase unwrapping is presented. In time domain, the wrapped phase difference between the initial and current states is directly determined by using HT. To avoid the influence of the low modulation intensity, the phase information between the two states is ignored. As a result, the phase unwrapping is shifted from time domain to space domain. A phase unwrapping algorithm based on discrete cosine transform is adopted by taking advantage of the information in adjacent pixels. An experiment is carried out with a Michelson-type interferometer to study the out-of-plane deformation field. High quality whole-field phase distribution maps with different fringe densities are obtained. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum number of fringes resolvable in a 416×416 frame is 30, which indicates a 15λ deformation along the direction of loading.

  7. Cellular-automata method for phase unwrapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Mastin, G.A.; Romero, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Research into two-dimensional phase unwrapping has uncovered interesting and troublesome inconsistencies that cause path-dependent results. Cellular automata, which are simple, discrete mathematical systems, offered promise of computation in nondirectional, parallel manner. A cellular automaton was discovered that can unwrap consistent phase data in n dimensions in a path-independent manner and can automatically accommodate noise-induced (pointlike) inconsistencies and arbitrary boundary conditions (region partitioning). For data with regional (nonpointlike) inconsistencies, no phase-unwrapping algorithm will converge, including the cellular-automata approach. However, the automata method permits more simple visualization of the regional inconsistencies. Examples of its behavior on one- and two-dimensional data are presented

  8. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  9. Assessment of autonomous phase unwrapping of isochromatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An excellent summary of phase unwrapping techniques applied to ... to fully exploit the advantage of these new developments, in this paper, ..... Madhu K R, Ramesh K 2007 New boundary information encoding and auto ... Ramesh K, Mangal S K 1999 Phase-shifting calculations in 2-D photoelasticity: revisited. J. Aero-.

  10. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  11. Fast phase processing in off-axis holography by CUDA including parallel phase unwrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backoach, Ohad; Kariv, Saar; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-02-22

    We present parallel processing implementation for rapid extraction of the quantitative phase maps from off-axis holograms on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) of the computer using computer unified device architecture (CUDA) programming. To obtain efficient implementation, we parallelized both the wrapped phase map extraction algorithm and the two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm. In contrast to previous implementations, we utilized unweighted least squares phase unwrapping algorithm that better suits parallelism. We compared the proposed algorithm run times on the CPU and the GPU of the computer for various sizes of off-axis holograms. Using the GPU implementation, we extracted the unwrapped phase maps from the recorded off-axis holograms at 35 frames per second (fps) for 4 mega pixel holograms, and at 129 fps for 1 mega pixel holograms, which presents the fastest processing framerates obtained so far, to the best of our knowledge. We then used common-path off-axis interferometric imaging to quantitatively capture the phase maps of a micro-organism with rapid flagellum movements.

  12. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  13. Wrapped and unwrapped phase of radiation scattered by a discrete number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Stephen M; Ridley, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates wrapped and unwrapped phase differences generated by a non-Gaussian scattering model: the two-dimensional random walk. Mean square values for these quantities are obtained for one and two scatterers, as well as the large scatterer limit when the field constitutes a circular complex Gaussian process. Numerical simulation is used to investigate the phase under more general fluctuation conditions, and reveals that the wrapped phase difference correlation converges rapidly to that result predicted for a Gaussian speckle field. Analytical results for the unwrapped phase indicate that this quantity transitions from a stationary process for one and two scatterers to a non-stationary process in the large scatterer limit. The nature of this transition is examined using numerical simulation for arbitrary scatterer number. Phase correlations are of consequence in various phase sensitive detection systems, and this paper examines both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields

  14. Phase unwrapping algorithm using polynomial phase approximation and linear Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2018-02-01

    A noise-robust phase unwrapping algorithm is proposed based on state space analysis and polynomial phase approximation using wrapped phase measurement. The true phase is approximated as a two-dimensional first order polynomial function within a small sized window around each pixel. The estimates of polynomial coefficients provide the measurement of phase and local fringe frequencies. A state space representation of spatial phase evolution and the wrapped phase measurement is considered with the state vector consisting of polynomial coefficients as its elements. Instead of using the traditional nonlinear Kalman filter for the purpose of state estimation, we propose to use the linear Kalman filter operating directly with the wrapped phase measurement. The adaptive window width is selected at each pixel based on the local fringe density to strike a balance between the computation time and the noise robustness. In order to retrieve the unwrapped phase, either a line-scanning approach or a quality guided strategy of pixel selection is used depending on the underlying continuous or discontinuous phase distribution, respectively. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  15. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion

  16. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. Speedup of minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm with a reference phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Han, Yu; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Qican

    2018-06-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on phase analysis, the phase analysis process usually produces a wrapped phase map ranging from - π to π with some 2 π discontinuities, and thus a phase unwrapping algorithm is necessary to recover the continuous and nature phase map from which 3D height distribution can be restored. Usually, the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm can be used to solve many different kinds of phase unwrapping problems, but its main drawback is that it requires a large amount of computations and has low efficiency in searching for the improving loop within the phase's discontinuity area. To overcome this drawback, an improvement to speedup of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm by using the phase distribution on reference plane is proposed. In this improved algorithm, before the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is carried out to unwrap phase, an integer number K was calculated from the ratio of the wrapped phase to the nature phase on a reference plane. And then the jump counts of the unwrapped phase can be reduced by adding 2K π, so the efficiency of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is significantly improved. Both simulated and experimental data results verify the feasibility of the proposed improved algorithm, and both of them clearly show that the algorithm works very well and has high efficiency.

  18. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Unweighted least squares phase unwrapping by means of multigrid techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Mark D.

    1995-11-01

    We present a multigrid algorithm for unweighted least squares phase unwrapping. This algorithm applies Gauss-Seidel relaxation schemes to solve the Poisson equation on smaller, coarser grids and transfers the intermediate results to the finer grids. This approach forms the basis of our multigrid algorithm for weighted least squares phase unwrapping, which is described in a separate paper. The key idea of our multigrid approach is to maintain the partial derivatives of the phase data in separate arrays and to correct these derivatives at the boundaries of the coarser grids. This maintains the boundary conditions necessary for rapid convergence to the correct solution. Although the multigrid algorithm is an iterative algorithm, we demonstrate that it is nearly as fast as the direct Fourier-based method. We also describe how to parallelize the algorithm for execution on a distributed-memory parallel processor computer or a network-cluster of workstations.

  20. Efficient Phase Unwrapping Architecture for Digital Holographic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jyi Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel phase unwrapping architecture for accelerating the computational speed of digital holographic microscopy (DHM. A fast Fourier transform (FFT based phase unwrapping algorithm providing a minimum squared error solution is adopted for hardware implementation because of its simplicity and robustness to noise. The proposed architecture is realized in a pipeline fashion to maximize through put of thecomputation. Moreover, the number of hardware multipliers and dividers are minimized to reduce the hardware costs. The proposed architecture is used as a custom user logic in a system on programmable chip (SOPC for physical performance measurement. Experimental results reveal that the proposed architecture is effective for expediting the computational speed while consuming low hardware resources for designing an embedded DHM system.

  1. Weighted least squares phase unwrapping based on the wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafeng; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Zhengang; Ren, Haixia

    2007-01-01

    The weighted least squares phase unwrapping algorithm is a robust and accurate method to solve phase unwrapping problem. This method usually leads to a large sparse linear equation system. Gauss-Seidel relaxation iterative method is usually used to solve this large linear equation. However, this method is not practical due to its extremely slow convergence. The multigrid method is an efficient algorithm to improve convergence rate. However, this method needs an additional weight restriction operator which is very complicated. For this reason, the multiresolution analysis method based on the wavelet transform is proposed. By applying the wavelet transform, the original system is decomposed into its coarse and fine resolution levels and an equivalent equation system with better convergence condition can be obtained. Fast convergence in separate coarse resolution levels speeds up the overall system convergence rate. The simulated experiment shows that the proposed method converges faster and provides better result than the multigrid method.

  2. Comparison of multihardware parallel implementations for a phase unwrapping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Rivera, Mariano; Salazar-Garibay, Adan; Legarda-Sáenz, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    Phase unwrapping is an important problem in the areas of optical metrology, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. These images are becoming larger in size and, particularly, the availability and need for processing of SAR and MRI data have increased significantly with the acquisition of remote sensing data and the popularization of magnetic resonators in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to develop faster and accurate phase unwrapping algorithms. We propose a parallel multigrid algorithm of a phase unwrapping method named accumulation of residual maps, which builds on a serial algorithm that consists of the minimization of a cost function; minimization achieved by means of a serial Gauss-Seidel kind algorithm. Our algorithm also optimizes the original cost function, but unlike the original work, our algorithm is a parallel Jacobi class with alternated minimizations. This strategy is known as the chessboard type, where red pixels can be updated in parallel at same iteration since they are independent. Similarly, black pixels can be updated in parallel in an alternating iteration. We present parallel implementations of our algorithm for different parallel multicore architecture such as CPU-multicore, Xeon Phi coprocessor, and Nvidia graphics processing unit. In all the cases, we obtain a superior performance of our parallel algorithm when compared with the original serial version. In addition, we present a detailed comparative performance of the developed parallel versions.

  3. Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand

    2017-01-20

    A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.

  4. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a

  5. Global approaches and local strategies for phase unwrapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerriero, L.; Refice, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Satalino, G.; Veneziani, N.; Blonda, P.; Pasquariello, G.

    2001-01-01

    Phase unwrapping, i.e. the retrieval of absolute phases from wrapped, noisy measures, is a tough problem because of the presence of rotational inconsistencies (residues), randomly generated by noise and undersampling on the principal phase gradient field. These inconsistencies prevent the recovery of the absolute phase field by direct integration of the wrapped gradients. In this paper it is examined the relative merit of known global approaches and then it is presented evidence that the approach based on stochastic annealing can recover the true phase field also in noisy areas with severe undersampling, where other methods fail. Then, some experiments with local approaches are presented. A fast neural filter has been trained to eliminate close residue couples by joining them in a way which takes into account the local phase information. Performances are about 60-70% of the residues. Finally, other experiments have been aimed at designing an automated method for the determination of weight matrices to use in conjunction with local phase unwrapping algorithms. The method, tested with the minimum cost flow algorithm, gives good performances over both simulated and real data

  6. A Parallel Computational Model for Multichannel Phase Unwrapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Pepe, Antonio; Lanari, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a parallel model for the solution of the computationally intensive multichannel phase unwrapping (MCh-PhU) problem is proposed. Firstly, the Extended Minimum Cost Flow (EMCF) algorithm for solving MCh-PhU problem is revised within the rigorous mathematical framework of the discrete calculus ; thus permitting to capture its topological structure in terms of meaningful discrete differential operators. Secondly, emphasis is placed on those methodological and practical aspects, which lead to a parallel reformulation of the EMCF algorithm. Thus, a novel dual-level parallel computational model, in which the parallelism is hierarchically implemented at two different (i.e., process and thread) levels, is presented. The validity of our approach has been demonstrated through a series of experiments that have revealed a significant speedup. Therefore, the attained high-performance prototype is suitable for the solution of large-scale phase unwrapping problems in reasonable time frames, with a significant impact on the systematic exploitation of the existing, and rapidly growing, large archives of SAR data.

  7. Phase unwrapping in digital holography based on non-subsampled contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-01-01

    In the digital holographic measurement of complex surfaces, phase unwrapping is a critical step for accurate reconstruction. The phases of the complex amplitudes calculated from interferometric holograms are disturbed by speckle noise, thus reliable unwrapping results are difficult to be obtained. Most of existing unwrapping algorithms implement denoising operations first to obtain noise-free phases and then conduct phase unwrapping pixel by pixel. This approach is sensitive to spikes and prone to unreliable results in practice. In this paper, a robust unwrapping algorithm based on the non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is developed. The multiscale and directional decomposition of NSCT enhances the boundary between adjacent phase levels and henceforth the influence of local noise can be eliminated in the transform domain. The wrapped phase map is segmented into several regions corresponding to different phase levels. Finally, an unwrapped phase map is obtained by elevating the phases of a whole segment instead of individual pixels to avoid unwrapping errors caused by local spikes. This algorithm is suitable for dealing with complex and noisy wavefronts. Its universality and superiority in the digital holographic interferometry have been demonstrated by both numerical analysis and practical experiments.

  8. Phase unwrapping algorithm based on multi-frequency fringe projection and fringe background for fringe projection profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Ma, Yueyang

    2015-01-01

    A phase unwrapping algorithm specially designed for the phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is proposed. It combines a revised dual-frequency fringe projectionalgorithm and a proposed fringe background based quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (FB-QGPUA). Phase demodulated from the high-frequency fringe patterns is partially unwrapped by that demodulated from the low-frequency ones. Then FB-QGPUA is adopted to further unwrap the partially unwrapped phase. Influences of the phase error on the measurement are researched. Strategy to select the fringe pitch is given. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is very robust and efficient. (paper)

  9. Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian

    2016-01-01

    The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM. (paper)

  10. Phase-unwrapping algorithm by a rounding-least-squares approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Robledo-Sanchez, Carlos; Guerrero-Sanchez, Fermin

    2014-02-01

    A simple and efficient phase-unwrapping algorithm based on a rounding procedure and a global least-squares minimization is proposed. Instead of processing the gradient of the wrapped phase, this algorithm operates over the gradient of the phase jumps by a robust and noniterative scheme. Thus, the residue-spreading and over-smoothing effects are reduced. The algorithm's performance is compared with four well-known phase-unwrapping methods: minimum cost network flow (MCNF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), quality-guided, and branch-cut. A computer simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reaches a high-accuracy level than the MCNF method by a low-computing time similar to the FFT phase-unwrapping method. Moreover, since the proposed algorithm is simple, fast, and user-free, it could be used in metrological interferometric and fringe-projection automatic real-time applications.

  11. Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, B P; Zillich, R E; Whaley, K B

    2018-03-14

    The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.

  12. Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, B. P.; Zillich, R. E.; Whaley, K. B.

    2018-03-01

    The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.

  13. Application of the unwrapped phase inversion to land data without source estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-08-19

    Unwrapped phase inversion with a strong damping was developed to solve the phase wrapping problem in frequency-domain waveform inversion. In this study, we apply the unwrapped phase inversion to band-limited real land data, for which the available minimum frequency is quite high. An important issue of the data is a strong ambiguity of source-ignition time (or source shift) shown in a seismogram. A source-estimation approach does not fully address the issue of source shift, since the velocity model and the source wavelet are updated simultaneously and interact with each other. We suggest a source-independent unwrapped phase inversion approach instead of relying on source-estimation from this land data. In the source-independent approach, the phase of the modeled data converges not to the exact phase value of the observed data, but to the relative phase value (or the trend of phases); thus it has the potential to solve the ambiguity of source-ignition time in a seismogram and work better than the source-estimation approach. Numerical examples show the validation of the source-independent unwrapped phase inversion, especially for land field data having an ambiguity in the source-ignition time.

  14. Automatic picking of the first arrival event using the unwrapped-phase of the Fourier transformed wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    an approach based on unwrapping the phase. We unwrap the phase by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency and isolate its amplitude component. To do so, we first apply a damping function to the seismic

  15. Application of the unwrapped phase inversion to land data without source estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; DeVault, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    and the source wavelet are updated simultaneously and interact with each other. We suggest a source-independent unwrapped phase inversion approach instead of relying on source-estimation from this land data. In the source-independent approach, the phase

  16. Two dimensional kicked quantum Ising model: dynamical phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, C; Prosen, T; Villaseñor, E

    2014-01-01

    Using an efficient one and two qubit gate simulator operating on graphical processing units, we investigate ergodic properties of a quantum Ising spin 1/2 model on a two-dimensional lattice, which is periodically driven by a δ-pulsed transverse magnetic field. We consider three different dynamical properties: (i) level density, (ii) level spacing distribution of the Floquet quasienergy spectrum, and (iii) time-averaged autocorrelation function of magnetization components. Varying the parameters of the model, we found transitions between ordered (non-ergodic) and quantum chaotic (ergodic) phases, but the transitions between flat and non-flat spectral density do not correspond to transitions between ergodic and non-ergodic local observables. Even more surprisingly, we found good agreement of level spacing distribution with the Wigner surmise of random matrix theory for almost all values of parameters except where the model is essentially non-interacting, even in regions where local observables are not ergodic or where spectral density is non-flat. These findings question the versatility of the interpretation of level spacing distribution in many-body systems and stress the importance of the concept of locality. (paper)

  17. Multi-frequency Phase Unwrap from Noisy Data: Adaptive Least Squares Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkovnik, Vladimir; Bioucas-Dias, José

    2010-04-01

    Multiple frequency interferometry is, basically, a phase acquisition strategy aimed at reducing or eliminating the ambiguity of the wrapped phase observations or, equivalently, reducing or eliminating the fringe ambiguity order. In multiple frequency interferometry, the phase measurements are acquired at different frequencies (or wavelengths) and recorded using the corresponding sensors (measurement channels). Assuming that the absolute phase to be reconstructed is piece-wise smooth, we use a nonparametric regression technique for the phase reconstruction. The nonparametric estimates are derived from a local least squares criterion, which, when applied to the multifrequency data, yields denoised (filtered) phase estimates with extended ambiguity (periodized), compared with the phase ambiguities inherent to each measurement frequency. The filtering algorithm is based on local polynomial (LPA) approximation for design of nonlinear filters (estimators) and adaptation of these filters to unknown smoothness of the spatially varying absolute phase [9]. For phase unwrapping, from filtered periodized data, we apply the recently introduced robust (in the sense of discontinuity preserving) PUMA unwrapping algorithm [1]. Simulations give evidence that the proposed algorithm yields state-of-the-art performance for continuous as well as for discontinues phase surfaces, enabling phase unwrapping in extraordinary difficult situations when all other algorithms fail.

  18. Fringe order error in multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping: reason and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Lu

    2015-11-10

    A multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping algorithm (MFPPUA) is important to fringe projection profilometry, especially when a discontinuous object is measured. However, a fringe order error (FOE) may occur when MFPPUA is adopted. An FOE will result in error to the unwrapped phase. Although this kind of phase error does not spread, it brings error to the eventual 3D measurement results. Therefore, an FOE or its adverse influence should be obviated. In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of an FOE are theoretically analyzed and experimentally explored. Methods to correct the phase error caused by an FOE are proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are valid in eliminating the adverse influence of an FOE.

  19. Research Note: Full-waveform inversion of the unwrapped phase of a model

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-12-06

    Reflections in seismic data induce serious non-linearity in the objective function of full- waveform inversion. Thus, without a good initial velocity model that can produce reflections within a half cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to a solution becomes difficult. As a result, we tend to invert for refracted events and damp reflections in data. Reflection induced non-linearity stems from cycle skipping between the imprint of the true model in observed data and the predicted model in synthesized data. Inverting for the phase of the model allows us to address this problem by avoiding the source of non-linearity, the phase wrapping phenomena. Most of the information related to the location (or depths) of interfaces is embedded in the phase component of a model, mainly influenced by the background model, while the velocity-contrast information (responsible for the reflection energy) is mainly embedded in the amplitude component. In combination with unwrapping the phase of data, which mitigates the non-linearity introduced by the source function, I develop a framework to invert for the unwrapped phase of a model, represented by the instantaneous depth, using the unwrapped phase of the data. The resulting gradient function provides a mechanism to non-linearly update the velocity model by applying mainly phase shifts to the model. In using the instantaneous depth as a model parameter, we keep track of the model properties unfazed by the wrapping phenomena. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  20. Traveltime sensitivity kernels for wave equation tomography using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-02-18

    Wave equation tomography attempts to improve on traveltime tomography, by better adhering to the requirements of our finite-frequency data. Conventional wave equation tomography, based on the first-order Born approximation followed by cross-correlation traveltime lag measurement, or on the Rytov approximation for the phase, yields the popular hollow banana sensitivity kernel indicating that the measured traveltime at a point is insensitive to perturbations along the ray theoretical path at certain finite frequencies. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which is able to unwrap the phase of the signal, instead of the cross-correlation lag, we derive new finite-frequency traveltime sensitivity kernels. The kernel reflects more the model-data dependency, we typically encounter in full waveform inversion. This result confirms that the hollow banana shape is borne of the cross-correlation lag measurement, which exposes the Born approximations weakness in representing transmitted waves. The instantaneous traveltime can thus mitigate the additional component of nonlinearity introduced by the hollow banana sensitivity kernels in finite-frequency traveltime tomography. The instantaneous traveltime simply represents the unwrapped phase of Rytov approximation, and thus is a good alternative to Born and Rytov to compute the misfit function for wave equation tomography. We show the limitations of the cross-correlation associated with Born approximation for traveltime lag measurement when the source signatures of the measured and modelled data are different. The instantaneous traveltime is proven to be less sensitive to the distortions in the data signature. The unwrapped phase full banana shape of the sensitivity kernels shows smoother update compared to the banana–doughnut kernels. The measurement of the traveltime delay caused by a small spherical anomaly, embedded into a 3-D homogeneous model, supports the full banana sensitivity assertion for the unwrapped phase.

  1. Traveltime sensitivity kernels for wave equation tomography using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Wave equation tomography attempts to improve on traveltime tomography, by better adhering to the requirements of our finite-frequency data. Conventional wave equation tomography, based on the first-order Born approximation followed by cross-correlation traveltime lag measurement, or on the Rytov approximation for the phase, yields the popular hollow banana sensitivity kernel indicating that the measured traveltime at a point is insensitive to perturbations along the ray theoretical path at certain finite frequencies. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which is able to unwrap the phase of the signal, instead of the cross-correlation lag, we derive new finite-frequency traveltime sensitivity kernels. The kernel reflects more the model-data dependency, we typically encounter in full waveform inversion. This result confirms that the hollow banana shape is borne of the cross-correlation lag measurement, which exposes the Born approximations weakness in representing transmitted waves. The instantaneous traveltime can thus mitigate the additional component of nonlinearity introduced by the hollow banana sensitivity kernels in finite-frequency traveltime tomography. The instantaneous traveltime simply represents the unwrapped phase of Rytov approximation, and thus is a good alternative to Born and Rytov to compute the misfit function for wave equation tomography. We show the limitations of the cross-correlation associated with Born approximation for traveltime lag measurement when the source signatures of the measured and modelled data are different. The instantaneous traveltime is proven to be less sensitive to the distortions in the data signature. The unwrapped phase full banana shape of the sensitivity kernels shows smoother update compared to the banana–doughnut kernels. The measurement of the traveltime delay caused by a small spherical anomaly, embedded into a 3-D homogeneous model, supports the full banana sensitivity assertion for the unwrapped phase.

  2. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  3. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  4. Use of (N-1)-D expansions for N-D phase unwrapping in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Philip J.; King, Laura J.; Millane, Rick P.

    2017-09-01

    In MRI the presence of metal implants causes severe artifacts in images and interferes with the usual techniques used to separate fat signals from other tissues. In the Dixon method, three images are acquired at different echo times to enable the variation in the magnetic field to be estimated. However, the estimate is represented as the phase of a complex quantity and therefore suffers from wrapping. High field gradients near the metal mean that the phase estimate is undersampled and therefore challenging to unwrap. We have developed POP, phase estimation by onion peeling, an algorithm which unwraps the phase along 1-D paths for a 2-D image obtained with the Dixon method. The unwrapping is initially performed along a closed path enclosing the implant and well separated from it. The recovered phase is expanded using a smooth periodic basis along the path. Then, path-by-path, the estimate is applied to the next path and then the expansion coefficients are estimated to best fit the wrapped measurements. We have successfully tested POP on MRI images of specially constructed phantoms and on a group of patients with hip implants. In principle, POP can be extended to 3-D imaging. In that case, POP would entail representing phase with a suitably smooth basis over a series of surfaces enclosing the implant (the "onion skins"), again beginning the phase estimation well away from the implant. An approach for this is proposed. Results are presented for fat and water separation for 2-D images of phantoms and actual patients. The practicality of the method and its employment in clinical MRI are discussed.

  5. Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous

  6. Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-11-04

    The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides the stability of refraction tomography, with higher resolution results, and no arrival picking involved. We apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion to the synthetic data generated by the elastic time-domain modeling. The synthetic data is a representative of the near surface seismic data. Although the inversion algorithm is based on the acoustic wave equation, the numerical examples show that the instantaneous-traveltime inversion generates a convergent velocity model, very similar to what we see from traveltime tomography.

  7. Monte Carlo study of the phase diagram for the two-dimensional Z(4) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, G.M.; Pol, M.E.; Zagury, N.

    1982-05-01

    The phase diagram of the two-dimensional Z(4) model on a square lattice is determined using a Monte Carlo method. The results of this simulation confirm the general features of the phase diagram predicted theoretically for the ferromagnetic case, and show the existence of a new phase with perpendicular order. (Author) [pt

  8. Two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, Y.; Chen, K.; Deng, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kotecký, R.; Salas, J.; Sokal, Alan D.; Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, Č. 1 (2013), 12136-1-12136-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * two-dimensional lattices * q-state Potts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-two-dimensional potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q.pdf

  9. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  10. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  11. Comparison of phase unwrapping algorithms for topography reconstruction based on digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Cui, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hongbei; Zhao, Mengge; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) can diagnose the topography evolution in real-time, continuous and non-destructive, and has been considered as a most promising technique for Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) topography diagnostic under the complicated environment of tokamak. It is important for the study of digital speckle pattern interferometry to enhance speckle patterns and obtain the real topography of the ablated crater. In this paper, two kinds of numerical model based on flood-fill algorithm has been developed to obtain the real profile by unwrapping from the wrapped phase in speckle interference pattern, which can be calculated through four intensity images by means of 4-step phase-shifting technique. During the process of phase unwrapping by means of flood-fill algorithm, since the existence of noise pollution, and other inevitable factors will lead to poor quality of the reconstruction results, this will have an impact on the authenticity of the restored topography. The calculation of the quality parameters was introduced to obtain the quality-map from the wrapped phase map, this work presents two different methods to calculate the quality parameters. Then quality parameters are used to guide the path of flood-fill algorithm, and the pixels with good quality parameters are given priority calculation, so that the quality of speckle interference pattern reconstruction results are improved. According to the comparison between the flood-fill algorithm which is suitable for speckle pattern interferometry and the quality-guided flood-fill algorithm (with two different calculation approaches), the errors which caused by noise pollution and the discontinuous of the strips were successfully reduced.

  12. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-03-01

    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C 18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Two-dimensional characteristic polynomials in the direct calculation of optical phase sum and difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, M; Dorrio, B V; Blanco, J; Diz-Bugarin, J; Ribas, F

    2011-01-01

    Two-stage phase shifting algorithms make possible to directly recover the sum or the difference of the encoded optical phase of two different fringe patterns. These algorithms can be constructed, for example, by combining known phase shifting algorithms in a non-linear way. In this work two-stage phase shifting algorithms are linked to a two-dimensional characteristic polynomial to qualitatively analyse their behaviour against the main systematic error sources in an analysis protocol like that used for phase shifting algorithms. This tool enables us to understand the propagation of properties from precursor phase shifting algorithms to new evaluation algorithms that can be built from them.

  14. Robust and efficient multi-frequency temporal phase unwrapping: optimal fringe frequency and pattern sequence selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian; Tao, Tianyang; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-08-21

    Temporal phase unwrapping (TPU) is an essential algorithm in fringe projection profilometry (FPP), especially when measuring complex objects with discontinuities and isolated surfaces. Among others, the multi-frequency TPU has been proven to be the most reliable algorithm in the presence of noise. For a practical FPP system, in order to achieve an accurate, efficient, and reliable measurement, one needs to make wise choices about three key experimental parameters: the highest fringe frequency, the phase-shifting steps, and the fringe pattern sequence. However, there was very little research on how to optimize these parameters quantitatively, especially considering all three aspects from a theoretical and analytical perspective simultaneously. In this work, we propose a new scheme to determine simultaneously the optimal fringe frequency, phase-shifting steps and pattern sequence under multi-frequency TPU, robustly achieving high accuracy measurement by a minimum number of fringe frames. Firstly, noise models regarding phase-shifting algorithms as well as 3-D coordinates are established under a projector defocusing condition, which leads to the optimal highest fringe frequency for a FPP system. Then, a new concept termed frequency-to-frame ratio (FFR) that evaluates the magnitude of the contribution of each frame for TPU is defined, on which an optimal phase-shifting combination scheme is proposed. Finally, a judgment criterion is established, which can be used to judge whether the ratio between adjacent fringe frequencies is conducive to stably and efficiently unwrapping the phase. The proposed method provides a simple and effective theoretical framework to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of a practical FPP system in actual measurement conditions. The correctness of the derived models as well as the validity of the proposed schemes have been verified through extensive simulations and experiments. Based on a normal monocular 3-D FPP hardware system

  15. Quantum entanglement and phase transition in a two-dimensional photon-photon pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Yuan Jianhui; Zhang Junpei; Cheng Ze

    2013-01-01

    We propose a two-dimensional model consisting of photons and photon pairs. In the model, the mixed gas of photons and photon pairs is formally equivalent to a two-dimensional system of massive bosons with non-vanishing chemical potential, which implies the existence of two possible condensate phases. Using the variational method, we discuss the quantum phase transition of the mixed gas and obtain the critical coupling line analytically. Moreover, we also find that the phase transition of the photon gas can be interpreted as enhanced second harmonic generation. We then discuss the entanglement between photons and photon pairs. Additionally, we also illustrate how the entanglement between photons and photon pairs can be associated with the phase transition of the system.

  16. Melting in Two-Dimensional Lennard-Jones Systems: Observation of a Metastable Hexatic Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Kaplan, T.; Mostoller, M.

    1995-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of two-dimensional melting have been carried out using a recently revised Parrinello-Rahman scheme on massively parallel supercomputers. A metastable state is observed between the solid and liquid phases in Lennard-Jones systems of 36 864 and 102 400 atoms. This intermediate state shows the characteristics of the hexatic phase predicted by the theory of Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young

  17. Phase transition of two-dimensional 3He from a dilute to a dense phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.K.; Gasparini, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the heat capacity of 3 He in films of 4 He as thin as 10 A formed on a Nuclepore filter substrate. At low temperatures, where the 3 He is in the lowest state as far as motion perpendicular to the film surface, we find that the 3 He undergoes a transition from a dilute phase to a dense phase. We have observed this transition for films of 4 He of 12.3- and 10-A thickness and for coverages of 3 He below about 0.2 atomic layers. For thicker 4 He films, and higher 3 He coverages, the 3 He remains homogeneously spread out over the surface of the 4 He. The striking characteristic of the transition is the sudden onset of linear temperature dependence with a slope which is proportional to the amount of 3 He in the calorimeter. This is consistent with the formation of islands of a dense two-dimensional phase which grows in extent proportionately to the amount of 3 He. Two puzzling aspects of our results are the lack of a significant heat-capacity jump at the transition and, based on a linear extrapolation of the data to zero temperature, a substantial amount of missing entropy

  18. Magnetic phase transition induced by electrostatic gating in two-dimensional square metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Long; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We investigate theoretically magnetism and magnetic phase transitions induced by electrostatic gating of two-dimensional square metal-organic framework compounds. We find that electrostatic gating can induce phase transitions between homogeneous ferromagnetic and various spin-textured antiferromagnetic states. Electronic structure and Wannier function analysis can reveal hybridizations between transition-metal d orbitals and conjugated π orbitals in the organic framework. Mn-containing compounds exhibit a strong d -π hybridization that leads to partially occupied spin-minority bands, in contrast to compounds containing transition-metal ions other than Mn, for which electronic structure around the Fermi energy is only slightly spin split due to weak d -π hybridization and the magnetic interaction is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. We use a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model to understand the phase transition in Mn-containing compounds in terms of carrier density and illuminate the complexity and the potential to control two-dimensional magnetization.

  19. Experimental observation of both negative and positive phase velocities in a two-dimensional sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Mao, Yi-Wei; Zi, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Both negative and positive phase velocities for acoustic waves have been experimentally established in a two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal (SC) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in air at first. With the increase of the SCs thickness layer by layer in the experiments, phase shifts decrease in the second band but increase in the first band, showing the negative and the positive phase velocities, respectively. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the SC is constructed by the phase information, which is consistent well with the theoretical results. These abundant characteristics of acoustic wave propagation in the SC might be useful for the device applications

  20. The Utilization of Triton X-100 for Enhanced Two-Dimensional Liquid-Phase Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mina; Lee, Sang-Hee; Min, Jiho; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in proteomics lies in obtaining a high level of reproducible fractionation of the protein samples. Automated two-dimensional liquid phase fractionation (PF2D) system manufactured by Beckman Coulter provides a process well suited for proteome studies. However, the protein recovery efficiency of such system is low when a protocol recommended by the manufacturer is used for metaproteome profiling of environmental sample. In search of an alternative method that can over...

  1. Phase Coexistence in Two-Dimensional Passive and Active Dumbbell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Digregorio, Pasquale; Gonnella, Giuseppe; Suma, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that there is a macroscopic coexistence between regions with hexatic order and regions in the liquid or gas phase over a finite interval of packing fractions in active dumbbell systems with repulsive power-law interactions in two dimensions. In the passive limit, this interval remains finite, similar to what has been found in two-dimensional systems of hard and soft disks. We did not find discontinuous behavior upon increasing activity from the passive limit.

  2. Second order phase transition in two dimensional sine-Gordon field theory - lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Joseph, K.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional sine-Gordon (SG) field theory on a lattice is studied using the single-site basis variational method of Drell and others. The nature of the phase transition associated with the spontaneous symmetry breakdown in a SG field system is clarified to be of second order. A generalisation is offered for a SG-type field theory in two dimensions with a potential of the form [cossup(n)((square root of lambda)/m)phi-1].(author)

  3. Global Anomaly Detection in Two-Dimensional Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultinck, Nick; Vanhove, Robijn; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Edge theories of symmetry-protected topological phases are well known to possess global symmetry anomalies. In this Letter we focus on two-dimensional bosonic phases protected by an on-site symmetry and analyze the corresponding edge anomalies in more detail. Physical interpretations of the anomaly in terms of an obstruction to orbifolding and constructing symmetry-preserving boundaries are connected to the cohomology classification of symmetry-protected phases in two dimensions. Using the tensor network and matrix product state formalism we numerically illustrate our arguments and discuss computational detection schemes to identify symmetry-protected order in a ground state wave function.

  4. Topological Quantum Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattice Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2013-09-01

    Since the successful fabrication of graphene, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structures have become a research hotspot in condensed matter physics. In this short review, we theoretically focus on discussing the possible realization of a topological insulator (TI) phase in systems of graphene bilayer (GBL) and boron nitride bilayer (BNBL), whose band structures can be experimentally modulated by an interlayer bias voltage. Under the bias, a band gap can be opened in AB-stacked GBL but is still closed in AA-stacked GBL and significantly reduced in AA- or AB-stacked BNBL. In the presence of spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), further demonstrations indicate whether the topological quantum phase transition can be realized strongly depends on the stacking orders and symmetries of structures. It is observed that a bulk band gap can be first closed and then reopened when the Rashba SOC increases for gated AB-stacked GBL or when the intrinsic SOC increases for gated AA-stacked BNBL. This gives a distinct signal for a topological quantum phase transition, which is further characterized by a jump of the ℤ2 topological invariant. At fixed SOCs, the TI phase can be well switched by the interlayer bias and the phase boundaries are precisely determined. For AA-stacked GBL and AB-stacked BNBL, no strong TI phase exists, regardless of the strength of the intrinsic or Rashba SOCs. At last, a brief overview is given on other two-dimensional hexagonal materials including silicene and molybdenum disulfide bilayers.

  5. Quantum Fidelity and Thermal Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Spin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Kou Su-Peng; Huang Hai-Lin; Sun Zhao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ability of quantum fidelity in detecting the classical phase transitions (CPTs) in a two-dimensional Heisenberg—Ising mixed spin model, which has a very rich phase diagram and is exactly soluble. For a two-site subsystem of the model, the reduced fidelity (including the operator fidelity and the fidelity susceptibility) at finite temperatures is calculated, and it is found that an extreme value presents at the critical temperature, thus shows a signal for the CPTs. In some parameter region, the signal becomes blurred. We propose to use the 'normalized fidelity susceptibility' to solve this problem

  6. High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field

  7. Heat transfer of phase-change materials in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labdon, M. B.; Guceri, S. I.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase-change problem is numerically solved in cylindrical coordinates (r and z) by utilizing two Taylor series expansions for the temperature distributions in the neighborhood of the interface location. These two expansions form two polynomials in r and z directions. For the regions sufficiently away from the interface the temperature field equations are numerically solved in the usual way and the results are coupled with the polynomials. The main advantages of this efficient approach include ability to accept arbitrarily time dependent boundary conditions of all types and arbitrarily specified initial temperature distributions. A modified approach using a single Taylor series expansion in two variables is also suggested.

  8. Theory for disordered phase in Heisenberg and non-Heisenberg two-dimensional S=1 ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, D.V.; Fridman, Yu.A.

    2003-01-01

    We apply a modification of self-consistent spin-wave theory to investigation of two-dimensional S=1 isotropic Heisenberg and non-Heisenberg ferromagnets at nonzero temperatures. We use Hubbard operators method and bosonization technique. We calculated chemical potential and found dependence of correlation length on temperature. Specific heat has Schottky-type peak and decreases at high temperatures. Disordered phase in non-Heisenberg ferromagnet is also studied. The results for such a model differ from those of Heisenberg one

  9. Phase transitions in two-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY models. II. General scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    For two-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY models the group of symmetry spontaneously broken in the ground state is a cross product of the group of two-dimensional rotations by some discrete group of finite order. Different possibilities of phase transitions in such systems are investigated. The transition to the Coulomb gas with noninteger charges is widely used when analyzing the properties of relevant topological excitations. The number of these excitations includes not only domain walls and traditional (integer) vortices, but also vortices with a fractional number of circulation quanta which are to be localized at bends and intersections of domain walls. The types of possible phase transitions prove to be dependent on their relative sequence: in the case the vanishing of domain wall free energy occurs earlier (at increasing temperature) than the dissociation of pairs of ordinary vortices, the second phase transition is to be associated with dissociation of pairs of fractional vortices. The general statements are illustrated with a number of examples

  10. Applications of neural networks to the studies of phase transitions of two-dimensional Potts models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.-D.; Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.

    2018-04-01

    We study the phase transitions of two-dimensional (2D) Q-states Potts models on the square lattice, using the first principles Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as the techniques of neural networks (NN). We demonstrate that the ideas from NN can be adopted to study these considered phase transitions efficiently. In particular, even with a simple NN constructed in this investigation, we are able to obtain the relevant information of the nature of these phase transitions, namely whether they are first order or second order. Our results strengthen the potential applicability of machine learning in studying various states of matters. Subtlety of applying NN techniques to investigate many-body systems is briefly discussed as well.

  11. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Ding, Yunhong; Forchhammer, Søren; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable.

  12. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak......Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last...... coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable....

  13. Electrically controlled band gap and topological phase transition in two-dimensional multilayer germanane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Electrically controlled band gap and topological electronic states are important for the next-generation topological quantum devices. In this letter, we study the electric field control of band gap and topological phase transitions in multilayer germanane. We find that although the monolayer and multilayer germananes are normal insulators, a vertical electric field can significantly reduce the band gap of multilayer germananes owing to the giant Stark effect. The decrease of band gap eventually leads to band inversion, transforming them into topological insulators with nontrivial Z_2 invariant. The electrically controlled topological phase transition in multilayer germananes provides a potential route to manipulate topologically protected edge states and design topological quantum devices. This strategy should be generally applicable to a broad range of materials, including other two-dimensional materials and ultrathin films with controlled growth.

  14. Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Rogier, Hendrik; Baets, Roel

    2010-06-21

    Optical wireless links can offer a very large bandwidth and can act as a complementary technology to radiofrequency links. Optical components nowadays are however rather bulky. Therefore, we have investigated the potential of silicon photonics to fabricated integrated components for wireless optical communication. This paper presents a two-dimensional phased array antenna consisting of grating couplers that couple light off-chip. Wavelength steering of $0.24 degrees /nm is presented reducing the need of active phase modulators. The needed steering range is $1.5 degrees . The 3dB angular coverage range of these antennas is about $0.007pi sr with a directivity of more than 38dBi and antenna losses smaller than 3dB.

  15. Distributed Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms on DSPs with an Application for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many applications of two-dimensional Fourier Transforms require fixed timing as defined by system specifications. One example is image-based wavefront sensing. The image-based approach has many benefits, yet it is a computational intensive solution for adaptive optic correction, where optical adjustments are made in real-time to correct for external (atmospheric turbulence) and internal (stability) aberrations, which cause image degradation. For phase retrieval, a type of image-based wavefront sensing, numerous two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are used. To meet the required real-time specifications, a distributed system is needed, and thus, the 2-D FFT necessitates an all-to-all communication among the computational nodes. The 1-D floating point FFT is very efficient on a digital signal processor (DSP). For this study, several architectures and analysis of such are presented which address the all-to-all communication with DSPs. Emphasis of this research is on a 64-node cluster of Analog Devices TigerSharc TS-101 DSPs.

  16. Dynamics of the two-dimensional directed Ising model in the paramagnetic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, C.; Pleimling, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the nonconserved dynamics of the Ising model on the two-dimensional square lattice, where each spin is influenced preferentially by its east and north neighbours. The single-spin flip rates are such that the stationary state is Gibbsian with respect to the usual ferromagnetic Ising Hamiltonian. We show the existence, in the paramagnetic phase, of a dynamical transition between two regimes of violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the nonequilibrium stationary state: a regime of weak violation where the stationary fluctuation-dissipation ratio is finite, when the asymmetry parameter is less than a threshold value, and a regime of strong violation where this ratio vanishes asymptotically above the threshold. This study suggests that this novel kind of dynamical transition in nonequilibrium stationary states, already found for the directed Ising chain and the spherical model with asymmetric dynamics, might be quite general. In contrast with the latter models, the equal-time correlation function for the two-dimensional directed Ising model depends on the asymmetry.

  17. Automatic picking of the first arrival event using the unwrapped-phase of the Fourier transformed wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    First-arrival picking has long suffered from cycle skipping, especially when the first arrival is contaminated with noise or have experienced complex near surface phenomena. We propose a new algorithm for automatic picking of first arrivals using an approach based on unwrapping the phase. We unwrap the phase by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency and isolate its amplitude component. To do so, we first apply a damping function to the seismic trace, calculate the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, divide the derivative of wavefield by the wavefield itself, and finally take its imaginary part. We compare our derivative approach to the logarithmic one and show that the derivative approach does not suffer from the phase wrapping or cycle-skipping effects. Numerical examples show that our automatic picking algorithm gives convergent and reliable results for the noise-free synthetic data and noisy field data. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. Unconventional Topological Phase Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems with Space-Time Inversion Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung

    2017-04-01

    We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z2 topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe /CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe /CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.

  19. Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongfeng; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Chen, Hongya [College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710051 (China); Zhang, Jieqiu [College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710051 (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xu, Zhuo [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhang, Anxue [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-06-02

    Phase gradient metasurface (PGMs) are artificial surfaces that can provide pre-defined in-plane wave-vectors to manipulate the directions of refracted/reflected waves. In this Letter, we propose to achieve wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction using two-dimensional (2D) PGMs. A 2D PGM was designed using a square combination of 49 split-ring sub-unit cells. The PGM can provide additional wave-vectors along the two in-plane directions simultaneously, leading to either surface wave conversion, deflected reflection, or diffuse reflection. Both the simulation and experiment results verified the wide-band, polarization-independent, high-efficiency RCS reduction induced by the 2D PGM.

  20. Two-dimensional electron density characterisation of arc interruption phenomenon in current-zero phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional electron density imaging over free burning SF6 arcs and SF6 gas-blast arcs was conducted at current zero using highly sensitive Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensors in order to experimentally characterise electron density distributions for the success and failure of arc interruption in the thermal reignition phase. The experimental results under an interruption probability of 50% showed that free burning SF6 arcs with axially asymmetric electron density profiles were interrupted with a success rate of 88%. On the other hand, the current interruption of SF6 gas-blast arcs was reproducibly achieved under locally reduced electron densities and the interruption success rate was 100%.

  1. Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Chen, Hongya; Zhang, Jieqiu; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2014-01-01

    Phase gradient metasurface (PGMs) are artificial surfaces that can provide pre-defined in-plane wave-vectors to manipulate the directions of refracted/reflected waves. In this Letter, we propose to achieve wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction using two-dimensional (2D) PGMs. A 2D PGM was designed using a square combination of 49 split-ring sub-unit cells. The PGM can provide additional wave-vectors along the two in-plane directions simultaneously, leading to either surface wave conversion, deflected reflection, or diffuse reflection. Both the simulation and experiment results verified the wide-band, polarization-independent, high-efficiency RCS reduction induced by the 2D PGM.

  2. Efficient coherent beam combination of two-dimensional phase-locked laser arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing; Yan, Aimin; Liu, Liren; Dai, Enwen; Sun, Jianfeng; Shen, Baoliang; Lv, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    An efficient technique in which a two-dimensional (2D) phase-locked laser array can be coherently combined into a high power and high quality beam by using a conjugate Dammann grating (CDG) is presented. A theoretical model is established to provide a physical interpretation of the proposed scheme. Using this technique, we investigate analytically and numerically the coherent combination of 2D laser arrays such as 5 × 5 and 32 × 32 arrangements. Far-field distributions and the near-field pattern of the combined beam are calculated and compared with experimental results. A verification experiment with a simulated 5 × 5 2D laser array using an aperture mask has been performed. Calculations and experimental results show that the proposed technique in this paper is an efficient coherent beam combination method to obtain a high power and high quality beam from laser arrays

  3. Ionic liquid phases with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Nolvachai, Yada; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Kulsing, Chadin; Krisnangkura, Kanit; Marriott, Philip J

    2018-02-17

    New generation inert ionic liquid (iIL) GC columns IL60i, IL76i and IL111i, comprising phosphonium or imidazolium cationic species, were investigated for separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In general, the iIL phases provide comparable retention times to their corresponding conventional columns, with only minor selectivity differences. The average tailing factors and peak widths were noticeably improved (reduced) for IL60i and IL76i, while they were slightly improved for IL111i. Inert IL phase columns were coupled with conventional IL columns in comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) with a solid-state modulator which offers variable modulation temperature (T M ), programmable T M during analysis and trapping stationary phase material during the trap/release (modulation) process, independent of oven T and column sets. Although IL phases are classified as polar, relative polarity of the two phases comprising individual GC × GC column sets permits combination of less-polar IL/polar IL and polar IL/less-polar IL column sets; it was observed that a polar/less-polar column set provided better separation of FAME. A higher first dimension ( 1 D) phase polarity combined with a lower 2 D phase polarity, for instance 1 D IL111i with 2 D IL59 gave the best result; the greater difference in 1 D/ 2 D phase polarity results in increasing occupancy of peak area in the 2D space. The IL111i/IL59 column set was selected for analysis of fatty acids in fat and oil products (butter, margarine, fish oil and canola oil). Compared with the conventional IL111, IL111i showed reduced column bleed which makes this more suited to GC × GC analysis of FAME. The proposed method offers a fast profiling approach with good repeatability of analysis of FAME.

  4. Non-Douglas-Kazakov phase transition of two-dimensional generalized Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorrami, M.; Alimohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    In two-dimensional Yang-Mills and generalized Yang-Mills theories for large gauge groups, there is a dominant representation determining the thermodynamic limit of the system. This representation is characterized by a density, the value of which should everywhere be between zero and one. This density itself is determined by means of a saddle-point analysis. For some values of the parameter space, this density exceeds one in some places. So one should modify it to obtain an acceptable density. This leads to the well-known Douglas-Kazakov phase transition. In generalized Yang-Mills theories, there are also regions in the parameter space where somewhere this density becomes negative. Here too, one should modify the density so that it remains nonnegative. This leads to another phase transition, different from the Douglas-Kazakov one. Here the general structure of this phase transition is studied, and it is shown that the order of this transition is typically three. Using carefully-chosen parameters, however, it is possible to construct models with the order of the phase transition not equal to three. A class of these non-typical models is also studied. (orig.)

  5. A two-dimensional, two-phase mass transport model for liquid-feed DMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; Zhao, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional, isothermal two-phase mass transport model for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is presented in this paper. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode porous regions is formulated based on the classical multiphase flow in porous media without invoking the assumption of constant gas pressure in the unsaturated porous medium flow theory. The two-phase flow behavior in the anode flow channel is modeled by utilizing the drift-flux model, while in the cathode flow channel the homogeneous mist-flow model is used. In addition, a micro-agglomerate model is developed for the cathode catalyst layer. The model also accounts for the effects of both methanol and water crossover through the membrane. The comprehensive model formed by integrating those in the different regions is solved numerically using a home-written computer code and validated against the experimental data in the literature. The model is then used to investigate the effects of various operating and structural parameters, such as methanol concentration, anode flow rate, porosities of both anode and cathode electrodes, the rate of methanol crossover, and the agglomerate size, on cell performance

  6. Noise-induced phase space transport in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, I V; Kandrup, H E

    1999-08-01

    First passage time experiments were used to explore the effects of low amplitude noise as a source of accelerated phase space diffusion in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, and these effects were then compared with the effects of periodic driving. The objective was to quantify and understand the manner in which "sticky" chaotic orbits that, in the absence of perturbations, are confined near regular islands for very long times, can become "unstuck" much more quickly when subjected to even very weak perturbations. For both noise and periodic driving, the typical escape time scales logarithmically with the amplitude of the perturbation. For white noise, the details seem unimportant: Additive and multiplicative noise typically have very similar effects, and the presence or absence of a friction related to the noise by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also largely irrelevant. Allowing for colored noise can significantly decrease the efficacy of the perturbation, but only when the autocorrelation time, which vanishes for white noise, becomes so large that there is little power at frequencies comparable to the natural frequencies of the unperturbed orbit. Similarly, periodic driving is relatively inefficient when the driving frequency is not comparable to these natural frequencies. This suggests that noise-induced extrinsic diffusion, like modulational diffusion associated with periodic driving, is a resonance phenomenon. The logarithmic dependence of the escape time on amplitude reflects the fact that the time required for perturbed and unperturbed orbits to diverge a given distance scales logarithmically in the amplitude of the perturbation.

  7. Two-dimensional phase separated structures of block copolymers on solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Koga, Tadanori; Ribbe, Alexander

    The fundamental, yet unsolved question in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is the self-organization process of BCPs at the solid-polymer melt interface. We here focus on the self-organization processes of cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly (4-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymer and lamellar-forming poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer on Si substrates as model systems. In order to reveal the buried interfacial structures, the following experimental protocols were utilized: the BCP monolayer films were annealed under vacuum at T>Tg of the blocks (to equilibrate the melts); vitrification of the annealed BCP films via rapid quench to room temperature; subsequent intensive solvent leaching (to remove unadsorbed chains) with chloroform, a non-selective good solvent for the blocks. The strongly bound BCP layers were then characterized by using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray reflectivity. The results showed that both blocks lie flat on the substrate, forming the two-dimensional, randomly phase-separated structure irrespective of their microdomain structures and interfacial energetics. Acknowledgement of financial support from NSF Grant (CMMI -1332499).

  8. Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhai; Gamache, Paul; Guo, Zhimou; Steiner, Frank; Du, Nana; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye

    2018-01-01

    Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL -1 and 0.195-0.268mgL -1 , respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix. Copyright

  9. Noise-induced phase space transport in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, I.V.; Kandrup, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    First passage time experiments were used to explore the effects of low amplitude noise as a source of accelerated phase space diffusion in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, and these effects were then compared with the effects of periodic driving. The objective was to quantify and understand the manner in which open-quotes stickyclose quotes chaotic orbits that, in the absence of perturbations, are confined near regular islands for very long times, can become open-quotes unstuckclose quotes much more quickly when subjected to even very weak perturbations. For both noise and periodic driving, the typical escape time scales logarithmically with the amplitude of the perturbation. For white noise, the details seem unimportant: Additive and multiplicative noise typically have very similar effects, and the presence or absence of a friction related to the noise by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also largely irrelevant. Allowing for colored noise can significantly decrease the efficacy of the perturbation, but only when the autocorrelation time, which vanishes for white noise, becomes so large that there is little power at frequencies comparable to the natural frequencies of the unperturbed orbit. Similarly, periodic driving is relatively inefficient when the driving frequency is not comparable to these natural frequencies. This suggests that noise-induced extrinsic diffusion, like modulational diffusion associated with periodic driving, is a resonance phenomenon. The logarithmic dependence of the escape time on amplitude reflects the fact that the time required for perturbed and unperturbed orbits to diverge a given distance scales logarithmically in the amplitude of the perturbation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. Probing exotic phases of interacting two-dimensional carriers using one-dimensional density modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueed, M. A.

    In this Thesis, we present low-temperature magnetotransport studies of two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole systems confined to GaAs quantum wells and subjected to a one-dimensional, periodic density modulation. The modulation is achieved through the piezo-electric effect in GaAs as we fabricate a periodic, strain-inducing superlattice on the sample surface. Under varying perpendicular magnetic field, whenever the carriers' cyclotron orbit becomes commensurate with the modulation period, the magnetoresistance exhibits a minimum value. The resulting oscillations, known as the commensurability oscillations, directly measure the carriers' Fermi wave vector. Imposing a density modulation thus allows us to study the Fermi contour properties of 2D electrons and holes near zero field, and composite fermions (CFs) near the half filling of the lowest Landau level, i.e., filling factor nu=1/2. The application of a parallel magnetic field (B||) also features extensively in the Thesis. First, we use commensurability oscillations to capture the B||-induced deformation and the eventual splitting of the Fermi contour of 2D electrons. We also deduce the scattering time anisotropy of hole-flux CFs whose Fermi contour is rendered anisotropic by B||. Moreover, we study the anisotropic (warped) Fermi contour of 2D holes and hole-flux CFs in wide quantum well samples at B||=0. The results provide evidence that CFs inherit Fermi contour properties from their zero-field counterparts. We further investigate the fate of CFs near the bilayer quantum Hall states at nu=1 and 1/2 induced by a large B||. We observe that the commensurability features of CFs near nu=1 are consistent with half the total carrier density, implying that CFs prefer to stay in separate layers and show a two-component behavior. In contrast, close to nu=1/2, CFs appear single-layer-like (single-component) as their commensurability features correspond to the total density. This finding sheds light on the different

  11. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  12. Fraction transfer process in on-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid phase separations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česla, P.; Křenková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 109-123 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * comprehensive liquid chromatography * fraction transfer * two-dimensional separations * liquid chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  13. Phase-Dependent Resistance in a Superconductor—Two-Dimensional-Electron-Gas Quasiparticle Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoulas, A.; Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. v.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. v.d.; Borghs, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the interplay between Josephson coupling and quasiparticle interference effects in the resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas connected to superconducting electrodes with an interrupted ring geometry. By reducing the influence of the Josephson coupling strength at high dc

  14. Influence of magnetoelastic coupling on the phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Heisenberg magnetics with biquadratic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kozhemyako, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Influence of magnetoelastic (ME) interaction on the phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Heisenberg ferromagnets is investigated. It is shown that if the constant of Heisenberg exchange interaction is large, the ferromagnetic phase is implemented in a system. When the value of biquadratic exchange interaction increases there is a phase transition to the quadrupolar phase characterized by the tensor order parameters. Thus, ME interaction plays an essential role, not only stabilizing the long-range magnetic order in the system, but also determining the order of the phase transition

  15. Mechanical analog of the synchrotron, illustrating phase stability and two-dimensional focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.; Smits, R.; Senecal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A steel ball bounces in synchronism with a vertically oscillating piston. The piston surface is a hardened steel disk on which the ball bounces; two-dimensional horizontal focusing is provided by the concavity of the surface. The period of oscillation can be varied over a 3:1 range with the amplitude kept constant. As the period is increased, the ball bounces higher. As the period is decreased, the ball bounces lower, contrary to the intuition of most observers. The model illustrates the important properties of synchrotron accelerators. (3 figures)

  16. The Kosterlitz-thouless phase transition in two-dimensional hierarchical Coulomb gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, D.H.U.; Perez, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    A hierarchical version of two-dimensional lattice Coulomb gases is investigated. For β>β c = 8Π there is a locally stable line of fixed points for the Renormalization Group ('block charges') transformations. For β>β - c (β c ≤β - c ≤3Π/2 β c ), these fixed points are globally stable. As a consequence, there is no screening of external charges for any activity if β > β - c . At β c a supercritical bifurcation takes place and the behavior of the model for β c as to show a weak form of screening, is investigated. (author) [pt

  17. Anomalous phase behavior and apparent anharmonicity of the pump-probe signal in a two-dimensional harmonic potential system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneichi, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion on wavelength dependent 'anharmonic' effects in a pump-probe signal for a system of wavepacket on one- and two-dimensional harmonic potentials was given. The Fourier power spectrum of the signal, calculated for a model composed of a three-state electronic system coupled to a set of displaced harmonic oscillators, depends on the pulse duration. Condition under which the wavepacket motion in the harmonic potential substantially deviates from that of the classical point mass is derived. The Fourier power spectrum has enhanced components with frequencies of harmonics even in a system composed of ideally harmonic potentials. Utility of the Fourier analysis of the spectrum for clarification of the squeezed molecular vibrational state is discussed. Calculated oscillatory behavior in phase of a pump-probe signal, as a function of probe frequency, was discussed in terms of a two-dimensional effect on a pump-probe signal

  18. A new method for information retrieval in two-dimensional grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Li; Gao Kun; Chen Jian; Ge Xin; Tian Yang-Chao; Wu Zi-Yu; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be an extremely powerful phase-sensitive imaging technique. By using two-dimensional (2D) gratings, the observable contrast is extended to two refraction directions. Recently, we have developed a novel reverse-projection (RP) method, which is capable of retrieving the object information efficiently with one-dimensional (1D) grating-based phase contrast imaging. In this contribution, we present its extension to the 2D grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, named the two-dimensional reverse-projection (2D-RP) method, for information retrieval. The method takes into account the nonlinear contributions of two refraction directions and allows the retrieval of the absorption, the horizontal and the vertical refraction images. The obtained information can be used for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional phase gradient field, and for an improved phase map retrieval and reconstruction. Numerical experiments are carried out, and the results confirm the validity of the 2D-RP method

  19. Symmetries, holography, and quantum phase transition in two-dimensional dilaton AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Ciulu, Matteo; Tuveri, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    We revisit the Almheiri-Polchinski dilaton gravity model from a two-dimensional (2D) bulk perspective. We describe a peculiar feature of the model, namely the pattern of conformal symmetry breaking using bulk Killing vectors, a covariant definition of mass and the flow between different vacua of the theory. We show that the effect of the symmetry breaking is both the generation of an infrared scale (a mass gap) and to make local the Goldstone modes associated with the asymptotic symmetries of the 2D spacetime. In this way a nonvanishing central charge is generated in the dual conformal theory, which accounts for the microscopic entropy of the 2D black hole. The use of covariant mass allows to compare energetically the two different vacua of the theory and to show that at zero temperature the vacuum with a constant dilaton is energetically preferred. We also translate in the bulk language several features of the dual CFT discussed by Maldacena et al. The uplifting of the 2D model to (d +2 )-dimensional theories exhibiting hyperscaling violation is briefly discussed.

  20. Evidence of hexatic phase formation in two-dimensional Lennard-Jones binary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1996-01-01

    We report evidence of the hexatic phase formation in Lennard-Jones binary substitutional random arrays from isothermal-isobaric molecular-dynamics simulations. The hexatic phase is analogous to those predicted in Kosterlitz-Thouless theory of melting that is characterized by short-range translational order and quasi-long-range orientational order. At the crystal to hexatic phase transition, dislocation pairs are observed to unbind into isolated dislocations. Further disordering of the hexatic phase, however, does not lead to dissociation of dislocations into disclinations. Instead, the dislocations become clustered and form dislocation networks which results in formation of amorphous phases. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. On the late phase of relaxation of two-dimensional fluids: turbulence of unitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spineanu, F; Vlad, M

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional ideal fluid and the plasma confined by a strong magnetic field exhibit an intrinsic tendency to organization due to the inverse spectral cascade. In the asymptotic states reached at relaxation the turbulence has vanished and there are only coherent vortical structures. We are interested in the regime that precedes these ordered flow patterns, in which there still is turbulence and imperfect but robust structures have emerged. To develop an analytical description we propose to start from the stationary coherent states and (in the direction opposite to relaxation) explore the space of configurations before the extremum of the functional that defines the structures has been reached. We find necessary to assemble different but related models: point-like vortices, its field theoretical formulation as interacting matter and gauge fields, chiral model and surfaces with constant mean curvature. These models are connected by the similar ability to described randomly interacting coherent structures. They derive exactly the same equation for the asymptotic state (sinh-Poisson equation, confirmed by numerical calculation of fluid flows). The chiral model, to which one can arrive from self-duality equation of the field theoretical model for fluid and from constant mean curvature surface equations, appears to be the suitable analytical framework. Its solutions, the unitons, aquire dynamics when the system is not at the extremum of the action. In the present work we provide arguments that the underlying common nature of these models can be used to develop an approach to fluid and plasma states of turbulence interacting with structures. (paper)

  2. Deep learning the quantum phase transitions in random two-dimensional electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2016-01-01

    Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed. (author)

  3. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Unconventional phases in quantum spin and pseudospin systems in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cenke

    Several examples of quantum spin systems and pseudo spin systems have been studied, and unconventional states of matters and phase transitions have been realized in all these systems under consideration. In the p +/- ip superconductor Josephson lattice and the p--band cold atomic system trapped in optical lattices, novel phases which behave similarly to 1+1 dimensional systems are realized, despite the fact that the real physical systems are in two or three dimensional spaces. For instance, by employing a spin-wave analysis together with a new duality transformation, we establish the existence and stability of a novel gapless "critical phase", which we refer to as a "bond algebraic liquid". This novel critical phase is analogous to the 1+1 dimensional algebraic boson liquid phase. The reason for the novel physics is that there is a quasilocal gauge symmetry in the effective low energy Hamiltonian. In a spin-1 system on the kagome lattice, and a hard-core boson system on the honeycomb lattice, the low energy physics is controlled by two components of compact U(1) gauge symmetries that emerge at low energy. Making use of the confinement nature of the 2+1 dimensional compact gauge theories and the powerful duality between gauge theories and height field theories, the crystalline phase diagrams are studied for both systems, and the transitions to other phases are also considered. These phase diagrams might be accessible in strongly correlated materials, or atomic systems in optical lattices. A novel quantum ground state of matter is realized in a bosonic model on three dimensional fcc lattice with emergent low energy excitations. The novel phase obtained is a stable gapless boson liquid phase, with algebraic boson density correlations. The stability of this phase is protected against the instanton effect and superfluidity by self-duality and large gauge symmetries on both sides of the duality. The gapless collective excitations of this phase closely resemble the

  5. Refraction traveltime tomography with irregular topography using the unwrapped phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    inversion zones and ray shadow regions. We develop a tomographic approach based on traveltime solutions obtained by tracking the phase (instantaneous traveltime) of the wavefield solution of the Helmholtz wave equation. Since the instantaneous

  6. Phase transitions and dynamic entropy in small two-dimensional systems: Experiment and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koss, K. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; Statsenko, K. B.; Vasiliev, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The results of experimental and numerical analysis are presented for phase transitions in strongly nonequilibrium small systems of strongly interacting Brownian particles. The dynamic entropy method is applied to analysis of the state of these systems. Experiments are carried out with kinetic heating of the structures of micron-size particles in a laboratory rf discharge plasma. Three phase states of these small systems are observed: crystalline, liquid, and transient. The mechanism of phase transitions in cluster structures of strongly interacting particles is described.

  7. Phase-matching-free parametric oscillators based on two dimensional semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Ciattoni, A.; Marini, A.; Rizza, C.; Conti, C.

    2017-01-01

    Optical parametric oscillators are widely-used pulsed and continuous-wave tunable sources for innumerable applications, as in quantum technologies, imaging and biophysics. A key drawback is material dispersion imposing the phase-matching condition that generally entails a complex setup design, thus hindering tunability and miniaturization. Here we show that the burden of phase-matching is surprisingly absent in parametric micro-resonators adopting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides as...

  8. Phase transitions in two-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY models. I. antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.E.; Uimin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A most popular model in the family of two-dimensional uniformly-frustrated XY models is the antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice (AF XY(t) model). Its ground state is both continuously and twofold discretely degenerated. Different phase transitions possible in such systems are investigated. Relevant topological excitations are analyzed and a new class of such (vortices with a fractional number of circulation quanta) is discovered. Their role in determining the properties of the system proves itself essential. The characteristics of phase transitions related to breaking of discrete and continuous symmetries change. The phase diagram of the ''generalized'' AF XY(t) model is constructed. The results obtained are rederived in the representation of the Coulomb gas with half-interger charges, equivalent to the AF XY(t) model with the Berezinskii-Villain interaction

  9. Two-dimensional, two-phase jet loading on containment structures during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, S.; Slegers, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure profiles of impinging jets are calculated using the computer code BEACON/MOD3. The code is used in post - as well as precalculations of experiments to demonstrate its applicability in 2-phase jet load calculation. Comparisons between measurements and predictions show that the code predicts pressure profiles within 15% accuracy. (orig./RW)

  10. On the Interplay between Sedimentation and Phase Separation Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Colloidal Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Archer, J.A.; Malijevský, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, 7-10 SI (2011), s. 1087-1099 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : colloids * sedimentation * phase transitions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.819, year: 2011

  11. Characterization of weakly absorbing thin films by multiple linear regression analysis of absolute unwrapped phase in angle-resolved spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-30

    The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.

  12. Laterally structured ripple and square phases with one and two dimensional thickness modulations in a model bilayer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ananya; Thakkar, Foram M; Maiti, Prabal K; Kumaran, V; Ayappa, K G

    2014-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers in a surfactant/co-surfactant/water system with explicit solvent molecules show formation of topologically distinct gel phases depending upon the bilayer composition. At low temperatures, the bilayers transform from the tilted gel phase, Lβ', to the one dimensional (1D) rippled, Pβ' phase as the surfactant concentration is increased. More interestingly, we observe a two dimensional (2D) square phase at higher surfactant concentration which, upon heating, transforms to the gel Lβ' phase. The thickness modulations in the 1D rippled and square phases are asymmetric in two surfactant leaflets and the bilayer thickness varies by a factor of ∼2 between maximum and minimum. The 1D ripple consists of a thinner interdigitated region of smaller extent alternating with a thicker non-interdigitated region. The 2D ripple phase is made up of two superimposed square lattices of maximum and minimum thicknesses with molecules of high tilt forming a square lattice translated from the lattice formed with the thickness minima. Using Voronoi diagrams we analyze the intricate interplay between the area-per-head-group, height modulations and chain tilt for the different ripple symmetries. Our simulations indicate that composition plays an important role in controlling the formation of low temperature gel phase symmetries and rippling accommodates the increased area-per-head-group of the surfactant molecules.

  13. Zak phase induced multiband waveguide by two-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yun Fei; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-08-15

    Interface states in photonic crystals provide efficient approaches to control the flow of light. Photonic Zak phase determines the bulk band properties of photonic crystals, and, by assembling two photonic crystals with different bulk band properties together, deterministic interface states can be realized. By translating each unit cell of a photonic crystal by half the lattice constant, another photonic crystal with identical common gaps but a different Zak phase at each photonic band can be created. By assembling these two photonic crystals together, multiband waveguide can thus be easily created and then experimentally characterized. Our experimental results have good agreement with numerical simulations, and the propagation properties of these measured interface states indicate that this new type of interface state will be a good candidate for future applications of optical communications.

  14. Two-dimensional analytic modeling of acoustic diffraction for ultrasonic beam steering by phased array transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda

    2017-04-01

    Phased array ultrasonic transducers enable modulating the focal position of the acoustic waves, and this capability is utilized in many applications, such as medical imaging and non-destructive testing. This type of transducers also provides a mechanism to generate tilted wavefronts in acousto-optic deflectors to deflect laser beams for high precision advanced laser material processing. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for the diffraction of ultrasonic waves emitted by several phased array transducers into an acousto-optic medium such as TeO 2 crystal. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the distribution of the ultrasonic displacement field in the crystal. The model prediction is found to be in good agreement with the results of a numerical model that is based on a non-paraxial multi-Gaussian beam (NMGB) model. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence in the gas phase: a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular spectroscopy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2017-11-01

    Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) extends the usual laser induced fluorescence technique by adding a second dimension, the wavelength at which excited states emit, thereby significantly enhancing the information that can be extracted. It allows overlapping absorption features, whether they arise from within the same molecule or from different molecules in a mixture, to be associated with their appropriate "parent" state and/or molecule. While the first gas phase version of the technique was published a decade ago, the technique is in its infancy, having been exploited by only a few groups to date. However, its potential in gas phase spectroscopy and dynamics is significant. In this article we provide an overview of the technique and illustrate its potential with examples, with a focus on those utilising high resolution in the dispersed fluorescence dimension.

  16. Refraction traveltime tomography with irregular topography using the unwrapped phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Traveltime tomography has long served as a stable and efficient tool for velocity estimation, especially for the near surface. It, however, suffers from some of limitations associated with ray tracing and high-frequency traveltime in velocity inversion zones and ray shadow regions. We develop a tomographic approach based on traveltime solutions obtained by tracking the phase (instantaneous traveltime) of the wavefield solution of the Helmholtz wave equation. Since the instantaneous-traveltime does not suffer from phase wrapping, the inversion algorithm using the instantaneous-traveltime has the potential to generate robust inversion results. With a high damping factor, the instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides refraction tomography similar results, but from a single frequency. Despite the Helmholtz-based solver implementation, the tomographic inversion handles irrgular topography. The numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm generates a convergent smooth velocity model, which looks very much like a tomographic result. Next, we plan to apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion algorithm to real seismic data acquired from the near surface with irregular topography.

  17. A two-dimensional model for transients calculations with phase changes in sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granziera, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A computer code (NATOF2D) for the numerical simulation of situations where the radial non-uniformity in the sodium flow is an important factor, was developed. This computer code uses the two-fluid model, in which each phase is described by a complete set of mass conservation equations, energy equations and momentum equations. The experiment SLSF-P3A realized in the Engineering Test Reactor, Idaho, during the period of july to september of 1977, was simulated. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-03-06

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H{sub 2}O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the

  19. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H 2 O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the partially

  20. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of acoustic wave phase conjugation in magnetostrictive elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinovich, Peter; Merlen, Alain

    2005-12-01

    The effect of parametric wave phase conjugation (WPC) in application to ultrasound or acoustic waves in magnetostrictive solids has been addressed numerically by Ben Khelil et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 75-83 (2001)] using 1-D unsteady formulation. Here the numerical method presented by Voinovich et al. [Shock waves 13(3), 221-230 (2003)] extends the analysis to the 2-D effects. The employed model describes universally elastic solids and liquids. A source term similar to Ben Khelil et al.'s accounts for the coupling between deformation and magnetostriction due to external periodic magnetic field. The compatibility between the isotropic constitutive law of the medium and the model of magnetostriction has been considered. Supplementary to the 1-D simulations, the present model involves longitudinal/transversal mode conversion at the sample boundaries and separate magnetic field coupling with dilatation and shear stress. The influence of those factors in a 2-D geometry on the potential output of a magneto-elastic wave phase conjugator is analyzed in this paper. The process under study includes propagation of a wave burst of a given frequency from a point source in a liquid into the active solid, amplification of the waves due to parametric resonance, and formation of time-reversed waves, their radiation into liquid, and focusing. The considered subject is particularly important for ultrasonic applications in acoustic imaging, nondestructive testing, or medical diagnostics and therapy.

  1. Wave equation tomography using the unwrapped phase - Analysis of the traveltime sensitivity kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2013-01-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from the high non-linearity in the misfit function, which causes the convergence to a local minimum. In the other hand, traveltime tomography has a quasi-linear misfit function but yields low- resolution models. Wave equation tomography (WET) tries to improve on traveltime tomography, by better adhering to the requirements of our finite-frequency data. However, conventional (WET), based on the crosscorelaion lag, yields the popular hallow banana sensitivity kernel indicating that the measured wavefield at a point is insensitive to perturbations along the ray theoretical path at certain finite frequencies. Using the instantaneous traveltime, the sensitivity kernel reflects more the model-data dependency we grown accustom to in seismic inversion (even phase inversion). Demonstrations on synthetic and the Mamousi model support such assertions.

  2. Superconducting spiral phase in the two-dimensional t-J model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, Oleg P.; Kotov, Valeri N.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the t-t ' -t '' -J model, relevant to the superconducting cuprates. By using chiral perturbation theory we have determined the ground state to be a spiral for small doping δ1 near half filling. In this limit the solution does not contain any uncontrolled approximations. We evaluate the spin-wave Green's functions and address the issue of stability of the spiral state, leading to the phase diagram of the model. At t ' =t '' =0 the spiral state is unstable towards a local enhancement of the spiral pitch, and the nature of the true ground state remains unclear. However, for values of t ' and t '' corresponding to real cuprates the (1,0) spiral state is stabilized by quantum fluctuations ('order from disorder' effect). We show that at δ≅0.119 the spiral is commensurate with the lattice with a period of eight lattice spacings. It is also demonstrated that spin-wave mediated superconductivity develops in the spiral state and a lower limit for the superconducting gap is derived. Even though one cannot classify the gap symmetry according to the lattice representations (s,p,d, ellipsis (horizontal)) since the symmetry of the lattice is spontaneously broken by the spiral, the gap always has lines of nodes along the (1,±1) directions

  3. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-08

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangular lattice symmetry and the C6 point group symmetry give rich physics in accidental touching points of photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points at the Brillouin zone center for transverse-magnetic harmonic modes when the geometry and permittivity of the core-shell material are continuously tuned. The accidental nodal points can have different dispersions and topological properties (i.e., Berry phases). These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase of the photonic crystal. They are thus very important for the study of topological photonic states. We show that, without breaking time-reversal symmetry, by tuning the geometry of the core-shell material, a phase transition into the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator can be achieved. Here the "spin" is defined as the orbital angular momentum of a photon. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  4. Numerical simulation of transient, adiabatic, two-dimensional two-phase flow using the two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves Conti, T. das.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method is developed to simulate adiabatic, transient, two-dimensional two-phase flow. The two-fluid model is used to obtain the mass and momentum conservation equations. These are solved by an iterative algorithm emphoying a time-marching scheme. Based on the corrective procedure of Hirt and Harlow a poisson equation is derived for the pressure field. This equation is finite-differenced and solved by a suitable matrix inversion technique. In the absence of experiment results several numerical tests were made in order to chec accuracy, convergence and stability of the proposed method. Several tests were also performed to check whether the behavior of void fraction and phasic velocities conforms with previous observations. (Author) [pt

  5. Random-phase-approximation approach to optical and magnetic excitations in the two-dimensional multiband Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemitsu, K.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    As a convenient qualitative approach to strongly correlated electronic systems, an inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation is applied to response functions for the two-dimensional multiband Hubbard model for cuprate superconductors. A comparison of the results with those obtained by exact diagonalization by Wagner, Hanke, and Scalapino [Phys. Rev. B 43, 10 517 (1991)] shows that overall structures in optical and magnetic particle-hole excitation spectra are well reproduced by this method. This approach is computationally simple, retains conceptual clarity, and can be calibrated by comparison with exact results on small systems. Most importantly, it is easily extended to larger systems and straightforward to incorporate additional terms in the Hamiltonian, such as electron-phonon interactions, which may play a crucial role in high-temperature superconductivity

  6. Quantum anomalous Hall effect and topological phase transition in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Chern insulator NiOsCl6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jing-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Xiong; Deng, Jian-Bo; Tao, Xiao-Ma; Hu, Xian-Ru

    2018-05-01

    By doing calculations based on density functional theory, we predict that the two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) NiOsCl6 as a Chern insulator can realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. We investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in different magnetic configurations and the Néel AFM configuration is proved to be ground state. When considering spin–orbit coupling (SOC), this layered material with spins perpendicular to the plane shows properties as a Chern insulator characterized by an inversion band structure and a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial band gap is 37 meV and the Chern number C  =  ‑1, which are induced by a strong SOC and AFM order. With strong SOC, the NiOsCl6 system performs a continuous topological phase transition from the Chern insulator to the trivial insulator upon the increasing Coulomb repulsion U. The critical U c is indicated as 0.23 eV, at which the system is in a metallic phase with . Upon increasing U, the E g reduces linearly with C  =  ‑1 for 0    U c . At last we analysis the QAH properties and this continuous topological phase transition theoretically in a two-band model. This AFM Chern insulator NiOsCl6 proposes not only a promising way to realize the QAH effect, but also a new material to study the continuous topological phase transition.

  7. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  8. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk

    2013-10-18

    Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The inversion layer of electric fields and electron phase-space-hole structure during two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.

  10. Improved modeling of two-dimensional transitions in dense phases on crystalline surfaces. Krypton-graphite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E A

    2015-02-21

    This paper presents a refined technique to describe two-dimensional phase transitions in dense fluids adsorbed on a crystalline surface. Prediction of parameters of 2D liquid-solid equilibrium is known to be an extremely challenging problem, which is mainly due to a small difference in thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases and lack of accuracy of numerical experiments in case of their high density. This is a serious limitation of various attempts to circumvent this problem. To improve this situation, a new methodology based on the kinetic Monte Carlo method was applied. The methodology involves analysis of equilibrium gas-liquid and gas-solid systems undergoing an external potential, which allows gradual shifting parameters of the phase coexistence. The interrelation of the chemical potential and tangential pressure for each system is then treated with the Gibbs-Duhem equation to obtain the point of intersection corresponding to the liquid/solid-solid equilibrium coexistence. The methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system below and above the 2D critical temperature. Using experimental data on the liquid-solid and the commensurate-incommensurate transitions in the krypton monolayer derived from adsorption isotherms, the Kr-graphite Lennard-Jones parameters have been corrected resulting in a higher periodic potential modulation.

  11. Note: An absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor using a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan

    2018-04-01

    This Note presents a new absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor for measuring planar motion of a precision multi-axis stage system. By analyzing the rotated image of a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale (2D), the absolute 2D position values at two separated points were obtained and the absolute X-Y-Θ position could be calculated combining these values. The sensor head was constructed using a board-level camera, a light-emitting diode light source, an imaging lens, and a cube beam-splitter. To obtain the uniform intensity profiles from the vignette scale image, we selected the averaging directions deliberately, and higher resolution in the angle measurement could be achieved by increasing the allowable offset size. The performance of a prototype sensor was evaluated in respect of resolution, nonlinearity, and repeatability. The sensor could resolve 25 nm linear and 0.001° angular displacements clearly, and the standard deviations were less than 18 nm when 2D grid positions were measured repeatedly.

  12. Development and Characterization of Two-Dimensional Gratings for Single-Shot X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zakharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-shot grating-based phase-contrast imaging techniques offer additional contrast modalities based on the refraction and scattering of X-rays in a robust and versatile configuration. The utilization of a single optical element is possible in such methods, allowing the shortening of the acquisition time and increasing flux efficiency. One of the ways to upgrade single-shot imaging techniques is to utilize customized optical components, such as two-dimensional (2D X-ray gratings. In this contribution, we present the achievements in the development of 2D gratings with UV lithography and gold electroplating. Absorption gratings represented by periodic free-standing gold pillars with lateral structure sizes from 5 µm to 25 µm and heights from 5 µm to 28 µm have shown a high degree of periodicity and defect-free patterns. Grating performance was tested in a radiographic setup using a self-developed quality assessment algorithm based on the intensity distribution histograms. The algorithm allows the final user to estimate the suitability of a specific grating to be used in a particular setup.

  13. Simultaneous achiral-chiral analysis of pharmaceutical compounds using two-dimensional reversed phase liquid chromatography-supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, C J; Al-Sayah, Mohammad; Li, Guannan; Goel, Meenakshi; Girotti, James; Zang, Lisa; Wigman, Larry; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik

    2016-02-01

    A new interface was designed to enable the coupling of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). This online two-dimensional chromatographic system utilizing RPLC in the first dimension and SFC in the second was developed to achieve simultaneous achiral and chiral analysis of pharmaceutical compounds. The interface consists of an eight-port, dual-position switching valve with small volume C-18 trapping columns. The peaks of interest eluting from the first RPLC dimension column were effectively focused as sharp concentration pulses on small volume C-18 trapping column/s and then injected onto the second dimension SFC column. The first dimension RPLC separation provides the achiral purity result, and the second dimension SFC separation provides the chiral purity result (enantiomeric excess). The results are quantitative enabling simultaneous achiral, chiral analysis of compounds. The interface design and proof of concept demonstration are presented. Additionally, comparative studies to conventional SFC and case studies of the applications of 2D LC-SFC in pharmaceutical analysis is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis was applied to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)...

  15. Two-dimensional time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of dual phase rapid solidification in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Osuki, Takahiro; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi; Sato, Masugu; Toyokawa, Hidenori; Nozaki, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    The high intensity heat source used for fusion welding creates steep thermal gradients of 100 °C/s from 1800 °C. Further, the influence of preferred orientation is important for the observation of a directional solidification that follows the dendrite growth along the ⟨100⟩ direction toward the moving heat source. In the present study, we observed the rapid solidification of weld metal at a time resolution of 0.01-0.1 s by a two-dimensional time-resolved x-ray diffraction (2DTRXRD) system for real welding. The diffraction rings were dynamically observed by 2DTRXRD with synchrotron energy of 18 keV while the arc passes over the irradiation area of the x-rays. The arc power output was 10 V-150 A, and the scan speed of the arc was 1.0 mm/s. The temperature rise in instruments was suppressed by a water-cooled copper plate under the specimen. Further, the temperature distribution of the weld metal was measured by a thermocouple and correlated with the diffraction patterns. Consequently, solidification and solid phase transformation of low carbon steels and stainless steels were observed during rapid cooling by 2DTRXRD. In the low carbon steel, the microstructure is formed in a two step process, (i) formation of crystallites and (ii) increase of crystallinity. In stainless steel, the irregular interface layer of δ/γ in the quenched metal after solidification is expected to show the easy movement of dendrites at a lower temperature. In carbide precipitation stainless steel, it is easy for NbC to grow on δ phase with a little undercooling. Further, a mistlike pattern, which differs from the halo pattern, in the fusion zone gave some indication of the possibilities to observe the nucleation and the early solidification by 2DTRXRD.

  16. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Aortoiliac stenooculusive disease and aneurysms. Screening with non-contrast enhanced two-dimensional cardiac gated cine phase contrast MR angiography with multiple velocity encoded values and cardiac gated two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Kato, Katsuhiko

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of two-dimensional cine phase contrast MRA with multi-velocity encoded values (multi-VENC cine PC) and ECG-gated two-dimensional time-of-flight MRA (ECG-2D-TOF) for the detection of stenoocclusive lesions and aneurysms in the aortoiliac area, when each method was used individually and when the two methods were used together. Forty-one patients were included in this study. Multi-VENC cine PC and ECG-2D-TOF were obtained first, then contrast enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (CE-3D-MRA) was performed as the standard of reference. Two observers reviewed the images separately without knowledge of patients' symptoms or histories. Sensitivities and specificities were obtained separately for stenooclusive lesions and aneurysms by two reviewers. When the two methods were applied together, high sensitivities (93.0 by observer 1 and 91.9% by observer 2) and adequate specificities (87.6 and 82.3%) were obtained for stenoocclusive lesions. For aneurysms, moderate to high sensitivities (91.1 and 71.1%) and high specificities (98.8 and 99.4%) were obtained. These results suggest that the performance of two non-contrast enhanced MRA techniques may be valuable as a screening tool when the two methods are applied together. (author)

  18. Scalable solution-phase epitaxial growth of symmetry-mismatched heterostructures on two-dimensional crystal soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Anxiang; Mao, Jun; Xia, Yi; Kempf, Nicholas; He, Qiyuan; Wang, Yiliu; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhang, Yanliang; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Ren, Zhifeng; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures with precisely controlled composition and electronic modulation are of central importance for electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and catalysis. In general, epitaxial material growth requires identical or nearly identical crystal structures with small misfit in lattice symmetry and parameters and is typically achieved by vapor-phase depositions in vacuum. We report a scalable solution-phase growth of symmetry-mismatched PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures by using two-dimensional (2D) Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates as soft templates. The dangling bond-free surface of 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates guides the growth of PbSe crystal without requiring a one-to-one match in the atomic structure, which exerts minimal restriction on the epitaxial layer. With a layered structure and weak van der Waals interlayer interaction, the interface layer in the 2D Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates can deform to accommodate incoming layer, thus functioning as a soft template for symmetry-mismatched epitaxial growth of cubic PbSe crystal on rhombohedral Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We show that a solution chemistry approach can be readily used for the synthesis of gram-scale PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 epitaxial heterostructures, in which the square PbSe (001) layer forms on the trigonal/hexagonal (0001) plane of Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates. We further show that the resulted PbSe/Bi 2 Se 3 heterostructures can be readily processed into bulk pellet with considerably suppressed thermal conductivity (0.30 W/m·K at room temperature) while retaining respectable electrical conductivity, together delivering a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT three times higher than that of the pristine Bi 2 Se 3 nanoplates at 575 K. Our study demonstrates a unique epitaxy mode enabled by the 2D nanocrystal soft template via an affordable and scalable solution chemistry approach. It opens up new opportunities for the creation of diverse epitaxial heterostructures with highly disparate structures and functions.

  19. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-03-07

    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](BF 4 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](PF 6 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (2) (salen 2- = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6 2- = C 6 H 12 (COO) 2 2- ), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H 2 O)]X (X - = BF 4 - and PF 6 - ) and C 6 H 12 (CO 2 - ) 2 (C6 2- ) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ 4 -type C6 2- ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C 6 H 12 linkers of C6 2- moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF 4 - and PF 6 - , respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF 4 - is smaller than that of PF 6 - , intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn III out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn III ion, the [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of T N = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: Ion chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for separation of low-molar-mass organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.S.; Shellie, R.A.; Haddad, P.R.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the work presented here a novel approach to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is evaluated. Ion chromatography is chosen for the first-dimension separation and reversed-phase liquid chromatography is chosen for the second-dimension separation mode. The coupling of these modes is

  1. Predicting a new phase (T'') of two-dimensional transition metal di-chalcogenides and strain-controlled topological phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yalong; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2016-02-01

    Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological phase transitions. Our findings greatly enrich the 2D families of transition metal dichalcogenides and offer a feasible way to control the electronic states of 2D topological insulators for the fabrication of high-speed spintronics devices.Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological

  2. Ashkin-Teller criticality and weak first-order behavior of the phase transition to a fourfold degenerate state in two-dimensional frustrated Ising antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Zhuo, W. Z.; Chen, J.; Qin, M. H.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X. B.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the thermal phase transition of the fourfold degenerate phases (the plaquette and single-stripe states) in the two-dimensional frustrated Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The critical Ashkin-Teller-like behavior is identified both in the plaquette phase region and the single-stripe phase region. The four-state Potts critical end points differentiating the continuous transitions from the first-order ones are estimated based on finite-size-scaling analyses. Furthermore, a similar behavior of the transition to the fourfold single-stripe phase is also observed in the anisotropic triangular Ising model. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates that the transitions to the fourfold degenerate states of two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets exhibit similar transition behavior.

  3. Photogrammetric fingerprint unwrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, Gerhard; del Pilar Caballo Perucha, Maria; Bauer, Arnold; Nauschnegg, Bernhard

    2008-04-01

    Fingerprints are important biometric cues. Compared to conventional fingerprint sensors the use of contact-free stereoscopic image acquisition of the front-most finger segment has a set of advantages: Finger deformation is avoided, the entire relevant area for biometric use is covered, some technical aspects like sensor maintenance and cleaning are facilitated, and access to a three-dimensional reconstruction of the covered area is possible. We describe a photogrammetric workflow for nail-to-nail fingerprint reconstruction: A calibrated sensor setup with typically 5 cameras and dedicated illumination acquires adjacent stereo pairs. Using the silhouettes of the segmented finger a raw cylindrical model is generated. After preprocessing (shading correction, dust removal, lens distortion correction), each individual camera texture is projected onto the model. Image-to-image matching on these pseudo ortho images and dense 3D reconstruction obtains a textured cylindrical digital surface model with radial distances around the major axis and a grid size in the range of 25-50 µm. The model allows for objective fingerprint unwrapping and novel fingerprint matching algorithms since 3D relations between fingerprint features are available as additional cues. Moreover, covering the entire region with relevant fingerprint texture is particularly important for establishing a comprehensive forensic database. The workflow has been implemented in portable C and is ready for industrial exploitation. Further improvement issues are code optimization, unwrapping method, illumination strategy to avoid highlights and to improve the initial segmentation, and the comparison of the unwrapping result to conventional fingerprint acquisition technology.

  4. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. One- and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic studies of solution-phase homogeneous catalysis and spin-forbidden reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Karma Rae [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Understanding chemical reactions requires the knowledge of the elementary steps of breaking and making bonds, and often a variety of experimental techniques are needed to achieve this goal. The initial steps occur on the femto- through picosecond time-scales, requiring the use of ultrafast spectroscopic methods, while the rate-limiting steps often occur more slowly, requiring alternative techniques. Ultrafast one and two-dimensional infrared and step-scan FTIR spectroscopies are used to investigate the photochemical reactions of four organometallic complexes. The analysis leads to a detailed understanding of mechanisms that are general in nature and may be applicable to a variety of reactions.

  6. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  7. Optimizing gradient conditions in online comprehensive two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography by use of the linear solvent strength model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Christensen, Jan H.

    2017-01-01

    The linear solvent strength model was used to predict coverage in online comprehensive two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The prediction model uses a parallelogram to describe the separation space covered with peaks in a system with limited orthogonality. The corners of the par......The linear solvent strength model was used to predict coverage in online comprehensive two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The prediction model uses a parallelogram to describe the separation space covered with peaks in a system with limited orthogonality. The corners...... of the parallelogram are assumed to behave like chromatographic peaks and the position of these pseudo-compounds was predicted. A mix of 25 polycyclic aromatic compounds were used as a test. The precision of the prediction, span 0-25, was tested by varying input parameters, and was found to be acceptable with root...... factors were low, or when gradient conditions affected parameters not included in the model, e.g. second dimension gradient time affects the second dimension equilibration time. The concept shows promise as a tool for gradient optimization in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography...

  8. Fidelity study of the superconducting phase diagram in the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C. J.; Moritz, B.; Chen, C.-C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Devereaux, T. P.

    2011-09-01

    Extensive numerical studies have demonstrated that the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model contains much of the key physics in cuprate high-temperature superconductors. However, there is no definitive proof that the Hubbard model truly possesses a superconducting ground state or, if it does, of how it depends on model parameters. To answer these longstanding questions, we study an extension of the Hubbard model including an infinite-range d-wave pair field term, which precipitates a superconducting state in the d-wave channel. Using exact diagonalization on 16-site square clusters, we study the evolution of the ground state as a function of the strength of the pairing term. This is achieved by monitoring the fidelity metric of the ground state, as well as determining the ratio between the two largest eigenvalues of the d-wave pair/spin/charge-density matrices. The calculations show a d-wave superconducting ground state in doped clusters bracketed by a strong antiferromagnetic state at half filling controlled by the Coulomb repulsion U and a weak short-range checkerboard charge ordered state at larger hole doping controlled by the next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. We also demonstrate that negative t' plays an important role in facilitating d-wave superconductivity.

  9. Does quasi-long-range order in the two-dimensional XY model really survive weak random phase fluctuations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, Christopher; Wen Xiaogang

    1999-01-01

    Effective theories for random critical points are usually non-unitary, and thus may contain relevant operators with negative scaling dimensions. To study the consequences of the existence of negative-dimensional operators, we consider the random-bond XY model. It has been argued that the XY model on a square lattice, when weakly perturbed by random phases, has a quasi-long-range ordered phase (the random spin wave phase) at sufficiently low temperatures. We show that infinitely many relevant perturbations to the proposed critical action for the random spin wave phase were omitted in all previous treatments. The physical origin of these perturbations is intimately related to the existence of broadly distributed correlation functions. We find that those relevant perturbations do enter the Renormalization Group equations, and affect critical behavior. This raises the possibility that the random XY model has no quasi-long-range ordered phase and no Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition

  10. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...... where the spin degrees of freedom are slaved by the translational degrees of freedom and develop a first-order singularity in the order-disorder transition that accompanies the lattice-melting transition. The internal degeneracy of the spin states in model III implies that the spin order...

  11. An investigation of two-dimensional, two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading by the time-marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourtash, A. R.; Mahpeykar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of expansion in turbines, the steam at first super cools and then nucleated to become a two-phase mixture. This is an area where greater understanding can lead to improved design. This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of two-dimensional two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading; the unsteady euler equations governing the overall behaviour of the fluid are combined with equations describing droplet behaviour and treated by Jasmine fourth order runge Kutta time marching scheme which modified to allow for two-phase effects. The theoretical surface pressure distributions, droplet radii and contours of constant wetness fraction are presented and results are discussed in the light of knowledge of actual surface pressure distributions

  12. Numerical analysis for two-dimensional compressible and two-phase flow fields of air-water in Eulerian grid framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su

    2008-01-01

    Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated

  13. Evaluation and application of a mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase in two-dimensional liquid chromatography for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhishen; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Huan, Liyun; Zhao, Jianchao; Shi, Hui; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two mixed-mode chromatography stationary phases (C8SAX and C8SCX) were evaluated and used to establish a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic properties of the mixed-mode columns were systematically evaluated by comparing with other three columns of C8, strong anion exchanger, and strong cation exchanger. The result showed that C8SAX and C8SCX had a mixed-mode retention mechanism including electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Especially, they were suitable for separating acidic and/or basic compounds and their separation selectivities could be easily adjusted by changing pH value. Then, several off-line 2D-LC systems based on the C8SAX in the first dimension and C8SAX, C8SCX, or C8 columns in the second dimension were developed to analyze a traditional Chinese medicine-Uncaria rhynchophylla. The two-dimensional liquid chromatography system of C8SAX (pH 3.0) × C8SAX (pH 6.0) exhibited the most effective peak distribution. Finally, fractions of U. rhynchophylla prepared from the first dimension were successfully separated on the C8SAX column with a gradient pH. Thus, the mixed-mode stationary phase could provide a platform to separate the traditional Chinese medicine in practical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii using off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bichao; Xin, Huaxia; Wang, Feier; Cai, Jianfeng; Liu, Yanfang; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-01

    As a common traditional Chinese medicine, Fructus Arctii has important clinical medical values. Its main components are lignans, which are difficult to separate and analyze because of the complex composition, similar chemical structures, and close properties. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method, as well as an effective sample pretreatment method based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography material, was developed to enrich the minor lignan fractions and obtain high-purity compounds. In total, 12 high-purity compounds were isolated from Fructus Arctii. Their structures were identified by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which showed that all were lignans and that most of them were isomers. The results demonstrated the effective off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for the purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii. The separation protocol established here will be beneficial for the separation of complex samples from other kinds of natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. History independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through two-dimensional porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  16. Application of Extended Kalman Filter in Persistant Scatterer Interferometry to Enhace the Accuracy of Unwrapping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli Estahbanat, A.; Dehghani, M.

    2017-09-01

    In interferometry technique, phases have been modulated between 0-2π. Finding the number of integer phases missed when they were wrapped is the main goal of unwrapping algorithms. Although the density of points in conventional interferometry is high, this is not effective in some cases such as large temporal baselines or noisy interferograms. Due to existing noisy pixels, not only it does not improve results, but also it leads to some unwrapping errors during interferogram unwrapping. In PS technique, because of the sparse PS pixels, scientists are confronted with a problem to unwrap phases. Due to the irregular data separation, conventional methods are sterile. Unwrapping techniques are divided in to path-independent and path-dependent in the case of unwrapping paths. A region-growing method which is a path-dependent technique has been used to unwrap PS data. In this paper an idea of EKF has been generalized on PS data. This algorithm is applied to consider the nonlinearity of PS unwrapping problem as well as conventional unwrapping problem. A pulse-pair method enhanced with singular value decomposition (SVD) has been used to estimate spectral shift from interferometric power spectral density in 7*7 local windows. Furthermore, a hybrid cost-map is used to manage the unwrapping path. This algorithm has been implemented on simulated PS data. To form a sparse dataset, A few points from regular grid are randomly selected and the RMSE of results and true unambiguous phases in presented to validate presented approach. The results of this algorithm and true unwrapped phases were completely identical.

  17. Phase and Texture of Solution-Processed Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films Investigated by Two-Dimensional Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phase and texture of a newly developed solution-processed copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film have been investigated by two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The results show that it has β phase crystalline structure, with crystallinity greater than 80%. The average size of the crystallites is found to be about 24 nm. There are two different arrangements of crystallites, with one dominating the diffraction pattern. Both of them have preferred orientation along the thin film normal. Based on the similarities to the vacuum deposited CuPc thin films, the new solution processing method is verified to offer a good alternative to vacuum process, for the fabrication of low cost small molecule based organic photovoltaics.

  18. Orbital effect for the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor in a parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study the orbital destructive effect against superconductivity in a parallel magnetic field in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO or LOFF) phase at zero temperature in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) conductor. We demonstrate that at zero temperature a special parameter, λ =l⊥(H ) /d , is responsible for strength of the orbital effect, where l⊥(H ) is a typical "size" of the quasiclassical electron orbit in a magnetic field and d is the interplane distance. We discuss applications of our results to the existing experiments on the FFLO phase in the organic Q2D conductors κ -(ET) 2Cu (NCS) 2 and κ -(ET) 2Cu [N (CN) 2] Cl .

  19. Two-dimensional parallel array technology as a new approach to automated combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan; Biddison; Frauendorf; Schwarcz; Keen; Ecker; Davis; Tinder; Swayze

    1998-01-01

    An automated, 96-well parallel array synthesizer for solid-phase organic synthesis has been designed and constructed. The instrument employs a unique reagent array delivery format, in which each reagent utilized has a dedicated plumbing system. An inert atmosphere is maintained during all phases of a synthesis, and temperature can be controlled via a thermal transfer plate which holds the injection molded reaction block. The reaction plate assembly slides in the X-axis direction, while eight nozzle blocks holding the reagent lines slide in the Y-axis direction, allowing for the extremely rapid delivery of any of 64 reagents to 96 wells. In addition, there are six banks of fixed nozzle blocks, which deliver the same reagent or solvent to eight wells at once, for a total of 72 possible reagents. The instrument is controlled by software which allows the straightforward programming of the synthesis of a larger number of compounds. This is accomplished by supplying a general synthetic procedure in the form of a command file, which calls upon certain reagents to be added to specific wells via lookup in a sequence file. The bottle position, flow rate, and concentration of each reagent is stored in a separate reagent table file. To demonstrate the utility of the parallel array synthesizer, a small combinatorial library of hydroxamic acids was prepared in high throughput mode for biological screening. Approximately 1300 compounds were prepared on a 10 μmole scale (3-5 mg) in a few weeks. The resulting crude compounds were generally >80% pure, and were utilized directly for high throughput screening in antibacterial assays. Several active wells were found, and the activity was verified by solution-phase synthesis of analytically pure material, indicating that the system described herein is an efficient means for the parallel synthesis of compounds for lead discovery. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Two-dimensional analysis of two-phase reacting flow in a firing direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    The flow field, spray penetration, and combustion in two-stroke diesel engines are described. Fuel injection begins at 345 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) and n-dodecane is used as the liquid fuel. Arrhenius kinetics is used to calculate the reaction rate term in the quasi-global combustion model. When the temperature, fuel, and oxygen mass fraction are within suitable flammability limits, combustion begins spontaneously. No spark is necessary to ignite a localized high temperature region. Compression is sufficient to increase the gaseous phase temperature to a point where spontaneous chemical reactions occur. Results are described for a swirl angle of 22.5 degrees.

  1. Rapid determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Zhenying; Lu, Wei; Zhu, You; Chen, Yusong; Ren, Hubo; Ji, Lishun

    2017-01-27

    A fully automated, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines (AAs), including o-toluidine (o-TOL), 2, 6-dimethylaniline (2, 6-DMA), o-anisidine (o-ASD), 1-naphthylamine (1-ANP), 2-naphthylamine (2-ANP), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), in mainstream cigarette smoke was established. The proposed method was based on two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The particulate phase of the mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pad and pretreated via ultrasonic extraction with 2% formic acid (FA), while the gas phase was trapped by 2% FA without pretreatment for determination. The two-dimensional online SPE comprised of two cartridges with different absorption characteristics was applied for sample pretreatment. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under multiple reaction monitoring mode. Each sample required about 0.5h for solid phase extraction and analysis. The limit of detections (LODs) for six AAs ranged from 0.04 to 0.58ng/cig and recoveries were within 84.5%-122.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day tests for 3R4F reference cigarette were less than 6% and 7%, respectively, while no more than 7% and 8% separately for a type of Virginia cigarette. The proposed method enabled minimum sample pretreatment, full automation, and high throughput with high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. As a part of the validation procedure, fifteen brands of cigarettes were tested by the designed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Separation and purification of the components in Trachelospermum jasminoides by two dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography- reversed-phase liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Youmei; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Feng, Jiatao; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu

    2017-06-08

    A preparative two dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography (Pre-2D-HILIC/RPLC) method was established to separate and purify the components in Trachelospermum jasminoides . The pigments and strongly polar components were removed from the crude extract after the active carbon decolorization and solid phase extraction processes. A Click XIon column (250 mm×20 mm, 10 μm) was selected as stationary phase and water-acetonitrile as mobile phases in the first dimensional HILIC. Finally, 15 fractions were collected under UV-triggered mode. In the second dimensional RPLC, a C18 column (250 mm×20 mm, 5 μm) was selected and water-acetonitrile was used as mobile phases. As a result, 14 compounds with high purity were obtained, which were further identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Finally, 11 lignan compounds and three flavonoid compounds were obtained. The method has a good orthogonality, and can improve the resolution and the peak capacity. It is significant for the separation of complex components from Trachelospermum jasminoides .

  3. Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Barnes, Brian B; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lancas, Fernando M; Snow, Nicholas H

    2013-07-19

    Analysis of several emerging contaminants (steroids, caffeine and methylparaben) in water using automated solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS) is presented. Experimental design was used to determine the best SPME extraction conditions and the steroids were not derivatized prior to injection. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS provided linear ranges from 0.6 to 1200μgL(-1) and limits of detection and quantitation from 0.02 to 100μgL(-1). A series of river water samples obtained locally were subjected to analysis. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS is readily automated, straightforward and competitive with other methods for low level analysis of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  5. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  6. Pseudo-Jahn-Teller Distortion in Two-Dimensional Phosphorus: Origin of Black and Blue Phases of Phosphorene and Band Gap Modulation by Molecular Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chandra; Jahiruddin, Sheik; Datta, Ayan

    2016-04-07

    Phosphorene (Pn) is stabilized as a layered material like graphite, yet it possess a natural direct band gap (Eg = 2.0 eV). Interestingly, unlike graphene, Pn exhibits a much richer phase diagram which includes distorted forms like the stapler-clip (black Pn, α form) and chairlike (blue Pn, β form) structures. The existence of these phases is attributed to pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) instability of planar hexagonal P6(6-) rings. In both cases, the condition for vibronic instability of the planar P6(6-) rings is satisfied. Doping with electron donors like tetrathiafulvalene and tetraamino-tetrathiafulvalene and electron acceptors like tetracyanoquinodimethane and tetracyanoethylene convert blue Pn into N-type and black Pn into efficient P-type semiconductors, respectively. Interestingly, pristine blue Pn, an indirect gap semiconductor, gets converted into a direct gap semiconductor on electron or hole doping. Because of comparatively smaller undulation in blue Pn (with respect to black Pn), the van der Waals interactions between the dopants and blue Pn is stronger. PJT distortions for two-dimensional phosphorus provides a unified understanding of structural features and chemical reactivity in its different phases.

  7. Application of Light Reflection Visualization for Measuring Organic-Liquid Saturation for Two-Phase Systems in Two-Dimensional Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Brusseau, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    A simple, noninvasive imaging technique was used to obtain in situ measurements of organic-liquid saturation in a two-phase system under dynamic conditions. Efficacy of the light reflection visualization (LRV) imaging method was tested through comparison of measured and known volumes of organic liquid for experiments conducted with a two-dimensional flow cell. Two sets of experiments were conducted, with source-zone configurations representing two archetypical residual-and-pool architectures. LRV measurements were collected during the injection of organic liquid and during a dissolution phase induced by water flushing. There was a strong correlation between measured and known organic-liquid volumes, with the LRV-measured values generally somewhat lower than the known volumes. Errors were greater for the system wherein organic liquid was present in multiple zones comprised of porous media of different permeabilities, and for conditions of multiphase flow. This method proved effective at determining organic-liquid distribution in a two-phase system using minimal specialized equipment.

  8. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A.; Espina, Aránzazu; Amghouz, Zakariae; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A.; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C 4 N 2 H 12 ) 1.5 (Co 0.6 Zn 0.4 ) 2 (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 )·H 2 O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2 1 /c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C 4 N 2 H 12 )Co 0.3 Zn 0.7 (HPO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2 1 /c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C 4 N 2 H 12 ) 1.5 (Co 0.6 Zn 0.4 ) 2 (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 )·H 2 O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C 4 N 2 H 12 )Co 0.3 Zn 0.7 (HPO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal structure of 1D metastable phase was also determined. • Thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate. • Magnetic

  10. Order-disorder phase transitions in the two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys Mo1−xWxX2 (X = S, Se, and Te)

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong

    2014-10-21

    A combination of density functional theory, an empirical model, and Monte Carlo simulations is used to shed light on the evolution of the atomic distribution in the two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys Mo1−xWxX2 (X = S, Se, and Te) as a function of the W concentration and temperature. Both random and ordered phases are discovered and the origin of the phase transitions is clarified. While the empirical model predicts at x = 1/3 and 2/3 ordered alloys, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that they only exist at low temperature due to a small energetic preference of Mo-X-W over Mo-X-Mo and W-X-W interactions, explaining the experimental observation of random alloy Mo1−xWxS2. Negative formation energies point to a high miscibility. Tunability of the band edges and band gaps by alteration of the W concentration gives rise to a broad range of applications.

  11. Order-disorder phase transitions in the two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys Mo1−xWxX2 (X = S, Se, and Te)

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong; Zhang, Qingyun; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    A combination of density functional theory, an empirical model, and Monte Carlo simulations is used to shed light on the evolution of the atomic distribution in the two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys Mo1−xWxX2 (X = S, Se, and Te) as a function of the W concentration and temperature. Both random and ordered phases are discovered and the origin of the phase transitions is clarified. While the empirical model predicts at x = 1/3 and 2/3 ordered alloys, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that they only exist at low temperature due to a small energetic preference of Mo-X-W over Mo-X-Mo and W-X-W interactions, explaining the experimental observation of random alloy Mo1−xWxS2. Negative formation energies point to a high miscibility. Tunability of the band edges and band gaps by alteration of the W concentration gives rise to a broad range of applications.

  12. Frequency Preference Response to Oscillatory Inputs in Two-dimensional Neural Models: A Geometric Approach to Subthreshold Amplitude and Phase Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Horacio G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms of generation of subthreshold and phase resonance in two-dimensional linear and linearized biophysical (conductance-based) models, and we extend our analysis to account for the effect of simple, but not necessarily weak, types of nonlinearities. Subthreshold resonance refers to the ability of neurons to exhibit a peak in their voltage amplitude response to oscillatory input currents at a preferred non-zero (resonant) frequency. Phase-resonance refers to the ability of neurons to exhibit a zero-phase (or zero-phase-shift) response to oscillatory input currents at a non-zero (phase-resonant) frequency. We adapt the classical phase-plane analysis approach to account for the dynamic effects of oscillatory inputs and develop a tool, the envelope-plane diagrams, that captures the role that conductances and time scales play in amplifying the voltage response at the resonant frequency band as compared to smaller and larger frequencies. We use envelope-plane diagrams in our analysis. We explain why the resonance phenomena do not necessarily arise from the presence of imaginary eigenvalues at rest, but rather they emerge from the interplay of the intrinsic and input time scales. We further explain why an increase in the time-scale separation causes an amplification of the voltage response in addition to shifting the resonant and phase-resonant frequencies. This is of fundamental importance for neural models since neurons typically exhibit a strong separation of time scales. We extend this approach to explain the effects of nonlinearities on both resonance and phase-resonance. We demonstrate that nonlinearities in the voltage equation cause amplifications of the voltage response and shifts in the resonant and phase-resonant frequencies that are not predicted by the corresponding linearized model. The differences between the nonlinear response and the linear prediction increase with increasing levels of the time scale separation between

  13. Identification of proteins in a human pleural exudate using two-dimensional preparative liquid-phase electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C L; Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Pleural effusion may occur in patients suffering from physical trauma or systemic disorders such as infection, inflammation, or cancer. In order to investigate proteins in a pleural exudate from a patient with severe pneumonia, we used a strategy that combined preparative two-dimensional liquid-phase electrophoresis (2-D LPE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Western blotting. Preparative 2-D LPE is based on the same principles as analytical 2-D gel electrophoresis, except that the proteins remain in liquid phase during the entire procedure. In the first dimension, liquid-phase isoelectric focusing allows for the enrichment of proteins in liquid fractions. In the Rotofor cell, large volumes (up to 55 mL) and protein amounts (up to 1-2 g) can be loaded. Several low abundance proteins, cystatin C, haptoglobin, transthyretin, beta2-microglobulin, and transferrin, were detected after liquid-phase isoelectric focusing, through Western blotting analysis, in a pleural exudate (by definition, >25 g/L total protein). Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of proteins in a Rotofor fraction is demonstrated as well. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a tryptic digest of a continuous elution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fraction confirmed the presence of cystatin C. By applying 2-D LPE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and Western blotting to the analysis of this pleural exudate, we were able to confirm the identity of proteins of potential diagnostic value. Our findings serve to illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in the analysis of pathological fluids.

  14. A two-dimensional, transient, compressible isothermal and two-phase model for the air-side electrode of PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakbaz Baboli, M.; Kermani, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional, transient, compressible, isothermal and two-phase flow of reactant-product mixture in the air-side electrode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are numerically studied in the present paper. The mixture is composed of four species: oxygen, nitrogen, liquid water and water vapor. The governing PDE's are conservation of the water vapor and oxygen species, momentum equation of the mixture (gas+liquid), mass conservation of the liquid phase, and mass conservation of the mixture. In this study, a separate PDE for the mass conservation of the liquid water is solved to calculate the saturation levels. The capillary pressure was used to determine the slip velocity between the phases. A full compressible form of the momentum equation was used, with the ∇.V preserved in the equation. The Maxwell-Stefan equation was used to model the diffusive fluxes of the multi-component gas mixture. The strongly coupled equations are solved based on a recently developed finite volume SIMPLER scheme of S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984. The computational domain consists of two regions; an open area (gas delivery channel) linked to a porous gas diffusion layer (GDL). A single (unified) set of the PDE's are used for the whole domain with the corresponding properties of each sub-domain. A polarization curve for the whole spectrum of the dry and wet regions were obtained. The results were compared with the experiments of E.A. Ticianelli, C.R. Derouin, A. Redondo, S. Srinivasan, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135 (1988) 2209, and good agreements were achieved

  15. Proteomic analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis at different growth phases by using an automated online two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoya; Ding, Xuezhi; Sun, Yunjun; Yang, Qi; Xiao, Xiuqing; Cao, Zhenping; Xia, Liqiu

    2012-08-01

    The proteome of a new Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain, 4.0718, from the middle vegetative (T(1)), early sporulation (T(2)), and late sporulation (T(3)) phases was analyzed using an integrated liquid chromatography (LC)-based protein identification system. The system comprised two-dimensional (2D) LC coupled with nanoscale electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on a high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometer with an automated data analysis system. After deletion of redundant proteins from the different batches and B. thuringiensis subspecies, 918, 703, and 778 proteins were identified in the respective three phases. Their molecular masses ranged from 4.6 Da to 477.4 Da, and their isoelectric points ranged from 4.01 to 11.84. Function clustering revealed that most of the proteins in the three phases were functional metabolic proteins, followed by proteins participating in cell processes. Small molecular and macromolecular metabolic proteins were further classified according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome and BioCyc metabolic pathway database. Three protoxins (Cry2Aa, Cry1Aa, and Cry1Ac) as well as a series of potential intracellular active factors were detected. Many significant proteins related to spore and crystal formation, including sporulation proteins, help proteins, chaperones, and so on, were identified. The expression patterns of two identified proteins, CotJc and glutamine synthetase, were validated by Western blot analysis, which further confirmed the MS results. This study is the first to use shotgun technology to research the proteome of B. thuringiensis. Valuable experimental data are provided regarding the methodology of analyzing the B. thuringiensis proteome (which can be used to produce insecticidal crystal proteins) and have been added to the related protein database.

  16. Sensitivity of quantum walks to a boundary of two-dimensional lattices: approaches based on the CGMV method and topological phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takako; Konno, Norio; Obuse, Hideaki; Segawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we treat quantum walks in a two-dimensional lattice with cutting edges along a straight boundary introduced by Asboth and Edge (2015 Phys. Rev . A 91 022324) in order to study one-dimensional edge states originating from topological phases of matter and to obtain collateral evidence of how a quantum walker reacts to the boundary. Firstly, we connect this model to the CMV matrix, which provides a 5-term recursion relation of the Laurent polynomial associated with spectral measure on the unit circle. Secondly, we explicitly derive the spectra of bulk and edge states of the quantum walk with the boundary using spectral analysis of the CMV matrix. Thirdly, while topological numbers of the model studied so far are well-defined only when gaps in the bulk spectrum exist, we find a new topological number defined only when there are no gaps in the bulk spectrum. We confirm that the existence of the spectrum for edge states derived from the CMV matrix is consistent with the prediction from a bulk-edge correspondence using topological numbers calculated in the cases where gaps in the bulk spectrum do or do not exist. Finally, we show how the edge states contribute to the asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk through limit theorems of the finding probability. Conversely, we also propose a differential equation using this limit distribution whose solution is the underlying edge state. (paper)

  17. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yongshun; Zheng, Guimei; Feng, Cunqian; Tang, Jun

    2017-10-26

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs) under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU) and mutual coupling (MC). GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA) based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM). The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  18. Two-dimensional numerical experiments with DRIX-2D on two-phase-water-flows referring to the HDR-blowdown-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moesinger, H.

    1979-08-01

    The computer program DRIX-2D has been developed from SOLA-DF. The essential elements of the program structure are described. In order to verify DRIX-2D an Edwards-Blowdown-Experiment is calculated and other numerical results are compared with steady state experiments and models. Numerical experiments on transient two-phase flow, occurring in the broken pipe of a PWR in the case of a hypothetic LOCA, are performed. The essential results of the two-dimensional calculations are: 1. The appearance of a radial profile of void-fraction, velocity, sound speed and mass flow-rate inside the blowdown nozzle. The reason for this is the flow contraction at the nozzle inlet leading to more vapour production in the vicinity of the pipe wall. 2. A comparison between modelling in axisymmetric and Cartesian coordinates and calculations with and without the core barrel show the following: a) The three-dimensional flow pattern at the nozzle inlet is poorly described using Cartesian coordinates. In consequence a considerable difference in pressure history results. b) The core barrel alters the reflection behaviour of the pressure waves oscillating in the blowdown-nozzle. Therefore, the core barrel should be modelled as a wall normal to the nozzle axis. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Nonergodic dynamics of the two-dimensional random-phase sine-Gordon model: Applications to vortex-glass arrays and disordered-substrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cule, D.; Shapir, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the random-phase sine-Gordon model, which describes two-dimensional vortex-glass arrays and crystalline surfaces on disordered substrates, is investigated using the self-consistent Hartree approximation. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is violated below the critical temperature T c for large time t>t * where t * diverges in the thermodynamic limit. While above T c the averaged autocorrelation function diverges as Tln(t), for T c it approaches a finite value q * ∼1/(T c -T) as q(t)=q * -c(t/t * ) -ν (for t→t * ) where ν is a temperature-dependent exponent. On larger time scales t>t * the dynamics becomes nonergodic. The static correlations behave as ∼Tln|rvec x| for T>T c and for T c when x * with ξ * ∼exp{A/(T c -T)}. For scales x>ξ * , they behave as ∼m -1 Tln|rvec x| where m∼T/T c near T c , in general agreement with the variational replica-symmetry breaking approach and with recent simulations of the disordered-substrate surface. For strong coupling the transition becomes first order

  20. [Application of off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography to the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yun; Xin, Huaxia; Peng, Ziyue; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu

    2017-07-08

    An off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography (2D RPLC/SFC) method was developed for the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim . ( T. kirilowii .). In the experiment, RPLC was used in the first dimension to analyze the samples. And 12 fractions (F 1 -F 12 ) were obtained according to the chromatographic peak collection mode, the fractions were re-analyzed in both RPLC and SFC modes. The results clearly showed that this 2D method had good orthogonality. The SFC was used as the second dimension. Ethanol- n -hexane (3:7, v/v) was used as a modifier in SFC. The modifier could provide appropriate elution power. When the sample load increased, it could also ensure the solubility of samples. The 2D RPLC/SFC method had obvious advantages for separating the compounds with similar properties, enriching and purifying the trace components. Finally, 150 peaks could be detected. The off-line 2D RPLC/SFC method will be further enlarged to a preparative level for preparation of compounds. The method can provide a practical reference for the purification of chemical constituents and material basis research of the seeds of T. kirilowii . in the future.

  1. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU and mutual coupling (MC. GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM. The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  2. Topological phase transition in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model: A study using the Replica Exchange Wang-Landau sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T. P.; Rocha, J. C. S.; Costa, B. V.

    2017-12-01

    Although the topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition was for the first time described by 40 years ago, it is still a matter of discussion. It has been used to explain several experiments in the most diverse physical systems. In contrast with the ordinary continuous phase transitions the BKT-transition does not break any symmetry. However, in some contexts it can easily be confused with other continuous transitions, in general due to an insufficient data analysis. The two-dimensional XY (or sometimes called planar rotator) spin model is the fruit fly model describing the BKT transition. As demonstrated by Bramwell and Holdsworth (1993) the finite-size effects are more important in two-dimensions than in others due to the logarithmic system size dependence of the properties of the system. Closely related is the anisotropic two dimensional Heisenberg model (AH). Although they have the same Hamiltonian the spin variable in the former has only two degrees of freedom while the AH has three. Many works treat the AH model as undergoing a transition in the same universality class as the XY model. However, its characterization as being in the BKT class of universality deserve some investigation. This paper has two goals. First, we describe an analytical evidence showing that the AH model is in the BKT class of universality. Second, we make an extensive simulation, using the numerical Replica Exchange Wang-Landau method that corroborate our analytical calculations. From our simulation we obtain the BKT transition temperature as TBKT = 0 . 6980(10) by monitoring the susceptibility, the two point correlation function and the helicity modulus. We discuss the misuse of the fourth order Binder's cumulant to locate the transition temperature. The specific heat is shown to have a non-critical behavior as expected in the BKT transition. An analysis of the two point correlation function at low temperature, C(r) ∝r - η(T), shows that the exponent, η, is consistent

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, Sergei A. [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  4. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author)

  5. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author).

  6. Isoclinic Ambiguity Unwrapping of Circular Ring under Diametric Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang M.-J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isoclinic and isochromatic parameters in photoelastic analysis are formulated by arc tangent function of several phase shifting frames but for isochromatic calculation it is, in addition, in terms of isoclinic data also. Thus, any isoclinic phase ambiguity would also result in the phase inconsistencies of isochromatic calculation and cause unwrapping problems and difficulties. Many methods had been proposed to treat these kinds of isochromatic fringes but lots of treatments were needed for the correct retrieval. In this work, the isoclinic ambiguity problem is investigated and solved directly by a novel regional phase unwrapping technique. Once the isoclinic phase ambiguity problems are solved, a correct isoclinic result can be obtained. Then, substituting this result into the isochromatic formation yields an ambiguity free isochromatic phase map, which can be easily restored by any phase unwrapping algorithm. A stress frozen sample - circular ring under diametric compression verifies its effectiveness. Usually happened is that this kind of sample is with ambiguous isoclinic data which would cause phase ambiguities of the isochromatic formulation if not treated well first.

  7. Improved determination of flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase (micro)extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Wiewel, J.; Verdel, R.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    The practicability and potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled to both conventional flame ionisation (FID) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection, were compared with those of conventional one-dimensional (1D) GC, with the determination of

  8. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  9. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  10. Study of Separation and Identification of the Active Ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Based on a Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography by Coupling Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, by coupling reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was developed for separation and identification of the active ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE). By applying the semi-preparative C18 column as the first dimension and the core-shell column as the second dimension, a total of 896 peaks of GJE were separated. Among the 896 peaks, 16 active ingredients including geniposide, gardenoside, gardoside, etc. were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that the proposed two-dimensional RPLC/HILIC system was an effective method for the analysis of GJE and might hold a high potential to become a useful tool for analysis of other complex mixtures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  13. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  14. Search for a nematic phase in the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 by NMR in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Kweon, J. J.; Choi, E. S.; Zhou, H. D.; Svistov, L. E.; Reyes, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of CuCrO2 was studied with an alternative method of simultaneous Cu NMR and electric polarization techniques with the primary goal of demonstrating that, regardless of cooling history of the sample, the magnetic phase with specific helmet-shaped NMR spectra associated with interplanar disorder possesses electric polarization. Our result unequivocally confirms the assumption of Sakhratov et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 094410 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.094410] that the high-field low-temperature phase is in fact a three-dimensional (3D) polar phase characterized by a 3D magnetic order with tensor order parameter. In comparison with the results obtained in pulsed fields, a modified phase diagram is introduced defining the upper boundary of the first-order transition from the 3D spiral to the 3D polar phase.

  15. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  16. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  17. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  18. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  19. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  20. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  1. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  2. Comprehensive phase diagram of two-dimensional space charge doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpetti, Edoardo; Biscaras, Johan; Erb, Andreas; Shukla, Abhay

    2017-12-12

    The phase diagram of hole-doped high critical temperature superconductors as a function of doping and temperature has been intensively studied with chemical variation of doping. Chemical doping can provoke structural changes and disorder, masking intrinsic effects. Alternatively, a field-effect transistor geometry with an electrostatically doped, ultra-thin sample can be used. However, to probe the phase diagram, carrier density modulation beyond 10 14  cm -2 and transport measurements performed over a large temperature range are needed. Here we use the space charge doping method to measure transport characteristics from 330 K to low temperature. We extract parameters and characteristic temperatures over a large doping range and establish a comprehensive phase diagram for one-unit-cell-thick BSCCO-2212 as a function of doping, temperature and disorder.

  3. Magnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional frustrated Cu3R(SeO3)2O2Cl. Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimin, S. A.; Budkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Using optical study of electronic spectra of rare-earth (RE) ions, magnetic phase transitions in the low-dimensional frustrated RE magnets Cu3R(SeO3)2O2Cl (R = Sm, Yb, Er, Nd, Pr, Eu) were investigated. Phase transitions were registered either by splittings of crystal-field (CF) doublets or by repulsion of CF levels of f-ions in a staggered magnetic field. Different scenarios of magnetic order in isostructural compounds of the francisite family are discussed.

  4. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F G; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-12-29

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by analytical scientists, namely online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC, having a second-dimension separation in the liquid phase) and liquid chromatography-ion mobility-spectrometry (LC-IMS, second dimension separation in the gas phase). The goal of the current study was a general assessment of the liquid-chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) platforms for untargeted lipid mapping in human plasma. For the first time trapped-ion-mobility spectrometry (TIMS) was employed for the separation of the major lipid classes and ion-mobility-derived collision-cross-section values were determined for a number of lipid standards. The general effects of a number of influencing parameters have been inspected and possible directions for improvements are discussed. We aimed to provide a general indication and practical guidelines for the analyst to choose an efficient multidimensional separation platform according to the particular requirements of the application. Analysis time, orthogonality, peak capacity, and an indicative measure for the resolving power are discussed as main characteristics for multidimensional separation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ge(001)-(<2 1>, <0 3>)-Pb(<2 1>, <0 6>)↔Pb: Low-temperature two-dimensional phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Zeysing, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3))-Pb surface reconstruction with a lead coverage of 5/3 monolayer is on the borderline between the low-coverage covalently-bonded and high-coverage metallic lead overlayers. This gives rise to an unusual low-temperature phase transition with concomitant changes in the bonding...

  6. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  8. Gate-tunable polarized phase of two-dimensional electrons at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Arjun; Ruhman, Jonathan; Pecker, Sharon; Altman, Ehud; Ilani, Shahal

    2013-06-11

    Controlling the coupling between localized spins and itinerant electrons can lead to exotic magnetic states. A novel system featuring local magnetic moments and extended 2D electrons is the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The magnetism of the interface, however, was observed to be insensitive to the presence of these electrons and is believed to arise solely from extrinsic sources like oxygen vacancies and strain. Here we show the existence of unconventional electronic phases in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system pointing to an underlying tunable coupling between itinerant electrons and localized moments. Using anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect measurements in a unique in-plane configuration, we identify two distinct phases in the space of carrier density and magnetic field. At high densities and fields, the electronic system is strongly polarized and shows a response, which is highly anisotropic along the crystalline directions. Surprisingly, below a density-dependent critical field, the polarization and anisotropy vanish whereas the resistivity sharply rises. The unprecedented vanishing of the easy axes below a critical field is in sharp contrast with other coupled magnetic systems and indicates strong coupling with the moments that depends on the symmetry of the itinerant electrons. The observed interplay between the two phases indicates the nature of magnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface as both having an intrinsic origin and being tunable.

  9. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  10. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  11. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  12. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  13. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  14. Enhanced lithium-ion storage performance by structural phase transition from two-dimensional rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 to cubic Fe_3O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 transforms to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment. • Phase structure of anodes has great influences on their electrochemical performances. • Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide shows a high capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of a material varies with its structural phase transition. It is found that the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 can transform to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere, and lithium-ion storage performances of Fe_3O_4 get an obvious improvement due to its structural advantages. On the basis of data calculated by X-ray diffraction, the larger unit cell volume as well as the higher void fraction of cubic Fe_3O_4 provides lithium-ions with more transport channels for Li ions diffusion and storage without serious volume change, and thus the cubic Fe_3O_4 delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 921.1 mAh g"−"1 after 15 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than 328.3 mAh g"−"1 for the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3. To further enhance the structural stability of electrodes, reduced graphene oxide is introduced. The Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide show an excellent specific capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 after 40 cycles and impressive rate performance of 600 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which are much higher than that of Fe_3O_4 (417 and 300 mAh g"−"1), Fe_2O_3 (137.4 and 95 mAh g"−"1) and Fe_2O_3/reduced graphene oxide (390.1 and 480 mAh g"−"1). These results demonstrate that the structural phase transition and reduced graphene oxide of Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide composites offer unique characteristics suitable for high-performance energy storage application.

  15. Two dimensional vibrations of the guinea pig apex organ of Corti measured in vivo using phase sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Petrie, Tracy; Fridberger, Anders; Ren, Tianying; Wang, Ruikang; Jacques, Steven L.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we measure the in vivo apical-turn vibrations of the guinea pig organ of Corti in both axial and radial directions using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. The apical turn in guinea pig cochlea has best frequencies around 100 - 500 Hz which are relevant for human speech. Prior measurements of vibrations in the guinea pig apex involved opening the otic capsule, which has been questioned on the basis of the resulting changes to cochlear hydrodynamics. Here this limitation is overcome by measuring the vibrations through bone without opening the otic capsule. Furthermore, we have significantly reduced the surgery needed to access the guinea pig apex in the axial direction by introducing a miniature mirror inside the bulla. The method and preliminary data are discussed in this article.

  16. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanoflakes synthesized by liquid-solid phase reaction method: regenerative photocatalytic performance under UV-visible light irradiation by advance oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, M. F.; Rafiq, M. A.; Siddique, Fizza; Saira, F.; Chaudhary, M. M.; Hasan, M. M.; Tok, A. I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanoflakes were prepared through liquid-solid phase reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the formation of pure, polycrystalline, hexagonal phase of MoS2 nanoflakes. The texture coefficient (T{c}hkl) analysis showed that (100) plane was preferentially oriented. The specific surface area of the nanoflakes was 21 m2 g‑1 as determined using Brunaure-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. A band gap of ∼2.05 eV for MoS2 nanoflakes was estimated from UV-visible spectrum. Regenerative photocatalytic activity of MoS2 nanoflakes was assessed by degrading methylene blue (MB) and safranin-o (SO) dyes under UV-visible light irradiation. Under light irradiation, degradation efficiency for MB was ∼99.58% in 100 min while for SO it was ∼99.89% in 70 min. The MoS2 nanoflakes exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance and good stability in a wide pH range (3–11). MoS2 nanoflakes showed a high reaction rate constant (k app ) for SO ∼ 0.104 49 min‑1 and MB ∼ 0.092 18 min‑1 as compared to other MoS2 nanostructures. The obtained exceptional photocatalytic performance of MoS2 nanoflakes offers potential applications for the treatment of polluted water as well as in other correlated fields.

  17. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  18. A size exclusion-reversed phase two dimensional-liquid chromatography methodology for stability and small molecule related species in antibody drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Gu, Christine; Gruenhagen, Jason; Zhang, Kelly; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik P; Medley, Colin D

    2015-05-08

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex therapeutic agents combining the specific targeting properties of antibodies and highly potent cytotoxic small molecule drugs to selectively eliminate tumor cells while limiting the toxicity to normal healthy tissues. One unique critical quality attribute of ADCs is the content of unconjugated small molecule drug present from either incomplete conjugation or degradation of the ADC. In this work, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was coupled with reversed-phase (RP) HPLC in an online 2-dimensional chromatography format for identification and quantitation of unconjugated small molecule drugs and related small molecule impurities in ADC samples directly without sample preparation. The SEC method in the 1st dimension not only separated the small molecule impurities from the intact ADC, but also provided information about the size variants (monomer, dimer, aggregates, etc.) of the ADC. The small molecule peak from the SEC was trapped and sent to a RP-HPLC in the 2nd dimension to further separate and quantify the different small molecule impurities present in the ADC sample. This SEC-RP 2D-LC method demonstrated excellent precision (%RSDmolecule degradation products and aggregation of the conjugate were observed in the stability samples and the degradation pathways of the ADC were investigated. This 2D-LC method offers a powerful tool for ADC characterization and provides valuable information for conjugation and formulation development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase diagrams of two dimensional Pd{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) and Pt{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) surface alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Bergbreiter, Andreas; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of Ag and Pd or Pt in Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) and Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) surface alloys was studied by high resolution UHV-STM. The alloys were prepared by evaporating Ag on the respective substrate and subsequent annealing to 800 K. From quantitative 2D atom distributions we can show that AgPt tends towards two dimensional clustering and AgPd towards a 'quasi' random distribution, with small deviations for low and high coverages. From effective pair interactions, we are able to calculate the surface mixing energy and determine 2D phase diagrams. Furthermore we will elucidate whether the size mismatch or the differences in the intermetallic bonding are the dominant factor for the respective distribution in the surface alloy.

  20. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  1. Thermodynamic and structural study of two-dimensional phase transitions within films of molecules physi-sorbed on graphite; the role of orientational order in wetting and roughening phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerand, Francois

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase transitions within films physi-sorbed upon the basal face of graphite have been investigated using two experimental methods: volumetric measurements of adsorption isotherms and neutron diffraction. Our main objective was to study the role played by orientational order in these films, its influence on their thermodynamic and structural properties, and its significance in wetting and roughening phenomena, which are indirectly accessible from adsorption studies. A comparative study of the adsorption isotherms of two molecules having comparable dipole moments, NH 3 and C 2 H 3 F, discloses very dissimilar behaviours, due to the fact that hydrogen bonding is involved in the interaction between NH 3 , but not C 2 H 3 F, molecules. The impossibility of such a bond for the interaction of the adsorbate with the substrate results in a poor cohesion energy of the NH 3 ad-film in comparison with those of its bulk condensed phases. The situation is opposite for the film of C 2 H 3 F which behaves almost as a rare gas film. From multilayer adsorption isotherms of CO it is shown that graphite (0001) is perfectly wet by the plastic (orientationally disordered) crystal phase, β-CO, whereas it is incompletely wet by the low-temperature crystal phase α-CO, in which the molecules are orientationally ordered. The critical temperatures of two-dimensional condensation have been measured for the successive ad-layers, up to the fifth. They seem to converge towards a value of 65 K, which we consider as representing the temperature of the roughening transition of the (0001) face of β-CO. A neutron diffraction study of the monolayers of N 2 O and C(CD 3 ) 4 adsorbed on graphite has been carried out. For N 2 O our results suggest a structure more involved than conjectured. For C(CD 3 ) 4 we have evidence for a triple point at 178 K. The crystal monolayer has a compact hexagonal structure. (author) [fr

  2. Separation and characterization of chemical constituents in Ginkgo biloba extract by off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuai; He, Dan-Dan; Wang, Tian-Yun; Han, Jie; Li, Zheng; Du, Yan; Zou, Jia-Hui; Guo, Meng-Zhe; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2017-11-30

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide. Due to high structural diversity and low abundance of chemical constituents in GBE, conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography has limited power to meet the needs of its quality control. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC×RP 2D-LC) system coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was established to comprehensively analyze the chemical constituents of GBE. After optimizing the chromatographic columns and mobile phase of 2D-LC, a Waters XBridge Amide column using acetonitrile/water/formic acid as the mobile phase was selected as the first dimension to fractionate GBE, and the obtained fractions were further separated on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column with methanol/water/formic acid as the mobile phase. As a result, a total of 125 compounds were detected in GBE. The orthogonality of the 2D-LC system was 69.5%, and the practical peak capacity was 3864 and 2994, respectively, calculated by two different methods. The structures of 104 compounds were tentatively characterized by qTOF-MS analysis, and 21 of them were further confirmed by comparing with reference standards. This established HILIC×RP 2D-LC-qTOF/MS system can greatly improve the separation and characterization of natural products in GBE or other complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  4. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  5. Thermodynamic and structural study of two-dimensional phase transitions and orientational order in films of linear molecules with a large quadrupole moment, physi-sorbed on lamellar substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terlain, Anne

    1984-01-01

    The 2D (two-dimensional) phase transitions and orientational order in N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 films physi-sorbed on the (0001) face of graphite or lamellar halides, were studied experimentally by adsorption isotherm measurements and neutron diffraction. The thermodynamic functions derived from sets of isotherms suggest that crystal monolayers of N 2 O, CO 2 , and C 2 N 2 adsorbed on graphite are orientationally ordered and that the quadrupolar interaction stabilizes the 2D crystal with respect to the 2D liquid. This stabilization leads to an increase in the 2D triple point temperature, T 2t as compared with the 2D critical temperature T 2c . For C 2 N 2 this stabilization is so pronounced that T 2t becomes virtually higher than T 2c , and the phase diagram qualitatively different, having no gas-liquid coexistence domain. From a neutron diffraction experiment we have determined the crystal structure of the C 2 N 2 monolayer. It supports our interpretation of the monolayer phase diagram. In N 2 O, CO 2 , C 2 N 2 films adsorbed on graphite the molecules lie flat on the surface and their orientational order hence differs from that in the bulk crystals resulting in a loss of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction energy. Beyond a given film thickness this loss will not be compensated by the adsorbate-substrate interaction and the film will stop growing. For most of the films studied a partial wetting transition is observed at which the film thickness increases discontinuously with temperature. Although C 2 N 2 and C 2 D 2 monolayers on graphite have comparable adsorption energies, only C 2 D 2 is adsorbed on lamellar halides. This adsorption is possible only because the monolayer has a large entropy due to orientational disorder. For C 2 N 2 , which has a higher moment of inertia, such an orientational disorder cannot exist. (author) [fr

  6. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  7. Focusing and non-focusing modulation strategies for the improvement of on-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography × reversed phase profiling of complex food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2017-09-08

    Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) is ever gaining interest in food analysis, as often, food-related samples are too complex to be analyzed through one-dimensional approaches. The use of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) combined with reversed phase (RP) separations has already been demonstrated as a very orthogonal combination, which allows attaining increased resolving power. However, this coupling encompasses different analytical challenges, mainly related to the important solvent strength mismatch between the two dimensions, besides those common to every LC × LC method. In the present contribution, different strategies are proposed and compared to further increase HILIC × RP method performance for the analysis of complex food samples, using licorice as a model sample. The influence of different parameters in non-focusing modulation methods based on sampling loops, as well as under focusing modulation, through the use of trapping columns in the interface and through active modulation procedures are studied in order to produce resolving power and sensitivity gains. Although the use of a dilution strategy using sampling loops as well as the highest possible first dimension sampling rate allowed significant improvements on resolution, focusing modulation produced significant gains also in peak capacity and sensitivity. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate the great applicability and potential that active modulation may have for the analysis of complex food samples, such as licorice, by HILIC × RP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  9. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  10. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional noninvertible maps

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Christian; Cathala, Jean-Claude; Gardini, Laura

    1996-01-01

    This book is essentially devoted to complex properties (Phase plane structure and bifurcations) of two-dimensional noninvertible maps, i.e. maps having either a non-unique inverse, or no real inverse, according to the plane point. They constitute models of sets of discrete dynamical systems encountered in Engineering (Control, Signal Processing, Electronics), Physics, Economics, Life Sciences. Compared to the studies made in the one-dimensional case, the two-dimensional situation remained a long time in an underdeveloped state. It is only since these last years that the interest for this resea

  12. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  13. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  14. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  15. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  16. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  17. Heeding the waveform inversion nonlinearity by unwrapping the model and data

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traveltime inversion, waveform inversion provides relatively higher-resolution inverted models. This feature, however, comes at the cost of introducing complex nonlinearity to the inversion operator complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped-phase-based objective functions to reduce such nonlinearity in a domain in which the high-frequency component is given by the traveltime inversion. Such information is packaged in a frequency-dependent attribute (or traveltime) that can be easily manipulated at different frequencies. It unwraps the phase of the wavefield yielding far less nonlinearity in the objective function than those experienced with the conventional misfit objective function, and yet it still holds most of the critical waveform information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from nonlinearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as events interact with each other (something like cross talk). This stems from the sinusoidal nature of the band-limited reflectivity model. Unwrapping the phase for such a model can mitigate this nonlinearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced nonlinearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple examples are used to highlight such features.

  18. Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in South African red wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Crouch, A.M.; Górecki, T.; Villiers, de A.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) has been applied for the analysis of volatile compounds in three young South African red wines. In spite of the significant benefits offered by GC × GC–TOFMS for the separation and

  19. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  20. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  1. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  2. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  3. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  4. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  5. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  6. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  7. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  8. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  9. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  10. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  11. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  14. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  15. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  16. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  17. Real-time quantitative phase reconstruction in off-axis digital holography using multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2014-04-15

    We present a new approach for obtaining significant speedup in the digital processing of extracting unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis digital holograms. The new technique digitally multiplexes two orthogonal off-axis holograms, where the digital reconstruction, including spatial filtering and two-dimensional phase unwrapping on a decreased number of pixels, can be performed on both holograms together, without redundant operations. Using this technique, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time to our knowledge, unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis holograms with 1 megapixel in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a MATLAB platform, without using graphic-processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This new technique is important for real-time quantitative visualization and measurements of highly dynamic samples and is applicable for a wide range of applications, including rapid biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing. After comparing the speedups obtained by the new technique for holograms of various sizes, we present experimental results of real-time quantitative phase visualization of cells flowing rapidly through a microchannel.

  18. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer. ; Application of active combustion control to two-dimensional phase-locked arranging measurements. Soshiki kozo wo tomonau heimen sendai kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki. ; Nijigen iso heikin bunpu sokutei eno active nensho seigyo no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  20. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  1. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  2. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  3. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  4. Wigner functions from the two-dimensional wavelet group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Krasowska, A E; Murenzi, R

    2000-12-01

    Following a general procedure developed previously [Ann. Henri Poincaré 1, 685 (2000)], here we construct Wigner functions on a phase space related to the similitude group in two dimensions. Since the group space in this case is topologically homeomorphic to the phase space in question, the Wigner functions so constructed may also be considered as being functions on the group space itself. Previously the similitude group was used to construct wavelets for two-dimensional image analysis; we discuss here the connection between the wavelet transform and the Wigner function.

  5. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  6. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  7. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  8. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  9. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  10. Disorder effect in two-dimensional topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianglin; Feng Shiping; Guo Huaiming

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a systematic study on the disorder effect in two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators by calculating the Z 2 topological invariant. Starting from the trivial and nontrivial topological phases of the model describing HgTe/CdTe quantum wells (QWs), we introduce three different kinds of disorder into the system, including the fluctuations in the on-site potential, the hopping amplitude and the topological mass. These kinds of disorder commonly exist in HgTe/CdTe QWs grown experimentally. By explicit numerical calculations, we show that all three kinds of disorder have the similar effect: the topological phase in the system is not only robust to them, but also can be brought about by introducing them to the trivial insulator phase. These results make a further confirmation and extendability of the study on the interplay between the disorder and the topological phase.

  11. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  12. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  13. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  14. Mixed-symmetry superconductivity in two-dimensional Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaelian, K.A.; Betouras, J.; Chubukov, A.V.; Joynt, R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic Fermi liquid with attraction in both s and d channels and examine the possibility of a superconducting state with mixed s and d symmetry of the gap function. We show that both in the weak-coupling limit and at strong coupling, a mixed s+id symmetry state is realized in a certain range of interaction. Phase transitions between the mixed and the pure symmetry states are second order. We also show that there is no stable mixed s+d symmetry state at any coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry using the polynomial phase transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    A noisy wrapped phase map is the end-output of commonly employed phase estimation methods in digital holographic interferometry. Hence filtering and unwrapping are necessary to obtain continuous phase distributions. This paper introduces a new approach for phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using the polynomial phase transform. The proposed approach directly provides an accurate estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution from a noisy reconstructed interference field, thereby bypassing cumbersome and error-prone filtering and 2D phase unwrapping procedures

  16. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  17. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  18. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  19. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  20. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  1. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  2. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  3. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  4. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  5. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  6. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  7. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  8. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarski, Anna; Schürer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Flügel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-04-01

    The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements.

  11. Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malarski, Anna; Schuerer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Fluegel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements

  12. Static and dynamic properties of two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-10-01

    We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions. The relaxation at multiple time scales show stretched-exponential decay of spatial correlations in irregular traps. Temperature dependence of characteristic time scales, depicting the structural relaxation of the system, show striking similarities with those observed for the glassy systems, indicating that some of the key signatures of supercooled liquids emerge in confinements with lower spatial symmetries.

  13. Superfluid response of two-dimensional parahydrogen clusters in confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idowu, Saheed; Boninsegni, Massimo [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E7 (Canada)

    2015-04-07

    We study by computer simulations the effect of confinement on the superfluid properties of small two-dimensional (2D) parahydrogen clusters. For clusters of fewer than twenty molecules, the superfluid response in the low temperature limit is found to remain comparable in magnitude to that of free clusters, within a rather wide range of depth and size of the confining well. The resilience of the superfluid response is attributable to the “supersolid” character of these clusters. We investigate the possibility of establishing a bulk 2D superfluid “cluster crystal” phase of p-H{sub 2}, in which a global superfluid response would arise from tunnelling of molecules across adjacent unit cells. The computed energetics suggests that for clusters of about ten molecules, such a phase may be thermodynamically stable against the formation of the equilibrium insulating crystal, for values of the cluster crystal lattice constant possibly allowing tunnelling across adjacent unit cells.

  14. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  15. Charge ordering in two-dimensional ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Aurélien; Urbic, Tomaz

    2018-04-01

    The structural properties of model two-dimensional (2D) ionic liquids are examined, with a particular focus on the charge ordering process, with the use of computer simulation and integral equation theories. The influence of the logarithmic form of the Coulomb interaction, versus that of a 3D screened interaction form, is analysed. Charge order is found to hold and to be analogous for both interaction models, despite their very different form. The influence of charge ordering in the low density regime is discussed in relation to well known properties of 2D Coulomb fluids, such as the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and criticality. The present study suggests the existence of a stable thermodynamic labile cluster phase, implying the existence of a liquid-liquid "transition" above the liquid-gas binodal. The liquid-gas and Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions would then take place inside the predicted cluster phase.

  16. Two-dimensional void reconstruction by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.; Harms, A.A.; Vlachopoulos, J.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary algebraic reconstruction methods are utilized in investigating the two-dimensional void distribution in a water analog from neutron transmission measurements. It is sought to ultimately apply these techniques to the determination of time-averaged void distribution in two-phase flow systems as well as for potential usage in neutron radiography. Initially, projection data were obtained from a digitized model of a hypothetical two-phase representation and later from neutron beam traverses across a voided methacrylate plastic model. From 10 to 15 views were incorporated, and decoupling of overlapped measurements was utilized to afford greater resolution. In general, the additive Algebraic Reconstruction Technique yielded the best reconstructions, with others showing promise for noisy data. Results indicate the need for some further development of the method in interpreting real data

  17. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  18. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  19. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  20. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  1. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  2. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  3. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  5. Chimera patterns in two-dimensional networks of coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kasimatis, Theodoros; Hizanidis, Johanne; Provata, Astero; Hövel, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    We discuss synchronization patterns in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo and leaky integrate-and-fire oscillators coupled in a two-dimensional toroidal geometry. A common feature between the two models is the presence of fast and slow dynamics, a typical characteristic of neurons. Earlier studies have demonstrated that both models when coupled nonlocally in one-dimensional ring networks produce chimera states for a large range of parameter values. In this study, we give evidence of a plethora of two-dimensional chimera patterns of various shapes, including spots, rings, stripes, and grids, observed in both models, as well as additional patterns found mainly in the FitzHugh-Nagumo system. Both systems exhibit multistability: For the same parameter values, different initial conditions give rise to different dynamical states. Transitions occur between various patterns when the parameters (coupling range, coupling strength, refractory period, and coupling phase) are varied. Many patterns observed in the two models follow similar rules. For example, the diameter of the rings grows linearly with the coupling radius.

  6. Quality-guided orientation unwrapping for fringe direction estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Denoising and demodulation are two important procedures to retrieve information from a single closed fringe pattern. Various existing denoising and demodulation techniques require fringe direction/orientation during the processing. Fringe orientation is often easier to obtain but fringe direction is needed in some demodulation techniques. A quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme is proposed to estimate direction from orientation. Two techniques, one based on windowed Fourier ridges and the other based on fringe gradient, are proposed for the quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme. The direction qualities are compared for both simulated and experimental fringe patterns. Their application to demodulation technique is also given.

  7. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  8. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  9. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  11. Superconductivity of the two-dimensional Penson-Kolb model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czart, W.R.; Robaszkiewicz, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional (d = 2) Penson-Kolb model, i.e. the tight-binding model with the pair-hopping (intersite charge exchange) interaction, is considered and the effects of phase fluctuations on the s-wave superconductivity of this system are discussed within Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario. The London penetration depth λ at T = 0, the Kosterlitz Thouless critical temperature T c , and the Hartree-Fock approximation critical temperature T p are determined as a function of particle concentration and interaction. The Uemura type plots (T c vs. λ -2 (0)) are derived. Beyond weak coupling and for low concentrations they show the existence of universal scaling: T c ∼ 1/λ 2 (0), as it previously found for the attractive Hubbard model and for the models intersite electron pairing. (author)

  12. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  13. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  14. Two-dimensional computer simulation of high intensity proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lapostolle, Pierre M

    1972-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which simulates the two- dimensional transverse behaviour of a proton beam in a focusing channel. The model is represented by an assembly of a few thousand 'superparticles' acted upon by their own self-consistent electric field and an external focusing force. The evolution of the system is computed stepwise in time by successively solving Poisson's equation and Newton's law of motion. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used for speed in the solution of Poisson's equation, while extensive area weighting is utilized for the accurate evaluation of electric field components. A computer experiment has been performed on the CERN CDC 6600 computer to study the nonlinear behaviour of an intense beam in phase space, showing under certain circumstances a filamentation due to space charge and an apparent emittance growth. (14 refs).

  15. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  16. Two-dimensional atom localization via Raman-driven coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatullah,; Qamar, Sajid, E-mail: sajid_qamar@comsats.edu.pk

    2014-02-07

    A scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via Raman-driven coherence in a four-level diamond-configuration system is suggested. The atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields where each standing-wave field is constructed from the superposition of the two-standing wave fields along the corresponding directions. Due to the position-dependent atom–field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the position information about the atom. We investigate the effect of the detunings and phase shifts associated with standing-wave fields. Unique position information of the single atom is obtained by properly adjusting the system parameters. This is an extension of our previous proposal for one-dimensional atom localization via Raman-driven coherence.

  17. Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) × Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (RP-LC-UV-MS) Analysis of Anthocyanins and Derived Pigments in Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Chandré M; Stander, Maria A; Vestner, Jochen; Tredoux, Andreas G J; de Villiers, André

    2015-12-15

    Changes in anthocyanin chemistry represent some of the most important transformations involved in red wine aging. However, accurate analysis of the derived pigments, as required to study the evolution of anthocyanins and tannins during aging, is hampered by their extreme structural diversity, low levels, and the fact that many of these compounds have identical mass spectral characteristics. In this context, chromatographic separation is critical. In this contribution, the application of online hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) separation coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is described for the detailed characterization of anthocyanins and their derived pigments in aged red wine. A systematic approach was followed for the optimization of HILIC × RP-LC separation parameters using a capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system in the first dimension and an ultrahigh-pressure LC system in the second dimension to ensure maximum sensitivity and performance. Ninety four (94) anthocyanin-derived pigments were tentatively identified in one- and six-year-old Pinotage wines using accurate mass and fragmentation information obtained using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). Online HILIC × RP-LC-MS was found to offer high-resolution separation, because of the combination of two different separation modes, while the structured elution order observed improved the certainty in compound identification. Therefore, this approach shows promise for the detailed elucidation of the chemical alteration of anthocyanins during wine aging.

  18. Unexpected Ge-Ge contacts in the two-dimensional Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te phase and analysis of their chemical cause with the density of energy (DOE) function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M.; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mio, Antonio M.; Cojocaru-Miredin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, Merlin; Mayer, Joachim [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Luysberg, Martina [Ernst-Ruska-Center, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25} has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 3}Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Identifying Two-Dimensional Z 2 Antiferromagnetic Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, F.; Pujol, P.; Ramazashvili, R.

    2018-01-01

    We revisit the question of whether a two-dimensional topological insulator may arise in a commensurate Néel antiferromagnet, where staggered magnetization breaks the symmetry with respect to both elementary translation and time reversal, but retains their product as a symmetry. In contrast to the so-called Z 2 topological insulators, an exhaustive characterization of antiferromagnetic topological phases with the help of topological invariants has been missing. We analyze a simple model of an antiferromagnetic topological insulator and chart its phase diagram, using a recently proposed criterion for centrosymmetric systems [13]. We then adapt two methods, originally designed for paramagnetic systems, and make antiferromagnetic topological phases manifest. The proposed methods apply far beyond the particular examples treated in this work, and admit straightforward generalization. We illustrate this by two examples of non-centrosymmetric systems, where no simple criteria have been known to identify topological phases. We also present, for some cases, an explicit construction of edge states in an antiferromagnetic topological insulator.

  20. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayari, Taha; Li, Xin; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-04-25

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure to be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.

  1. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  2. The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang; Liu Yaozong; Wen Xisen

    2007-01-01

    The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave during pass bands in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals are analyzed by using the lumped-mass method to yield the phase constant surface. The directions and regions of wave propagation in phononic crystals for certain frequencies during pass bands are predicted with the iso-frequency contour lines of the phase constant surface, which are then validated with the harmonic responses of a finite two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals with 16x16 unit cells. These results are useful for controlling the wave propagation in the pass bands of phononic crystals

  3. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal

    2006-01-01

    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  4. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  5. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  6. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  7. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  8. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  9. Two-dimensional disruption thermal analysis code DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Seki, Masahiro.

    1988-08-01

    When a plasma disruption takes place in a tokamak type fusion reactor, plasma facing components such as first wall and divertor/limiter are subjected to an intense heat load with very high heat flux and short duration. At the surface of the wall, temperature rapidly rises, and melting and evaporation occurs, it causes reduction of wall thickness and crack initiation/propagation. As lifetime of the components is significantly affected by them, the transient analysis in consideration of phase changes (melting/evaporation) and radiation heat loss is required in the design of these components. This paper describes the computer code DREAM developed to perform the two-dimensional transient thermal analysis that takes phase changes and radiation into account. The input and output of the code and a sample analysis on a disruption simulation experiment are also reported. The user's input manual is added as an appendix. The profiles and time variations of temperature, and melting and evaporated thicknesses of the material subjected to intense heat load can be obtained, using this computer code. This code also gives the temperature data for elastoplastic analysis with FEM structural analysis codes (ADINA, MARC, etc.) to evaluate the thermal stress and crack propagation behavior within the wall materials. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of conduction-mode laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    WELD2D is a two-dimensional finite difference computer program suitable for modeling the conduction-mode welding process when the molten weld pool motion can be neglected. The code is currently structured to treat butt-welded geometries in a plane normal to the beam motion so that dissimilar materials may be considered. The surface heat transfer models used in the code include a Gaussian beam or uniform laser source, and a free electron theory reflectance calculation. Temperature-dependent material parameters are used in the reflectance calculation. Measured cold reflection data are used to include surface roughness or oxide effects until melt occurs, after which the surface is assumed to be smooth and clean. Blackbody reradiation and a simple natural convection model are also included in the upper surface boundary condition. Either an implicit or explicit finite-difference representation of the heat conduction equation in an enthalpy form is solved at each time step. This enables phase transition energies to be easily and accurately incorporated into the formulation. Temperature-dependent 9second-order polynominal dependence) thermal conductivities are used in the conduction calculations. Constant values of specific heat are used for each material phase. At present, material properties for six metals are included in the code. These are: aluminium, nickel, steel, molybdenum, copper and silicon

  11. Ferromagnetism in the two-dimensional periodic Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, C. D.; Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Using the constrained-path Monte Carlo method, we studied the magnetic properties of the two-dimensional periodic Anderson model for electron fillings between 1/4 and 1/2. We also derived two effective low-energy theories to assist in interpreting the numerical results. For 1/4 filling, we found that the system can be a Mott or a charge-transfer insulator, depending on the relative values of the Coulomb interaction and the charge-transfer gap between the two noninteracting bands. The insulator may be a paramagnet or antiferromagnet. We concentrated on the effect of electron doping on these insulating phases. Upon doping we obtained a partially saturated ferromagnetic phase for low concentrations of conduction electrons. If the system were a charge-transfer insulator, we would find that the ferromagnetism is induced by the well-known Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction. However, we found a novel correlated hopping mechanism inducing the ferromagnetism in the region where the nondoped system is a Mott insulator. Our regions of ferromagnetism spanned a much smaller doping range than suggested by recent slave boson and dynamical mean-field theory calculations, but they were consistent with that obtained by density-matrix renormalization group calculations of the one-dimensional periodic Anderson model

  12. Two dimensional estimates from ocean SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Le Caillec

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of the ocean yield a lot of information on the sea-state surface providing that the mapping process between the surface and the image is clearly defined. However it is well known that SAR images exhibit non-gaussian statistics and that the motion of the scatterers on the surface, while the image is being formed, may yield to nonlinearities. The detection and quantification of these nonlinearities are made possible by using Higher Order Spectra (HOS methods and more specifically, bispectrum estimation. The development of the latter method allowed us to find phase relations between different parts of the image and to recognise their level of coupling, i.e. if and how waves of different wavelengths interacted nonlinearly. This information is quite important as the usual models assume strong nonlinearities when the waves are propagating in the azimuthal direction (i.e. along the satellite track and almost no nonlinearities when propagating in the range direction. In this paper, the mapping of the ocean surface to the SAR image is reinterpreted and a specific model (i.e. a Second Order Volterra Model is introduced. The nonlinearities are thus explained as either produced by a nonlinear system or due to waves propagating into selected directions (azimuth or range and interacting during image formation. It is shown that quadratic nonlinearities occur for waves propagating near the range direction while for those travelling in the azimuthal direction the nonlinearities, when present, are mostly due to wave interactions but are almost completely removed by the filtering effect coming from the surface motion itself (azimuth cut-off. An inherent quadratic interaction filtering (azimuth high pass filter is also present. But some other effects, apparently nonlinear, are not detected with the methods described here, meaning that either the usual relation developed for the Ocean-to-SAR transform is somewhat incomplete

  13. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Takashi, E-mail: ohshima@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maesaka, Hirokazu [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsubara, Shinichi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Otake, Yuji [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  14. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Purification of 3H-dihydroalprenolol by two dimensional thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smisterova, J.; Soltes, L.; Kallay, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A two dimensional thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for the purification and analysis of (-)-[ 3 H]dihydroalprenolol by using an acidic mobile phase (butanol/water/acetic acid 25:10:4, v/v) in one direction and a basic eluent (chloroform/acetone/triethylamine 50:40:10, v/v) in another direction. (author)

  16. Harmonically trapped dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional square lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Louise G.; Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We consider dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional square lattice and a harmonic trapping potential. The anisotropy of the dipolar interaction combined with the lattice leads to transitions between phases with density order of different symmetries. We show that the attractive part of the dipolar...

  17. Effect of cross-type bias in a two-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effect of cross-type bias on two-dimensional arrays of short Josephson junctions. We have demonstrated that, for the simplest circuit, this type of bias is able to phase lock the junctions yielding a substantial improvement over ordinary biasing schemes. (C) 1998...

  18. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States); Reno, J. L. [CINT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  19. Emergent criticality and Friedan scaling in a two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Schmalian, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    We study a two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the windmill lattice consisting of triangular and dual honeycomb lattice sites. In the classical ground state, the spins on different sublattices are decoupled, but quantum and thermal fluctuations drive the system into a coplanar state via an "order from disorder" mechanism. We obtain the finite temperature phase diagram using renormalization group approaches. In the coplanar regime, the relative U(1) phase between the spins on the two sublattices decouples from the remaining degrees of freedom, and is described by a six-state clock model with an emergent critical phase. At lower temperatures, the system enters a Z6 broken phase with long-range phase correlations. We derive these results by two distinct renormalization group approaches to two-dimensional magnetism: Wilson-Polyakov scaling and Friedan's geometric approach to nonlinear sigma models where the scaling of the spin stiffnesses is governed by the Ricci flow of a 4D metric tensor.

  20. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  1. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  2. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  3. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-11-30

    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 , and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  4. Universality of modular symmetries in two-dimensional magnetotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. S.; Limseth, H. S.; Lütken, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze experimental quantum Hall data from a wide range of different materials, including semiconducting heterojunctions, thin films, surface layers, graphene, mercury telluride, bismuth antimonide, and black phosphorus. The fact that these materials have little in common, except that charge transport is effectively two-dimensional, shows how robust and universal the quantum Hall phenomenon is. The scaling and fixed point data we analyzed appear to show that magnetotransport in two dimensions is governed by a small number of universality classes that are classified by modular symmetries, which are infinite discrete symmetries not previously seen in nature. The Hall plateaux are (infrared) stable fixed points of the scaling-flow, and quantum critical points (where the wave function is delocalized) are unstable fixed points of scaling. Modular symmetries are so rigid that they in some cases fix the global geometry of the scaling flow, and therefore predict the exact location of quantum critical points, as well as the shape of flow lines anywhere in the phase diagram. We show that most available experimental quantum Hall scaling data are in good agreement with these predictions.

  5. Critical phenomena in quasi-two-dimensional vibrated granular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Marcelo; Soto, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    The critical phenomena associated to the liquid-to-solid transition of quasi-two-dimensional vibrated granular systems is studied using molecular dynamics simulations of the inelastic hard sphere model. The critical properties are associated to the fourfold bond-orientational order parameter χ_{4}, which measures the level of square crystallization of the system. Previous experimental results have shown that the transition of χ_{4}, when varying the vibration amplitude, can be either discontinuous or continuous, for two different values of the height of the box. Exploring the amplitude-height phase space, a transition line is found, which can be either discontinuous or continuous, merging at a tricritical point and the continuous branch ends in an upper critical point. In the continuous transition branch, the critical properties are studied. The exponent associated to the amplitude of the order parameter is β=1/2, for various system sizes, in complete agreement with the experimental results. However, the fluctuations of χ_{4} do not show any critical behavior, probably due to crossover effects by the close presence of the tricritical point. Finally, in quasi-one-dimensional systems, the transition is only discontinuous, limited by one critical point, indicating that two is the lower dimension for having a tricritical point.

  6. Generation of two-dimensional binary mixtures in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are an excellent model system for strong coupling phenomena. Under certain conditions the dust particles immersed into the plasma form crystals which can be analyzed in terms of structure and dynamics. Previous experiments focussed mostly on monodisperse particle systems whereas dusty plasmas in nature and technology are polydisperse. Thus, a first and important step towards experiments in polydisperse systems are binary mixtures. Recent experiments on binary mixtures under microgravity conditions observed a phase separation of particle species with different radii even for small size disparities. This contradicts several numerical studies of 2D binary mixtures. Therefore, dedicated experiments are required to gain more insight into the physics of polydisperse systems. In this contribution first ground based experiments on two-dimensional binary mixtures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the requirements for the generation of such systems which involve the consideration of the temporal evolution of the particle properties. Furthermore, the structure of these two-component crystals is analyzed and compared to simulations. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG in the framework of the SFB TR24 Greifswald Kiel, Project A3b.

  7. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the cosmic ray storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadokura, A.; Nishida, A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical model of the cosmic ray storm in the two-dimensional heliosphere is constructed incorporating the drift effect. We estimate the effect of a flare-associated interplanetary shock and the disturbed region behind it (characterized by enhancement in velocity and magnetic field, and decrease in mean free path) on the density and anisotropy of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. As the disturbance propagates outward, a density enhancement appears on the front side, and a density depression region is produced on the rear side. The effect of drift on the cosmic ray storm appears most clearly in the higher-latitude region. For the parallel (antiparallel) state of the solar magnetic field which corresponds to the pre(post-) 1980 period, the density in the higher-latitude region decreases (increases) before the shock arrival. The maximum density depression near the earth for the parallel state is greater than for the antiparallel state, and the energy spectrum of the density depression in percentage is softer for the parallel state than for the antiparallel state. Prior to the arrival of the shock, the phase of solar diurnal anisotropy begins to shift to the earlier hours, and its amplitude becomes greater for both polarity states. North-south anisotropy also becomes greater because of the enhanced drift for both polarity states

  8. Spin Wave Theory in Two-Dimensional Coupled Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimahara, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We apply spin wave theory to two-dimensional coupled antiferromagnets. In particular, we primarily examine a system that consists of small spins coupled by a strong exchange interaction J1, large spins coupled by a weak exchange interaction J2, and an anisotropic exchange interaction J12 between the small and large spins. This system is an effective model of the organic antiferromagnet λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 in its insulating phase, in which intriguing magnetic phenomena have been observed, where the small and large spins correspond to π electrons and 3d spins, respectively. BETS stands for bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. We obtain the antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN and the sublattice magnetizations m(T) and M(T) of the small and large spins, respectively, as functions of the temperature T. When T increases, m(T) is constant with a slight decrease below TN, even where M(T) decreases significantly. When J1 ≫ J12 and J2 = 0, an analytical expression for TN is derived. The estimated value of TN and the behaviors of m(T) and M(T) agree with the observations of λ-(BETS)2FeCl4.

  9. Engineering the Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Rohit; Kabir, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    Correlated interaction between dilute localized impurity electrons and the itinerant host conduction electrons in metals gives rise to the conventional many-body Kondo effect below sufficiently low temperature. In sharp contrast to these conventional Kondo systems, we report an intrinsic, robust, and high-temperature Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene. While absorbed at a thermodynamically stable lattice defect, Cr impurity triggers an electronic phase transition in phosphorene to provide conduction electrons, which strongly interact with the localized moment generated at the Cr site. These manifest into the intrinsic Kondo state, where the impurity moment is quenched in multiple stages and at temperatures in the 40-200 K range. Further, along with a much smaller extension of the Kondo cloud, the predicted Kondo state is shown to be robust under uniaxial strain and layer thickness, which greatly simplifies its future experimental realization. We predict the present study will open up new avenues in Kondo physics and trigger further theoretical and experimental studies.

  10. Metallic and highly conducting two-dimensional atomic arrays of sulfur enabled by molybdenum disulfide nanotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuze; Geng, Xiumei; Han, Yang; Benamara, Mourad; Chen, Liao; Li, Jingxiao; Bilgin, Ismail; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-10-01

    Element sulfur in nature is an insulating solid. While it has been tested that one-dimensional sulfur chain is metallic and conducting, the investigation on two-dimensional sulfur remains elusive. We report that molybdenum disulfide layers are able to serve as the nanotemplate to facilitate the formation of two-dimensional sulfur. Density functional theory calculations suggest that confined in-between layers of molybdenum disulfide, sulfur atoms are able to form two-dimensional triangular arrays that are highly metallic. As a result, these arrays contribute to the high conductivity and metallic phase of the hybrid structures of molybdenum disulfide layers and two-dimensional sulfur arrays. The experimentally measured conductivity of such hybrid structures reaches up to 223 S/m. Multiple experimental results, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transition electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), agree with the computational insights. Due to the excellent conductivity, the current density is linearly proportional to the scan rate until 30,000 mV s-1 without the attendance of conductive additives. Using such hybrid structures as electrode, the two-electrode supercapacitor cells yield a power density of 106 Wh kg-1 and energy density 47.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic liquid electrolytes. Our findings offer new insights into using two-dimensional materials and their Van der Waals heterostructures as nanotemplates to pattern foreign atoms for unprecedented material properties.

  11. Two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture transport in frost-heaving soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymon, G.L.; Berg, R.L.; Hromadka, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture flow in frost-heaving soils is developed based upon well known equations of heat and moisture flow in soils. Numerical solution is by the nodal domain integration method which includes the integrated finite difference and the Galerkin finite element methods. Solution of the phase change process is approximated by an isothermal approach and phenomenological equations are assumed for processes occurring in freezing or thawing zones. The model has been verified against experimental one-dimensional freezing soil column data and experimental two-dimensional soil thawing tank data as well as two-dimensional soil seepage data. The model has been applied to several simple but useful field problems such as roadway embankment freezing and frost heaving

  12. A measurement system for two-dimensional DC-biased properties of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, M.; Matsuo, H.

    2003-01-01

    So far, the DC-biased magnetic properties have been measured in one dimension (scalar). However, these scalar magnetic properties are not enough to clarify the DC-biased magnetic properties because the scalar magnetic properties cannot exactly take into account the phase difference between the magnetic flux density B vector and the magnetic filed strength H vector. Thus, the magnetic field strength H and magnetic flux density B in magnetic materials must be measured as vector quantities (two-dimensional), directly. We showed the measurement system using a single-sheet tester (SST) to clarify the two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties. This system excited AC in Y-direction and DC in X-direction. This paper shows the measurement system using an SST and presents the measurement results of two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties when changing the DC exciting voltage and the iron loss

  13. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  14. Two-dimensional electronic femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie J.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with a femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe. The method reveals correlations between excitation energy and excited state vibrational structure following photoexcitation. We demonstrate the method in rhodamine 6G.

  15. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  16. Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.

  17. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  18. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  19. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  20. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  1. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  3. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  4. Application of CRAFT in two-dimensional NMR data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish; Sefler, Andrea M; Russell, David J

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) data are typically truncated in both dimensions, but invariably and severely so in the indirect dimension. These truncated FIDs and/or interferograms are extensively zero filled, and Fourier transformation of such zero-filled data is always preceded by a rapidly decaying apodization function. Hence, the frequency line width in the spectrum (at least parallel to the evolution dimension) is almost always dominated by the apodization function. Such apodization-driven line broadening in the indirect (t 1 ) dimension leads to the lack of clear resolution of cross peaks in the 2D spectrum. Time-domain analysis (i.e. extraction of frequency, amplitudes, line width, and phase parameters directly from the FID, in this case via Bayesian modeling into a tabular format) of NMR data is another approach for spectral resonance characterization and quantification. The recently published complete reduction to amplitude frequency table (CRAFT) technique converts the raw FID data (i.e. time-domain data) into a table of frequencies, amplitudes, decay rate constants, and phases. CRAFT analyses of time-domain data require minimal or no apodization prior to extraction of the four parameters. We used the CRAFT processing approach for the decimation of the interferograms and compared the results from a variety of 2D spectra against conventional processing with and without linear prediction. The results show that use of the CRAFT technique to decimate the t 1 interferograms yields much narrower spectral line width of the resonances, circumventing the loss of resolution due to apodization. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping

    2016-04-01

    We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.

  6. Two dimensional numerical model for steam--water flow in a sudden contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.; Choi, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A computational model developed for two-dimensional dispersed two-phase flows is applied to steam--water flow in a sudden contraction. The calculational scheme utilizes the cellular approach in which each cell is regarded as a control volume and the droplets are regarded as sources of mass, momentum and energy to the conveying (steam) phase. The predictions show how droplets channel in the entry region and affect the velocity and pressure distributions along the duct

  7. Non-polar lipids characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection and non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Beccaria, Marco; Salivo, Simona; Tranchida, Peter; Tripodo, Giusy; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    A chemical characterization of major lipid components, namely, triacylglycerols, fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction, in a Quinoa seed lipids sample is reported. To tackle such a task, non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the analysis of triacylglycerols. The main triacylglycerols (>10%) were represented by OLP, OOL and OLL (P = palmitoyl, O = oleoyl, L = linoleoyl); the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (18.1%). Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters were evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. 89% of the total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 48 and 28%, respectively. An extensive characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction of Quinoa seed lipids was performed for the first time, by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. Overall, 66 compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were tentatively identified, many constituents of which (particularly sterols) were confirmed by using gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Discrete elastic model for two-dimensional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, Yves; Glaser, Matthew A; Clark, Noel A

    2006-04-01

    We present a network model for the study of melting and liquid structure in two dimensions, the first in which the presence and energy of topological defects (dislocations and disclinations) and of geometrical defects (elemental voids) can be independently controlled. Interparticle interaction is via harmonic springs and control is achieved by Monte Carlo moves which springs can either be orientationally "flipped" between particles to generate topological defects, or can be "popped" in force-free shape, to generate geometrical defects. With the geometrical defects suppressed the transition to the liquid phase occurs via disclination unbinding, as described by the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young model and found in soft potential two-dimensional (2D) systems, such as the dipole-dipole potential [H. H. von Grünberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 255703 (2004)]. By contrast, with topological defects suppressed, a disordering transition, the Glaser-Clark condensation of geometrical defects [M. A. Glaser and N. A. Clark, Adv. Chem. Phys. 83, 543 (1993); M. A. Glaser, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), Vol. 52, p. 141], produces a state that accurately characterizes the local liquid structure and first-order melting observed in hard-potential 2D systems, such as hard disk and the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) potentials (M. A. Glaser and co-workers, see above). Thus both the geometrical and topological defect systems play a role in melting. The present work introduces a system in which the relative roles of topological and geometrical defects and their interactions can be explored. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of this model in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and present the phase diagram as well as various thermodynamic, statistical, and structural quantities as a function of the relative populations of geometrical and topological defects. The model exhibits a rich phase behavior including hexagonal and square crystals, expanded crystal, dodecagonal quasicrystal

  9. New techniques for experimental generation of two-dimensional blade-vortex interaction at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E., Jr.; Yu, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two dimensional blade vortex interaction was held at NASA Langley Research Center. The first phase was a flow visualization study to document the approach process of a two dimensional vortex as it encountered a loaded blade model. To accomplish the flow visualization study, a method for generating two dimensional vortex filaments was required. The numerical study used to define a new vortex generation process and the use of this process in the flow visualization study were documented. Additionally, photographic techniques and data analysis methods used in the flow visualization study are examined.

  10. Absence of vortex condensation in a two dimensional fermionic XY model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecile, D. J.; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by a puzzle in the study of two-dimensional lattice quantum electrodynamics with staggered fermions, we construct a two-dimensional fermionic model with a global U(1) symmetry. Our model can be mapped into a model of closed packed dimers and plaquettes. Although the model has the same symmetries as the XY model, we show numerically that the model lacks the well-known Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. The model is always in the gapless phase showing the absence of a phase with vortex condensation. In other words the low energy physics is described by a noncompact U(1) field theory. We show that by introducing an even number of layers one can introduce vortex condensation within the model and thus also induce a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

  11. Two-dimensional model of a freely expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Q.

    1975-01-01

    The free expansion of an initially confined plasma is studied by the computer experiment technique. The research is an extension to two dimensions of earlier work on the free expansion of a collisionless plasma in one dimension. In the two-dimensional rod model, developed in this research, the plasma particles, electrons and ions are modeled as infinitely long line charges or rods. The line charges move freely in two dimensions normal to their parallel axes, subject only to a self-consistent electric field. Two approximations, the grid approximation and the periodic boundary condition are made in order to reduce the computation time. In the grid approximation, the space occupied by the plasma at a given time is divided into boxes. The particles are subject to an average electric field calculated for that box assuming that the total charge within each box is located at the center of the box. However, the motion of each particle is exactly followed. The periodic boundary condition allows us to consider only one-fourth of the total number of particles of the plasma, representing the remaining three-fourths of the particles as symmetrically placed images of those whose positions are calculated. This approximation follows from the expected azimuthal symmetry of the plasma. The dynamics of the expansion are analyzed in terms of average ion and electron positions, average velocities, oscillation frequencies and relative distribution of energy between thermal, flow and electric field energies. Comparison is made with previous calculations of one-dimensional models which employed plane, spherical or cylindrical sheets as charged particles. In order to analyze the effect of the grid approximation, the model is solved for two different grid sizes and for each grid size the plasma dynamics is determined. For the initial phase of expansion, the agreement for the two grid sizes is found to be good

  12. Periodic trajectories for a two-dimensional nonintegrable Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranger, M.; Davies, K.T.R.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical study is made of the classical periodic trajectories for the two-dimensional nonintegrable Hamiltonian H = 1/2(p 2 /sub x/+p 2 /sub y/)+(y-1/2x 2 ) 2 +0.05 x 2 . In addition to x--y pictures of the trajectories, E--tau (energy--period) plots of the periodic families are presented. Efforts have been ade to include all trajectories with short periods and all simple branchings of these trajectories. The monodromy matrix has been calculated in all cases, and from it the stability properties are derived. The topology of the E--tau plot has been explored, with the following results. One family may have several stable regions. The plot is not completely connected; there are islands. The plot is not a tree; there are cycles. There are isochronous branchings, period-doublings, and period-multiplyings of higher orders, and examples of each of these are presented. There is often more than one branch issuing from a branch point. Some general empirical rules are inferred. In particular, the existence of isochronous branching is seen to be a consequence of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian. All these results agree with the general classification of possible branchings derived in Ref. [10]. (M. A. M. de Aguiar, C. P. Malta, M. Baranger, and K. T. R. Davies, in preparation). Finally, some nonperiodic trajectories are calculated to illustrate the fact that stable periodic trajectories lie in ''regular'' regions of phase space, while unstable ones lie in ''chaotic'' regions

  13. Functionalization of group-14 two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    The great success of graphene has boosted intensive search for other single-layer thick materials, mainly composed of group-14 atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. This new class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, known as 2D-Xenes, has become an emerging field of intensive research due to their remarkable electronic properties and the promise for a future generation of nanoelectronics. In contrast to graphene, Xenes are not completely planar, and feature a low buckled geometry with two sublattices displaced vertically as a result of the interplay between sp2 and sp3 orbital hybridization. In spite of the buckling, the outstanding electronic properties of graphene governed by Dirac physics are preserved in Xenes too. The buckled structure also has several advantages over graphene. Together with the spin–orbit (SO) interaction it may lead to the emergence of various experimentally accessible topological phases, like the quantum spin Hall effect. This in turn would lead to designing and building new electronic and spintronic devices, like topological field effect transistors. In this regard an important issue concerns the electron energy gap, which for Xenes naturally exists owing to the buckling and SO interaction. The electronic properties, including the magnitude of the energy gap, can further be tuned and controlled by external means. Xenes can easily be functionalized by substrate, chemical adsorption, defects, charge doping, external electric field, periodic potential, in-plane uniaxial and biaxial stress, and out-of-plane long-range structural deformation, to name a few. This topical review explores structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Xenes and addresses the question of their functionalization in various ways, including external factors acting simultaneously. It also points to future directions to be explored in functionalization of Xenes. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained so far have many promising features making

  14. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of 13 C and 1 H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface

  15. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

  16. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S B

    2018-02-23

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  17. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  18. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  19. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  20. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  1. Velocity and Dispersion for a Two-Dimensional Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the transport of a two-dimensional random walk. The velocity and the dispersion of this two-dimensional random walk are derived. It mainly show that: (i) by controlling the values of the transition rates, the direction of the random walk can be reversed; (ii) for some suitably selected transition rates, our two-dimensional random walk can be efficient in comparison with the one-dimensional random walk. Our work is motivated in part by the challenge to explain the unidirectional transport of motor proteins. When the motor proteins move at the turn points of their tracks (i.e., the cytoskeleton filaments and the DNA molecular tubes), some of our results in this paper can be used to deal with the problem. (general)

  2. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  3. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  4. Pair Interaction of Dislocations in Two-Dimensional Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, C.; Gasser, U.; Keim, P.; Maret, G.; von Grünberg, H. H.

    2005-10-01

    The pair interaction between crystal dislocations is systematically explored by analyzing particle trajectories of two-dimensional colloidal crystals measured by video microscopy. The resulting pair energies are compared to Monte Carlo data and to predictions derived from the standard Hamiltonian of the elastic theory of dislocations. Good agreement is found with respect to the distance and temperature dependence of the interaction potential, but not regarding the angle dependence where discrete lattice effects become important. Our results on the whole confirm that the dislocation Hamiltonian allows a quantitative understanding of the formation and interaction energies of dislocations in two-dimensional crystals.

  5. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  6. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru

  8. Quantum Communication Through a Two-Dimensional Spin Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the state or entanglement transfer through a two-dimensional spin network. We show that for state transfer, better fidelity can be gained along the diagonal direction but for entanglement transfer, when the initial entanglement is created along the boundary, the concurrence is more inclined to propagate along the boundary. This behavior is produced by quantum mechanical interference and the communication quality depends on the precise size of the network. For some number of sites, the fidelity in a two-dimensional channel is higher than one-dimensional case. This is an important result for realizing quantum communication through high dimension spin chain networks.

  9. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, P T; Constantinides, A G [Signal Processing Section, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging. 7 refs, 2 figs.

  10. Finite element solution of two dimensional time dependent heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaz

    1999-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based computer code, named FHEAT, has been developed for solving two dimensional heat problems in Cartesian and Cylindrical geometries. The programming language is Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. The code makes use of Finite element formulation for spatial domain and Finite difference formulation for time domain. Presently the code is capable of solving two dimensional steady state and transient problems in xy- and rz-geometries. The code is capable excepting both triangular and rectangular elements. Validation and benchmarking was done against hand calculations and published results. (author)

  11. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  13. Waterlike anomalies in a two-dimensional core-softened potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic behavior of a two-dimensional (2D) core-corona system using Langevin dynamics simulations. The particles are modeled by employing a core-softened potential which exhibits waterlike anomalies in three dimensions. In previous studies in a quasi-2D system a new region in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram of structural anomalies was observed. Here we show that for the two-dimensional case two regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram with structural, density, and diffusion anomalies are observed. Our findings indicate that, while the anomalous region at lower densities is due the competition between the two length scales in the potential at higher densities, the anomalous region is related to the reentrance of the melting line.

  14. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  15. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  16. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  17. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  18. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ¿-¿, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of

  19. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  20. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  1. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  2. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  3. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  4. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  6. Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures

  7. Exterior calculus and two-dimensional supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuto, S.

    1980-01-01

    An important property of the calculus of differential forms on superspace is pointed out, and an economical way to treat the linear problem associated with certain supersymmetric two-dimensional models is discussed. A generalization of the super sine-Gordon model is proposed; its bosonic limit is a new model whose associate linear set has an SU(3) structure. (orig.)

  8. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for N. 2) is carried ... extensively used for the case of non-linear partial differential equation by various authors. [3,4–7,12 ..... found to be integrable just by accident.

  9. Quantitative optical mapping of two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Bjarke S.; Whelan, Patrick R.; Mackenzie, David M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The pace of two-dimensional materials (2DM) research has been greatly accelerated by the ability to identify exfoliated thicknesses down to a monolayer from their optical contrast. Since this process requires time-consuming and error-prone manual assignment to avoid false-positives from image...

  10. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Two-dimensional molecular line transfer for a cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutowicz, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the proposed axisymmetric model of the cometary coma the gas density profile is described by an angular density function. Three methods for treating two-dimensional radiative transfer are compared: the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) (the Sobolev method), Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and accelerated Monte Carlo (MC).

  12. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2

  13. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  14. Two-dimensional ion effects in relativistic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    In relativistic diodes, ions are emitted from the anode plasma. The effects and properties of these ions are studied via a two-dimensional particle simulation code. The space charge of these ions enhances the electron emission, and this additional current (including that of the ions, themselves) aids in obtaining superpinched electron beams for use in pellet fusion studies. (U.S.)

  15. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...

  16. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  17. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  18. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  19. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  20. Mass relations for two-dimensional classical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataru-Mihai, P.

    1980-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional sigma-nonlinear models as a framework mass relations for classical configurations of instanton/soliton type are derived. Our results suggest an interesting differential-geometric interpretation of the mass of a classical configuration in terms of the topological characteristics of an associated manifold. (orig.)

  1. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  2. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  3. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  4. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  5. Two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Sommer, H.A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n + resisitive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p + resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 μm is indicated

  6. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSITIVE SI(LI) DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jack T.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Haller, Eugene E.; Sommer, Heinrich A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n{sup +} resistive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p{sup +} resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 {micro}m is indicated.

  7. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  8. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; Meulen ,van der Martin; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core

  9. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...

  10. Two-Dimensional Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J. J.; Roelofs, W. S. C.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Shehu, A.; Cramer, T.; Biscarini, F.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of carrier confinement on the charge-transport properties of organic field-effect transistors. Confinement is achieved experimentally by the use of semiconductors of which the active layer is only one molecule thick. The two-dimensional confinement of charge carriers provides

  11. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  12. Two-dimensional dissipation in third sound resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.L.; Mochel, J.M.; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1981-01-01

    The first determination of non-linear superflow dissipation in a truly two-dimensional helium film is reported. Superfluid velocities were measured using third sound resonance on a closed superfluid film. The predicted power law dissipation function, with exponent of approximately eight, is observed at three temperatures in a film of 0.58 mobile superfluid layers. (orig.)

  13. Graphene: a promising two-dimensional support for heterogeneous catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin eFan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has many advantages that make it an attractive two-dimensional (2D support for heterogeneous catalysts. It not only allows the high loading of targeted catalytic species, but also facilitates the mass transfer during the reaction processes. These advantages, along with its unique physical and chemical properties, endow graphene great potential as catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis.

  14. Two-dimensional interpolation with experimental data smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejbal, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A method of two-dimensional interpolation with smoothing of time statistically deflected points is developed for processing of magnetic field measurements at the U-120M field measurements at the U-120M cyclotron. Mathematical statement of initial requirements and the final result of relevant algebraic transformations are given. 3 refs

  15. Tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    361/362, - (1996), s. 167-170 ISSN 0039-6028. [International Conference on the Electronic Properties of Two Dimensional Systems /11./. Nottingham, 07.08.1995-11.08.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/94/1278 Grant - others:INT(XX) 9106888 Impact factor: 2.783, year: 1996

  16. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavity...

  17. Two-Dimensional Tellurene as Excellent Thermoelectric Material

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sitansh; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    We study the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional tellurene by first-principles calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. The HSE06 hybrid functional results in a moderate direct band gap of 1.48 eV at the Γ point. A high

  18. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...

  19. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...

  20. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  1. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  2. Two-dimensional QCD as a model for strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1977-01-01

    After an introduction to the formalism of two-dimensional QCD, its applications to various strong interaction processes are reviewed. Among the topics discussed are spectroscopy, deep inelastic cross-sections, ''hard'' processes involving hadrons, ''Regge'' behaviour, the existence of the Pomeron, and inclusive hadron cross-sections. Attempts are made to abstracts features useful for four-dimensional QCD phenomenology. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  4. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  5. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  6. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  7. Equilibrium spherically curved two-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van Dantzig, R.

    2005-01-01

    To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N < 800) equilibrium configu- rations are traced

  8. Giant 1/f noise in two-dimensional polycrystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarskii, A.; Bezsudnov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of excess (1/f noise) in two-dimensional polycrystalline media is investigated. On the base of current trap model, it is shown that there exists a certain anisotropy value of conductivity tensor for polycrystalline media when the amplitude of 1/f noise becomes giant

  9. Effects of stratospheric aerosol surface processes on the LLNL two-dimensional zonally averaged model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, P.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE 11 satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions

  10. Interplay between topology and disorder in a two-dimensional semi-Dirac material

    OpenAIRE

    Sriluckshmy, P. V.; Saha, Kush; Moessner, Roderich

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of disorder in a two-dimensional semi-Dirac material characterized by a linear dispersion in one, and a parabolic dispersion in the orthogonal, direction. Using the self-consistent Born approximation, we show that disorder can drive a topological Lifshitz transition from an insulator to a semi-metal, as it generates a momentum independent off-diagonal contribution to the self-energy. Breaking time-reversal symmetry enriches the topological phase diagram with three dist...

  11. Consistent calculation of the stopping power for slow ions in two-dimensional electron gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, You-Nian; Ma, Teng-Gai

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of quantum scattering theory, we present a consistent calculation of the stopping power for slow protons and antiprotons moving in two-dimensional electron gases. The Friedel sum rule is used to determine the screening constant in the scattering potential. For the stopping power our results are compared with that of the random-phase approximation dielectric theory and that predicted by the linear Thomas-Fermi potential. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Mean-field description of ultracold bosons on disordered two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, Pierfrancesco; Massel, Francesco; Penna, Vittorio; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    In the present communication, we describe the properties induced by disorder on an ultracold gas of bosonic atoms loaded into a two-dimensional optical lattice with global confinement ensured by a parabolic potential. Our analysis is centred on the spatial distribution of the various phases, focusing particularly on the superfluid properties of the system as a function of external parameters and disorder amplitude. In particular, it is shown how disorder can suppress superfluidity, while partially preserving the system coherence. (fast track communication)

  13. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  14. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  15. Isotropic-nematic transition of long, thin, hard spherocylinders confined in a quasi-two-dimensional planar geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, M.C.; Dogterom, M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2003-01-01

    We present computer simulations of long, thin, hard spherocylinders in a narrow planar slit. We observe a transition from the isotropic to a nematic phase with quasi-long-range orientational order upon increasing the density. This phase transition is intrinsically two-dimensional and of

  16. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  17. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  18. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  19. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  20. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  1. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem

  2. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  3. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  4. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine......Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  5. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  6. Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.

    2018-03-01

    The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.

  7. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed

  8. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-09-01

    We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  9. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  10. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  11. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  12. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  13. Intrinsic two-dimensional states on the pristine surface of tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Atomic chains configured in a helical geometry have fascinating properties, including phases hosting localized bound states in their electronic structure. We show how the zero-dimensional state—bound to the edge of a single one-dimensional helical chain of tellurium atoms—evolves into two-dimensional bands on the c -axis surface of the three-dimensional trigonal bulk. We give an effective Hamiltonian description of its dispersion in k space by exploiting confinement to a virtual bilayer, and elaborate on the diminished role of spin-orbit coupling. These intrinsic gap-penetrating surface bands were neglected in the interpretation of seminal experiments, where two-dimensional transport was otherwise attributed to extrinsic accumulation layers.

  14. Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)

  15. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  16. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  17. Two-dimensional color-code quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Austin G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a two-dimensional color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple-defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. Controlled-NOT (CNOT) is implemented between pairs of triple-defect logical qubits via braiding.

  18. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  19. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  20. Graphene – A Two-Dimensional Dirac Material

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Danny; Wicklund, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material, whose popularity has soared in both condensedmatter physics and material science the past decade. Due to its unique properties, graphene can be used in a vast array of new and interesting applications that could fundamentally change the material industry. This report reviews the current research and literature in order to trace the historical development of graphene. Then, in order to better understand the material, the unique properties of graphene are...

  1. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  2. Hall effect in the two-dimensional Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Hall effect in the normal state is a commom theme of all the cuprate superconductors and has been one of the more puzzling observations on these puzzling materials. We describe a general scheme within the Luttinger liquid theory of these two-dimensional quantum fluids which corrrelates the anomalous Hall and resistivity observations on a wide variety of both pure and doped single crystals, especially the data in the accompanying Letter of Chien, Wang, and Ong

  3. Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    order to be published, he sent the paper to Einstein to translate it. The other contributing scientist is world famous physicist Albert Einstein , maybe...mechanical state, a Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC), where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic...model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bose Einstein condensation, ultracold physics, condensed matter, dipoles 16

  4. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  5. Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...

  6. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  7. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Convergence Acceleration of Two-Dimensional Fourier Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anry Nersessian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereby, the convergence acceleration of two-dimensional trigonometric interpolation for a smooth functions on a uniform mesh is considered. Together with theoretical estimates some numerical results are presented and discussed that reveal the potential of this method for application in image processing. Experiments show that suggested algorithm allows acceleration of conventional Fourier interpolation even for sparse meshes that can lead to an efficient image compression/decompression algorithms and also to applications in image zooming procedures.

  9. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  10. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  11. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  12. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  13. Two-dimensional manifolds with metrics of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2000-01-01

    This is a study of the topological and metric structure of two-dimensional manifolds with a metric that is locally a metric of revolution. In the case of compact manifolds this problem can be thoroughly investigated, and in particular it is explained why there are no closed analytic surfaces of revolution in R 3 other than a sphere and a torus (moreover, in the smoothness class C ∞ such surfaces, understood in a certain generalized sense, exist in any topological class)

  14. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  15. Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.

    1976-03-01

    The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)

  16. Two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1979-11-01

    A fully two-dimensional eigenmode analysis of the trapped-ion instability in axisymmetric toroidal geometry is presented. The calculations also takes into account the basic dynamics associated with other low frequency modes such as the trapped-electron instability and the ion-temperature-gradient instability. The poloidal structure of the mode is taken into account by Fourier expanding the perturbed electrostatic potential, PHI, in theta

  17. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  18. Two-dimensional shielding benchmarks for iron at YAYOI, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro; Kasai, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Koyama, Kinji.

    The aim of this work is to assess the collapsed neutron and gamma multigroup cross sections for two dimensional discrete ordinate transport code. Two dimensional distributions of neutron flux and gamma ray dose through a 70cm thick and 94cm square iron shield were measured at the fast neutron source reactor ''YAYOI''. The iron shield was placed over the lead reflector in the vertical experimental column surrounded by heavy concrete wall. The detectors used in this experiment were threshold detectors In, Ni, Al, Mg, Fe and Zn, sandwitch resonance detectors Au, W and Co, activation foils Au for neutrons and thermoluminescence detectors for gamma ray dose. The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones by the discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and TWOTRAN. The region-wise, coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross-sections (100n+20gamma, EURLIB structure) were generated from ENDF/B-IV library for neutrons and POPOP4 library for gamma-ray production cross-sections by using the code system RADHEAT. The effective microscopic neutron cross sections were obtained from the infinite dilution values applying ABBN type self-shielding factors. The gamma ray production multigroup cross-sections were calculated from these effective microscopic neutron cross-sections. For two-dimensional calculations the group constants were collapsed into 10 neutron groups and 3 gamma groups by using ANISN. (auth.)

  19. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  20. Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Jun; Sun, Ke; Wang, Chao-Yue; Lai, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yao; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Jin, Xian-Min

    2018-05-01

    Quantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons. Using femtosecond laser direct writing, we construct a large-scale three-dimensional structure that forms a two-dimensional lattice with up to 49 × 49 nodes on a photonic chip. We demonstrate spatial two-dimensional quantum walks using heralded single photons and single photon-level imaging. We analyze the quantum transport properties via observing the ballistic evolution pattern and the variance profile, which agree well with simulation results. We further reveal the transient nature that is the unique feature for quantum walks of beyond one dimension. An architecture that allows a quantum walk to freely evolve in all directions and at a large scale, combining with defect and disorder control, may bring up powerful and versatile quantum walk machines for classically intractable problems.